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Translation - English The world definitely needs a reliable digital currency and infrastructure that can be combined to create the "Internet of Money."
Securing financial assets on mobile devices must be simple and intuitive. You need to be able to send money as easily and cost-effectively as sending text messages and sharing photos, more securely, and no matter where you live, what you do, or how much you earn. With more product innovation and ecosystem, entry enables to lower the barriers to access and cost of capital for everyone and more people can pay more smoothly.
Now is the time to create a new digital currency based on blockchain technology. Libra's mission is to "become a simple, borderless global currency and financial infrastructure that empowers millions."
Libra consists of three parts that work together to achieve greater financial inclusion.
1. Based on a secure, scalable and reliable blockchain
2. Backed by a reserve of assets to give a real value
3. Libra is governed by an independent Libra Association that aims to develop its ecosystem.
“Libra blockchain” is the foundation of Libra currency. The software that implements the Libra blockchain is open source because it is intended to serve a global audience so that anyone can develop on it, and many people can use it to meet their financial needs.
Imagine an open and interoperable ecosystem financial service, developed by developers and organizations, are available to individuals and businesses to own and transfer Libra for daily use.
With the spread of smartphones and wireless data communication, more and more people will be able to access Libra online through these new services. To achieve this vision in the Libra ecosystem, a dedicated blockchain was developed from the ground up for scalability, security, storage and throughput efficiency, and future adaptability. Read more about the Libra blockchain here and in this technical document.
The unit of currency is "Libra". Libra will need to be recognized in many places and aims to be an easily accessible currency. Therefore, Libra needs to gain trust as a convenient and relatively stable currency in the long run. Unlike many cryptocurrencies, Libra is firmly backed by a reserve of real assets. Build trust in Libra's real value by holding a basket of bank deposits and short-term government bonds in the Libra Reserve for every Libra that is created. The Libra reserve is operated to maintain Libra's value over the long term. Read on for an overview of Libra and reserves. Please read here for details.
The Libra Association is an independent, non-profit, membership-based organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The purpose of the association is to provide and coordinate a governance framework for the Libra Network and Reserve, and to support social business grant activities that encourage financial inclusion. This white paper reflects the association's mission, vision, and activities. The members of the association are formed from a network of validator nodes that operate the Libra blockchain.
Members of the Libra Association are made up of diverse companies, non-profit and multilateral organizations, and academic institutions based in different regions. The initial group of organizations that working together to compile the association’s charter of incorporation will become the “founders” upon its completion are as follows (by industry)
・Payment: Mastercard, PayPal, PayU (Naspers' fintech arm), Stripe, Visa
・Technology Market Place: Booking Holdings, eBay, Facebook / Calibra, Farfetch, Lyft, Mercado Pago, Spotify AB, Uber Technologies, Inc.
・Telecommunications: Iliad, Vodafone Group
・Blockchain: Anchorage, Bison Trails, Coinbase, Inc., Xapo Holdings Limited
・Venture capital: Andreessen Horowitz, Breakthrough Initiatives, Ribbit Capital, Thrive Capital, Union Square Ventures
・Nonprofit and multilateral organizations, and academic institutions: Creative Destruction Lab, Kiva, Mercy Corps, Women’s World Banking OK
We hope to increase approximately 100 members of the Libra Association with the launch of operations scheduled for the first half of 2020.
The Facebook team has played a key role in working with other founders to create the Libra Association and the Libra blockchain. While the ultimate decision-making authority lies with the association, Facebook will continue to play a leading role during the rest of 2019. Facebook created Calibra, a regulated subsidiary, to ensure the separation of social and financial data, and to build and operate services on its behalf on top of the Libra network.
Once the operation starts, Facebook, and its affiliates, will have the same responsibilities, privileges, and financial obligations are equal to other founders.
As a member of the association, Facebook's role in association governance will be equal to the role of many other members.
Blockchains are divided into authorized and non-permitted types, depending on their ability to participate as validator nodes. In "Permitted blockchain", a validator node can be operated when access is permitted. An "unauthorized blockchain" allows anyone who meets the technical requirements to operate a validator node.
Libra starts as an "authorized" blockchain.
To ensure that Libra is open and always operating for the benefit of our users, we have a goal to make the Libra network completely "unauthorized."
The challenge is that there is currently no proven solution that can provide the scale, stability and security needed to support billions of people worldwide with their transactions through unauthorized networks. One of the association's missions is to work with the community to conduct surveys and transitions so that the transition can begin within five years of the release of the Libra blockchain and ecosystem.
Libra blockchain is essential to Libra’s spirit, regardless of permitted or non-permitted, remains open to consumers, developers, businesses and everyone.
Anyone can use the Libra network, build products on top of it, and add value through services. With open access to ensure that barriers to entry and innovation have been reliably removed, promoting healthy competition that benefits consumers. This is fundamental to the goal of building more inclusive financial options for the world.
English to Japanese: Scientists, Patients Hail New Cystic Fibrosis Treatment General field: Science Detailed field: Science (general)
Source text - English Scientists, Patients Hail New Cystic Fibrosis Treatment
On Aug. 25, 1989, an 8-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis wrote in her journal that it was "the most best day" because scientists had "found a Jean for Cistik fibrosis."
On Thursday, the current head of the National Institutes of Health — who was a member of one of the teams that found the gene — wrote in The New England Journal of Medicine that a triple-drug therapy has been found to be highly effective in treating the life-threatening disorder.
"We hoped that the gene discovery would someday lead to effective treatments for children and adults with cystic fibrosis," Francis Collins wrote. "Now, 30 years later, that time has come."
The drug, called Trikafta, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration last week.
Some 30,000 Americans have been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, which causes thick mucus buildup in the patient's organs, affecting respiration and digestion. While other drugs have helped lengthen patients' lives, those born with the disease are expected to live only into their 40s.
Past treatments helped only a small percentage of patients, but Trikafta targets Phe508del, the most common mutation of the cystic fibrosis gene. Collins said this means 90% of those suffering from cystic fibrosis — including Jenny, the 8-year-old journal writer — will be helped by the therapy.
Now 38, Jenny McGlincy told The Washington Post that she cried when she read the drug had been approved.
"To think of my lung function improving or my digestion increasing, or even adding a few years to my life that I could spend with my daughter. … Now that it's available, I'm a little like, 'Is this really happening?' " she told the Post.
Model of collaboration
Cystic fibrosis research has set a standard of how the collaboration between nonprofits and pharmaceutical firms can help develop treatments. Collins points out that the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, frustrated that gene treatments were slow to be found, decided to invest directly in a small company called Aurora Biosciences, which is now Vertex Pharmaceuticals, the developer of Trikafta.
That collaboration, "now spanning more than two decades, can be seen as an important model for other rare genetic diseases," Collins wrote.
After the discovery of the gene, Collins wrote a song, "Dare to Dream."
"The lyrics expressed hope that the gene discovery would lead to effective treatments for cystic fibrosis — that someday we would see 'all our brothers and sisters breathing free.' It is profoundly gratifying to see that this dream is coming true," he said.
Translation - Japanese 科学者たち、患者たちは新嚢胞性線維症の治療法を歓迎しています
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