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Arabic to English: Lessons in Islamic History (excerpt) General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: History
Source text - Arabic وقام من بعده ابنه "المعز لدين الله معد"، وكان وزيره ومدبره مولاه جوهر الصقيلي، وهو الذي أرسله معز لفتح مصر، فسار إليها من القيروان في ربيع الأول سنة (۳٥۸ه)، ولما وصلها لم يجد كبير عناء في فتحها لأن أهل مصر كانوا يميلون أن يخرجوا من حكم العباسيين إلى حكم العلويين.
ولما استتبت فيها قدمه شرع في بناء القاهرة، وكانت إذ ذاك رملة بين مصر وبين عين شمس يمر بها الناس عند مسيرهم من الفسطاط إلى عين شمس، وكانت فيما بين الخليج والجبل، ولم يكن عند نزول جوهر بهذه الرملة فيها بنيان سوى أماكن هي بستان "الاخشيد محمد بن طغج" الذي كان معروفاً بالكافوري ودير للنصارى يعرف بدير العظام، وكان بهذه الرملة مكان ثالث يعرف بقصير الشوك، وسار موضعه عند بناء القاهرة يعرف بقصر الشوك.
وكانت القاهرة تطلق على ما حازه السور الذي طوله من مام زويلة إلى بال الفتوح وباب النصر؛ وعرضه من باب السعادة وباب الخوخة إلى باب البرقية والباب المحروق.
وكان اختطاط القاهرة في جمادى الاخرة سنة (۳٥۹ه)، واختطت كل قبيلة خطة عرفت بها، فزويلة بنت الحارة المعروفة بها، واختطت الروم حارتين حارة الروم التي مدخلها بباب مدرسة العقادين وحارة الروم الجوانية.
Translation - English Al-Qā’im was succeeded by his son, al-Manṣūr bi-Naṣri’llāh Ismāʽīl. He was an eloquent orator who could improvise a speech, as well as being courageous and intelligent. He died in 341H/953.
His son, al-Muʽizz li-Dīnillāh Maʽad, ruled after him in turn. His vizier and director of affairs was his client, Jawhar aṣ-Ṣiqillī, whom al-Muʽizz sent to conquer Egypt. He marched there from al-Qayrawān in the month of Rabīʽ al-Awwal, 358H/969. On arriving, he discovered that there was little concern about the conquest, since the people of Egypt were in favour of abandoning ʽAbbāsid rule in exchange for ʽAlid rule.
Once he had secured his position, he began building Cairo. At that time, there was a sandy area between Old Cairo and ʽAyn Shams which people crossed on their way from al-Fusṭāṭ to ʽAyn Shams, situated between the Muqattam Hills and the Nile Gulf. When Jawhar arrived there, there were no structures other than the garden of the Ikhshīd founder, Muḥammad ibn Ṭughuj, known as al-Kāfūrī, a Christian monastery known as Dayr al-ʽIẓām (the Monastery of Bones) and a third place known as Quṣayr ash-Shawk.
‘Cairo’ (al-Qāhirah) was the name given to everything within the wall which stretches lengthwise from the gate of Bāb Zuwaylah to that of Bāb al-Futūḥ and finally Bāb an-Naṣr; and widthwise from Bāb Saʽādah and Bāb al-Khūkhah to Bāb al-Barqīyyah and Bāb al-Maḥrūq.
Cairo was mapped out in the month of Jumādā’l-Ākhirah, 359H/970, with each tribe [or group] being allocated a district which would bear its name. Hence, the Zuwaylah tribe were responsible for building the quarter known by that name, while the Greeks were allocated two quarters: the Greek Quarter (Ḥārat ar-Rūm), the entrance to which is next to the school Madrasat al-ʽAqqādīn, and the Inner Greek Quarter (Ḥārat ar-Rūm al-Juwaynīyyah).
Bachelor's degree - University of Oxford
Years of experience: 8. Registered at ProZ.com: Aug 2020. Became a member: Aug 2020.
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I have pursued two parallel interests in my professional life, allowing me to use and share the Arabic language that I love. One has been translating and editing Arabic texts into English for publication (and often proof-reading the original Arabic). I began translating documents for a UNDP development project on Higher Education in the Arab World and for Amnesty International UK (voluntarily) which led me to pursue a masters degree in Development Studies. I have since gained eight years’ experience as translator, editor and quality assurance co-ordinator for Turath Publishing, working on a range of non-fiction, including history, biography, theology and political commentary as well as poetry.The second love of my professional life to date has been teaching. Having trained and worked as a teacher of English as a Foreign Language as a student, I discovered my passion for communicative language teaching and recognised the potential for applying this to teaching Arabic. I became very involved in my local supplementary school, Al Bayyinah, as teacher and then Head of Arabic Language. Here I strived to tailor course content to the needs of the local community, including authoring a series of innnovative Arabic language text books and digital resources. I went on to hone my pedagogic skills and eye for detail as IGCSE exam moderator for both Cambridge Assessment and Pearson.