Member since Apr '06

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Chinese to English
Japanese to English
Korean to English
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English to Korean

Jack Lian
ATA Certified, Legal & Patent

Surrey, British Columbia, Canada
Local time: 13:18 PST (GMT-8)

Native in: Chinese (Variants: Simplified, Traditional) Native in Chinese, English Native in English
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Services Translation, Interpreting, Editing/proofreading, Website localization, Software localization, Voiceover (dubbing), Subtitling, MT post-editing, Transcription, Training, Desktop publishing, Project management, Vendor management, Sales, Operations management
Expertise
Specializes in:
Law: Patents, Trademarks, CopyrightPatents
Finance (general)Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Medical (general)Medical: Instruments
Medical: PharmaceuticalsInvestment / Securities
Chemistry; Chem Sci/EngMedical: Health Care

Blue Board entries made by this user  2 entries

Company size 25-50 employees
Year established 1997
Currencies accepted Chinese yuan (cny), Euro (eur), U. S. dollars (usd)
Portfolio Sample translations submitted: 102
Korean to English: Explanations on the Second-Year Agreement on the "2014 Hanmi BT Program for Cultivating Economic Leaders"
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - Korean

생명공학의 미래는 KRIBB에서 시작됩니다
한국생명공학연구원 광복70 년
위대한 여정
새로운 도약

수신자 수신자 참조
(경유)
제목 '2014 한미 BT 창조경제 리더양성사업' 2차년도 협약 안내


1. 귀 사(하)의 무궁한 발전을 기원합니다.

2. 관련 : 사업화기술지원팀-9001('15.11.19, 한국생명공학연구원),'2014년도 한미 BT 창조경제 리더양성사업'1차년도 연차평가 결과 및2차년도 협약 진행

3. 위 관련 '2014 한미 BT 창조경제 리더양성 사업' 2차년도 협약을 진행하고자,협약 관련 서류를 송부하여 드리오니, 인력 파견이 원할하게 진행될 수 있도록 협조하여 주시기 바랍니다.

가. 협약 체결 및 연구비 지급 신청기간 : ~ '15년 11월 30일

나. 협약 체결 내용 : [붙임1,2,3] 참조



붙임 1. 협약체결 대상자 명단 1부.
2. 협약서 양식 1부.
3. 협약체결 안내서 1부. 끝.






















한국생명공학연구원장
수신자 아주대학교 산학협력단장 한국산업기술평가관리원장 국제백신연구소장 서울대학교 산학협력단장 고려대학교 산학협력단장 김은영 김경민 김영화 박지훈 배찬형 신후창 이영랑 이은혜 이철진 이하나 최영심

전결
11/20
기안자 유형석 팀장 나명훈 센터장 代나명훈
협조자


시행 사업화기술지원팀-9065 (2015-11-20) 접수
우 34141 대전광역시 유성구 과학로 125 / http://www.kribb.re.kr
전화 (042)860-4745 전송 (042)861-1759 / hyou@kribb.re.kr / 공개


Translation - English

KRIBB opens up the future of bioscience.
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology Recovery for 70 years
Great development
New takeoff

To: Recipient Reference
(CC)
Subject Explanations on the Second-Year Agreement on the "2014 Hanmi BT Program for Cultivating Economic Leaders"


1. Wish you booming business!

2. Related contents: Institutional technical support team – 9001 (November 19, 2015, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology), year-end assessment results of the "2014 Hanmi BT Program for Cultivating Economic Leaders" for the first year, and implementation of the second-year agreement

3. We plan to implement the aforesaid second-year agreement on the "2014 Hanmi BT Program for Cultivating Economic Leaders". Therefore, we have sent you documents related to the agreement and cordially request your assistance in facilitating personnel dispatch.

A. Deadline for signing the agreement and applying for research fee appropriation: ~ November 30,, 2015

B. Agreement signing contents: See Attachments 1, 2, and 3.



Attachments 1. One list of the agreement signatories
2. One agreement form
3. One explanation on the agreement signing. End.




President of Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
To: Head of Aju University Industry Collaboration Foundation, Head of Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology, Head of International Vaccine Institute, Head of Seoul University Industry Collaboration Foundation, Head of Korea University Industry Collaboration Foundation, Kim Eun Young, Kim Kyung Min, Kim Young Hwa, Park Ji Hoon, Bae Chan Hyung, Shin Hoo Chang, Lee Young Rang, Lee Eun Hye, Lee Chul Jin, Lee Ha Na, Choi Young Sim

Examined and approved by:
November 20
Drafter by Yoo Hyung Seok Leader Na Myung Hoon Director Acting Na Myung Hoon
Coordinator


Implemented by the Institutional technical support team – 9065 (November 20, 2015) Received.
Postal code: 34141 No. 125, Gwahak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon. / http://www.kribb.re.kr
Tel.: (042)860-4745 Fax: (042)861-1759/hyou@kribb.re.kr / Disclosed


Korean to English: Title of Invention: STEEL PIPE STRUT WITH A CONNECTION ENCLOSURE
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - Korean
건체 청구항 수 : 총 7항 심시관: 짐영표
발명의 국문명칭연결몸 앤클로저클 포합하는 강란버덤보
(57) 요 약
본건발명에 따른 띠장-버1보 공사에 사용1 수 있는 연결용 엔클로저가 협성된 강관버팀보는, 강관; 강관의 길 이방향 좌우에 강관의 길이방향 건체에 걸쳐서 연장되어 협성된 제1연결판; 강관의 길이방향 전후에 형성된 제2 연결판을 포합하고; 상기 제1연결판의 폭은 강관의 지름이고; 제2연결판은 4변의 길이가 강관의 지름인 장방병이 고; 상기 좌우의 계1연결판과 제1연결판 사이에는 강관의 원주에 계합찰 수 있고 양단이 제1연결판에 접촉하는 브레이심이 소정의 간격으로 배치되어 강관의 전단성능을 보강하며; 상기 계1연결판과 제2연결판에는 다수의 들 트체결공이 협성되어 있다.
대 표 도 –도1

Translation - English
Total number of claims: 7
Examiner: Kim Young Pyo
Title of Invention: STEEL PIPE STRUT WITH A CONNECTION ENCLOSURE


(57) Abstract
The present invention relates to a steel pipe strut used for waler-strut construction, comprising steel pipes; 1st connecting plates, which are formed longitudinally on both the left and the right sides of said steel pipe for the whole length of said steel pipe; and 2nd connecting plates, which are formed longitudinally in the front and the rear of said steel pipe. The width of each of said 1st connecting plates is equal to the diameter of said steel pipe, and said 2nd connecting plates are of a rectangle shape with four sides each having a length equal to the diameter of said steel pipe; bracing rods are set at certain intervals between said 1st connecting plates on the left and the right sides; said bracing rods snugly fit the periphery of said steel pipe with both ends connected to said 1st connecting plate to improve the shear strength of said steel pipe; a plurality of bolted connection holes are formed on said 1st connecting plates and said 2nd connecting plates.


Representative Drawing – Figure 1
Japanese to English: Service Purchase Contract
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - Japanese

業務委託契約書
XXX(以下「甲」という)とYYY(以下「乙」という)は、甲が企画•制作するプロモーションのための、日本国外におけるリサーチ業務に関し、次のとおり契約する。
(業務委託)
第1条甲は、乙に対し、甲が企画•制作する次のプロモーションのためのリサーチ業務(以下「委託業務」という)を委託し、こはこれを受託する。
予定業務名 XXXの東南アジアにおけるプロモーションに関するリサーチ
(業務委託の期間)
第2条 前条の業務委託期間は、2016年7月1日から2017年3月31日までとし、うち委託業務従事日数は45日間を予定する。
2 前項の委託業務従事日数のうち、こが甲の職員に同行する期間として0日間を予定する。
(委託業務の内容と主な業務地域)
第3条 委託業務の内容は次表の□内にレ印を付けた業務とする。
リサーチ業務 □コーディネート業務
指示事項についての調査、資料の収集•整理
□写真、映像素材等についての調査•収集
前各項目に付随する業務
□その他( )

□関係者(機関)との連絡、スケジュール調整
□番組制作の打合せ、撮影•収録への同行•立会
□許認可交渉
□現地スタッフ、交通手段、宿泊先等の手配
□機材·リソースの手配
□現地で取材等を円滑に進めるための業務一切
□車両運転業務
□その他( )
□通訳業務
2 甲は、乙に対し、委託業務について個々の業務を必要のつど指定し、発注する。発注にあたっては、甲は、こに対し、業務完了期限を指定する。なお、乙は前条の委託業務従事日数(予定)の変更を要する場合は、甲の承諾を得るものとする。
3 主な業務地域はインドネシア、シンガポール、タイ、フィリピン、ベトナム、マレーシアとする。
(報酬)
第4条 甲がこに対し支払う委託業務の報酬(この契約により甲が取得する権和の対価を含む)は、日額金255USドル(すべての税込み)とし、そのうち、乙が甲の職員に同行する期間は、日額を金0USドル(すべての税込み)とする。
2 乙は、委託業務完了後、別紙「海外業務実施記録」に必要事項を記載し署名のうえ甲に提出する。甲は、「海外業務実施記錄」を検証後、前項の日額に基づき委託業務日数に応じた報酬を乙に支払う。
3 甲が委託業務の都合により、報酬を分割してこに支払う場合には、各支払該当期間の委託業務終了後、「海外業務実施記錄」を検証し、第1項の日額に基づき支払う。
4 甲は、委託業務の都合により、報酬の一部を事前に乙に支払う場合には、委託業務完了後、「海外業務実施記録」を検証し、第1項の日額に基づき精算する。
(費用)
第5条 乙は、委託業務の遂行にあたり交通費その他の費用の支出を要する場合には、甲の事前の承諾を得るものとする。
2甲は、前項の費用について、乙から領収書の提出を受けた後支払う。
(再委託)
第6条 こは、委託業務の全部または一部を乙の責任において第三者に再委託することができる。
この場合,乙は事前に甲の定める書面により甲の同意を得なければならない。
2 前項の場合、乙は当該再委託先に対し、本契約によりこが負う義務と同等の義務を負わせ、かつ、当該再委託先の債務不履行に付き一切の責任を負う。
Translation - English

Service Purchase Contract

XXX (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and YYY (hereinafter referred to as Party B) enter into the following contract on the research service outside Japan for the promotion planned and made by Party A.

(Service to be purchased)
Article I. Party A is to purchase from Party B the research service (hereinafter referred to as the “Service) for the following promotion planned and made by Party A and Party B is to provide the Service to Party A.

Tentative service name Research on the promotion of XXX in southeast Asia

(Term of the Service)

Article II.
1. The term of the Service stated above is from July 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017, among which the number of service days are predetermined as 45 days.
2. Among the number of service days stated above, the days to escort the staff of Party A is predetermined as 0 day.

(Content of the Service and the main service regions)
Article III.
1. The content of the Service is marked with ✔ in the following table.
 Research service □ Coordination service
 Investigation on the matters requested, and collection and organization of data
□ Investigation and collection of photo and video materials
 Any services that are incidental to all the work stated above
□ Others ( )

□ Communication with related persons (institutions) and adjustment of schedule
□ Arrangement of program production, and escort and presence for photographing and recording
□ Negotiation for approval or permit
□ Arrangement of local staff, transportation and accommodation
□ Arrangement of equipment and resources
□ All services as needed for smooth local coverage
□ Vehicle driving
□ Others ( )
□ Interpretation service
2. Party A shall specify each Service with Party B and place an order if necessary. When placing an order, Party A shall specify a deadline for Party B. Party B shall obtain the consent of Party A before a change to the (tentative) number of service days as provided under the preceding article can be made.
3. The main service regions are Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam and Malaysia.

(Remuneration)
Article IV.
1. The remuneration for the Service to be paid by Party A to Party B (including the compensation for the right obtained by Party A in accordance with the contract) is 255 USD per day (all taxes included), among which the daily payment rate for Party A to accompany the staff of Party A is 0 USD (all taxes included).
2. After fulfilling the Service, Party B shall enter information in the required fields in the attached Overseas Service Implementation Record and sign it before submitting it to Party A. After verifying the Overseas Service Implementation Record, Party A shall pay the remuneration to Party B for the service days based on the daily payment rate stated in the preceding paragraph.
3. If Party A pays the remuneration to Party B in several payments according to the circumstance of the Service, each payment shall be made based on the daily payment rate stated in Paragraph 1 of this article after the Service in the corresponding period is fulfilled and the Overseas Service Implementation Record is verified.
4. If Party A pays part of the remuneration to Party B in advance according to the circumstance of the Service, settlement of payment shall be made based on the daily payment rate stated in Paragraph 1 after the Service is fulfilled and the Overseas Service Implementation Record is verified.

(Expenses)
Article V.
1. Party B shall obtain prior consent of Party A with respect to transportation expense or other expenses for the performance of the Service.
2. Party A shall pay for the expenses stated in the preceding paragraph after receiving the payment receipt from Party B.

(Subcontracting)
Article VI.
Party B may subcontract to a third party all or part of the Service under Party B’s responsibility.
In such case, Party B must obtain prior consent of Party A in writing and in a form determined by Party A.
2. In the case of subcontracting under the preceding paragraph, Party B shall put the subcontractor under the same obligations as borne by Party B under this contract and shall be fully responsible for any default of the subcontractor.
English to Korean: Turning polymers into possibilities
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - English
Turning polymers into possibilities

AS81914 Convoluted Tubing

Drop by OPIE Booth I-33 to discover why AS81914 Convoluted Tubing is the ideal flexible conduit for protecting fibers from abrasion and high temperatures. This product offers low friction for sheathing and is available in multiple extruded resins, coloring options and sizes. Request samples


Zeus Industrial Products, Inc.
3737 Industrial Blvd.
Orangeburg, South Carolina 29118
Translation - Korean
폴리머를 가능성으로 전환하기

AS81914 뒤얽힌 튜브

OPIE 부스 I-33에서 왜 AS81914 뒤얽힌 튜브 이 섬유를 마모와 고열로부터 보호하기 위한 이상적인 유연한 도관인지 알아보세요. 본 제품은 피복 재료에 미치는 마찰이 적으며 여러 가지의 압출 수지, 채색 옵션 및 크기에 이용할 수 있습니다. 견본 요청하기


Zeus Industrial Products, Inc.
3737 Industrial Blvd.
Orangeburg, South Carolina 29118
Japanese to English: CDMA receiving apparatus
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Telecom(munications)
Source text - Japanese
•請求項1
•引用文献等1
•備考
引用例1には、予め行われた拡散変調に対応する拡散符号と予め決められているバターンとを受信多重信号に掛け合わせた相関値データを生成する相関値データ生成手段と、前記受信多重信号の復調信号の希望波レベル対干渉波レベル比率を算出する希望波レベル対干渉波レペル比率算出手段と、前記相関值データおよぴ前記希望波レペル対干渉波レペル比率に基づいて前記受信多重信号の受信タイ
続葉有




発送番号 226306
続葉
ミングを補正する(チップ同期回路の動作速度の変更による受信タイミングの変更)受信タイミング補正手段とを具備するCDMA受信装置が記載されている。

•請求項1
•引用文献等2
•備考
引用例2には、予め行われた拡散変調に対応する拡散符号と予め決められているパターンとを受信多重信号に掛け合わせた相関値データを生成すみ相関値データ生成手段と、前記受信多重信号の復調信号の希望波レペル対干渉波レペル比率を算出する希望波レベル対干渉波レペル比率算出手段と、前記相関值データおよび前記希望波レベル対干渉波レベル比率に基づいて前記受信多重信号の受信タィミングを補正する(次回の測定時間の決定)受信タイミング補正手段とを具備するCDMA受信装置が記載されており、本願請求項1に係る発明と实質的に同一である。

•請求項1
•引用文献等3
•備考
引用例3には、予め行われた拡散変調に対応する拡散符号と予め決められているバターンとを受信多重信号に掛け合わせた相関値データを生成する相関値データ生成手段と、前記受信多重信号の復調信号の希望波レベル対干渉波レベル比率を算出する希望波レペル対干渉波レベル比率算出手段と、前記相関値データおよび前配希望波レベル対干渉波レペル比率に基づいて前記受信多重信号の受信タイミングを補正する(オーバーサンプル速度の变更による)受信タイミング補正手段とを具備するCDMA受信装置か記載されており、本願請求項1に係る発明と実質的に同一である。




引用文献等一覽
1.特開平9—135193号公報
2.特願平10—79892号(特開平11—274982号)
3.特願平10—252637号(特開2000—82975)

先行技術文献調查結果の記録
•調査した分野 IPC第7版 H04B1/69—1/713
H04J13/00-13/06
•先行技術:特開2000—216706
特開2000—68981
この先行技術文献调査結果の記録は、拒絶理由を構成するものではない。


Translation - English
• Claim 1
• Cited document 1
• Remarks
A CDMA receiving apparatus is described in cited example 1, comprising a correlation value data generation means which generates correlation value data which multiplies a spread code which corresponds to spread modulation conducted in advance and a predetermined pattern by a reception multiplex signal, a means for calculating the ratio of a desired wave level to an interference wave level which calculates the ratio of the desired wave level to the interference wave level of a demodulation signal of said reception multiplex signal, and a reception timing correcting means (changing the reception timing by changing the working speed of the chip synchronization circuit) which corrects the reception timing of said reception multiplex signal based on said correlation value data and said ratio of the desired wave level to the interference wave level.

(To be continued)




Transmittal No.: 226306
(Continued)
• Claim 1
• Cited document 2
• Remarks
A CDMA receiving apparatus is described in cited example 2, comprising a correlation value data generation means which generates correlation value data which multiplies a spread code which corresponds to spread modulation being conducted in advance and a predetermined pattern by a reception multiplex signal, a means for calculating the ratio of a desired wave level to an interference wave level which calculates the ratio of the desired wave level to the interference wave level of a demodulation signal of said reception multiplex signal and a reception timing correcting means (determining the next measurement time) which corrects the reception timing of said reception multiplex signal based on said correlation value data and said ratio of the desired wave level to the interference wave level, the receiving apparatus being substantially identical to the invention according to claim 1 of the present application.

• Claim 1
• Cited document 3
• Remarks
A CDMA receiving apparatus is described in cited document 3, comprising a correlation value data generation means which generates correlation value data which multiplies a spread code which corresponds to spread modulation being conducted in advance and a predetermined pattern by a reception multiplex signal, a means for calculating the ratio of a desired wave level to an interference wave level which calculates the ratio of the desired wave level to the interference wave level of a demodulation signal of said reception multiplex signal and a reception timing correcting means (by changing the oversampling speed) which corrects the reception timing of said reception multiplex signal based on said correlation value data and said ratio of the desired wave level to the interference wave level, the receiving apparatus being substantially identical to the invention according to claim 1 of the present application.




List of Cited Documents
1. Japanese Patent Publication Gazette No. H9-135193
2. Japanese Patent Application No. H10-79892 (Japanese Patent Publication No. H11-274982)
3. Japanese Patent Application No. H10-252637 (Japanese Patent Publication No. 2000-82975)

Record of the Result of the Prior Art Search

• Searched field: IPC Edition 7, H04B1/69-1/713
H04J13/00-13/06
• Prior art: Japanese Patent Publication No.2000-216706
Japanese Patent Publication No.2000-68981

The record of the result of the prior art search does not constitute a reason for refusal.


Japanese to English: Customer Complaints
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Japanese
ASO15006050japan
[ORIGINAL]:保湿の為に毎日のように使っていた。肌荒れがあるのでどうしてかと思っていた。使ってもしっとりする感じがなかった。今まで使っていて問題なかった。品質がいいものを使っていると思っていたのにそれが洗い流すクレンジングが入っていたということでしょ。1日中つけたままの状態ということでしょ。それで問題はないわけ。紫外線にあたっているんですよ。(sol15849案内)洗い流すものを1日つけていても安全なの。それは確認していると言っても洗い流すクレンジングをずっとつけていたんだから今はブツブツだけで済んでいるかも知れないがこれから3.4ヶ月から半年は肌の様子を診ていきたいですね。(現状の症状が心配な為受診お願い)病院に行ったらその治療費はどうなるの。(治療費案内)来週病院へ行きます。(店頭連絡済か確認)DMが昨日届いていて1時間程前にDMをみて該当の番号なのかを店に聞いた。店に持ってきてくださいと言われて店で交換してもらうことになっています。

<製品使用者の年齢>(50歳代)
<製品使用者の性別>(女性)
<症状(異常)の経過(初め/途中/現状)>年末年始は忙しかったので気付かなかったかも知れないが正月過ぎてからブツブツがあるのに気付いた。品質のよいものでしっかり保湿をしようと思い毎日使っていたのに効果を感じてなかった。不眠もなく食べすぎたこともなく体調は変わらないと思っている。クレンジングが入っているというDMを見てこれが原因とおもいました。
<症状発生部位>額、左頬の唇の横辺り
<購入日>1ヶ月前
Translation - English
ASO15006050japan
[ORIGINAL]: I used the product every day to keep my skin moisturized. My skin is rough and I wonder why. My skin did not feel moisturized even after I used the product. I haven’t encountered any problems with the product until now. I have been using it, thinking it is a product of good quality. I think it includes a wash-off cleanser, right? The product has been worn on the skin for a whole day. Will it cause any problems? But I have to wear it as I am exposed to ultraviolet rays. (Described sol15849) Is it safe if I keep the ingredient which should be washed off on my face for a whole day? Though it is said that its safety is confirmed, I developed rashes and I think the cause of the symptoms is that I kept the wash-off cleanser on my skin most of the time. I would like to wait and see how my skin condition will be for the next 3 or 4 to 6 months. (Asked the customer to see a doctor since we were concerned about her current symptoms). What about the medical cost if I see a doctor? (Provided guidance on medical costs) I will see a doctor next week. (Asked the customer whether she had contacted the store or not) I received the DM yesterday. I read it 1 hour ago and I asked the staff of the store whether the number was correct or not. I was told to take the product to the store and they would exchange it for me.

(In the 50s).
(Female)
I was busy around end of last year and beginning of this year so I didn’t notice the symptoms. I realized that I developed rash after the New Year. I wanted to keep my skin well moisturized with a good-quality product so I used it every day. But I don't think it worked. I didn’t have insomnia or overeat and my health condition has not changed. I found on the DM that the product includes a cleanser and I think this is the cause of my symptoms.
On the forehead and left cheek around the lips.
One month ago


English to Japanese: Turning polymers into possibilities
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - English
Turning polymers into possibilities

AS81914 Convoluted Tubing

Drop by OPIE Booth I-33 to discover why AS81914 Convoluted Tubing is the ideal flexible conduit for protecting fibers from abrasion and high temperatures. This product offers low friction for sheathing and is available in multiple extruded resins, coloring options and sizes. Request samples


Zeus Industrial Products, Inc.
3737 Industrial Blvd.
Orangeburg, South Carolina 29118

Translation - Japanese
ポリマーを可能性に変えます

AS81914 回旋状チューブ

AS81914 回旋状チューブが、なぜ繊維を摩耗と高温から保護するために理想的な柔軟なチューブなのかをお確かめいただくために、OPIE(オプトロニクス・フォトニクスインターナショナルエキジビジョン)のブース I-33 にお立ち寄りください。この製品は、被覆材料に低摩擦を実現し、多様な押出樹脂、色彩のオプションおよびサイズでご利用いただけます。サンプルを請求する


Zeus Industrial Products, Inc.
ゼウス・インダストリアル・プロダクツ,インコーポレイテッド
3737 Industrial Blvd.
Orangeburg, South Carolina 29118
Chinese to English: Lease Agreement
General field: Law/Patents
Source text - Chinese
XXX租賃契約書

出租人:XXXX (以下簡稱甲方)

承租人:XXX (以下簡稱乙方)

玆將雙方共同協議事項條列如下:


第 一 條:租賃標的物

甲方將所有座落XXX室(如附圖標示區域),出租予乙方作為合法使用。

第 二 條:租賃期間

本租賃契約自簽訂之日起生效,租金起算期間 自民國105年4月1日起至民國106年2月28日止,計拾壹個月。乙方於本租約期滿後,仍擬續租者,應於期滿二個月前以書面預告甲方,經甲方同意後,雙方另訂租賃條件,並應於租期屆滿前簽妥新契約,始得於本租約期滿後繼續使用標的物,否則本租約期滿後,雙方之租賃關係當然消滅。乙方不得以繼續使用或以已繳付租金為理由,主張租賃關係繼續使用,亦無民法第四百五十一條之適用。

第 三 條:租金

一、租金除以乙方所繳付之保證金利息抵付一部分外,乙方應給付甲方租金每月新臺幣參拾捌萬捌仟伍佰肆拾捌元整(上述金額不含營業稅),乙方租金之繳付以每壹個月為壹期,乙方同意一次繳付壹期之租金。

三、乙方應於每期契約始期日之相當日起五日內將租金繳付甲方,如乙方逾期未繳付時,自契約始期日之相當日起算,每逾一日應按月租金百分之一計付逾期罰款,逾期達二個月時,甲方得終止契約;並得依契約第七條一項後段之規定隨時斷水斷電及停止空調冷氣等公共設施、服務之供應,及請求第十二條約定之懲罰性違約金,若有損害並得請求損害賠償。
Translation - English
XXX Lease Agreement

Landlord: XXXX (“Party A”)
Tenant: XXX (“Party B”)

The Parties agree on the terms and conditions as follows:

Article 1: Subject Matter of Lease
Party A shall lease its property (hereinafter referred to as the “Premises”) located at Room XXX (as shown in the attached drawing) to Party B for legal use.

Article 2: Lease Term
This lease agreement (the “Agreement”) shall take effect as of the date of execution hereof for a term of eleven months from April 1, 2016 to February 28, 2017. In the event that Party B intends to renew the Agreement after it expires, Party B shall notify Party A of its intention in writing two months prior to expiration of the lease and if Party A agrees to renew the lease, the Parties shall re-negotiate the conditions of lease and enter into a new agreement prior to expiration of the lease before Party B may continue to use the Premises after expiration of the lease. The landlord-tenant relationship between the Parties shall automatically terminate upon expiration of the Agreement. Party B may not claim that the landlord-tenant relationship continues to exist on the ground that Party B continues using the Premises or has already paid the rent, and Party B may not apply Article 451 of the Civil Code.

Article 3: Rent
1. The monthly rent to be paid Party B to Party A is three hundred eighty eight thousand five hundred forty eight New Taiwan Dollars (excluding sales tax), in addition to the part of rent payment from the interest on the security deposit paid by Party B, and for the purpose of rent payment by Party B, each month is one period, and Party B agrees to pay for each period in one lump sum.

3. Party B shall pay to Party A the rent for a period within five days from the beginning day of that period corresponding to the beginning day of the Agreement. If Party B fails to pay the rent in time for a period, a late payment penalty shall be imposed at the rate of one percent of the monthly rent for each day late starting from the beginning day of the period corresponding to the beginning day of the Agreement. If Party B is two months late in payment, Party A shall have the right to terminate the Agreement, and may cut off the supply of water, power, air-conditioning and other utilities and services at any time pursuant to the provisions of Paragraph 1 of Article 7 hereof, and claim liquidated damages under Article 12 hereof and compensation for damages, if any, from Party B.

Chinese to English: I’m leading an elite team to explore China market
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Chinese
协同精英团队
逐鹿中国市场

在康迪泰克,
我携手各业务单元,
用心开拓中国市场的新大陆!

我的动力:
我信心满满,
因为这片市场年轻而广阔,
它是我挥洒激情的舞台。
我坚持不懈,
因为这群同事团结且专注,
他们是我坚强有力的后盾。
我视挑战为乐趣,
通过每一次的求索和革新实现自我价值!

Translation - English
I’m leading an elite team to explore China market.
At ContiTech, with the joint efforts from each business unit, I focus on developing new business opportunities in the China market.
My motivation: I am full of confidence because this is a young but tremendous market where I can put my passion to work. I will persevere because I have a group of united and dedicated colleagues who give me strong support along the journey. To me, challenge is fun, because I can realize my worth with every exploration and revolution.
English to Chinese: Contract
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - English
ARTICLE 2 —

2.1 Lenders' Commitment
Based on the Representations and Warranties, and subject to fulfilment of the Conditions Precedents, the Lenders undertake to make the [COMPANY NAME] Loan for a maximum amount in principal of one hundred forty two million Euros (€142,000,000).

2.2 Drawing
Subject to fulfilment of all the Conditions Precedents set forth under Article 6.2, the [COMPANY NAME] Loan will be made available to the Subsidiary during the relevant Drawing Period, by means of one or more Drawings, it being specified that:
- Each Drawing shall be equal to 75 per cent of the [COMPANY NAME] Loan to be funded at that time;
- No Drawing may be made on a given date for an amount exceeding the Available Amount;
- With the exception of the Drawing made on the Closing Date, the Subsidiary shall send a Drawing Notice to the Agent before 11 a.m. (Paris time), four (4) Business Days before the date contemplated for the advance of funds indicated by the Subsidiary in the Drawing Notice.
The Agent will make available the Drawing amount, no later than the date contemplated for the advance of funds indicated by the Subsidiary in the Drawing Notice, with this date as its value date with transfer to the account(s) as identified by Subsidiary.
For this purpose, each Lender that is party to this Agreement at the Drawing Date shall have made available on the relevant date, to the Agent, on behalf of the Subsidiary, the amount of its Undertaking.
Any [COMPANY NAME] Loan amount that has not been drawn during the Drawing Period will be cancelled. Any cancellation will be final.
Translation - Chinese
第 2 条—

2.1 放贷方的承诺
基于陈述和保证,在满足先决条件的前提下,放贷方承诺发放本金为一亿四仟二佰万欧元 (€142,000,000) 的最高额度的[公司名称]贷款。

2.2 提款
在满足第 6.2 条中规定的所有先决条件的前提下,将在相关提款期内按一次或多次提款的形式向子公司发放[公司名称]贷款,相关规定如下:
- 每次提款金额应等于当时放款的[公司名称]贷款的百分之七十五;
- 任何一个特定日期的提款金额均不得超过“可用金额”;
- 除在截止日进行的提款外,子公司应在其于提款通知中指明的预提资金日期前四 (4) 个工作日的上午 11 点(巴黎时间)之前向代理人发送提款通知。
代理人将在子公司于提款通知中指明的预提资金日期之前准备好提款金额,该日期将作为转帐至子公司指定的帐户的起息日。
为此,在提款日期属于本协议一方的每位放贷方均应在相关日期为代表子公司的代理人准备好其承诺的金额。
未在提款期内提取的任何[公司名称]贷款均将被取消。 任何取消均为终局性。
English to Chinese: Turning polymers into possibilities
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Engineering (general)
Source text - English
Turning polymers into possibilities

AS81914 Convoluted Tubing

Drop by OPIE Booth I-33 to discover why AS81914 Convoluted Tubing is the ideal flexible conduit for protecting fibers from abrasion and high temperatures. This product offers low friction for sheathing and is available in multiple extruded resins, coloring options and sizes. Request samples


Zeus Industrial Products, Inc.
3737 Industrial Blvd.
Orangeburg, South Carolina 29118
Translation - Chinese
聚合物转化为各种可能性

AS81914螺旋管

欢迎光临OPIE(国际光电大展)I-33号展间,了解AS81914螺旋管为何是最适合保护光纤抗磨损和高温的挠性导管。此产品对光纤外皮的摩擦小,并有多种挤压树脂和多种颜色与尺寸可供选择。请求样品


Zeus Industrial Products, Inc.(Zeus工业产品公司)
地址:3737 Industrial Blvd.
Orangeburg, South Carolina 29118
English to Chinese: The New Horizon Plan
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - English
1. The Provest 10 Principal Protection Plan is not for sale in the United States or the BVI and is not available for purchase by citizens or residents of the United States or BVI.
2. The Provest 10 Principal Protection Plan has a plan term of 10 years. The participant should enter into the plan with the intention of remaining in the plan for the full plan term. Should the participant surrender the plan before the full plan term, the surrender values displayed show what the participant may receive after surrender charges. A surrender charge reduces the plan value in the event of early termination.
3. This illustration is for guidance only and should not be regarded as a legally binding contract. Refer to the trust documents for greater details.
4. The rates of return are not based on past or future performance. They are not guaranteed and actual performance of the investment portion of the plan may be greater or less than the rate used in this illustration.
5. Guarantees are applicable only to regular contributions provided all contributions have been paid by their due date and there have been no loans or partial surrenders. Principal guarantee includes loyalty bonuses. Please refer to the plan documents for all contractual provisions.
6. The values demonstrated in the table above include a {0} plan fee, and an annual administration fee of 1.0% on cumulative premiums paid or due. The projected net annual index return is net of the 2% annual index spread charge. The plan is subject to surrender charges for early termination, which are equal to the difference between the Account Value and the Cash Value. Illustrated values are estimates of end-of-plan-year values and include loyalty bonuses.
Translation - Chinese
1. Provest 10 Principal Protection Plan(Provest 10 本金保障计划)在美国或英属维尔京群岛不出售,不提供给美国或英属维尔京群岛的公民或居民购买。
2. Provest 10 Principal Protection Plan(Provest 10 本金保障计划)的计划期限为 10 年。参与者在参与计划时应打算在整个计划期限内保持不退出。如果参与者未等整个计划期限结束就退出计划,则所显示的解约退还金表明扣除解约费用后参与者可能收到的金额。如果提前终止计划,则将从计划价值中扣除解约费用。
3. 此说明表仅供指导,不应视为有法律约束力的合同。有关详情,请参阅信托文件。
4. 收益率不基于以往或未来的绩效。收益率并不能得到保证,计划投资部分的实际绩效可能大于或小于此说明表中所用收益率。
5. 保证金仅可用于定期出资,前提是所有出资均在到期应付日期之前已支付且未出现任何贷款或部分解约。本金担保包括忠诚奖金。请参阅计划文档了解所有合同规定。
6. 上表中展示的价值包括{0}计划费用,以及已付或到期应付的累积保险费的 1.0% 的年度管理费。预测的年指数收益率净额为 2% 的年指数差价风险值的净额。提前终止计划要收取解约费用,其金额等于帐户价值与现金价值之间的差额。图示的价值是预估的计划年度结束价值,包括忠诚奖金。
English to Chinese: Inheritance and gift tax
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - English
There is no 'one size fits all' solution. Every family office functions differently, offers different services, and will therefore be able or, oppositely, completely unable to deliver the services you are looking for. As your family's wealth and future well-being strongly depend on the selection of the right provider, the selection process should be very thorough.

Wealth planning is the art of structuring your wealth while building it, preserving it, and in order to transfer it to the next generation tax-optimised. Wealth planning is a mix of tax planning, wealth protection, estate planning and business succession planning and relates to your total worldwide wealth. A good family office in Switzerland will support you with solid wealth planning services.

_____________________________________
Inheritance and gift tax: Contrary to what most believe, Monaco does levy inheritance- and gift tax (transfer tax) from the families living in Monaco, but this is limited to movable and immovable properties located within the Principality (a so-called “situs tax”). The applicable tax rate depends on the relationship between the deceased and the beneficiary. The applicable tax rate for children, spouses, and also parents is 0%. Therefore in effect, in most cases, no inheritance tax is levied.

Hedge funds are alternative investment vehicles whose main benefit lies in their flexibility. Hedge funds can invest in a wide variety of asset classes (fixed income, equities, currencies, and commodities) and can implement their trades through long and short positions, derivatives and/or leverage

Translation - Chinese
世上没有“一个尺码可以适合所有人”这种事。家族办公室各自的运作方式不同,提供的服务也不同,因此其既能够,也可能与之相反,完全不能够提供您所要的服务。您家族的财富和未来的幸福与保障在很大程度上要看您是否选对了服务商,因此选择过程应该十分细致彻底。

财富规划是一门艺术,是在建立财富的同时,做好财富的结构布局,保住财富,将财富以最优惠的税务传给下一代。财富规划是税务规划、保护财富、房地产规划和企业传承规划的综合规划,与您的全球总财富相关。在瑞士拥有良好的家族办公室将让您能够获得坚实的财富规划服务支持。
_____________________________________

遗产和赠与税:与大部分人所想的相反,摩纳哥对居住在摩纳哥的家庭是要征收遗产和赠与税(转让税)的,但这两项税只对位于摩纳哥公国内的动产和不动产征收(即所谓的“就地税”)。相关税率视死者与受益人之间的关系而定,对于子女、配偶以及父母,税率为0%。因此,大部分情况下是不征收遗产税的。

对冲基金是另外的投资工具,其主要优点是灵活。对冲基金可以投资的资产类别很广泛(固定收益、股权、货币以及商品),并可以通过多头和空头头寸、衍生工具及/或杠杆进行交易
English to Chinese: Cisco Networking
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Internet, e-Commerce
Source text - English
Convergence is central to the IP NGN, and it occurs in three fundamental ways: application convergence, service convergence, and network convergence. The Cisco IP NGN Carrier Ethernet Design provides the network layer infrastructure of the Cisco IP NGN architecture that is resilient, intelligent, scalable, and oriented toward new service delivery. In order to meet new business challenges, service providers must have sufficient intelligence in the network infrastructure to scale current services and quickly enable new services. The Cisco IP NGN Carrier Ethernet Design is service optimized to deliver both consumer and business services over a single Carrier Ethernet infrastructure. Service Providers will use Ethernet Operations, Administration, and Maintenance to reach out from the central office (CO) all the way to the customer premise, providing the “eyes, ears, and hands” with which network operations can be performed. Creating a highly reliable and available converged network is a goal that many carriers are already pursuing through their efforts to eliminate multiple service-specific networks or to reduce multiple layers within a network. A “many services, one network” model in which a single network can support all existing and new services will dramatically reduce the total cost of ownership (TCO) for service providers and allow them to quickly provide new services.
Translation - Chinese
收敛是下一代IP网络(简称IP NGN)的核心内容,收敛有三种基本方式:应用收敛、业务收敛和网络收敛。采用思科IP NGN运营商以太网设计的思科IP NGN构架网络层基础设施具有弹性、智能性和扩展性,以支持新业务为导向。为了应对新业务的挑战,业务提供商的网络基础设施必须具备足够的智能性,以扩展当前业务并快速启用新业务。思科IP NGN运营商以太网设计对业务进行优化,做到消费者业务和商用业务都在同一个运营商以太网基础设施上提供。从中心局(CO)开始,一直到用户侧,业务提供商都将使用“以太网运营、管理和维护”,为网络运营的实施提供“耳、目和双手”。许多运营商已在追求的一个目标就是创建高度可靠、高度可用的收敛网络,以消除一业务一网络而造成的多个业务网络情况,或者减少一个网络中的多个分层。在“单网络多业务”的模型上,单个网络可支持所有现有业务和未来新业务,这将大幅削减业务提供商的总体拥有成本(TCO),使他们能够快速提供新业务。
English to Chinese: Wall Street set to open flat after three-week run
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - English
NEW YORK (Reuters) - U.S. stocks were poised for a flat open on Monday, after the Dow and S&P 500 advanced for a third straight week to fresh record highs.

Earnings season begins to wind down this week, with 16 S&P 500 companies expected to report quarterly results, including retailers Wal-Mart and Macy's as well as network equipment maker Cisco Systems.

"We have had a nice run and last week we did see the markets largely go into neutral and take a bit of a pause," said Peter Kenny, chief market strategist at Clearpool Group in New York.

"Earnings season is coming to a close, there are no economic data releases for the next two days, we’ve gotten more or less the framing for the market."

McDonald's Corp said worldwide sales at restaurants open at least 13 months fell 0.5 percent in October, hurt by stiff competition in the United States, economic and political upheaval in Europe and the fallout from a supplier scandal in China.

According to Thomson Reuters data through Friday, of 442 companies in the S&P 500 to report earnings, 74.2 percent beat Wall Street expectations, well above the 63 percent beat rate since 1994 and 67 percent for the past four quarters. Earnings are expected to grow 9.8 percent over the year-ago period.

The Dow has risen 7.3 percent while the S&P 500 is up 7.7 percent over past three weeks, the best three-week performance for both indexes since October 2011.

S&P 500 e-mini futures were up 1.75 points and fair value, a formula that evaluates pricing by taking into account interest rates, dividends and time to expiration on the contract, indicated a flat open. Dow Jones industrial average e-mini futures rose 17 points and Nasdaq 100 e-mini futures added 9.5 points.

Translation - Chinese
纽约(路透社)——美国股票市场在道琼斯和标普500连续三星期创新高之后,星期一开盘势必走平。

盈利盛会于本星期开始收尾,16家标普500公司预期发布季度报告,包括零售公司沃尔玛和梅西以及网络设备巨头思科系统公司。

“我们近来一路跑高,但上一周我们确实看到市场大部分趋于平稳,稍有停顿”,纽约Clearpool Group的市场战略总监说道。

“盈利盛典即将结束,尚无接下来两天的经济数据,我们对市场情况有了大概的掌握。”

麦当劳公司说,受美国激烈竞争、欧洲政治经济动荡以及中国一家供应商丑闻余波的影响,其全球开张至少13个月的快餐店销售额10月份下滑0.5%。

根据汤姆森路透社截至星期五的数据,在标普500中报告盈利的442家公司里,74.2%的公司超越华尔街的期望,盈利胜预期比率远超1994年创下的63%,在上四个季度里为67%。与上年同期相比预期盈利增长9.8%。

在过去三周里,道琼斯上浮7.3%,标普500上涨7.7%,这是这两支股指自2011年来具有的最好三周表现。

标普500 e-迷你期货上升1.75点,但其综合考虑利率、分红以及期货合约到期时间进行价值评估的公允价值表明开盘走平。道琼斯工业平均指数e-迷你期货走高17点,纳斯达克100 e-迷你期货增加了9.5点。
English to Chinese: Consent to Participate in Research
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - English
Consent to Participate in Research

You are being asked to participate in a research study.
Before you agree, the investigator must tell you about (i) the purposes, procedures, and duration of the research; (ii) any procedures which are experimental; (iii) any reasonably foreseeable risks, discomforts, and benefits of the research; (iv) any potentially beneficial alternative procedures or treatments; and (v) how confidentiality will be maintained.

Where applicable, the investigator must also tell you about (i) any available compensation or medical treatment if injury occurs; (ii) the possibility of unforeseeable risks; (iii) circumstances when the investigator may halt your participation; (iv) any added costs to you; (v) what happens if you decide to stop participating; (vi) when you will be told about new findings which may affect your willingness to participate; and (vii) how many people will be in the study.

If you agree to participate, you must be given a signed copy of this document and a written summary of the research.

You may contact Dr. Thomas Loughran phone number 434-243- 9926 any time you have questions about the research.

You may contact Dr. Thomas Loughran phone number 434-243-9926 if you have questions about your rights as a research subject or what to do if you are injured.

Your participation in this research is voluntary, and you will not be penalized or lose benefits if you refuse to participate or decide to stop.

Signing this document means that the research study, including the above information, has been described to you orally, and that you voluntarily agree to participate.

Consent From Adult

______________________________
PARTICIPANT
(SIGNATURE) _____________________________
PARTICIPANT
(PRINT) ________
DATE
To be signed by the participant who is 18 years of age or older.





Interpreter
By signing below you confirm that the study has been fully explained to the potential subject in a language they understand and all their questions have been answered.

_______________________________
INTERPRETER
(SIGNATURE) _____________________________
INTERPRETER
(PRINT) ________
DATE

NOTE: Study team member obtaining consent must sign long version of consent form.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Parental/Guardian Permission
By signing below you confirm you have the legal authority to sign for this child.

__________________________
PARENT/GUARDIAN
(SIGNATURE) ________________________
PARENT/GUARDIAN
(PRINT NAME)
______
DATE


NOTE: Study team member obtaining permission must sign long version of consent form.

Assent from Child

__________________________
PARTICIPANT
(SIGNATURE) ________________________
PARTICIPANT
(PRINT)
_______
DATE

To be completed for any child aged 7 to
Translation - Chinese
参加研究同意书

您现被邀请参加一项试验研究。
在您给予同意之前,研究人员必须告诉您下列有关信息:(1)本研究的目的、医学操作和持续时间;(2)任何试验性的医学操作;(3)本研究的任何可合理预见的风险、不适和益处;(4)任何潜在有益的其它医学操作或治疗选择;以及(5)如何保持机密性。

如果对您适用,研究人员还必须告诉您下列有关信息:(1)如果发生伤害,有没有任何补偿或医治;(2)不可预见风险的可能性;(3)哪些情况下研究人员可能中止您参加研究;(4)您会有哪些增加费用;(5)如果您决定停止参加研究会发生什么;(6)会在什么时候将可能影响您参加研究的意愿的新发现告诉您;以及(7)会有多少人参加研究。

如果您同意参加,必须给您一份您签字的本文件副本和本研究的书面摘要。

任何时候您有关于本研究的问题,都可以联系托马斯•劳伦(Thomas Loughran),他的电话号码是434-243-9926。

如果您有关于您作为研究受试者的权利的问题或关于如果您受伤了该怎么办的问题,可以联系托马斯•劳伦医生,他的电话号码是434-243-9926。

您参加本研究是自愿的,而且如果您拒绝参加或决定停止参加研究,您不会受到惩罚或失去任何利益。

签署本文件即表明已经口头向您描述了本试验研究,包括以上信息,而且您自愿同意参加研究。

成年人的同意

______________________________
参加者
(签名) _____________________________
参加者
(印刷体姓名) ________
日期
由年满18岁的参加者签字。





口译员
在下面签字即表明您确认已经将本研究向此潜在受试者用他们能理解的语言进行了充分的说明,而且他们的所有问题都有回答。

_______________________________
口译员
(签名) _____________________________
口译员
(印刷体姓名) ________
日期

注:获取同意的研究团队成员必须在长版本同意书上签名。
_____________________________________________________________________________

父母/监护人许可
在下面签字即表明您确认您有合法权力代这孩子签字。

__________________________
父母/监护人
(签名) ________________________
父母/监护人
(印刷体姓名)
______
日期


注:获取许可的研究团队成员必须在长版本同意书上签名。

孩子的同意

__________________________
参加者
(签名) ________________________
参加者
(印刷体姓名)
_______
日期

年龄在7至18岁之间的孩子都必须完成本部分。

注:获取同意的研究团队成员必须在长版本同意书上签名。

口译员
在下面签字即表明您确认已经将本研究向父母/监护人和孩子(未满18岁)用他们能理解的语言进行了充分的说明,而且已经回答了他们的所有问题。

English to Chinese: FAQ - IMMIGRATION TOPICS (EB-5)
General field: Law/Patents
Source text - English
FAQ - IMMIGRATION TOPICS
I understand that EB-5 has been the subject of litigation. Will this history affect my green card applications?
It should help our investors. In June 2006, the USCIS removed green card conditions from all pre-1998 American Life, Inc. investors. This sets a precedent for programs such as American Life, Inc., which invests the full invested amount of $500,000 in job producing projects in our regional centers.
The history is outlined as follows: American Life, Inc., formed its regional center in 1996 and raised capital from some 40 investors between 1996 and 1998. Several other companies competed for investment capital during this period, but some of these companies didn’t offer sound investments and were only in business to collect fees rather than to fund an ongoing business. Many of these other investment opportunities didn’t raise the full $500,000 in investment capital or hire the required number of employees. Because some of these companies did not comply with the regulations, INS, the legacy administrator of U.S. immigration services (now USCIS), rightly set out to stop this abuse of the program. In 1998, INS revised the rules retroactively to people who already had approved petitions; however INS also wrongly attempted to revoke all EB-5 visa petitions. This led to the litigation.
In 2002, in a case commonly known as Chang vs.United States the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the USCIS could not apply their new rules retroactively. In the same year, the U.S. Congress also passed a new law to protect the pre-1998 investors. In September 2005 and May 2006, the USCIS approved all American Life, Inc. pre-1998 removal-of-condition (I-829) petitions. As a result American Life, Inc. dropped its lawsuit against the U.S. Justice Department. American Life, Inc. was able to settle with the U.S. government because all of our investors invested $500,000 in job creating investments. It took eight years to work through the system and to prove the point that American Life, Inc. provides legitimate EB-5 investments. During the interim period, all of the investors were allowed to live in the U.S. as if they had permanent green cards. We believe that EB-5 immigration petitions based on sound investments for the full $500,000, as prescribed by the rules, with proper supporting documentation, will continue to be approved.

After the I-526 petition approval, can members of the family have their consulate interview in different countries (for example, if children are attending school in the U.S. and the parents are not in the U.S., etc.)?

Family members can interview in different countries. The country of origin or where the family has current ties is the standard interview site. Often one member of the family is located in another country, such as a student attending school in the U.S. The student does not have to return to the country of origin and can adjust his or her status in the U.S. at the district office of the USCIS.
Can I apply if I have been rejected by the USCIS for other type visa?
Rejection in the past does not disqualify an applicant for EB-5, unless the reasons are related to immigration fraud or other major problems. It is most important that the investor disclose all criminal, medical, or U.S. immigration history problems to American Life, Inc. and the immigration attorney in advance of your petition submission.

Translation - Chinese
常见问题—移民相关
我知道EB-5曾经引起过诉讼。这段历史是否会影响我的绿卡申请?
这件事对我们的投资者有帮助。2006年6月,美国公民及移民服务局(USCIS)撤销了美国生活公司(American Life, Inc.)所有1998年之前的投资者的绿卡申请限制。这就为美国生活公司这样的计划创设了先例,也就是向位于我们地区中心的就业创造项目作50万美元全额投资的计划。
其过程概述如下:美国生活公司于1996年建立了地区中心,并在1996到1998年间向大约40位投资者募集了资本。一些其他公司在此期间完成了资本投入,但其中一些公司并没有提供可靠的投资,只是在业务经营过程中收取费用,而没有为持续开展的业务提供资金支持。许多这类其他投资项目没有募集到全额的50万美元投资资本,或者未能雇佣规定人数的雇员。由于一些公司没有遵守规章,当时主管美国移民服务事务的移民归化局(INS, 现由 USCIS负责管理)正确地阻止了对该等计划的滥用。1998年,INS修改了规章,追溯适用于那些申请已获批准的人;INS同时试图撤销所有EB-5签证申请,这也是错误的。这一做法引起了诉讼。
2002年,在被称为“常诉美国”(Chang vs.United States)的案件中,第九巡回区上诉法院裁定,U SCIS不得追溯性地适用其新规章。同年,美国议会也通过一项新法,旨在保护1998年之前的投资者。2 005年9月和2006年5月,USCIS批准了美国生活公司全部的1998年前限制撤销(I-829)申请。于是,美国生活公司撤销了针对美国司法部的诉讼。美国生活公司能够与美国政府达成和解,原因在于我们的全体投资者都向创造工作岗位的投资项目投入了50万美元。我们花了八年时间走完程序,并证明了美国生活公司确实提供了合法的EB-5投资。在此期间,所有投资者都被允许在美国生活,就好像他们已经获得了永久的绿卡。我们相信,依照规章的规定,有50万美元全额投资的可靠项目作为基础的EB-5 移民申请,配合正确的支持性文件,能够继续获得批准。
I-526申请获得批准后,家庭成员可否在不同国家作领馆面谈?(比如,孩子在美国上学,而父母不在美国,等等。)
家庭成员可以在不同国家面谈。母国或者家庭当前关联所在地是标准面谈地点。经常会有一名家庭成员身处另一国家的情况,比如在美国上学的学生。该学生不需要返回母国,在当地的USCIS办事处就可以调整其身份。
如果USCIS曾经拒绝过我的其他类型签证申请,我还能提出申请吗?
曾经遭到拒签并不导致申请人丧失EB-5申请资格,除非拒签的理由涉及移民欺诈或者其他重大问题。最重要的一点是,投资人要在提交申请之前,将所有涉及刑事犯罪、医疗以及过往申请美国移民史的问题告诉美国生活公司及移民律师。
Japanese to English: A TAXI FARE PAYMENT SYSTEM
General field: Science
Detailed field: Patents
Source text - Japanese
【技術分野】
【0001】
本発明は、携帯可能な媒体に搭載されているICチップに格納された電子マネーを利用してタクシー料金を精算するタクシー料金精算システムに関する。
【背景技術】
【0002】
従来のタクシー料金精算システムとして、下記特許文献1に記載されたものがある。
このシステムでは、タクシー利用者(企業の社員)のクレジットカードをタクシーの運転者が預かってタクシーに搭載されているカード認証端末にセットすると、このカード認証端末がクレジットカードからカード情報を読取って中央データ処理センタに送り、中央データ処理センタでカードの認証が行われてその旨の情報がカード認証端末に通知されると、タクシーの運転者はクレジットカードをカード認証端末から抜き取って利用客に返却する。
【0003】
そして、タクシーの運転者がタクシー料金をカード認証端末に入力すると、その情報を中央データ処理センタに送り、中央データ処理センタで決済が行われてその旨の情報がカード認証端末に通知されると、カード認証端末で領収証等が発行されて、タクシーの運転者から利用客に領収証等が渡され、一方、中央データ処理センタは前記クレジットカードに該当するカード会社に対して決済用データを送信して決済を行う。


(例えば、特許文献1参照)。
【特許文献1】特開2002-208040
【発明の開示】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
【0004】
しかしながら、上述した従来の技術においては、タクシー利用者である企業の社員は、タクシーの運転手から受取った領収証を企業の経理担当者に提出して精算処理をする必要があるだけでなく、企業によっては所定のタクシー利用区間などを記入した伝票を上司等の承認者に提出して承認印をもらう等の手続も必要になって手間がかかるという問題があり、また承認者は社員が申告した伝票の記入内容のみで業務上の利用か否かを判断しなければならず、客観的で正確な判断が難しいという問題がある。
【0005】
本発明は、このような問題を解決することを課題とする。
【課題を解決するための手段】
【0006】
そのため、本発明のタクシー料金精算システムは、識別子及び電子マネーを格納した携帯可能な媒体と、タクシーに装備され、企業の社員のタクシー利用時に乗車位置と降車位置を入力する位置入力装置、及び電子マネーリーダライタと、前記電子マネーリーダライタと無線で通信が可能なサーバと、前記企業に設置され、通信回線を介して前記サーバと通信が可能な端末を備え、前記電子マネーリーダライタはタクシー料金支払時に前記社員が所持する前記媒体から識別子を読み取ると共に、タクシーメータからタクシー利用料金を取得してその金額を前記媒体に格納された電子マネーの残高から減額し、かつ前記位置入力装置から乗車位置及び降車位置の情報を取得して、前記識別子、タクシー利用料金の金額、乗降車位置の情報を利用情報として前記サーバに送信し、前記サーバは前記電子マネーリーダライタから受信した前記利用情報をデータベースに格納して、前記端末からの要求により該当企業の社員の利用情報を前記端末に送信することを特徴とする。
【発明の効果】
【0007】
このようにした本発明は、タクシーを利用した社員は領収書等により事後精算する必要がなく、また社員のタクシー利用を承認する承認者は社員が利用したタクシーに装備された電子マネーリーダライタが取得する電子マネーID、利用料金、乗降車地等を基に業務上のタクシー利用か否かを判断できるので、正確な判断が可能になるという効果が得られる。
Translation - English
[Technical field]
[0001]
The present invention pertains to a taxi fare payment system which uses electronic money stored in an IC chip mounted in a portable media for payment of taxi fare.
[Background technology]
[0002]
A taxi fare payment system of prior art is described in patent literature 1 below.
In this system, once the taxi driver receives the credit card of a taxi user (company employee) and sets it into a card authorization terminal which is mounted in the taxi, the card authorization terminal will read the card information from the credit card and sends it to a central data processing center. Once card authorization is conducted at the central data processing center and the information is sent to the card authorization terminal, the taxi driver will pull out the credit card from the card authorization terminal and give it back to the customer.
[0003]
When the taxi driver inputs the taxi fare into the card authorization terminal, the information will be sent to the central data processing center, and when the payment settlement is made at the central data processing center and the information is notified to the card authorization terminal, a receipt will be issued at the card authorization terminal, and the taxi driver will give the receipt to the customer, and on the other hand, the central data processing center will send the payment settlement data to the card company of said credit card for settlement.



/3
(Refer to patent literature 1 for example).
[Patent literature 1] Japanese Patent Publication No. 2002-208040
[Disclosure of the invention]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
[0004]
However, in accordance with the prior art stated above, the company employee who is the taxi user not only has to present the receipt received from the taxi driver to the company accountant for reimbursement processing but also has to submit a voucher which records the specified taxi usage trip to approvers such as supervisor, etc. for approval in accordance with the company regulation, which costs time and effort, and moreover, the approvers have to judge whether the taxi usage is for business purpose or not merely by the content recorded on the voucher submitted by the employee, so it is difficult to make an objective and correct judgment.
[0005]
The purpose of the present invention is to solve these problems.
[Means to solve the problems]
[0006]
For this purpose, the taxi fare payment system of the present invention comprises a portable media which stores an identifier and electronic money, a position inputting device used to input the starting position and ending position of a taxi ride when a taxi is used by a company employee and an electronic money reader-writer which are equipped in a taxi, a server which can communicate with said electronic money reader-writer wirelessly, and a terminal which is installed in said company and can communicate with said server via communication line, wherein said electronic money reader-writer reads the identifier from said media held by said employee when the taxi fare is paid and said electronic money reader-writer obtains the taxi fare and deducts it from the balance of the electronic money stored in said media, and further obtains the information of the taxi ride starting and ending positions from said position inputting device and sends said identifier, the amount of taxi fare, and the taxi ride starting and ending positions to said terminal as usage information, wherein said server stores said usage information received from said electronic money reader-writer in a database and sends the usage information of the company employee to said terminal at the request of said terminal.
[Effects of the invention]
[0007]
In accordance with the present invention, it is unnecessary for the employee to apply for reimbursement based on a receipt or the like after using a taxi, and the approvers who approve the taxi usage of the employee can make a correct judgment as to whether the taxi usage is for business purpose or not in accordance with the electronic money ID, taxi fare and taxi ride starting and ending positions which are obtained from the
electronic money reader-writer which is mounted in the taxi that is used by the employee.
Chinese to English: METHOD TO MANUFACTURE A COUPLER KNUCKLE
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - Chinese
[0047]
下面对锻造钩舌产品两次模锻过程进行了模拟和分析。分析的边界条件设定、过程模拟及受力分析如下:
[0048]
本次模拟利用SOLIDWORKS软件对锻造钩舌参数化建模, 用DEFORM-3D软件平台对建立的三维模形进行有限元模拟, 对锻造钩舌模锻成形过程和受力进行了分析, 揭示出产品产生缺陷过程并优化了模锻工艺。
[0049]
1、模拟参数设定如下:为使模拟结果能真实的反映实际生产情况, 设定的模拟条件与实际生产条件基本一致。


[005]
1)锻件材料的材料模形建立, 锻件材料为25MnCrNiMoA钢, 鉴于DEFORM-3D材料库中没有该材料, 因此没有该种材质在不同温度和不同变形速率下的变形抗力数据, 基于CrNiMo合金钢的化学成分和性能基本与25MnCrNiMoA一致, 借鉴CrNiMo合金钢的变形抗力曲线建立了材料模形。
[0051]
2)其它模拟参数的设定, 两次模锻均在8000吨摩擦压力机上进行生产,对两次模锻模拟参数设置均相同:模具材料设定为刚体, 坯料加热温度为1200℃, 库伦摩擦系数为0.3, 模具温度设定为250℃, 上模移动速度设定为200mm/s, 单元格数为185641个。
[0052]
2、一次模锻坯料变形过程数值模拟和缺陷分析
[0053]
1)一次模锻锻变形过程数值模拟, 该成形过程主要是对锻造钩舌产品S形面3进行成形, 由于需要精确的毛坯才能满足最终锻造成形的要求, 因此需采用开式模锻的方式进行锻造, 在模锻后进行切边, 通过该次锻造良好的分配坯料, 为最终锻造成形打下基础。一次模锻模具的上半模与下半模之间的间隙为0.3mm时坯料已经完全成形; 在该节点位置变形抗力为54500kN,由此可以判定8000吨摩擦压力机能满足该产品一次模锻对打击力的要求。
[0054]
2)对一次模锻过程中产生缺陷情况进行分析, 一次模锻时易产生折叠缺陷, 该缺陷的产生是由于自由锻制坯件1头部11和尾部12截面变化较大,在一次模锻过程中由于坯料来不及向两侧扩散因此在过渡处容易产生折叠缺陷。
[0055]
3)改进方案和实际效果, 在实际生产中通过对锻造钩舌自由锻制坯件进行改进, 将自由锻制坯件1的头部11与尾部12过度处修改为斜面4过度,使坯料在一次模锻形腔中能充分流动。经过对该工艺的改进完全避免了一次模锻过程中折叠缺陷的产生。
[0056]
3、二次模锻坯料变形过程模拟和缺陷分析
[0057]
1)二次模锻变形过程数值模拟, 该产品在经过一次模锻和切边修磨后需要将该坯料翻转90度进行二次模锻以进行最终成形。二次模锻模具的上半模与下模之间间隙为1mm, 时坯料已经完全成形。在该节点位置变形抗力为49700kN, 由此可以判定8000吨摩擦压力机能满足该产品二次模锻对打击力的要求。
[0058]
2)对二次模锻成形过程和产生缺陷情况分析, 二次模锻件成形时飞边已越过飞边槽仓部, 造成材料浪费并增加了对锻造力的要求。产生原因主要是由于一次模锻件坯料局部分配不合理。二次模锻时在上牵引台部位产生折叠缺陷的形成过程中, 由于一次模锻件在上牵引台过度处坯料截面变化较大,上牵引台处根部坯料在锻造过程中金属坯料无法横向流动, 因此在该部位产生折叠缺陷。
[0059]
3)改进方案, 针对以上存在的主要问题, 进行了以下改进:将一次模锻截面突变处的圆角尽量放大, 让此处坯料能横向流动, 以避免折叠缺陷的产生。通过修改一次模锻模具将一次模锻坯料局部形状进行优化, 使充形过程合理。同时将现有模具飞边槽仓部尺寸加大, 以便充分容纳多余的金属。
[0060]
一次加热、二次加热和三次加热的温度均控制在900℃~1200℃之间。
[0061]
本发明提供的钩舌制造方法根据锻造钩舌的结构特点, 确定了锻造钩舌工艺为自由锻制坯, 两次模锻和两次切边的生产工艺, 采用数值模拟的分析方法对该种工艺进行了模拟和验证, 分析了在两次模锻过程中坯料的变形过程和受力分析, 同时模拟了工艺过程中产生缺陷的过程, 为避免锻造缺陷和优化锻造工艺提供了有力的依据; 通过在实践中对该工艺进行优化提高了产品的成品率, 使其锻造钩舌的成品率从最初的30.3%达到了90%以上, 目前该工艺稳定用于生产; 采用锻造工艺生产的钩舌则完全可以避免铸造钩舌的气孔、夹渣、缩孔疏松等铸造缺陷的存在, 保证了钩舌内部质量, 提高了钩舌的使用寿命。


[0062]
作为上述实施例的优选实施方式, 在步骤6)至步骤7)之间还包括:6S)一次修磨, 待一次切边后的制坯件自然冷却至环境温度时对其进行一次修磨;在步骤9)至步骤10)之间还包括:9S1)二次修磨, 待二次切边后的制坯件自然冷却至环境温度时对其进行二次修磨。一次修磨和二次修磨能够进一步提升锻造质量, 并有利于其下一步的指标控制; 在步骤9S1)至步骤10)之间还包括:9S2)一次抛丸, 对二次修磨后的制坯件表面进行一次抛丸处理;在步骤9S2)至步骤10)之间还包括:9S3)二次抛丸, 对热处理后的制坯件表面进行二次抛丸处理。一次抛丸和二次抛丸为了将制坯件表面的氧化层去除掉, 露出制坯件本身的材质, 减少在使用过程中的腐蚀。
[0063]
最后应说明的是:以上各实施例仅用以说明本发明的技术方案, 而非对其限制; 尽管参照前述各实施例对本发明进行了详细的说明, 本领域的普通技术人员应当理解:其依然可以对前述各实施例所记载的技术方案进行修改,或者对其中部分或者全部技术特征进行等同替换; 而这些修改或者替换, 并不使相应技术方案的本质脱离本发明各实施例技术方案的范围。
Translation - English
[0047]
The following is a simulation and analysis of the two die forging steps for producing the forged coupler knuckle product. The boundary conditions setting for analysis, process simulation and stress analysis are as follows:
[0048]
This simulation establishes a parameter model of the forged coupler knuckle with SOLIDWORKS software and simulates the finite elements of the 3D model with DEFORM-3D software to analyze the formation process and stress during die forging of the forged coupler knuckle, thereby revealing the defect generation process and optimizing the die forging process.
[0049]
1. The simulation parameter setting is as follows: the simulation condition setting is substantially identical to the actual production conditions so that the simulation results may accurately reflect the actual production conditions.
/6
[0050]
1) Material modeling for the material of the forgings: the material of the forgings is 25MnCrNiMoA steel, which is not available in the DEFORM-3D material database, so the deformation resistance of this material at different temperatures and different deformation rates is not available. Since the chemical composition and property of the CrNiMo alloy steel is substantially identical to that of 25MnCrNiMoA, a material model is established on the basis of the deformation resistance curve of the CrNiMo alloy steel.
[0051]
2) Setting of other simulation parameters: the two die forging steps are both performed on an 8000 ton friction press, and the settings of simulation parameters for the two die forging steps are same: the die material is set as a rigid body, the heating temperature for the blank material is 1200C, the Coulomb friction coefficient is 0.3, the die temperature is set to 250C, the moving speed of the upper die is set to 200 mm/s, and the number of cells is 185641.
[0052]
2. Data simulation and defect analysis of the blank material deformation process during the first die forging
[0053]
1) Data simulation of the deformation process during the first die forging: the main purpose of this process is to form the S-face of the forged coupler knuckle. Since only a precise blank can satisfy the ultimate forging and formation requirements, so the blank needs to be forged by the open die forging method, and then it is trimmed after the die forging. The well distributed blank material during this forging lays a solid foundation for final forging into form. The blank is completely formed when the space between the upper die and lower die for the first die forging is 0.3 mm, and the deformation resistance at this node is 54500 kN, therefore it can be confirmed that the 8000-ton friction press can satisfy the impact force requirement of the first die forging of the product.
[0054]
2) Analysis of defects generated during the first die forging: folding defects may be generated at transition places during the first die forging because the sectional areas of the head 11 and bottom 12 of the freely forged blank-making part 1 are significantly changed, and the blank material cannot be dispersed to the two sides in time.
[0055]
3) Improvement scheme and actual results: the freely forged blank-making part for the forged coupler knuckle is improved, and the transition between the head 11 and bottom 12 of the freely forged blank-making part is changed into the slope 4 during actual production, so that the blank material can fully flow in the forming cavity for the first die forging. The folding defect during the first die forging can be completely avoided by this improved process.
[0056]
3. Blank deformation simulation and defect analysis of the second die forging
[0057]
1) Data simulation of the deformation process of the second die forging: after the first die forging, trimming and grinding of the product, the blank-making part is turned by 90 degree for a second die forging to make it into the final shape. The blank-making part is completely formed when the space between the upper die and lower die for the second die forging reaches 1 mm. The deformation resistance at this point is 49700 kN, therefore it can be confirmed that the 8000-ton friction press can satisfy the impact force requirement of the second die forging of the product.
[0058]
2) Formation and defects analysis of the second die forging: the flash exceeds the flash chamber when the blank-making part is die forged for the second time and formed, which wastes the material and increases the requirement on forging force. The main reason for this defect is that the local distribution of the blank material for the first die forging is not reasonable. Folding defect is generated at the upper traction set area during the second die forging because the sectional area of the blank-making part from the first die forging changes significantly at the transition area of the upper traction set, the metal blank material at the root of the upper traction set cannot flow in the transverse direction, therefore the folding defect is generated in this area.
[0059]
3) Improved scheme: the following improvements are made for the abovementioned problems: the rounded corner is maximized at the location where the sectional area of the blank-making part from the first die forging changes significantly, so that the blank material can flow in the transverse direction, thus avoiding folding defects. The die for the first die forging is modified to optimize the local shape of the blank-making part from the first die forging to improve the formation process. In addition, the size of the flash chamber of the existing die is increased to fully contain the excessive metal.
[0060]
The temperatures for the first heating, second heating, and third heating are all controlled to between 900C~1200C.
[0061]
In the method to manufacture a coupler knuckle provided by this invention, a manufacture process consisting of a step of freely forging a blank, two die forging steps and two trimming steps is decided according to the structure characteristics of the coupler knuckle to be forged. The analysis method by data simulation is selected to simulate and validate this process, to analyze the deformation and stress of the blank-making part during the two die-forging steps and to simulate the defect generation process. The simulation provides a strong basis for preventing forging defects and optimizing the forging process. The process optimization in practical operation increases the rate of qualified products of forged
/7
coupler knuckle from the original 30.3% to above 90%. Currently, this process is stably used in production. The coupler knuckle manufactured with this forging process can completely avoid the forging defects of gas cavity, slag inclusion, shrinkage, etc., to ensure the interior quality and improve the service life of the coupler knuckle.
[0062]
As a preferred embodiment in the abovementioned embodiments, the following step is also included between the Step 6) and Step 7): 6S) a first grinding, to grind the blank-making part for the first time after the blank-making part has been trimmed from the first trimming and naturally cooled to ambient temperature; the following step is also included between the Step 9) and Step10): 9S1) a second grinding, to grind the blank-making part for a second time, after the blank-making part is trimmed from the second trimming and naturally cooled to ambient temperature. The first grinding and second grinding can further improve the forging quality and facilitate the subsequent index control. The following step is also included between the Step 9S1) and Step 10): 9S2) a first shot blasting, to perform shot blasting for the first time on the surface of the blank-making part that has been ground from the second grinding; the following step is also included between the Step 9S2) and Step 10): 9S3) a second shot blasting, to perform shot blasting for a second time on the surface of the blank-making part that has been heat treated. The purpose of the first shot blasting and second shot blasting is to remove the scale on the surface and expose the base material of the blank-making part to reduce corrosion during use.
[0063]
In conclusion, it should be understood that the abovementioned embodiments are only used to illustrate, but not to restrict, the technical scheme of this invention. Although this invention is described by referring to the abovementioned embodiments, those ordinary skilled in the art shall understand that: they can still modify the technical scheme specified by each of the embodiments described above or perform equivalent substitution of part or all the technical characteristics; however, such modification or substitution is deemed to be substantially within the scope of the technical schemes of the embodiments of this invention.
Chinese to English: Study on Car Body Vibration Transmissibility Analysis Approach for Railway Passenger Carriage
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Engineering (general)
Source text - Chinese
I.引言
随着铁道客车的高速化和轻量化发展,车辆本身产生了严重的车体弹性振动问题[1]。车辆沿轨道运行时,由于轮轨耦合作用,车辆各部件产生各种工况的位移、速度和加速度变化,这些变化通过不同方式传递到车体,加上车 体本身的弹性振动,不仅恶化了旅客乘坐舒适性而且导致车体结构动应力的增加和疲劳寿命的降低。高速客车车体垂直一阶弯曲振动频率接近或处于人体振动敏感区域,对车辆的垂直运行平稳性也有相当的影响[2]。因此有必要对车体的振动传递特性进行深入分析研究。
车体振动传递分析是为了考察车辆对来自轮轨相互作用和设备振动引起的各种强迫振动的隔振效果,分析轨道激扰和设备振动激扰经一、二系悬挂系统到车体的传递规律,其目的是为了找出影响车体振动的主要来源,以指导车辆的隔振设计,最终为车体的改进设计及车辆安全运行保障提供试验依据。目前,国内外对于汽车振动传递特性试验和分析方法的研究较多。刘东明等人研究了传递路径分析技术在车内噪声与振动研究与分析中的应用,阐述的是该技术在汽车中的应用[3]。Juha Plunt用传递路径分析方法去解决汽车NVH的诸多问题[4]。吴文江等人通过测试汽车悬置两侧的振动加速度,进行振动信号的频谱分析、相干分析和传递特性分析,找出了影响汽车动力总成振动传递特性的主要因素[5]。本文通过对铁道客车主要振动源的分析,研究振动传递路径分析方法,探讨铁道客车车体振动传递特性。
II. 铁道客车的振动源分析
振动源是指激发振动的力源或运动源。机械构件相互间的碰撞、磨擦以及由于旋转系统的静、动态不平衡所引起的交变力的产生与传递将导致机械构件产生振动,气流中存在的非稳定过程、湍流等与物体相互作用也将导致振动。
铁道客车车辆在运行过程中,引起振动的来源有很多,其中主要振源包括轮轨、弓网、气动、吊挂载荷等。轮轨振动一般由钢轨的变形、磨耗引起的轨道不平顺、轨道刚度和几何状态变化等因素激发;高速运行时接触导线与受电弓的接触状态会变差,离线率会增高,将加剧弓网振动;车辆车身外表面湍流流动所产生的气动噪声会对车体形成波动载荷,使其强迫振动;吊挂系统载荷作用力波动将产生结构激励,等等。因此,车辆的振动不仅与线路状态有关,与车体本身的结构和结构之间的参数匹配也有关系。
III. 振动传递路径分析方法
车辆车体内部振动,往往是由多个激励,经由不同的传递路径地道目标位置后叠加而成的,为进一步优化车体,往往要综合考虑各个激励和传递路径的情况,传递路径分析就是一个行之有效的方法。通过传递路径分析,确定各途径流入的激励能量在整个问题中所占的比例,找出传递途径上对车体振动起主导作用的环节,通过控制这些主要环节,加以改善,以使车体各部位振动控制在合理范围内。振动传递路径分析可采用相干函数法和传递函数法。
Translation - English
I. Introduction
As the railway passenger trains become increasingly light in weight and high in speed, the train itself will produce serious elastic car body vibrations [1]. When the train runs on rails, the components of the train experience changes in position, speed and acceleration under various working conditions because of the effects of the couplings between wheels and rails. These changes, which are transferred to car bodies in different ways, together with elastic vibrations of car bodies, not only worsen the passenger ride comfort, but also increase the dynamic stress in the structures of the car bodies and lower their fatigue lives. The frequency of first-order vertical bending vibrations of the car bodies of a high-speed passenger train is close to or within the range of the vibration frequencies to which human bodies are sensitive, and the first-order vertical bending vibrations of the car bodies also considerably influence the stability of vertical running of the train [2]. Therefore, an in-depth analysis of and study on the vibration transfer characteristics of the car bodies is necessary.
The analysis of vibration transfer of the car bodies is to observe the passenger train' effect of isolating forced vibrations resulted from wheel-rail interactions and equipment vibrations, to analyze the patterns of transfer of rail excitations and equipment vibrations to the car bodies through the primary suspension system and the secondary suspension system, and to find the main sources influencing car body vibrations to guide the vibration isolation design of the car bodies and eventually provide experiment reference for improved designs of the car bodies and safe running of the train. So far, many studies have been made on the methods of testing and analyzing the vibration transfer characteristics of automobiles at home and abroad. Liu, Dongming et al. studied the application of the transfer path analysis technique to the research and analysis of noise and vibrations inside automobiles and elaborated the application of this technique in automobiles [3]. Juha Plunt used the transfer path analysis technique to solve many problems concerning noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of automobiles [4]. Wu, Wenjiang et al. found out the main factors influencing the vibration transfer characteristics of the power assembly of automobiles by testing the vibration accelerations on the two sides of the automobiles and performing spectral analyses of vibration signals, coherence analyses, and transfer characteristic analyses [5]. In this paper, the main vibration sources of railway passenger carriages were analyzed, the vibration transfer path analysis method was studied, and the vibration transfer characteristics of car bodies of railway passenger carriages were discussed.
II. Analysis of Vibration Sources of Railway Passenger Carriages
A vibration source refers to a power source or motion source which excites vibrations. Collisions and frictions between mechanical components, the generation and transfer of the alternating force resulted from static or dynamic imbalance of the rotating system, and the interactions between an unstable process or turbulence in the air flow and the objects can also cause mechanical components to vibrate.
There are many sources which cause vibrations during the running of railway passenger carriages. Among them, the major vibration sources are wheel-rail, bow net, air dynamics, and load on the suspension systems. Wheel-rail vibrations are usually excited by such factors as rail irregularity, rail rigidity change or geometric change caused by deformations or wear of steel rails; the contact between the contact wire and the pantograph will be worsen and the disconnected rate of the pantograph will increase to intensify the vibrations of the bow net when the train runs at a high speed; the pneumatic noise caused by the flowing turbulence around the external surface of the car bodies of the train will create a fluctuating load on the car bodies to force the latter to vibrate; the fluctuations in the acting force of the load on the suspension systems will cause structural excitations. Therefore, vibrations of the train are related not only to the line state, but also to the structures of the car bodies and the parameter fitting between the structures.
III. Vibration Transfer Path Analysis Method
The vibrations inside the car bodies of a train are usually formed after multiple excitations tunnel [sic! – seems to be a typo for “arrive”] at the target position via different transfer paths and are superimposed. To further optimize the car bodies, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the conditions of all excitations and their transfer paths and the transfer path analysis is an effective way. Through the transfer path analysis, the proportion of the excitation energy coming from each path to the total excitation energy is determined, the areas on the transfer paths which play leading roles in the vibrations of the car bodies are found out, and the vibrations are alleviated by controlling these key areas so that the vibration intensity in each part of the car bodies is controlled within a reasonable range. The coherence function approach and the transfer function approach can be adopted for vibration transfer path analyses.

English to Chinese: Great brands are changing customer expectations
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Advertising / Public Relations
Source text - English
Great brands are changing customer expectations… Things are changing in the market place… the best brands are taking things to a whole new level

The best brands offer a great customer experience… we see it more and more in brands like Apple and Starbucks

Mere satisfaction is no longer enough… it simply is not enough anymore to just meet a customer’s needs… you have to go deeper… you have to connect with them and meet their unexpressed needs

Customer engagement is the new standard of excellence… engagement means connecting with people on an emotional level and building a relationship with them that leads to loyalty and advocacy

Engaged customers mean less discounting… because when we really connect with people… emotionally… they feel good and they value that connection more than they demand a discount

Only engaged employees can create engaged customers… because it’s the employee who creates the connection… and you will never have a customer who is more engaged than the employee is engaged

Creating a great customer experience will be the big differentiator … this is going to be one of the most important initiatives we focus on going forward. We now have the best cars and trucks we’ve ever had as a company…

Now is the time to take our consumer experience to the next level.

And if we get this right… it’ll result in greater customer loyalty and word of mouth advocacy.

Translation - Chinese
大品牌改变着客户期望...市场的各种情况也在日益变化着...最顶尖的品牌正在将各方面提升到一个全新的高度上
最顶尖的品牌让客户有美好的体验...这在苹果和星巴克等大品牌中越来越多见
如今仅仅满意已经不够...仅仅满足客户的需求无论如何是不够的...必须再深入一些...必须和客户建立联系,满足他们未言的内心需求
客户参与是工作优异的新标准...参与是指与他人进行感情上联系,与他们建立了关系,从而获得忠诚和拥护
参与的客户较少讨价返价...因为当我们真正地与他人有着...感情上的...联系...他们感觉很好,相对于要求打折,他们更看重这种联系
只有参与的员工才能创造参与的客户...因为是员工去创造联系...而员工的参与度决定着客户的参与程度
创造美好的客户体验是脱颖而出的一大因素...这将是我们未来最重要的工作重点之一。现在我们有着公司有史以来最好的汽车和卡车...
现在正是我们将客户体验提升至新水平的时候。
如果我们把这件事做好...我们将取得更高的客户忠诚度和更多的口碑拥护。



Korean to English: AN EASY-TO-CLEAN MASK
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Patents
Source text - Korean
청구항 1
양측에 이어 밴드(11) 또는 헤드밴드(11)가 연결된 마스크바디(10)와;
상기 마스크바디(10) 중앙상부를 착용자의 코형태에 따라 밀착되도록 변형시켜주는 코밀착부재(20)와;
상기 마스크바디(10) 중앙상부 내측면 또는 외측면에는 코밀착부재(20)를 수용할 수 있는 코밑착부재 수용부(30)가 부착되고, 코밀착부게 수용부(30)에는 코밀착부재(20)의 입출이 가능하도록 개방부(31) 또는 절개부(32)가 형성된 세탁이 용이한 마스크.
청구항 2
양측에 이어밴드(11) 또는 헤드밴드(11)가 연결되고 내피와 외피 등 2장 이상의 천으로 구성된 마스크바디 (10) 와;
상기 마스크바디(10) 중앙상부를 착용자의 코형태에 따라 밀착되도록 변형시켜주는 코밀착부재(20)와;
상기 마스크바디(10) 중앙상부 내피와 외피 사이 공간에 코밀착부재(20)를 수용할 수 있는 코밀착부재 수용부(30)를 재봉수단에 의해 형성시킨 세탁이 용이한 마스크.
청구항 3
제1항에 있어서;
상기 코밀착부재 수용부(30)는 코밀착부재(20)보다 길이와 폭이 같거나 약간 긴 정도의 수용공간을 가지도록 재봉수단에 의해 부착되는 것으로서. 재봉선외 상측 또는 하측 일단에 소정 길이로 재봉이 되지 않은 개방부(31)를 형성시킨 세탁이 용이한 마스크.
청구항 4
제 3항에 있어서;
상기 개방부(31)는 개방부를 통한 코밀착부재(20)의 입출은 가능하지만 완전히 인입된 코밀착부재(20)가 쉽게 코밀착부재 수용부(30)에서 이탈되지 않도록 '?' 형태로 개방된 세탁이 용이한 마스크.
청구항 5
제 1항 내지 제 2항에 있어서;
상기 코밀착부재 수용부(30)는 코밀착부재(20)보다 길이와 폭이 같거나 약간 긴 정도의 수용공간을 가지도록 재봉수단에 외해 형성되는 것으로서. 코밀착부재(20)를 코밀착부재 수용부(30) 끝단까지 길이방향으로 완전히 밑어 넣었을 때 코밀착부재(20) 대부분이 코밀착부재 수용부(30)에 수용될 수 있는 소정의 위치면에 코밀착부 재(20)의 인입과 인출이 가능하도록 ‘|’ 형태의 절개부(32)를 형성시킨 세탁이 용이한 마스크.
청구항 6
제 3항 내지 제 5항에 있어서;
상기 절개부(32)의 좌우 절개선 및 개방부(31)는 마스크바디(10)에 부착됨이 없이 재봉수단에 의해 독립적으로 마감처리 됨으로써 코밀착부게(20)의 잦은 입출 및 마스크의 잦은 세탁에도 쉽게 해지지 않도록 형성시킨 세탁이 용이한 마스크
청구항 7
제 1항 내지 제2에 있어서;
상기 코밀착부재(20)는 코밀착부재 수용부(30)의 훼손과 착용자의 부상을 방지하기 위하여 연성철심(21) 양끝단이 라운드형태로 절곡된 후 폴리에틸렌 등 비닐계로 전체가 코팅되는 것을 특징으로 하는 세탁이 용이한 마스크.

청구항 8
제 1항에 있어서:
상기 부착되는 코밑착부재 수용부(30)의 형태는 유아들이 좋아하는 캐릭터모양이거나 기업을 대표하는 심블모 양으로 형성되는 것을 특징으로 하는 세탁이 용이한 마스크.
Translation - English
Claim 1
An easy-to-clean mask, comprising a mask body (10) connected with ear straps (11) or a head band (11) on both sides;
a nose fitting component (20) for changing the shape above the center of the mask body (10) according to the shape of the wearer's nose to make it fit snugly;
a nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) located on the inner surface or the outer surface above the center of the mask body (10), capable of accommodating the nose fitting component (20), wherein an opening (31) or a slit (32) is formed in the nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) to allow the nose fitting component (20) to enter and exit.
Claim 2
An easy-to-clean mask, comprising a mask body (10), composed of two or more pieces of cloths with an inner surface and an outer surface, and connected with ear straps (11) or a head band (11) on both sides;
a nose fitting component (20) for changing the shape above the center of the mask body (10) according to the shape of the wearer's nose to make it fit snugly;
a nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) formed by sewing and located in a space between the inner surface and the outer surface above the center of the mask body (10), capable of accommodating the nose fitting component (20).
Claim 3
The easy-to-clean mask as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that,
the nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) has an accommodating space in the same or slightly larger length and width than the nose fitting component (20), and is attached by sewing, an unsewn opening (31) of a certain length being formed on the upper or lower sewing line.
Claim 4
The easy-to-clean mask as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that,
the opening (31) allows the nose fitting component (20) to enter and exit through the opening, and opens in a "?" shape in order to prevent the nose fitting component (20) inside from easily coming out of the nose fitting component accommodating portion (30).
Claim 5
The easy-to-clean mask as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that,
the nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) is provided with an accommodating space having the same length or width as the nose fitting component (20), and is formed by sewing; a slit (32) in a ‘|’ shape is formed at a specific position of the nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) where most of the nose fitting component (20) can be accommodated when the nose fitting component (20) is fully pushed into the end of the nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) along the longitudinal direction, and is used to insert/remove the nose fitting component (20).
Claim 6
The easy-to-clean mask as claimed in claim 3 or claim 5, characterized in that,
the left and right cut lines of the slit (32) and the opening (31) do not fit on the mask body (10), but are separately finished by sewing, so that even if the nose fitting component (20) is frequently put in/taken out or the mask is frequently cleaned, it will not be easily worn.
Claim 7
The easy-to-clean mask as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that,
in order to prevent damage to the nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) or injury to the wearer, the two ends of a soft iron core (21) of the nose fitting component (20) are in a circularly curved state, and vinyl, for example, polyethylene, is used to coat the whole iron core.
Claim 8
The easy-to-clean mask as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that
the fit nose fitting component accommodating portion (30) can be in the form of a cartoon character that children like or a logo that represents an enterprise.
Chinese to English: SPLIT APTAMER BASED LIQUID CRYSTAL BIOSENSOR FOR ATP ASSAY
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Chinese
1 引言
三磷酸腺苷(ATP)是生物各项生命活动所需能量的提供者,是生物体内能量代谢和转换的重要枢纽.因此在生物反应检测中ATP是一项重要的检测指标.目前,ATP的检测方法有: 电泳法[1]、HPLC法[2]、质谱法[3]、荧光素酶法[4]等,但是以上方法有的操作复杂、需要昂贵的精密仪器,有的灵敏度不高.因此,继续研究建立高灵敏度、非标记、操作简单的ATP检测方法仍有重要意义.
液晶是物质介于液态和晶态之间的一种特殊物质形态,它既具有液态的流动性,又具有晶态的各向异性,以及有不完全的取向长程有序性和位置有序性[5].液晶生物传感概念是 Abbott 研究组[6]在 1998 年首次提出的,是利用传感器检测结合目标物质前后,自组装膜表面的液晶分子取向发生变化,导致传感器偏光显微图像的亮度和颜色发生的变化[7,9],从而实现对目标物质的检测.液晶生物传感器是一种易于微型化、阵列化、低功耗的传感器,它在自然光下就能进行检测,不需特殊标记,所呈现的光学信号即使用肉眼亦能观察到,具有灵敏度高,操作简单等特点.但是由于液晶传感检测灵敏度对目标分子的几何尺寸存在较大的依赖性,目前有关文献报道的液晶生物传感器多用于生物大分子的分析检测[10,13],在小分子检测方面尚少见报道[14,17].
本文结合液晶生物传感器的优点,利用ATP与其核酸适配体结合的特异性,通过目标物诱导核酸构象变化放大其对液晶分子取向排列的紊乱效应,构建特异性高,灵敏度好,操作简便的液晶生物传感方法用于检测ATP.
Translation - English
1 Introduction
ATP is the provider of the energy required for various vital movements of living things and is an important hub for energy metabolism and conversion in living things. Therefore, ATP is an important index in a bio-reaction detection. Currently, the ATP detection methods include electrophoresis method[1], HPLC method[2], mass spectrometry[3], and luciferase method[4]. However, the above-mentioned methods involve complex operations, expensive precision instruments, and some of them have a low sensitivity. Thus, it is still significant to continue the research on high-sensitivity, label-free, and easy-to-operate ATP detection methods.
Liquid crystal is a special form between the liquid state and the crystalline state of a substance. Liquid crystal has not only the fluidity in the liquid state, but also the anisotropy in the crystalline state. In addition, it has an incomplete long-range orientational order and positional order[5]. The liquid crystal biosensing concept was first proposed by Abbott Research Team[6] in 1998. It utilizes a sensor to detect the changes of the orientation of liquid crystal molecules on the surface of the self-assembled monolayer before and after the binding of a target substance, and then the changes of the brightness and color of the polarized microscopic image of the sensor[7,9], thus realizing the detection of the target substance. The liquid crystal biosensor is a sensor which is easy to miniaturize and array and has a low power consumption. The liquid crystal biosensor can be used to detect a target substance under natural light, without any special label. The optical signals presented by the liquid crystal biosensor can be observed with naked eyes. The liquid crystal biosensor has a high sensitivity and is easy to operate.
However, since the detection sensitivity of liquid crystal sensing greatly depends on the geometric dimensions of target molecules, the liquid crystal biosensors in related documents are mostly used for analytical detection of biomacromolecules[10,13] [sic! - 10-13?], and liquid crystal biosensors used for small-molecule detection are seldom reported[14,17] [sic! - 14-17?].
In this article, a liquid crystal biosensing method which has high specificity and sensitivity and is easy to operate was developed for ATP detection by combining the advantages of the liquid crystal sensor, utilizing the specificity of the combination of ATP with the ATP aptamer, and using a target object to induce the conformational changes of the nucleic acid and amplify the disorder effect of these changes on the orientation arrangement of liquid crystal molecules.
Japanese to English: Producing method of a modified unsaturated polyester
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
3.発明の詳細な説明
[産業上の利用分野]
本発明は改質された不飽和ポリエステルを製造する方法に関するものである。さらに詳しくは、例えば反応射出成形(RIM)等に使用する重合可能な液状組成物(硬化性組成物)に配合される改質不飽和ポリエステルの製造法に関するものである。
[従来技術]
不飽和ポリエステル(以下UPEと略記する)は、BMC(Bulk Molding Resins)あるいはSMC(Sheet Molding Resins)として、とくにガラス繊維強化樹脂として汎く使用されている。

近年、RIM用樹脂としても次第に使用されているが、最も標準的なUPEである(イソ)フタル酸、マレイン酸(フマル酸)を酸成分とし、プロピレングリコールをアルコール成分として使用したものは、耐熱性、熱収縮性、表面性、強籾性等を改良することにより、さらに多くの用途に使用可能性が拡がると期待される。
UPEの骨格に環構造を導入することが上記の目的を達成する一つの方法と考えられるが、芳香族性の環は、一般に硬化・成形時の粘度が高くなる傾向にあり好ましくない。一方、脂環式の場合には、成形体の性能の改良と成形性がバランスし、好ましい結果を与える場合が多いと考えられる。従って、例えば標準的なUPE骨格中のフマル酸エステル残基を親ジエン骨格とし、これにシクロペンタジエン等のジエン化合物を反応させれば、ノルボルネン環をもつUPEが調製出来ると考えられる。
従来、UPEの改質を目的として、ジシクロペンタジエン(DCP)を用いてUPEポリマー末端にジシクロペンチル基をエステル及び/又はエーテル基として導入する試みが行われている(例えば、特開昭54-90285号公報参照)。
しかしながら、このようにDCPを使用する方法では、120℃以上の高い温度を使用するため、好ましくない副反応が発生し、また、得られるUPEの耐熱性、熱収縮率の向上が必ずしも十分でなく、更にUPEエポキシモノマーに難溶であるためエポキシ樹脂との複合化が困難であるという問題がある。
[発明の目的]
本発明の第一の目的は、上述の如き従来法の問題点を解消し、成形後の耐熱性、熱収縮性等の性能がすぐれ、かつエポキシ樹脂との複合化の容易な改質UPEを製造する方法を提供することにあり、本発明の第二の目的は、改質のための反応が低い温度で実施可能であり、反応率のコントロールが容易な方法を提供することにある。
[発明の構成]
本発明者らは、上述の目的を達成すべく鋭意研究の結果、従来の如きUPEへのエステル基等の導入を目的とする場合にはむしろ抑制すべき副反応と考えられていたジエン化合物によるDiels-Alder反応を交配的に起させ、UPEの主鎖中にノルボルネン環等のDiels-Alder付加体構造を導入し、かつその際、上記ジエン化合物が付加反応によって生成する改質(変性)不飽和ポリエステルの少なくとも一部を溶解する条件下で反応を行わしめることによって、上述の目的を達成し得ることを見い出し本発明に到達したものである。
すなわち、本発明は、親ジエン残基を含む不飽和ポリエステルとジエン化合物とを反応せしめ主鎖中にDiels-Alder付加体構造(脂環構造)を導入し、かつその際ジエン化合物が付加反応によって生成する改質ポリエステルの少くとも一部を溶解する条件下で反応せしめることを特徵とする改質不飽和ポリエステルの製造法である。
以下、本発明方法で使用する親ジエン骨格を有するUPE、本発明方法によるUPEとジエン化合物との反応について詳細に説明する。
親ジエン骨格を有するUPE
本発明に原料として使用するUPEは、その主鎖あるいは側鎖中に親ジエン構造を有することが必要である。かかる構造を有するUPEは、UPE調製用のモノマーである二塩基酸及び/又はジオールに親ジエン構造を有するものを使用して製造出来る。
代表的なUPE調製用モノマーを下記する:
UPE調製用ジカルボン酸
[不飽和酸]:親ジエンモノマー①
マレイン酸、無水マレイン酸、フマル酸、メサコン酸、シトラコン酸、イタコン酸、塩素化・マレイン酸等
[飽和酸]
フタル酸、無水フタル酸、イソフタル酸、3,6-エンドメチレンテトラヒドロフタル酸、アジピン酸、セバチン酸、チオジグリコール酸、テトラクロル無水フタル酸等

UPE調製用ジオール
[不飽和ジオール」:親ジエンモノマー②
ブテンジオール、ブチンジオール、ヘキシンジオール
[飽和ジオール]
エチレングリコール、ジエチレングリコール、プロピレングリコール、ジプロピレングリコール、ブチレングリコール、ビスフェノールジオキシエチルエーテル、ネオペンチルグリコール、ブテンジオール等
これらのモノマーからのUPE合成反応は、従来周知の方法を採用できる。
UPEとジエン化合物との反応
上記の方法等で調製された親ジエン構造を有するUPEと反応せしめるジエン化合物としては、ブタジエン、イソプレン、クロロプレン等の1,3-ジエン類、シクロペンタジエン、シクロへキサジエン等の環状ジエン類など従来公知のジエンから選択することが出来る。
本発明方法では、ジエン化合物が、付加反応によって生成する改質(変性)UPEの一部もしくは全部を溶解する条件下に反応せしめることが必要である。本発明方法によって製造されるUPEを部分的あるいは全面的に溶解出来る反応溶媒は、芳香族炭化水素、環状エーテル、アセトニトリル、各種ケトン類等を挙げることが出来る。又、反応剤であるジエン化合物が液状である場合には、液状ジエンそのものが反応溶媒を兼ねることが出来る。この意味で、フマル酸(及び/又はマレイン酸)を使用して調製されるUPEを親ジエンUPEとし、シクロペンタジエンをジエンとする場合には無溶媒でも目的とするUPEを製造出来る。親ジエンであるUPEに対するジエン化合物の好ましい仕込組成は、目的とするUPEの使用目的によって異なるが、Diels-Alder付加体構造の導入の程度が不飽和ポリエステルの繰返し単位1モル当り0.2〜2当量となるようにするのが良い。ここで、繰返し単位1モルは、酸残基1当量+エステル残基1当量からなる繰返し単位を1モルとする。酸残基、エステル残基とも不飽和(例えば:フマル酸+ブテンジオール)であれば2当量となる。
本発明方法によりDiels-Alder付加体構造が遵入されたUPEは、通常、スチレン等の反応性希釈剤と称されるビニルモノマー等ど混合して使用される。このビニルモノマー等に対する改質されたUPEの溶解度は、その骨格構造のみならず組成比によっても異なる。また、反応率は、温度と時間の関数でもあるので、上記の諸要因を勘案して適切に選択される。最も一般的には、過剰のジエンを用い、反応温度と時間を調整して好ましい反応率を決めることが出来る。好ましい反応温度は副反応抑制の視点から、100℃以下、好ましくは90℃以下である。反応系には、必要に応じて重合禁止剤を共存させUPEの不飽和結合によるゲル化等の好ましくない副反応を抑制することが出来る。
本発明のUPEは、いわゆるRIM(Reaction Injection Molding)、LIM(Liquid Injection Molding)あるいはRTM(Resin Transfer Molding)等の目的に使用すべく、予め各種改質剤、充填材を添加してUPE化の反応を行うことも出来る。
成形、硬化
上述の本発明方法によって製造された改質UPEは、必要に応じて適当な反応性希釈剤に溶解し、熱硬化、あるいは必要に応じて硬化用触媒、硬化促進剤、あるいは各種改質剤・充填材とともに硬化させ有用な樹脂成形品の製造に供することが出来る。
充填材としては、従来の無機充填材のほかに、かさ比重1.3以下の有機充填材、例えば多孔質芳香族ポリアミド微粒子を用いることもできる。
Translation - English
3. Detailed description of the invention
[Industrial field]
The present invention relates to a producing method of a modified unsaturated polyester. More specifically, the present invention relates to a production method of a modified unsaturated polyester to be blended into a polymerizable liquid composition (curable composition) used in, for example, reaction injection molding (RIM), etc.
[Prior art]
Unsaturated polyesters (hereinafter referred to as UPE) are widely used as BMC (Bulk Molding Resins), as SMC (Sheet Molding Resins), and
/2
especially as glass fiber reinforced resins. In recent years, they are gradually used as resins for RIM, and the most standard UPE which uses (ISO) phthalic acid and maleic acid (fumaric acid) as the acid component and uses propylene glycol as the alcohol component is being modified to improve heat resistance, heat shrinkage, surface properties, toughness, etc., and it is expected that its use is likely to be extended to many more areas.
The introduction of a ring structure into the UPE skeleton is one of the methods to achieve the above purposes, but aromatic rings are generally not preferred because they tend to have high viscosity during curing and molding. On the other hand, if the ring is an alicyclic ring, it is believed that the improvement of the properties of the molded product and the moldability are balanced, and in many cases, a desirable result can be delivered. Therefore, for example, it is considered that UPE having a norbornene ring can be prepared by using a fumaric acid ester residue in a standard UPE skeleton as the parent diene skeleton and reacting it with a diene compound such as cyclopentadiene.
Conventionally, attempts have been made to introduce a dicyclopentyl group as an ester and / or an ether group at the terminal of a UPE polymer using dicyclopentadiene (DCP) for the purpose of modifying the UPE (referring to, for example, Japanese patent publication No. S54-90285).
However, in the method of using DCP in this way, since a high temperature of 120°C or higher is used, undesirable side reactions occur, and there may not be enough improvements of the heat resistance and the thermal shrinking rate of the obtained UPE, and furthermore, there is another problem, which is that it is difficult to composite with an epoxy resin because it is poorly soluble in an UPE epoxy monomer.
[Objective of the invention]
The first objective of the present invention is provide a method for producing modified UPE to solve the problems of the conventional method as described above, to improve the properties of heat resistance, heat shrinkage, etc., after molding, and to easily composite with an epoxy resin, and the second objective of the present invention is to provide a method in which the reaction for modification can be carried out at a low temperature and the control of the reaction rate is easy.
[Composition of the invention]
The present inventors, as a result of diligent researches to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, considered the side reactions that should be suppressed during the introduction of an ester group into UPE in the prior art and made the Diels-Alder reaction by the diene compound dominate and introduced a Diels-Alder adduct structure such as a norbornene ring into the main chain of UPE, and during this time, caused the diene compound to react under a condition where a part of the improved (modified) unsaturated polyester generated by the addition reaction, thereby achieving the above-mentioned objectives and the present invention.
Specifically, the present invention is a production method of a modified unsaturated polyester, characterized in that, the unsaturated polyester containing a parent diene residue is reacted with a diene compound to introduce the Diels-Alder adduct structure (alicyclic structure) in the main chain, and during this time, the reaction is made to carry out under the condition in which at least a part of the modified polyester generated by the addition reaction of the diene compound is dissolved.
Next, the UPE having a parent diene skeleton used in the method of the present invention and the reaction of the UPE with the diene compound by the method of the present invention will be described in detail.
UPE having a parent diene skeleton
The UPE used as a raw material in the present invention is required to have a parent diene structure in its main chain or side chain. A UPE having such a structure can be prepared by using a monomer for preparing UPE which has a parent diene structure in the dibasic acid and / or diol.
Representative monomers for preparing UPEs are as follows:
Dicarboxylic acids for preparing UPEs
[Unsaturated acids]: parent diene monomer (1)
Maleic acid, maleic anhydride, fumaric acid, mesaconic acid, citraconic acid, itaconic acid, chlorination / maleic acid, etc.
[Saturated acids]
Phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, isophthalic acid, 3,6-endo methylene tetrahydrophthalic acid, adipic acid, sebacic acid, thiodiglycolic acid, tetrachlorophthalic anhydride, etc.
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Diols for preparing UPEs
[Unsaturated diols]: parent diene monomer (2)
Butenediol, Butindiol, Hexindiol
[Saturated diols]
Ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, butylene glycol, bisphenol dioxyethyl ether, neopentyl glycol, butenediol, etc.
For UPE synthesis reaction from these monomers, conventionally known methods can be used.
Reaction of UPE with a diene compound
The diene compound to be reacted with UPE having a parent diene structure prepared by the above method or other method can be selected from conventionally known dienes, e.g., 1,3-dienes such as butadiene, isoprene and chloroprene, and cyclic dienes such as cyclopentadiene and cyclohexadiene.
In the production method of the present invention, it is necessary for the diene compound to react under the condition where a part or all of the improved (modified) UPE generated by the addition reaction is dissolved. The reaction solvent capable of partially or completely dissolving the UPE produced by the method of the present invention includes aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclic ethers, acetonitrile, and various ketones or the like. In addition, when the diene compound which is a reactant is a liquid, the liquid diene itself can also serve as the reaction solvent. In this sense, UPE prepared using a fumaric acid (and / or a maleic acid) can be used as a parent diene UPE, and when cyclopentadiene is used as the diene, the target UPE can be produced even without a solvent. The preferred compounding composition of the diene compound with the parent diene UPE varies depending on the intended use of the UPE, but the degree of introduction of the Diels-Alder adduct structure is preferably 0.2 to 2 equivalents per 1 mole of the repeating unit of the unsaturated polyester. Here, 1 mole of the repeating unit is 1 mole of the repeating unit consisting of 1 equivalent of an acid residue and 1 equivalent of an ester residue. If both the acid residue and the ester residue are unsaturated (e.g., fumaric acid + butenediol), it becomes 2 equivalents.
UPE, into which the Diels-Alder adduct structure is introduced by the method of the present invention, is usually used by mixing with a vinyl monomer called reactive diluent such as styrene. The solubility of the modified UPE in the vinyl monomer or the like differs depending on its skeletal structure and its composition ratio. In addition, since the reaction rate is also a function of temperature and time, these factors are examined and appropriately selected. Most commonly, an excessive amount of diene can be used to adjust the reaction temperature and time and to determine the desired reaction rate. The preferred reaction temperature is 100°C or lower, preferably 90°C or lower from the viewpoint of side reaction suppression. A polymerization inhibitor can coexist in the reaction system as needed so that undesirable side reactions such as gelation due to unsaturated bonding of UPE can be suppressed.
The UPE of the present invention is used mostly in the so-called RIM (reaction injection molding), LIM (liquid injection molding) or RTM (resin transfer molding), and various modifiers and fillers may be added to carry out the reaction to convert to UPE.
Molding, curing
The modified UPE produced by the method of the present invention as described in the above is dissolved in an appropriate reactive diluent, if necessary, heat-cured, or, if necessary, cured by adding a curing catalyst, a curing accelerator, or various modifiers or fillers to produce useful resin molded products.
As the filler, in addition to the conventional inorganic filler, an organic filler having a bulk specific gravity of 1.3 or less, for example, fine particles of porous aromatic polyamide, can also be used.
Japanese to English: Multilayer film and vacuum insulating structure
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
発明の開示
発明が解決しようとする課題
[0007]しかしながら、アルミ箔はアルミニウムが熱の良導体であることから、フィルム中のアルミニウム部分を通過する熱量が大きぐ真空断熱構造体としては断熱性能が低下してしまうという欠点があった。他方、上記ナイロンフィルムを最外層とする層構成では、高湿度下でのガスバリア性が不十分であるという欠点を有していた。そして、このような真空断熱構造体は、冷蔵庫や住宅用断熱壁用の断熱パネルに用いられており、外気の影響を受けやすい環境で使用されることから、高湿度下での使用にも十分なガスバリア性を有する真空断熱構造体が求められていた。
[0008]そこで、本発明ではこのような背景下において、高湿度下での使用においてもガスバリア性に優れ、断熱性能に優れた多層フィルム及び真空断熱構造体を提供することを目的とするものである。
課題を解決するための手段
[0009]しかるに、本発明者は、かかる事情を鑑み鋭意研究を重ねた結果、断熱性材料を密封包装するにあたり、ガスバリア性フィルム(A)、ポリエステル系フィルム(B)、及び水蒸気透過度が10g/m2/day以下のポリオレフィン系フィルム(C)を含む多層フィルムを用いることにより、高湿度下においてもガスバリア性に優れ、断熱性能にも優れた真空断熱構造体が得られることを見出し、本発明を完成した。
[0010]即ち、本発明の要旨を以下に示す。
(1)ガスバリア性フィルム(A)、ポリエステル系フィルム(B)、及び水蒸気透過度が10g/m2/day以下のポリオレフィン系フィルム(C)を含む多層フィルムと断熱性材料とを含み、該多層フィルムが、該断熱性材料を密封包装していることを特徴とする真空断熱構造体。
(2)該多層フィルムが、ガスバリア性フィルム(A)/ポリエステル系フィルム(B)/水蒸気透過度が10g/m2/day以下のポリオレフィン系フィルム(C)の層構成を有し、該多層フィルムが、ガスバリア性フィルム(A)を内側にして断熱性材料を密封包装していることを特徴とする上記(1)記載の真空断熱構造体。

(3)ガスバリア性フィルム(A)が、ビニルアルコール系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(1)または(2)記載の真空断熱構造体。
(4)ビニルアルコール系フィルムが、アルミ蒸着されたビニルアルコール系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(3)記載の真空断熱構造体。
(5)ビニルアルコール系フィルムが、二軸延伸ポリビニルアルコール系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(3)または(4)に記載の真空断熱構造体。
(6)ポリエステル系フィルム(B)が、アルミ蒸着されたポリエチレンテレフタレート系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(1)〜(5)のいずれかに記載の真空断熱構造体。
(7)ガスバリア性フィルム(A)、ポリエステル系フィルム(B)、及び水蒸気透過度が10g/m2/day以下のポリオレフィン系フィルム(C)を含むことを特徴とする多層フィルム。
(8)ガスバリア性フィルム(A)/ポリエステル系フィルム(B)/水蒸気透過度が10g/m2/day以下のポリオレフィン系フィルム(C)の層構成を有することを特徴とする上記(7)記載の多層フィルム。
(9)ガスバリア性フィルム(A)が、ビニルアルコール系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(7)または(8)記載の多層フィルム。
(10)ビニルアルコール系フィルムが、アルミ蒸着されたビニルアルコール系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(9)記載の多層フィルム。
(11)ビニルアルコール系フィルムが、二軸延伸ポリビニルアルコール系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(9)または(10)に記載の多層フィルム。
(12)ポリエステル系フィルム(B)が、アルミ蒸着されたポリエチレンテレフタレート系フィルムであることを特徴とする上記(7)〜(11)のいずれかに記載の多層フィルム。
発明の効果
[0011]本発明の多層フィルム及び真空断熱構造体は、断熱性材料を多層フィルムを用いて密封包装するにあたり、水蒸気透過度が10g/m2/day以下のポリオレフィン系フィルム(C)を用いることにより、高湿度下におけるガスバリア性に優れ、更には、断熱性、防湿性にも優れた効果を示すのである。

Translation - English
Disclosure of the invention
Problems to be solved by the invention
[0007]
However, since aluminum is a good heat conductor, the aluminum foil will reduce the heat insulation performance of the vacuum insulating structure in which the amount of heat passing through the aluminum portion of the film is large. On the other hand, the layered structure having a nylon film as the outermost layer has a drawback because the gas barrier performance under high-humidity conditions is not satisfactory. Such a vacuum insulating structure is used in a heat insulating panel for a refrigerator or in a heat insulating wall of a house and is used in an environment that is susceptible to the influence of outside air, so there has been a demand for a vacuum insulating structure that has satisfactory gas barrier performance even when used under high-humidity conditions.
[0008]
Therefore, in such a background, the present invention is intended to provide a multilayer film and a vacuum insulating structure which have excellent gas barrier properties and excellent heat insulating performance even under high-humidity conditions.
Means for solving the problem
[0009]
Therefore, the inventor of the present invention made an intensive study in this backdrop and found that, using a multilayer film containing a gas barrier film (A), a polyester film (B), and a polyolefin film (C) having a water vapor permeability of 10 g/m2/day or lower to hermetically enclose the heat insulating material can obtain a vacuum insulating structure that has excellent gas barrier performance and excellent insulating performance even under a high-humidity condition, and achieved the present invention.
[0010]
Specifically, the gist of the present invention is described below.
(1) A vacuum insulating structure, characterized by containing a multilayer film containing a gas barrier film (A), a polyester film (B), and a polyolefin film (C) having a water vapor permeability of 10 g/m2/day or lower, and a heat insulating material, wherein the multilayer film hermetically encloses the heat insulating material.
(2) The vacuum insulating structure as described in (1) above, characterized in that, the multilayer film has a layered construction of a gas barrier film (A) / a polyester film (B) / a polyolefin film (C) having a water vapor permeability of 10 g/m2/day or lower, and the
/4
multilayer film hermetically encloses the heat insulating material, with the gas barrier film (A) being on the inner side.
(3) The vacuum insulating structure as described in (1) or (2) above, characterized in that, the gas barrier film (A) is a vinyl alcohol film.
(4) The vacuum insulating structure as described in (3) above, characterized in that, the vinyl alcohol film is a vinyl alcohol film on which aluminum is deposited.
(5) The vacuum insulating structure as described in (3) or (4) above, characterized in that, the vinyl alcohol film is a biaxially stretched polyvinyl alcohol film.
(6) The vacuum insulating structure ad described in any one of (1)~(5) above, characterized in that, the polyester film (B) is a polyethylene terephthalate film on which aluminum is deposited.
(7) A multilayer film characterized by comprising a gas barrier film (A), a polyester film (B), and a polyolefin film (C) having a water vapor permeability of 10 g/m2/day or lower.
(8) The multilayer film as described in (7) above, characterized by having a layered construction of a gas barrier film (A) / a polyester film (B) / a polyolefin film (C) having a water vapor permeability of 10 g/m2/day or lower.
(9) The multilayer film as described in (7) or (8) above, characterized in that, the gas barrier film (A) is a vinyl alcohol film.
(10) The multilayer film as described in (9) above, characterized in that, the vinyl alcohol film is a vinyl alcohol film on which aluminum is deposited.
(11) The multilayer film as described in (9) or (10) above, characterized in that, the vinyl alcohol film is a biaxially stretched polyvinyl alcohol film.
(12) The multilayer film as described in any one of (7)~(11) above, characterized in that, the polyester film (B) is a polyethylene terephthalate film on which aluminum is deposited.
Effects of the invention
[0011]
By using the polyolefin film (C) having a water vapor permeability of 10 g/m2/day or lower when the multilayer film is used to hermetically enclose the heat insulating material, the multilayer film and the vacuum insulating structure of the present invention have excellent gas barrier properties under high-humidity conditions, and further exhibit excellent heat insulation and moisture resistance.
Japanese to English: PRODUCTION METHOD OF FLAT FIBER BUNDLE
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Poetry & Literature
Source text - Japanese
[発明を実施するための最良の形態]
[0014]
以下、本発明に係る平繊繊維束の製造方法の好適な実施形態について、図面を参照しつつ説明する。
本発明に係る平繊繊維束の製造方法は、複数本の繊維からなるマルチフィラメントを平らに拡げて帯状の平繊繊維束を製造する方法であって、図1は本発明に係る製造方法の一例を概略的に示すフロー図である。
[0015]
本発明に係る製造方法が適用されるマルチフィラメントとしては、代表的な例として、無撚炭素繊維の3K(3000本束)、6K(6000本束)、12K(12000本束)等を例示することができる。炭素繊維としては、アクリル系、ピッチ系のいずれであっても適用可能である。


[0016]
但し、本発明に係る製造方法は、炭素繊維以外の他の種類の繊維(例えば、ガラス繊維、セラミック繊維、アロマチック・ポリアミド繊維など)からなるマルチフィラメントに対しても適用することが可能である。
[0017]
図1に示すように、本発明に係る製造方法においては、マルチフィラメント(F)は、給糸ローラ(1)から連続的に繰り出されて、水槽(2)内に貯留された水中に所定時間浸漬される。
[0018]
本発明において、水槽(2)内に貯留された水は、負の酸化還元電位を有する還元水とされている。
普通の水は正の酸化還元電位(水道水の場合:+400~+600mV程度)を有しているが、還元水は負の酸化還元電位を有しており、水分子クラスターが小さく、優れた浸透力を有している。
マルチフィラメント(F)は、このような還元水中に浸漬されることによって、超音波等の物理的外力を作用させることなく自然に拡がる。
[0019]
本発明において用いられる還元水は、酸化還元電位が-800mV以下のものとすることが好ましい。
このような酸化還元電位が低い還元水を用いることにより、マルチフィラメントを構成する繊維を短時間で確実に平らに拡げて帯状の平繊繊維束を得ることが可能となる。また、得られた平繊繊維束が元に戻りにくいものとなる。
[0020]
本発明において用いられる還元水の製法は特に限定されるものではないが、例えば以下の方法を例示することができる。
<1.ガスバブリング法>
窒素ガス又は水素ガスのバブリングにより、水中の酸素濃度を低下させ、酸化還元電位を低下させる。
<2.ヒドラジンの添加による方法>
ヒドラジンを添加することにより、水中の酸素濃度を低下させ、酸化還元電位を低下させる。
<3.電気分解による方法>
(a)正負の波高値及び/又はデューティー比が非対称な高周波電圧を印加して水の電気分解を行い、酸化還元電位を低下させる。
(b)電極を1枚のグランド電極(カソード極)と、アノード極とカソード極が交互に変化する2枚のPtとTiからなる特殊形状電極(菱形網状電極又は六角形網状電極)から構成し、高周波電圧を印加して水の電気分解を行い、酸化還元電位を低下させる。
[0021]
本発明においては、上記した方法のうち、特に「3(b)」の方法により得られた還元水を用いることが好ましい。
これは、「3(b)」の方法によれば、他の方法に比べて、より容易且つ確実に酸化還元電位が低く(-800mV以下)、負の酸化還元電位を長時間にわたって維持できる還元水が得られるためである。
尚、「3(b)」の方法を実施するための装置については、本願出願人が特開2000-239456号公報において開示しており、この開示内容に基づいて実施することが可能である。
[0022]
本発明においては、マルチフィラメント(F)を、上記したような還元水中に浸漬させることによって物理的外力を作用させることなく自然に拡げる(開繊する)ことができるが、この開繊作用を補助するために、図2に示すような構成を採用してもよい。


[0023]
図2(a)は、水槽(2)中においてマルチフィラメント(F)を支持して搬送させる2つの搬送ローラ(3)のうち、2番目のローラ(31)に開繊作用をもたせたものである。
具体的には、2番目のローラ(31)の断面(回転軸に沿った断面)形状を、図中に引き出された矢印の先に示しているように、両端から中央に向けて膨らんだ形状とすることにより、ローラ(31)の表面に沿って繊維が拡がり易くしたものである。
[0024]
図2(b)は、水槽(2)中に搬送ローラ(3)を3つ以上(図では3つ)設けることにより、マルチフィラメントを屈曲させながら搬送するように構成し、2番目以降のローラ(図では2番目のローラ)(32)に開繊作用をもたせたものである。
具体的には、ローラ(32)を図2(a)の場合と同様の断面形状とすることにより、ローラ(32)の表面に沿って繊維が拡がり易くしたものである。
[0025]
図2(c)は、水槽(2)中においてマルチフィラメント(F)を支持して搬送させる搬送ローラ(3)の間に平板(4)を設け、マルチフィラメントがこの平板(4)の表面に沿って搬送されることにより、繊維が平らに拡がり易くしたものである。
[0026]
図2(d)は、水槽(2)中においてマルチフィラメント(F)を支持して搬送させる搬送ローラ(3)に平ベルト(5)を巻回し、マルチフィラメントがこの平ベルト(5)の表面に沿って搬送されることにより、繊維が平らに拡がり易くしたものである。
[0027]
水槽(2)を通って還元水に浸漬されることにより平らに拡げられた繊維(平繊繊維束)は、水槽(2)から取り出された後、引き続いて第2の水槽(6)内に連続的に導入される。
第2の水槽(6)内には、接着剤を含む液が収容されており、還元水に浸漬されることにより得られた平繊繊維束は、第2の水槽(6)内において接着剤を含む液に浸漬される。
接着剤としては、洗濯糊のような水溶性の糊、PVA(ポリビニルアルコール)、フェノール樹脂、PTFEディスパージョン、エポキシ樹脂、黒鉛ナノディスパージョン、シリコン樹脂、グリコール、水溶性粘土ディスパージョン、その他有機又は無機材含有分散溶液が好適に用いられる。
[0028]
このように、平繊繊維束が接着剤を含む液内に浸漬されることにより、拡がった繊維と繊維の間に接着剤が浸透する。
図3は、これまでの工程を模式的に示す図であり、複数本の繊維からなるマルチフィラメント(F)は、還元水に浸漬されることによって繊維(F1)が平らに拡がった平繊繊維束(H)となり、この平繊繊維束(H)が接着剤を含む液内に浸漬されることにより繊維(F1)の間に接着剤(S)が浸透する。
[0029]
本発明においては、接着剤を溶かす溶媒として上述した還元水を用いてもよく、このようにすると、接着剤の浸透力を高めることができる。
また、本発明においては、第2の水槽(6)を設けずに、還元水に浸漬されることにより平らに拡げられた繊維(平繊繊維束)に対して、接着剤を含む液を霧状にして吹き付ける方法を採用してもよい。
[0030]
接着剤を含む液内に浸漬された後の平繊繊維束は、第2の水槽(6)から取り出された後、乾燥装置(7)に供給されて乾燥処理が施される。
乾燥装置(7)の種類は特に限定されず、ヒーター加熱装置でもよいし、温風加熱装置でもよいし、遠赤外線を利用した加熱装置でもよい。但し、本発明に係る方法においては、必ずしも乾燥装置(7)を設ける必要はなく、自然乾燥を行ってもよい。


[0031]
接着剤を含む液内に浸漬された後の平繊繊維束が乾燥することによって、拡がった繊維と繊維の間に浸透した接着剤が固化する。
このように、繊維が平らに拡がった状態で接着剤により固められることにより、時間が経過しても元に戻ることがなく、しかも高い機械的強度を有する平繊繊維束が得られる。
[0032]
乾燥装置(6)を通過して接着剤が固化された後の平繊繊維束は、巻き取りローラ(8)に巻き取られ、これにより平繊繊維束の製造が完了する。
[0033]
以上説明したように、本発明に係る方法によれば、物理的外力を作用させることなく、繊維を平らに拡げて帯状の平繊繊維束を製造することができる。
但し、本発明においては、物理的外力を作用させることを完全に排除するものではなく、本発明に係る方法と従来の物理的外力を作用させる方法を組み合わせてもよい。
[0034]
例えば、上記した水槽(2)中に超音波発生装置を設置し、還元水中に浸漬されたマルチフィラメントに対して超音波を当てる方法を採用することも可能である。
この場合、還元水の開繊作用によって、超音波の出力を弱くしても充分な開繊が得られるため、繊維の損傷を確実に防ぎつつ、充分に拡がった帯状の平繊繊維束を効率良く製造することができるという効果が奏される。
Translation - English
[Best mode for implementing the invention]
[0014]
Next, a preferred embodiment of the production method of a flat fiber bundle according to the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
The production method of a flat fiber bundle according to the present invention is a production method of a strap-like flat fiber bundle by spreading flat a multifilament consisting of a plurality of fibers, and Fig. 1 is a flowchart which schematically shows an example of the production method according to the present invention.
[0015]
Typical examples of the multifilament applicable to the production method according to the present invention are 3K (3000 fibers bundle), 6K (6000 fibers bundle), 12K (12000 fibers bundle) of untwisted carbon fibers. The applicable carbon fiber can be either acrylic type or pitch type.
/4
[0016]
However, the production method according to the present invention can also be applied to a multifilament of other type of fiber than carbon fiber (for example, glass fiber, ceramic fiber, aromatic polyamide fiber, etc.).
[0017]
As shown in Fig. 1, in the production method according to the present invention, the multifilament (F) is continuously fed from the filament feeding roller (1) and stays in the water tank (2) to soak in water for a predetermined length of time.
[0018]
In the present invention, the water in the water tank (2) is reducing water having a negative redox potential.
Ordinary water has a positive redox potential (tap water has a potential of: +400~+600 mV), but reducing water has a negative redox potential, small water molecule clusters, and excellent penetration power.
The multifilament (F) is naturally spread by being immersed in the reducing water, without being subjected to an external physical force such as ultrasonic waves.
[0019]
The reducing water used in the present invention preferably has a redox potential of −800 mV or less.
By using such reducing water having a low redox potential, the fibers constituting the multifilament can be surely spread flat in a short time to obtain a strap-like flat fiber bundle. Moreover, it is hard for the obtained flat fiber bundle to return to its original state.
[0020]
The method for producing the reducing water used in the present invention is not specifically limited, and it can be, for example, the following methods.

By bubbling a nitrogen gas or hydrogen gas in water, the oxygen concentration in the water is lowered and the redox potential is lowered.

By adding hydrazine, the oxygen concentration in the water is lowered and the redox potential is lowered.

(a) Electrolysis of water is performed by applying a high-frequency voltage having asymmetrical positive and negative peak values and/or duty ratio, thereby reducing the redox potential.
(b) The electrodes are composed of one ground electrode (cathode electrode) and 2 specially-shaped electrodes (rhombus or hexagonal mesh electrode) made of Pt and Ti wherein the anode and cathode electrodes are alternating, and a high-frequency voltage is applied to electrolyze water to lower its redox potential.
[0021]
In the present invention, among the methods described above, the method “3 (b)” is particularly preferred as the method for obtaining the reducing water.
This is because the method “3 (b)” can more easily and surely reduce water to a low redox potential (−800 mV or less) compared to other methods and can obtain reducing water that will maintain a negative redox potential for a long time.
A device used for the method “3 (b)” is disclosed in the Japanese laid-open patent publication No. 2000-239456 by the applicant of the present invention and the disclose can be used as reference for implementing the method.
[0022]
In the present invention, the multifilament (F) can be naturally spread (opened) without applying an external physical force by immersing the multifilament (F) in the reducing water as described above, and to do this, a configuration as shown in Fig. 2 may be adopted.
/5
[0023]
Fig. 2 (a) shows the fiber opening action of the 2nd roller (31) of the 2 transport rollers (3) that support and transport the multifilament (F) in the water tank (2).
Specifically, the shape of the section (cross section along the rotation axis) of the 2nd roller (31) is bulging from the two ends toward the center as shown by the tip of the arrow drawn in the figure so that the fibers can be easily spread along the surface of the roller (31).
[0024]
As shown in Fig. 2 (b), 3 or more (3 shown in the figure) transport rollers (3) are provided in the water tank (2) so that the multifilament is transported while being bent, and the 2nd roller (32) and subsequent rollers (2nd roller shown in the figure) have the fiber opening function.
Specifically, the roller (32) has the same cross-sectional shape as shown in Fig. 2 (a), so that the fibers can be easily spread along the surface of the roller (32).
[0025]
As shown in Fig. 2 (c), a flat plate (4) is provided between the transport rollers (3) that support and transport the multifilament (F) in the water tank (2), and the multifilament is transported along the surface of the flat plate (4) so that the fibers are easily spread flat.
[0026]
As shown in Fig. 2 (d), a flat belt (5) is wound around the transport rollers (3) that support and transport the multifilament (F) in the water tank (2), and the multifilament is transported along the surface of the flat belt (5) so that the fibers are easily spread flat.
[0027]
The fibers (flat fiber bundle) that have been spread flatly by being immersed in the reducing water and passing through the water tank (2) are taken out of the water tank (2) and are then continuously introduced into the 2nd water thank (6) that follows.
The 2nd water tank (6) contains an adhesive-containing liquid, and the flat fiber bundle obtained by being immersed in the reducing water is immersed in the adhesive-containing liquid in the 2nd water tank (6).
An applicable adhesive is a water-soluble glue such as laundry glue, PVA (polyvinyl alcohol), phenol resin, PTFE dispersion, epoxy resin, graphite nano-dispersion, silicone resin, glycol, water-soluble clay dispersion, other dispersion solution that contains an organic or inorganic material.
[0028]
In this way, the flat fiber bundle is immersed in the liquid containing the adhesive, so that the adhesive penetrates between the spread fibers.
Fig. 3 shows the processes up to this point, wherein the multifilament (F) consisting of a plurality of fibers becomes a flat fiber bundle with the fibers (F1) being spread flat by being immersed in the reducing water, and this flat fiber bundle (H) is immersed in the liquid containing an adhesive so that the adhesive (S) penetrates between the fibers (F1).
[0029]
In the present invention, the above-described reducing water may be used as a solvent for dissolving the adhesive, and in this way, the penetrating power of the adhesive can be increased.
Further, in the present invention, instead of using the 2nd water tank (6), the adhesive-containing liquid may be sprayed onto the fibers (flat fiber bundle) that have been spread flat by being immersed in the reducing water.
[0030]
The flat fiber bundle after being immersed in the adhesive-containing liquid is taken out from the 2nd water tank (6) and is then fed to the drying device (7) for drying treatment.
The type of the drying device (7) is not particularly limited, and it may be a heater heating device, a warm air heating device, or a heating device using far infrared rays. However, in the method according to the
/6
present invention, the drying device (7) is not necessarily provided, and natural drying may be performed.
[0031]
By drying the flat fiber bundle that has been immersed in the liquid containing the adhesive, the adhesive that has penetrated between the spread fibers is solidified.
As described above, the fibers that are spread flat are fixed in that state by the adhesive so that a flat fiber bundle which will not return to the original state over time and has a high mechanical strength can be obtained.
[0032]
The flat fiber bundle, which has passed through the drying device (6) with the adhesive being solidified, is wound around the take-up roller (8), thereby completing the production of the flat fiber bundle.
[0033]
As described above, according to the method of the present invention, it is possible to produce a strap-like flat fiber bundle by spreading the fibers flat without applying an external physical force.
However, the present invention does not completely exclude the method of applying an external physical force, and the method of the present invention and a conventional method of applying an external physical force may be combined.
[0034]
For example, it is also possible to employ a method in which an ultrasonic generator is installed in the water tank (2) and ultrasonic waves are applied to the multifilament immersed in the reducing water.
In this case, because the fiber opening action of the reducing water can sufficiently open the fibers even if the output of the ultrasonic waves is weakened, it has the effects of being able to surely prevent damages to the fibers and efficiently produce a strap-like flat fiber bundle that has the fibers sufficiently spread.
Japanese to English: RELEASE AGENT
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
[発明の詳細な説明]
[0001]
[発明の属する技術分野]
本発明は感圧性粘着テープの剥離処理層や両面粘着テープの剥離シートにおける剥離処理層に使用される剥離処理剤に関し、特に耐熱性が改良され、高温下に放置された後もその剥離性能が持続し、しかも、粘着剤層へ移行しにくい剥離処理剤に関する。
[0002]
[従来の技術]
感圧性粘着テープは、被着体に軽く圧着するだけで接着できるため、多くの分野で使用されている。このような感圧性粘着テープは、通常、渦巻き状に巻いてロールとされており、テープ基材の粘着剤層形成面とは反対側の面を剥離処理層を形成して、過度の力を要さずに必要長さのテープを巻解けるように、或いは、巻解いたテープの巻き戻しを容易にしている。また、両面粘着テープなどでは、テープ基材上に剥離処理層を有する剥離シートを使用して、粘着面の保護や使用時の巻き戻しなどを容易にしている。
[0003]
このような粘着テープや剥離シートなどの剥離処理層として用いられる剥離処理剤としてはシリコーン系、長鎖アルキルペンダント系、ワックス系、フッ素系などがあり用途に応じて使い分けられている。このうち、長鎖アルキルペンダント系剥離処理剤は、シリコーン系剥離処理剤などに比べて、剥離抵抗は大きいが、加熱によるシリコーン成分の飛散や粘着剤層への移行がなく、また油性インクの印字性にすぐれるなどの利点があるため、各種の粘着テープやシート、たとえばシリコーン成分を嫌う電子部品用テープや結束用テープ、マスキングテープ、包装用テープなどに幅広く利用されている。

[0004]
かかる長鎖アルキルペンダント系剥離処理剤としては、ステアリルアクリレートとアクリル酸との共重合体(例えば、特許文献1参照)、ステアリルメタクリレートとアクリロニトリルとの共重合体(例えば、特許文献2参照)、エチレン-ビニルアルコール共重合体にステアリルイソシアネートを反応させた反応物(例えば、特許文献3参照)、ポリビニルアルコール、エチレン-ビニルアルコール共重合体、ポリエチレンイミン等の活性水素含有高分子に脂肪族イソシアネート化合物を反応させた反応物(例えば、特許文献4参照)等が知られている。
[0005]
しかしながら、これら従来の長鎖アルキルペンダント系剥離処理剤は耐熱性が十分でなく、高温下に放置された場合の剥離性能の低下が大きい。また、粘着剤層への耐移行性(特に、高温下に放置された後の粘着剤層への耐移行性)も十分でなく、かかる観点からの性能改善も望まれている。
[0006]
[特許文献1]
特公昭29-3144号公報
[特許文献2]
特公昭44-9599号公報
[特許文献3]
特公昭60-30555号公報
[特許文献4]
特開平5-295322号公報
[0007]
[発明が解決しようとする課題]
本発明は上記事情に鑑み成されたものであり、その目的は、優れた耐熱性を有し、高温下に放置された後もその剥離性能の低下が小さく、しかも、粘着剤層へ移行しにくい剥離処理剤を提供することにある。
Translation - English
[Detailed description of the invention]
[0001]
[Technical field of the invention]
The present invention relates to a release agent used for the release layer of a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape or for the release layer in a release sheet of a double-sided pressure-sensitive adhesive tape, and particularly relates to a release agent, which has improved heat resistance and can maintain its release performance even after being placed at a high temperature and can hardly migrate to the adhesive layer.
[0002]
[Prior art]
The pressure-sensitive adhesive tape is used in many fields because it can be bonded to an object simply by lightly pressing it. Such a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape is usually wound into a roll, the surface opposite to the tape substrate’s pressure-sensitive adhesive surface is formed by a release layer, and it is easy to wind the tape to the required length and to unwind it from the roll without having to apply an excessive force. Moreover, in a double-sided adhesive tape, etc., a release sheet which has a release layer is used on the tape substrate, so it is easy to protect the adhesive surface and to unwind it for use.
[0003]
Examples of release agents used as the release layer for such an adhesive tape or as release sheet may be silicone based, long-chain alkyl pendant based, wax based, fluorine based, or other based. Of these, the long-chain alkyl pendant-based release agent has a higher release resistance than a silicone-based release agent, it does not have the problem of scattering or migration of the silicone component to the
/3
adhesive layer from heating, and it has excellent property of being printable with an oil-based ink, so it is widely used in various adhesive tapes and sheets, for example, tapes for electronic parts that dislike the silicone component or binding tapes, masking tapes, packaging tapes, etc.
[0004]
Known long-chain alkyl pendant-based release agents include a copolymer of stearyl acrylate and acrylic acid (see, for example, Patent Document 1), a copolymer of stearyl methacrylate and acrylonitrile (see, for example, Patent Document 2), the reaction product from reacting an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer with stearyl isocyanate (see, for example, Patent Document 3), polyvinyl alcohol, ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer, the reaction product from reacting an active hydrogen-containing polymer such as polyethyleneimine with an aliphatic isocyanate compound (see, for example, Patent Document 4), etc.
[0005]
However, these conventional long-chain alkyl pendant release agents do not have satisfactory heat resistance, and their release performance greatly declines if they are placed at a high temperature. Further, their resistance to migration to the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer (particularly, resistance to migration to the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer after being placed at a high temperature) is not satisfactory, and it is desirable to improve their performance in this aspect.
[0006]
[Patent Document 1]
Japanese patent publication No. S29-3144
[Patent Document 2]
Japanese patent publication No. S44-9599
[Patent Document 3]
Japanese patent publication No. S60-30555
[Patent Document 4]
Japanese laid-open patent publication No. H5-295322
[0007]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and its purpose is to provide a release agent, which has excellent heat resistance and has only a small decrease in the release performance even after being left at a high temperature and will hardly migrate to the adhesive layer.
Japanese to English: PROCESSING METHOD OF FERMENTED GYNOSTEMMA TEA
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Food & Drink
Source text - Japanese
明細書
1.発明の名称
発酵アマチャヅル茶の加工法
2.特許請求の範囲
新鮮な生アマチャヅルを3cm程度の長さに細断する工程と,
前記アマチャヅル細断片を天日又は人口萎凋機により30分乃至2時間萎凋する工程と,
前記萎凋工程を終ったアマチャヅル細断片を揉捻機により揉捻するとともに発酵室で発酵する1乃至3時間の工程と,
つづいて回転炉により150度乃至400度Cにて10分乃至30分間熱処理する工程と,
更に連続式乾燥機により100度乃至120度Cにて20分乃至30分間乾燥する工程を有することを特徴とする発酵アサチャゾル茶の加工法。
3.発明の詳細な説明
(産業上の利用分野)
本発明はアマチャヅルの加工法に関する。
(従来の技術)
ウリ科の食用植物で日本の山野のどこにでも見つけることのできる蔓性の多年草であるアマチャヅルは、葉を摘み、かげ干しにしてアマチャヅル茶として煎じて飲まれるばかりでなく、糖尿病などの人の甘味料としても使われる等いわゆる健康茶として用いられることはよく知られるところである。
従来アマチャヅル茶は、自生または栽培したアマチャヅルを、一般の緑茶と同じように、天日乾燥又は陰干ししたものを細断し粉状にし煎じて飲用に供していた。また従来の技術としては、特公昭59-33337号公報に記載されたものがある。この従来技術は、アマチャヅルの生の葉および/または茎の細切物を
(a)蒸熱用容器中で水蒸気により蒸す工程および
(b)約150度〜400度Cに加熱した磁製あるいは金属製の開放容器中で十分に撹拌しながら炒る工程の少なくとも一つの工程に付し、

ついで
(c)処理された葉および/または茎を十分に揉捻する工程、知よび
(d)約40度~90度Cで1~数時間乾燥する工程に付し、所望により粉末化してアマチャヅルの加工品を得ることよりなるアマチャヅルの加工法である。
(発明が解決しようとする問題点)
従来の一般の緑茶と同じように生アマチャヅルを天日乾燥又は陰干ししたものを細断し粉状にして煎じたものは、茶葉の色合は黄緑色であって好ましいが、茶独特のさわやかな香りが少なく、特に青臭い感じが残るといった欠点があった。また前記従来技術により処理された加工品は苦味が緩和され甘味を呈し、青臭い感じも消失する等の長所を有するが、工程を経た加工品は緑色又は淡褐色が点在する緑色の色調であって、例えば一般に紅茶などの嗜好者には不向きであり健康増進のための一般向のものとしてはこのような嗜好者にも好まれる色調のアマチャヅル茶が望まれている。
(問題点を解決するための手段)
前記問題点を解決するため新鮮な生アマチャヅルを3cm程度の長さに細断し、該細断片を天日又は萎凋機による30分乃至2時間の萎凋を行ない水分を55乃至65%としたものを揉捻機に1時間乃至3時間揉捻し、発酵室で室内関係湿度95%、温度20度乃至25度Cで発酵させる。つぎに回転炉で熱処理し発酵をとめ連続式乾燥機で乾燥し製品とする工程の手段をとった。
(作用)
このような手段をとったので、生アマチャヅルの細断片は萎凋機において水分55乃至65%となり、揉捻機で揉捻することにより水分が均一化されて、発酵し易くなる。発酵は最も重要な工程であるが、熱で細断片が蒸れないように室温は27度C以上とならないように注意する必要がある。適度のものは銅色の製品となるが過度のものは黒ずみ、お茶の香気がわるくなるからである。
つぎの回転炉で発酵はとまり連続式乾燥機で乾燥し良製品の量産が可能となる。
Translation - English
Specification
1. Title of the invention
Processing method of fermented gynostemma tea
2. Claims
A method for processing fermented gynostemma tea, characterized by comprising a process of shredding fresh raw gynostemma pentaphyllum into 3 cm length, and
a process of withering the shredded pieces of gynostemma pentaphyllum under the sun or with an artificial withering machine for 30 minutes to 2 hours, and
a process of 1 to 3 hours of fermentation, in which the chopped pieces of gynostemma pentaphyllum after the withering process are kneaded with a kneader and fermented in a fermentation room, and
a subsequent process of heat treatment in a rotary furnace at 150 degrees to 400 degrees C for 10 minutes to 30 minutes, and
further a process of drying in a continuous dryer at 100 degrees to 120 degrees C for 20 minutes to 30 minutes.
3. Detailed description of the invention
(Industrial field)
The present invention relates to a method for processing gynostemma pentaphyllum.
(Prior art)
Gynostemma pentaphyllum, known in Japan as Amachazuru, is a perennial vine and an edible plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that can be found everywhere in the wild mountains across Japan, its leaves are picked and dried and then brewed to become Amachazuru tea for drinking, and it is also used as a sweetener for people with diabetes or other conditions, so it is well known as a so-called healthy tea.
Conventionally, gynostemma pentaphyllum that is naturally grown or cultivated is dried in the sun or in the shade in the same way as for making normal teas and then crushed into a powder for brewing Amachazuru tea as a drink. Further, a conventional technique is described in the Japanese patent publication No. S59-33337. This prior art is an Amachazuru processing method, which is composed of cutting raw leaves and/or stems of gynostemma pentaphyllum into pieces, and
(a) a process of steaming with steam in a steaming container, and
(b) at least one process of frying with adequate stirring in an open magnetic or metal container heated to about 150 degrees~400 degrees C,
/2
and then
(c) a process of fully kneading the treated leaves and/or stems, and
(d) a process of drying at about 40 degrees to 90 degrees C for 1~several hours, and curshing into a powder as desired to obtain a processed product of Amachazuru.
(Problems to be solved by the invention)
In the same way as for making conventional green tea, fresh raw gynostemma pentaphyllum are sun-dried or shade-dried, shredded and crushed into a powder, which is brewed to make tea, the tea leaves processed in this way have a desirable yellow-green color, but the refreshing aroma unique to the tea is mostly lost, and another defect is that the tea has an undesirable raw smell. In addition, the processed product produced by the above-mentioned prior art has the advantages of sweetness, alleviated bitterness and absence of raw smell, but the processed product has a green color tone dotted with green or light brown color, and, for example, it desirable for the Amachazuru tea to have a color tone which may not be oriented to people who like the general taste of black tea but is preferred by people who look for an general product with health promotion benefits.
(Means for solving the problems)
In order to solve the above-mentioned problems, fresh raw gynostemma pentaphyllum was shredded into small pieces of about 3 cm in length, which were withered for 30 minutes to 2 hours with sunlight or a withering machine to have a moisture content of 55 to 65%, and then it was kneaded in a kneader for 1 hour to 3 hours and then fermented in a fermentation room at a relative humidity of 95% and a temperature of 20 degrees to 25 degrees C. Then, heat treatment was performed in a rotary furnace, fermentation was stopped, and drying was performed in a continuous dryer to obtain a product, and these processes were adopted as the means to solve the problems.
(Mechanism)
With such a means, the small pieces of the raw gynostemma pentaphyllum are withered to have a moisture content of 55 to 65% in a withering machine, and the water content is homogenized by kneading with a kneading machine so that it is easier to ferment. Fermentation is the most important process, and care needs to be taken to ensure that the room temperature does not exceed 27 degrees C so that the small pieces are not evaporated by the heat. A suitably fermented product has a copper color, but excessive fermentation will darken the product and makes the product lose the tea aroma.
Fermentation is stopped subsequently in the rotary furnace and the product is dried in a continuous dryer to enable mass production of good products.
Chinese to English: Acta Petrologica Sinica
General field: Science
Detailed field: Geology
Source text - Chinese
1龙胜"蛇绿岩套"的地质特征和岩石组合
桂北龙胜地区位于扬子地块的东南缘。分布于这里的丹洲群可以划分为三个主要岩石单元: (1)沉积岩,(2)基性火山熔岩(细碧岩)及(3)基性-超基性岩石组合。
1.1 沉积岩
前人根据岩石特征将丹洲群划分为白竹组、合桐组和拱洞组。白竹组与下伏四堡群间为角度不整合接触。沉积岩主要为泥质、粉砂质的陆源碎屑岩,其次为碳酸盐岩,夹少量硅质岩,但硅质岩的 SiO2 含量 < 88%①,不同于典型的深海硅质岩。该群沉积岩的最大厚度超过 4000m,其变质作用程度仅为低绿片岩相。
1.2 火山岩
龙胜地区火山岩广泛发育于龙胜、三门街和大地一带(图 1),层位上相当于丹洲群拱洞组第四段,以厚层熔岩或具枕状构造的玄武岩为特征,其岩性有细碧岩、中基性岩、角砾熔岩、基性凝灰岩等,以基性火山熔岩(细碧岩)为主,偶见少量流纹岩,代表水下火山喷发作用的产物。
1.3 基性-超基性侵入岩
龙胜地区的镁铁-超镁铁质岩石呈NNE向展布,主要分布于龙胜和三门街地区(图 1)。镁铁-超镁铁质岩石以岩床或岩脉状侵入于丹洲群变质沉积岩或火山岩中,部分岩体的边部发育强烈的构造变形,其构造线与镁铁质岩石的延伸方向一致。
Translation - English
1 Geological Characteristics and Rock Assemblages of the "Ophiolite Suite" in Longsheng Region
The Longsheng Region in northern Guangxi is located at the southeastern edge of Yangtze Block; the Danzhou Group distributed here are mainly composed of three rock units, namely, (1) sedimentary rocks, (2) basic volcanic lavas (spilites), and (3) basic-ultrabasic rock assemblages.
1.1 Sedimentary Rocks
Based on rock characteristics, people have divided the Danzhou Group into Baizhu Formation, Hetong Formation and Gongdong Formation, among which, Baizhu Formation comes into angular unconformable contact with the underlying Sibao Group. As for the sedimentary rocks in the region, they mainly consist of muddy and silty clastic rocks of terrigenous origin followed by carbonatites, and are mixed with few silicolites. However, in contrast to typical deep sea silicolites, the SiO2 content of the silicolites there is less than 88% ①; besides, they have a maximum thickness of more than 4000 m, featuring low greenschist facies in terms of metamorphism.
1.2 Volcanic Rocks
The volcanic rocks in the region, located in the fourth stratum of Gongdong Formation, are widely developed in the areas of Longsheng, Sanmenjie and Dadi (see Figure 1) and characterized by thick lavas or pillow-shaped basalts. Lithologically, they include spilites, intermediate basic rocks, breccia lavas, basic tuffs, with basic volcanic lavas (spilites) accounting for the majority with occasionally seen rhyolites which are the product of underwater volcanic eruption.
1.3 Basic-ultrabasic Intrusions
The mafic-ultramafic rocks in Longsheng Region are distributed in the NNE direction, and concentrated in the areas of Longsheng and Sanmenjie (see Figure 1). These rocks intrude into the metasedimentary or volcanic rocks of Danzhou group in the form of sill or dike, while the edges of some parts are developed with strong tectonic deformation whose tectonic line is in the same direction as the extension direction of mafic rocks.
Chinese to English: Riding the Momentum of the Tumor Immunotherapy Age, Genecast Joined Hands with HalioDx, a European Tumor Microenvironment Diagnostic Technology Company, to Launch an Immune Score Product (Immunoscore®) in China
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Chinese
肿瘤免疫时代继续发力,臻和科技携手欧洲肿瘤微环境诊断技术公司HalioDx在中国推出免疫评分产品(Immunoscore®)

近日,中国肿瘤精准治疗行业领先者臻和科技宣布与欧洲肿瘤微环境诊断技术公司HalioDx达成独家合作关系,首次面向中国医生和患者提供免疫诊断产品Immunoscore®(免疫评分)。根据协议,臻和科技将享有Immunoscore®在中国的独家销售、推广和经营权。

Immunoscore®是欧盟CE-IVD认证下的一个突破性免疫诊断平台,基于免疫组织化学和先进数字病理学对肿瘤免疫微环境的分析,可以更好地指导肿瘤医生优化对患者的诊疗管理。它已经成功地应用于结肠癌领域,并积累了大量的临床证据,能够比传统的TNM和MSI更好地预测结肠癌复发风险1),一些国家已经将其纳入医保。臻和科技将完全采用HalioDx CE-IVD认证的试剂,实验流程,数字病理及图像分析流程来保证免疫评分结果的准确性和可重复性。

Immunoscore®源自于法国巴黎Cordeliers研究中心Jérôme Galon教授牵头的国际学术组织的原创成果。Galon教授提出的“免疫评分(Immunoscore)”,是通过量化肿瘤患者的肿瘤区域及浸润边缘的CD3+T细胞及CD8+T细胞浸润程度, 结合临床指标预测患者预后,辅助临床决策。

由著名的肿瘤免疫治疗学会(SITC)领衔的一项国际、多中心的结直肠癌预后评估的临床研究,收集了来自13个国家(包括中国),14个研究中心的3539例I–III期结肠癌患者样本,经过质控筛选,2681例纳入分析。研究结果表明,免疫评分可作为结肠癌患者复发及生存的预测指标,且预测价值优于其它指标,如肿瘤分化程度、粘液型胶样癌、MSI、性别等。这项研究支持将免疫评分纳入肿瘤的分期,TNM-免疫评分。这项有里程碑意义的研究于2018年5月发表在顶级医学杂志Lancet (柳叶刀)上,并由该杂志赋予此研究评论文章,引起业界广泛关注。

HalioDx首席执行官Vincent Fert先生表示,“HalioDx专注开发首创的免疫诊断产品,向肿瘤医生提供癌症相关免疫诊断服务,指导癌症诊疗,旨在促进肿瘤免疫疗法及肿瘤免疫联合治疗时代下的精准医学发展。因此,我们与臻和科技达成合作关系,期待着我们双方的联合能为中国精准医学做出贡献!”

“我们非常高兴能与HalioDx建立合作关系。HalioDx此次选择与臻和科技,表明其对我们整体综合实力,以及公司在中国市场的推广能力做出的高度认可。”臻和科技创始人兼CEO 杜波先生说,“Immunoscore®是生物标志物指导下,精准医学在临床实践中运用体现的典范。我们非常认可其中的价值,很高兴能在中国推广这个检测,让中国患者能够接受更优质的医疗解决方案。”

随着肿瘤免疫治疗的发展,肿瘤免疫微环境不仅能影响肿瘤所在组织的结构、功能和代谢,而且能够对免疫治疗产生不容小觑的影响。目前,肿瘤免疫微环境分析已经成为研究肿瘤免疫治疗效果的重要领域。免疫评分作为对肿瘤免疫应答性的分析,将有可能变革临床研究设计思路,最终将有助于提升癌症防控水平。

参考文献:
1) Immunoscore® was stronger than clinical parameters to predict survival
Source: F.Pagès et.al. The Lancet May 2018



关于HalioDx
HalioDx是一家法国肿瘤免疫诊断产品研发商,基于免疫组织化学与病理成像数字化分析技术,向肿瘤医生提供癌症相关免疫诊断服务以及诊断解决方案,主要产品有突破性免疫诊断平台Immunoscore®,HalioSeek®。访问www.haliodx.com 可获得更多公司信息。

关于臻和科技
臻和(北京)科技有限公司是中国领先的肿瘤精准治疗企业。公司基于多个技术平台,包括NGS、IHC、ddPCR和微阵列技术等为患者和医生提供临床充分验证的检测系统。公司致力于为患者和医生提供个性化癌症诊断和治疗方案,提高患者的存活率和生活质量。
除此以外,臻和科技还采用多维的技术方法,积极联合国内外的制药和生物技术企业共同发现并验证用于临床试验、治疗和伴随诊断的肿瘤标记物。访问www.genecast.com.cn 可获得更多公司信息。

Translation - English
Riding the Momentum of the Tumor Immunotherapy Age, Genecast Joined Hands with HalioDx, a European Tumor Microenvironment Diagnostic Technology Company, to Launch an Immune Score Product (Immunoscore®) in China
Recently, Genecast Biotechnology Co., an industrial leader in precision tumor therapy in China, announced an exclusive partnership with HalioDx, a European tumor microenvironment diagnostic technology company, to provide an immunodiagnostic product - Immunoscore® (Immunoscore) for Chinese doctors and patients for the first time. According to the agreement, Genecast has the exclusive right of sale, promotion, and management of Immunoscore® in China.

Immunoscore® is a breakthrough immunodiagnostic platform that has been certified under European Union CE-IVD. By analyzing tumor immune microenvironments based on immunohistochemistry and advanced digital pathology, Immunoscore® provides a better guidance to oncologists to optimize the medical treatment and management of patients. It has been successfully applied in the colon cancer field and many clinical evidences have been accumulated. Immunoscore® outperforms traditional TNM and MSI in predicting the risk of colon cancer recurrence1). In addition, Immunoscore® has been covered by the medical insurance in some countries. Genecast will exclusively use CE-IVD certified HalioDx reagents, test procedures, digital pathology and image analysis procedures to ensure the accuracy and repeatability of immune-scoring results.

Immunoscore® originates from the original achievement of the international academic organization led by Prof. Jérôme Galon from the Cordeliers Research Center in Paris, France. The “Immunoscore” proposed by Prof. Galon can be used to predict the prognosis of patients and assist in clinical decision-making based on quantification of infiltration levels of CD3+ T-cells and CD8+ T-cells both in the core of the tumor and in its infiltrative margins, taking into account clinical indicators.

In an international, multicenter clinical study assessing the prognosis of colon cancer led by the famous Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), 3,539 samples were collected from patients with stage I-III colon cancer in 13 countries (including China) and 14 study centers, and 2,681 samples were included in the analysis after quality control screening. The results have demonstrated that Immunoscore can be used as a predictive indicator for predicting the recurrence and survival of colon cancer patients, and its predictive value is superior to other indicators, such as tumor differentiation degree, mucinous colloid carcinoma, MSI, sex, etc. This study supports the inclusion of Immunoscore in tumor staging and TNM-immunoscore. This landmark study was published in May 2018 in The Lancet, a top medical journal, and was endowed with a review article by the journal, which attracted wide attention in the medical industry.

Mr. Vincent Fert, the CEO of HalioDx, indicated that, “HalioDx focuses on developing pioneer immunodiagnostic products, and providing oncologists with cancer-related immunodiagnostic services and guidance in tumor diagnosis and treatment to promote the development of precision medicine in the era of tumor immunotherapy and combined treatment with tumor immunotherapy. So, we have entered into a partnership with Genecast and looked forward to making contributions to precision medicine in China through our joint efforts.”

“We are very pleased to partner with HalioDx. HalioDx’s choice to work with Genecast shows its high recognition of our comprehensive strengths and marketing ability in the Chinese market.” Mr. Bo Du, founder and CEO of Genecast, said, “Immunoscore® is guided by biomarkers and is a paragon of precision medicine in clinical practice. We highly recognize its values, and we are very pleased to be able to promote it in China so that the Chinese patients can receive better healthcare solutions.”

With the development of tumor immunotherapy, we have gradually found that the tumor immune microenvironment not only can affect the structure, function and metabolism of the tissues in which a tumor is located but can also have a significant impact on the immunotherapy. At present, the analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment has become an important field to explore the effect of tumor immunotherapy. As an analytic assay of tumor immune responsiveness, Immunoscore may create a revolution in the thinking of clinical study designs and ultimately contribute to the improvement of cancer prevention and control.

References:
1) Immunoscore® was stronger than clinical parameters to predict survival
Source: F. Pagès et.al. The Lancet May 2018



About HalioDx
HalioDx, a French researcher and developer of tumor immunodiagnostic products, provides oncologists with cancer-related immunodiagnostic services and diagnostic solutions based on immunohistochemistry and pathological imaging and digital analysis technology. The main products of HalioDx include breakthrough immunodiagnosis platform Immunoscore® and HalioSeek®. Please visit www.haliodx.com for more information on HalioDx.

About Genecast
Genecast (Beijing) Biotechnology Co. is a Chinese leader in the field of precision tumor therapy. Based on a number of technology platforms, including NGS, IHC, ddPCR and microarray technology, the company provides patients and doctors with a detection system which has been fully validated in clinic. Genecast is dedicated to providing patients and doctors with personalized cancer diagnosis and treatment regimens to improve patients’ survival rate and quality of life.

In addition, Genecast also uses multidimensional technical methods and actively collaborates with pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies at home and abroad to identify and validate the tumor markers which can be used in clinical trials, treatment and concomitant diagnosis. Please visit www.genecast.com.cn for more information on Genecast.

Korean to English: Notice on Submitting Opinions
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Korean
[구체적인 거절이유]



1. 이 출원의 특허청구범위의 청구항 제14항에 기재된 발명은 아래와 같이 그 출원 전에 국 내 또는 국외에서 반포된 간행물에 게재된 발명이거나 전기통신회선을 통하여 공중이 이용 가능하게 된 발명이므로 특허법 제29조제1항제2호에 해당되어 특허를 받을 수 없습니다.
- 아래 -

인용발명 1 : 일본 공개특허공보 특개평11-209316호(1999.08.03.) 1부.

이 출원의 청구항 제14항은 “제7항의 방법에 따라서 수득되는, 정제된 트랜스-1,1,1-트리 플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))”을 청구하고 있습니다.

한편, 인용발명 1 에는 ‘추출 용매의 존재 하에 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2- 프로펜(트랜스-1-클로로-3,3,3-트리플루오로프로펜과 동일, 1233zd(E))과 1,1,1,3,3-펜타플 루오로프로판을 포함하는 혼합물을 추출 증류에 따라 분리하는 방법에 의해 얻어지는, 트랜 스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜’이 개시되어 있습니다(청구항 1, 5, 단락 [0012] 참조).

양 발명을 대비하면, 인용발명 1에서는 청구항 제14항의 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3- 클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E)) 화합물을 개시하고 있다는 점에서는 동일하나, 청구항 제14항 의 제7항의 방법이 구체적으로 개시되어 있지 않다는 점에서 차이가 있습니다.

그러나, 청구항 제14항의 ‘제7항의 방법에 따라서 수득되는, 정제된 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플 루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))’을 ‘트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜 (1233zd(E))’에 해당하는 구성으로 판단할 경우, 이는 어떠한 제조(정제)방법으로 수득되었 던지 결국 얻어지는 생성물이 정해지면, 생성물에 해당하는 화합물의 구성을 보고 판단해야 하는 일정한 특성(제조방법)을 갖는 물의 발명으로 해석되므로, 이와 같이 화합물의 정제방 법을 한정한다고 하여도 청구대상인 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜 (1233zd(E)) 화합물의 구성이 변하는 것은 아닙니다.

따라서, 청구항 제14항과 인용발명 1은 발명의 구성이 실질적으로 동일합니다.


청구항 적용 인용문헌
제14항 인용발명 1

2. 이 출원의 특허청구범위의 청구항 제1항 내지 제21항에 기재된 발명은 아래와 같이 그 출원 전에 이 발명이 속하는 기술분야에서 통상의 지식을 가진 자가 용이하게 발명할 수 있 는 것이므로 특허법 제29조제2항에 따라 특허를 받을 수 없습니다.

- 아래 -



인용발명 1 : 일본 공개특허공보 특개평11-209316호(1999.08.03.) 1부.
인용발명 2 : 일본 공개특허공보 특개2010-202640호(2010.09.16.) 1부.

2-1. 이 출원의 청구항 제1항은 “염소화 화합물을 포함하는 추출 용매의 존재 하에서 추출 증류를 사용하여 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀 및 클로로플루오로카본을 포함하는 혼합물 로부터 클로로플루오로카본을 추출하여, 정제된 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀을 형성하는 단계를 포함하는, 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀으로부터 오염 물질을 제거하는 방법”을 청 구하고 있습니다.

한편, 인용발명 1에는 ‘염소에 의해 치환된 화합물을 포함하는 추출 용매의 존재 하에서 추출 증류를 사용하여 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E), 하이드 로클로로플루오로올레핀의 일종)과 1,1,1,3,3-펜타플루오로프로판을 포함하는 혼합물로부터 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜을 분리하는 방법’이 개시되어 있습니다(청 구항 1, 5, 단락 [0012], [0013] 참조).

양 발명을 대비하면, 추출 용매의 존재 하에서 추출 증류를 사용하여 하이드로클로로플루 오로올레핀(트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜)을 얻었다는 점에서 동일하나, 인용발명 1에는 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀과 함께 클로로플루오로카본을 포함하는 혼합 물로부터 클로로플루오로카본을 추출하여, 오염 물질을 제거한다는 내용을 구체적으로 개시 하고 있지 않다는 점에서 차이가 있습니다.

그러나, 인용발명 1에는 ‘1233zd(E) 및 이와 근접한 비점을 갖는 화합물(245fa)의 혼합물 로부터 1233zd(E)와 245fa 화합물을 분리하기 위해서는 추출 증류법이 효과적이며, 1233zd(E)보다 충분히 높은 비점을 갖는 추출 용매를 이용하는 것이 바람직하다’는 내용을 개시하고 있고(단락 [0004], [0012] 참조), 추출 증류를 이용한 1-클로로-3,3,3-트리플루 오로프로펜(1233zd)의 정제 방법을 개시하고 있는 인용발명 2에는 ‘높은 비점을 갖고, 분리 해야할 성분의 비휘발도를 변화시키는 할로겐화 탄화수소를 포함하는 추출 용매의 존재 하 에서, 추출 증류를 사용하여 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀(1233zd)과 클로로플루오로카본 (1-클로로-1,3,3,3-테트라플루오로프로판)을 포함하는 혼합물로부터 클로로플루오로카본을 추출하여, 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀을 정제한다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으며(청구항 1, 5, 단락 [0006] 참조), 이러한 정제 방법에서 추출되는 클로로플루오로카본을 하이드로클로 로플루오로올레핀으로부터 제거되는 오염 물질로 볼 수 있는 바, 이 발명이 속하는 기술 분 야의 통상의 기술자라면 추출 증류법을 개시하고 있는 인용발명 1 및 2를 결합하여, 높은 비점을 갖는 추출 용매를 이용하여 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀으로부터 오염 물질인 클 로로플루오로카본을 추출하여 제거하는 방법을 용이하게 예측할 수 있으므로, 구성의 곤란 성이 인정되지 않습니다.

따라서, 청구항 제1항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명할 수 있 는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.

2-2. 이 출원의 청구항 제2항 및 제3항은 제1항의 종속항으로서, ’염소화 화합물은 적어도 3개의 염소 원자로 구성되는 것(제2항) 및 추출 용매는 기준끓는점이 약 60℃ 내지 약 10 0℃인 것(제3항)’으로 한정한 것입니다.


그러나, 인용발명 1에는 ‘추출 용매는 할로겐(염소)에 따라 치환된 화합물일 수 있으며, 비 점이 35℃ 내지 200℃이다’는 내용이 개시되어 있고(단락 [0013] 참조), 인용발명 2에는 ‘추 출 용매는 할로겐화 탄화수소(CFnCl3-nCHXCClFmH2-m, X = Cl, n = 0~3, m = 0~2의 정수) 일 수 있으며, 표준 비점이 60℃ 내지 120℃의 범위에 있다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으며(청 구항 1, 5, 단락 [0042], [0049] 참조), 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀의 분리가 용이하도 록 높은 비점을 갖는 추출 용매를 이용하는 것은 통상적인 사항으로서, 공정상 편이성이나 효율성을 고려하여 임의로 선택할 수 있는 사항에 불과하기 때문에 통상의 기술자가 별다른 어려움 없이 도출해 낼 수 있습니다.

따라서, 청구항 제2항 및 제3항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명 할 수 있는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.

2-3. 이 출원의 청구항 제4항 및 제5항은 제1항의 종속항으로서, ‘하이드로클로로플루오로 올레핀은 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))을 포함하는 것(제2항) 및 정제된 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀은 약 500 ppm 이하의 클로로플루오로카본을 포 함하는 정제된 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))인 것(제3항)’으 로 한정한 것입니다.

그러나, 인용발명 1에는 ‘추출 증류에 의해 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로 펜(1233zd(E))을 분리한다’는 내용이 개시되어 있고(청구항 1 참조), 인용발명 2에는 ‘불순 물인 클로로플루오로카본(244fa)을 추출하여, 표준 비점이 39.0℃인 시스-1,1,1-트리플루오 로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(Z))을 정제한다’는 내용을 개시하고 있어(청구항 1, 단락 [0009], [0011], [0029] 참조), 표준 비점이 21.0℃인 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로 로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))은 불순물인 클로로플루오로카본과 비점의 차이가 크기 때문에 추 출 증류에 의해 정제하기 더 용이할 것이라는 것을 알 수 있으며, 불순물인 클로로플루오로 카본을 제거하여 미량(500ppm 이하)을 포함하도록 정제하는 것은 통상적인 사항으로서, 공 정상 편이성이나 효율성을 고려하여 임의로 선택할 수 있는 사항에 불과하기 때문에 통상의 기술자가 별다른 어려움 없이 도출해 낼 수 있습니다.

따라서, 청구항 제4항 및 제5항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명 할 수 있는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.

2-4. 이 출원의 청구항 제6항은 제1항의 종속항으로서, ‘오염 물질은 사염화탄소 및 트리클 로로플루오로메탄(R11) 중 적어도 하나를 포함하는 것’으로 한정한 것입니다.

그러나, 인용발명 1에는 ‘트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))을 1,1,1,3,3-펜타플루오로프로판과 분리한다’는 내용이 개시되어 있고(청구항 1 참조), 인용발 명 2에는 ‘1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd)을 1-클로로-1,3,3,3-테트라플 루오로프로판(244fa)과 분리하여 정제한다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으며(청구항 1, 단락 [0009], [0011], [0029] 참조), 오염 물질로 사염화탄소 및 트리클로로플루오로메탄을 포 함하고 있지 않다는 점에서 차이가 있으나, 통상의 기술자라면 인용발명 1 및 2를 결합하여 비점이 지극히 가까운 오염 물질을 포함하는 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로 펜(1233zd(E)) 혼합물로부터 높은 비점을 갖는 추출 용매를 이용하여 오염 물질의 비휘발도 를 변화시켜 분리시키는 것을 용이하게 예측할 수 있는 바, 1233zd(E)와 비점이 가까운 다 양한 종류의 오염 물질을 포함하는 혼합물을 정제하는 것 역시 통상의 기술자가 별다른 어 려움 없이 도출해 낼 수 있습니다.



따라서, 청구항 제6항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명할 수 있 는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.

2-5. 이 출원의 청구항 제7항은 “염소화 화합물을 포함하는 추출 용매의 존재 하에서 추출 증류를 사용하여 트리클로로플루오로메탄(R11) 및 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로
-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))을 포함하는 혼합물로부터 트리클로로플루오로메탄(R11)을 추출하여, 정제된 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))을 형성하는 단계를 포 함하는, 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀으로부터 오염 물질을 제거하는 방법”을 청구하고 있 습니다.

한편, 인용발명 1에는 ‘염소에 의해 치환된 화합물을 포함하는 추출 용매의 존재 하에서 추출 증류를 사용하여 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜 (1233zd (E)) 과 1,1,1,3,3-펜타플루오로프로판을 포함하는 혼합물로부터 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클 로로-2-프로펜을 분리하는 방법’이 개시되어 있습니다(청구항 1, 5, 단락 [0012], [0013] 참조).

양 발명을 대비하면, 추출 용매의 존재 하에서 추출 증류를 사용하여 트랜스-1,1,1-트리 플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜을 얻었다는 점에서 동일하나, 인용발명 1에는 1233zd(E)와 함께 트리클로로플루오로메탄을 포함하는 혼합물로부터 트리클로로플루오로메탄을 추출하 여, 오염 물질을 제거한다는 내용을 구체적으로 개시하고 있지 않다는 점에서 차이가 있습 니다.

그러나, 인용발명 1에는 ‘1233zd(E) 및 이와 근접한 비점을 갖는 화합물의 혼합물로부터 1233zd(E)와 화합물을 분리하기 위해서는 추출 증류법이 효과적이며, 1233zd(E)보다 충분 히 높은 비점을 갖는 추출 용매를 이용하는 것이 바람직하다’는 내용을 개시하고 있고(단락 [0004], [0012] 참조), 추출 증류를 이용한 1-클로로-3,3,3-트리플루오로프로펜(1233zd)의 정제 방법을 개시하고 있는 인용발명 2에는 ‘높은 비점을 갖고, 분리해야할 성분의 비휘발도 를 변화시키는 할로겐화 탄화수소를 포함하는 추출 용매의 존재 하에서, 추출 증류를 사용 하여 1233zd와 클로로플루오로카본(1-클로로-1,3,3,3-테트라플루오로프로판)을 포함하는 혼합물로부터 클로로플루오로카본을 추출하여, 1233zd를 정제한다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으 며(청구항 1, 5, 단락 [0006] 참조), 오염 물질로 트리클로로플루오로메탄을 구체적으로 개 시하고 있지는 않지만, 이 발명이 속하는 기술 분야의 통상의 기술자라면 비점이 지극히 가 까운 오염 물질을 포함하는 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E)) 혼 합물로부터 높은 비점을 갖는 추출 용매를 이용하여 오염 물질의 비휘발도를 변화시켜 분리 시킬 수 있으므로, 1233zd(E)와 비점이 가까운 트리클로로플루오로메탄과 같은 오염 물질을 추출하여 제거하는 방법을 용이하게 예측할 수 있는 바, 구성의 곤란성이 인정되지 않습니 다.




따라서, 청구항 제7항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명할 수 있 는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.

2-6. 이 출원의 청구항 제8항 내지 제11항은 제7항의 종속항으로서, ’염소화 화합물은 3개 또는 4개의 염소 원자로 구성되는 것(제8항), 염소화 화합물은 1개 또는 2개의 탄소 원자로 구성되는 것(제9항), 추출 용매는 트리클로로에틸렌, 사염화탄소, 클로로포름, 메틸 클로로포 름, 및 이들의 혼합물로 이루어진 군으로부터 선택되는 유기염소제를 포함하는 것(제10항) 및 추출 용매는 기준끓는점이 약 60℃ 이상인 것(제11항)’으로 한정한 것입니다.

그러나, 인용발명 1에는 ‘추출 용매는 할로겐(염소)에 따라 치환된 화합물일 수 있으며, 비 점이 35℃ 내지 200℃이다’는 내용이 개시되어 있고(단락 [0013] 참조), 인용발명 2에는 ‘추 출 용매는 할로겐화 탄화수소(CFnCl3-nCHXCClFmH2-m, X = Cl, n = 0~3, m = 0~2의 정수) 일 수 있으며, 표준 비점이 60℃ 내지 120℃의 범위에 있다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으며(청 구항 1, 5, 단락 [0042], [0049] 참조), 1234zd(E)의 분리가 용이하도록 높은 비점을 갖는 다양한 종류의 추출 용매를 이용하는 것은 통상적인 사항으로서, 공정상 편이성이나 효율성 을 고려하여 임의로 선택할 수 있는 사항에 불과하기 때문에 통상의 기술자가 별다른 어려 움 없이 도출해 낼 수 있습니다.

따라서, 청구항 제8항 내지 제11항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명할 수 있는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.

2-7. 이 출원의 청구항 제12항 및 제13항은 제7항의 종속항으로서, ‘1233zd(E)에 대한 추 출 용매의 중량비는 약 0.1 내지 10인 것(제12항) 및 1233zd(E)에 대한 추출 용매의 중량 비는 약 1 내지 3인 것(제13항)’으로 한정한 것입니다.

그러나, 인용발명 2에는 ‘원료 100 질량부에 대해서 추출 용매 10~10000 질량부를 이용 할 수 있고, 100~2000 질량부가 바람직하다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으며(단락 [0051] 참 조), 적절한 양의 추출 용매를 이용하는 것은 통상적인 사항으로서, 공정상 편이성이나 효율 성을 고려하여 임의로 선택할 수 있는 사항에 불과하기 때문에 통상의 기술자가 별다른 어 려움 없이 도출해 낼 수 있습니다.

따라서, 청구항 제12항 및 제13항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명할 수 있는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.

2-8. 이 출원의 청구항 제14항은 ‘제7항의 방법에 따라서 수득되는, 정제된 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(1233zd(E))’을 청구하고 있습니다.




그러나, 이는 앞선 거절이유 1-1.에서 살핀 바와 같이, 인용발명 1에는 ‘추출 용매의 존재 하에 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜(트랜스-1-클로로-3,3,3-트리플루오로 프로펜과 동일, 1233zd(E))과 1,1,1,3,3-펜타플루오로프로판을 포함하는 혼합물을 추출 증 류에 따라 분리하는 방법에 의해 얻어지는, 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로 펜’이 개시되어 있으며(청구항 1, 5, 단락 [0012] 참조), 이는 어떠한 제조(정제)방법으로 수득되었던지 결국 얻어지는 생성물이 정해지면, 생성물에 해당하는 화합물의 구성을 보고 판단해야하는 일정한 특성(제조방법)을 갖는 물의 발명으로 해석되므로, 이와 같이 화합물의 정제방법을 한정한다고 하여도 청구대상인 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜 (1233zd(E)) 화합물의 구성이 변하는 것은 아닙니다.

또한, 제7항의 정제방법을 고려하더라도, 앞선 거절이유 2-5.에서 살핀 바와 같이, 인용발 명 2에는 ‘높은 비점을 갖고, 분리해야할 성분의 비휘발도를 변화시키는 할로겐화 탄화수소 를 포함하는 추출 용매의 존재 하에서, 추출 증류를 사용하여 1233zd와 클로로플루오로카본 (1-클로로-1,3,3,3-테트라플루오로프로판)을 포함하는 혼합물로부터 클로로플루오로카본을 추출하여, 1233zd를 정제한다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으며(청구항 1, 5, 단락 [0006] 참조), 1233zd(E)와 비점이 가까운 트리클로로플루오로메탄과 같은 오염 물질을 추출하여 제거하 는 정제 방법에 의해 수득되는 정제된 트랜스-1,1,1-트리플루오로-3-클로로-2-프로펜 (1233zd(E))을 용이하게 예측할 수 있습니다.

따라서, 청구항 제14항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 또는 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이 하게 발명할 수 있는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다

2-9. 이 출원의 청구항 제15항은 “오염 물질을 포함하는 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀을 포함하는 공급 혼합물을 제1 증류탑으로 공급하는 단계 및 염소화 화합물을 포함하는 추출 용매를 사용하여 제1 증류탑에서 공급 혼합물로부터 오염 물질을 추출하여, 정제된 하이드 로클로로플루오로올레핀을 포함하는 오버헤드 스트림 및 오염 물질 및 추출 용매를 포함하 는 하부 스트림을 형성하는 단계를 포함하는 증류 방법”을 청구하고 있습니다.

한편, 앞선 거절이유 2-1.에서 살핀 바와 같이, 인용발명 1 및 2에는 ‘불순물을 포함하는 하이드로클로로플루오로올레핀(1233zd)를 포함하는 혼합물을 염소 화합물을 포함하는 추출 용매를 사용하여 추출 증류하여, 정제하는 방법’이 개시되어 있으며, 인용발명 1에는 ‘분리 방법은 증류탑을 이용하여 실시할 수 있으며, 추출 용매를 공급 원료의 공급단보다 상단으 로 도입하고, 추출 용매와 1233zd(E)를 회수하는 추출 증류를 실시한다’는 내용을(단락 [0014] 참조), 인용발명 2에는 ‘증류탑을 이용하며, 추출 용매를 공급 원료의 공급단보다 상 단으로 도입하고, 탑 상단으로부터 1233zd를 추출하고, 탑 하단으로부터 추출 용매와 불순 물을 회수하는 추출 증류를 실시한다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으므로(단락 [0052], [0053] 참 조), 제1 증류탑을 이용하여 추출 증류를 실시하는 증류 방법을 용이하게 예측할 수 있으므 로, 구성의 곤란성이 인정되지 않습니다.




따라서, 청구항 제15항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명할 수 있 는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다

2-10. 이 출원의 청구항 제16항은 제15항의 종속항으로서, ‘하부 스트림을 제2 증류탑으로 공급하는 단계 및 오염 물질을 제2 증류탑에서 추출 용매로부터 분리하여 오염 물질을 포함 하는 제2 오버헤드 스트림 및 추출 용매를 포함하는 제2 하부 스트림을 형성하는 단계를 추 가로 포함하는 것’으로 한정하고 있습니다.

그러나, 인용발명 1에는 ‘추출된 피처리물의 일부와 추출 용매의 혼합물은 스트리핑 등의 조작에 따라 추출 용매를 분리 제거하거나, 한층 더 정제 처리를 가해 회수할 수 있다’는 내 용을 개시하고 있고(단락 [0015] 참조), 인용발명 2에는 ‘추출된 원료의 일부와 추출 용매 의 혼합물은 스트리핑, 증류 등의 조작에 따라 분리하고, 추출 용매는 순환시켜 추출증류에 재사용할 수 있다’는 내용을 개시하고 있으며(단락 [0054] 참조), 공정상 편이성이나 효율성 을 고려하여 오염 물질과 추출 용매를 증류에 의해 분리하는 것은 통상적인 사항으로서, 통 상의 기술자가 별다른 어려움 없이 도출해 낼 수 있습니다.

따라서, 청구항 제16항은 통상의 기술자가 인용발명 1 및 2로부터 용이하게 발명할 수 있 는 것으로 볼 수 있습니다.
Translation - English
[Specific reasons for refusal]



1. As mentioned below, the invention specified in claim 14 of Claims of the present application is an invention that has been published in domestic or international official gazettes or an invention that has been made available to the public through electronic communication means, so it is unpatentable according to No. 2, Item 1, Article 29, Patent Law.
- As shown below -

Cited invention 1: Japanese Patent Publication No. 11-209316 (3 August 1999).

Claim 14 of the present application requests for the protection of “a purified trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) obtained in accordance with the method of claim 7”.

In one aspect, the cited invention 1 discloses “a trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene obtained by the following method: separating a mixture containing trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (the same as trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, 1233zd(E)) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent" (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraph [0012]).

A comparison of two inventions shows that their similarity lies in that the cited invention 1 discloses the trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) compound of claim 14, and their difference lies in that it does not disclose the method of claim 7 of claim 14.

However, since “a purified trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) obtained in accordance with the method of claim 7" of claim 14 is identified to have a composition corresponding to “trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E))”, no matter which preparation (purification) method is used to obtain the compound, as long as the final product generated is determined, the invention is construed as an invention for a substance having certain features (preparation method) as determined by the composition of the compound corresponding to the product generated. Therefore, even if the purification method for a compound is defined, the composition of the claimed compound, i.e. trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)), does not change.

Therefore, the invention of claim 14 and the cited invention 1 are essentially identical in terms of composition.


Claims
Applicable reference document

14 Cited invention 1


2. As mentioned below, the invention specified in claims 1 to 21 of Claims of the present application can be readily envisaged by persons familiar with all the ordinary technical knowledge in the technical filed of the invention (those skilled in the art) prior to the application, so the invention is unpatentable according to Item 2, Article 29, Patent Law.

- Continued on the next page -



Cited invention 1: Japanese Patent Publication No. 11-209316 (3 August 1999).
Cited invention 2: Japanese Patent Publication No. 2010-202640 (16 September 2010).

2-1. Claim 1 of the present application requests for the protection of “a method for removing a contaminant from a hydrochlorofluoroolefin comprising: extracting a chlorofluorocarbon from a mixture comprising a hydrochlorofluoroolefin and the chlorofluorocarbon using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent comprising a chlorinated compound to form a purified hydrochlorofluoroolefin”.

In one aspect, the cited invention 1 discloses “a method for separating trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) from a mixture containing trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E); a hydrochlorofluoroolefin) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent containing a chlorine-substituted compound” (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraphs [0012] and [0013]).

A comparison of two inventions shows that their similarity lies in that a hydrochlorofluoroolefin (trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene) is obtained by using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent, and their difference lies in that the cited invention 1 does not disclose the extraction of a hydrochlorofluoroolefin from a mixture containing the hydrochlorofluoroolefin and a chlorofluorocarbon to remove a contaminant.

However, the cited invention 1 discloses that “the extractive distillation method is effective in separating 1233zd (E) and a compound with a similar boiling point (245fa) from a mixture containing 1233zd (E) and 245fa, and an extractive solvent having a boiling point higher than that of 1233zd (E) is preferably used” (refer to Paragraphs [0004] and [0012]). The cited invention 2 that discloses a method for purifying 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (1233zd) using extractive distillation discloses “extracting a chlorofluorocarbon from a mixture containing a hydrochlorofluoroolefin (1233zd) and the chlorofluorocarbon (1-chloro-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropane) using extractive distillation in the presence of a halogenated hydrocarbon-containing extractive solvent that has a high boiling point and changes the relative volatility of the components to be separated to purify the hydrochlorofluoroolefin” (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraph [0006]), wherein the chlorofluorocarbon extracted using the purification method can be deemed as a contaminant removed from the hydrochlorofluoroolefin. It’s easy for those skilled in the technical field of the invention (those skilled in the art) to envisage the method for extracting and removing a contaminant, i.e.chlorofluorocarbon, from a hydrochlorofluoroolefin using an extractive solvent having a high boiling point based on the cited inventions 1 and 2 that disclose the extractive distillation method, so there is no difficulty in envisaging the composition of the invention.

Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claim 1 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-2. As dependent claims of claim 1, claims 2 and 3 of the present application define that “the chlorinated compound is comprised of at least three chlorine atoms (claim 2) and the extractive solvent has a normal boiling point between about 60°C and about 100°C (claim 3)”.


However, the cited invention 1 discloses that “the extractive solvent may be a halogen-substituted (chlorine-substituted) compound having a boiling point between 35°C and 200°C” (refer to Paragraph [0013]), and the cited invention 2 discloses that “the extractive solvent may be a halogenated hydrocarbon (CFnCl3-nCHXCClFmH2-m, X= Cl, n= an integer between 0 and 3, m= an integer between 0 and 2) having a normal boiling point ranging from 60°C to 120°C” (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraphs [0042] and [0049]). Using an extractive solvent having a high boiling point to separate a hydrochlorofluoroolefin is a customary means that can be optionally selected in consideration of the convenience and/or effectiveness of operation, so those skilled in the art can obtain the extractive solvent without any difficulty.

Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claims 2 and 3 based on the cited inventions 2 and 2.

2-3. As dependent claims of claim 1, claims 4 and 5 of the present application define that “the hydrochlorofluoroolefin comprises trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) (claim 2) and the purified hydrochlorofluoroolefin is purified trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) comprising about 500 ppm or less of the chlorofluorocarbon”.

However, the cited invention 1 discloses “separating trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) using extractive distillation” (refer to claim 1), and the cited invention 2 discloses “extracting a chlorofluorocarbon (244fa) as the impurity to purify cis-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene having a normal boiling point of 39.0°C” (refer to claim 1; Paragraphs [0009], [0011] and [0029]). Trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) having a normal boiling point of 21°C differ greatly from the chlorofluorocarbon as the impurity in terms of boiling point, so it can be purified more easily by using extractive distillation. In addition, removing a chlorofluorocarbon as the impurity to obtain a purified product containing a trace amount (less than 500 ppm) of impurity is a customary means that can be optionally selected in consideration of the convenience and/or effectiveness of operation, so those skilled in the art can obtain the method without any difficulty.

Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claims 4 and 5 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-4. As dependent claims of claim 1, claim 6 of the present invention defines that “ the contaminant comprises at least one of carbon tetrachloride and trichlorofluoromethane (R11)”.

However, the cited invention 1 discloses “separating trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane” (refer to claim 1), and the cited invention 2 discloses “separating and purifying 1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd) and 1-chloro-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropane (244fa)” (refer to claim 1; Paragraphs [0009], [0011] and [0029]). Their difference from the present application lies in that the contaminant does not include tetrachloromethane or trichlorofluoromethane. However, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to envisage the method for separating a mixture containing trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) and a contaminant having a similar boiling point by using an extractive solvent having a high boiling point to change the relative volatility of the contaminant based on the cited inventions 1 and 2. Those skilled in the art can obtain the method for purifying a mixture containing 1233zd(E) and various contaminants having similar boiling points without any difficulty.



Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claim 6 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-5. Claim 7 of the present application requests for the protection of “a method for removing a contaminant from a hydrochlorofluoroolefin comprising: extracting trichlorofluoromethane (R11) from a mixture comprising the trichlorofluoromethane (R11) and trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent comprising a chlorinated compound to form a purified trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E))”.

In one aspect, the cited invention 1 discloses “a method for separating trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene from a mixture containing trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent containing a chlorine-substituted compound” (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraphs [0012] and [0013]).

A comparison of two inventions shows that their similarity lies in that trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene is obtained by using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent, and their difference lies in that the cited invention 1 does not disclose the extraction of trichlorofluoromethane from a mixture containing 1233zd(E) and trichlorofluoromethane to remove a contaminant.

However, the cited invention 1 discloses that “the extractive distillation method is effective in separating 1233zd (E) and a compound having a similar boiling point from a mixture containing 1233zd (E) and the compound, and an extractive solvent having a melting point higher than that of 1233zd (E) is preferably used” (refer to Paragraphs [0004] and [0012]). The cited invention 2 that discloses a method for purifying 1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (1233zd) by using extractive distillation discloses “extracting a chlorofluorocarbon from a mixture containing 1233zd and the chlorofluorocarbon (1-chloro-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropane) using extractive distillation in the presence of a halogenated hydrocarbon-containing extractive solvent that has a high boiling point and changes the relative volatility of the components to be separated to purify 1233zd” (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraph [0006]). Although trichlorofluoromethane is not disclosed as a contaminant, it’s easy for those skilled in the art of the invention to obtain the method for separating a mixture containing trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) and a contaminant having a similar boiling point by using an extractive solvent having a high boiling point to change the relative volatility of the contaminant, and in turn envisage the method for extracting and removing a contaminant having a boiling point similar to that of 1233zd(E), such as trichlorofluoromethane. Consequently, there is no difficulty in envisaging the composition of the invention.



Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claim 7 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-6. As dependent claims of claim 7, claims 8 to 11 of the present application define that “the chlorinated compound is comprised of three or four chlorine atoms (claim 8); the chlorinated compound is comprised of 1 or 2 carbon atoms (claim 9); the extractive solvent comprises an organochloride selected from the group consisting of trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methyl chloroform, and mixtures thereof (claim 10) and the extractive solvent has a normal boiling point of about 60°C or greater (claim 11)”.

However, the cited invention 1 discloses that “the extractive solvent may be a halogen-substituted (chlorine-substituted) compound having a boiling point between 35°C and 200°C” (refer to Paragraph [0013]), and the cited invention 2 discloses that “the extractive solvent may be a halogenated hydrocarbon (CFnCl3-nCHXCClFmH2-m, X= Cl, n= an integer between 0 and 3, m= an integer between 0 and 2) having a normal boiling point ranging from 60°C to 120°C” (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraphs [0042] and [0049]). Using various extractive solvent having high boiling points to separate 1234zd(E) is a customary means that can be optionally selected in consideration of the convenience and/or effectiveness of operation, so those skilled in the art can obtain the extractive solvent without any difficulty.

Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claims 8 to 11 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-7. As dependent claims of claim 7, claims 12 and 13 of the present application define that “the weight ratio of the extractive solvent to 1233zd(E) is about 0.1 to 10 (claim 12) and the extractive solvent to 1233zd(E) weight ratio is about 1 to 3 (claim 13)”.

However, the cited invention 2 discloses “the extractive solvent is used in an amount of 10-10000 parts by weight, preferably 100-200 parts by weight relative to 100 parts by weight of raw material” (refer to Paragraph [0051]). Using a suitable amount of solvent is a customary means that can be optionally selected in consideration of the convenience and/or effectiveness of operation, so those skilled in the art can obtain the amount of extractive solvent without any difficulty.

Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claims 12 and 13 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-8. Claim 14 of the present application requests for the protection of “a purified trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) obtained in accordance with the method of claim 7”.




However, as mentioned in the aforesaid reason for refusal 1-1, the cited invention 1 discloses “a trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene obtained by the following method: separating a mixture containing trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (the same as trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene; 1233zd(E)) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane using extractive distillation in the presence of an extractive solvent" (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraph [0012]). No matter which preparation (purification) method is used to obtain the compound, as long as the final product generated is determined, the invention can be construed as an invention for a substance having certain features (preparation method) as determined by the composition of the compound corresponding to the product generated. Therefore, even if the purification method for a compound is defined, the composition of the claimed compound, i.e. trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)), does not change.

In addition, even if the purification method of claim 7 is considered, as mentioned in the aforesaid reason for refusal 2-5, the cited invention 2 discloses “extracting a chlorofluorocarbon from a mixture containing 1233zd and the chlorofluorocarbon (1-chloro-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropane) using extractive distillation in the presence of a halogenated hydrocarbon-containing extractive solvent that has a high boiling point and changes the relative volatility of the components to be separated to purify 1233zd(E)” (refer to claims 1 and 5; Paragraph [0006]). It’s easy to envisage that the purified trans-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-chloro-2-propene (1233zd(E)) can be obtained by using the purification method of extracting and removing a contaminant having a boiling point similar to that of 1233zd(E), such as trichlorofluoromethane.

Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claim 14 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-9. Claim 15 of the present application request for the protection of “a distillation method comprising: feeding a feed mixture comprising a hydrochlorofluoroolefin comprising a contaminant to a first distillation column; and extracting the contaminant from the feed mixture in the first distillation column using an extractive solvent comprising a chlorinated compound to form an overhead stream comprising a purified hydrochlorofluoroolefin and a bottoms stream comprising the contaminant and the extractive solvent”.

In one aspect, as mentioned in the aforesaid reason for refusal 2-1, the cited inventions 1 and 2 disclose “the following method: subjecting a mixture comprising hydrochlorofluoroolefin (1233zd) comprising an impurity to extractive distillation using an extractive solvent containing a chlorinated compound to purify the hydrochlorofluoroolefin”. The cited invention 1 discloses that “the separation method may be carried out by using a distillation column to perform the following extractive distillation: introducing the extractive solvent at a position higher than the feedstock feed stage, and recovering the extractive solvent and 1233zd(E)” (refer to Paragraph [0014]). The cited invention 2 discloses “a distillation column is used to perform the following extractive distillation: introducing the extractive solvent at a position higher than the feedstock feed stage, extracting 1233zd from the upper portion of the column, and extracting the extractive solvent and impurity from the bottom portion of the column” (refer to Paragraphs [0052] and [0053]). Hence, it’s easy to envisage the method of extractive distillation using a first distillation column and there is no difficulty in envisaging the composition of the invention.




Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claim 15 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

2-10. As dependent claims of claim 15, claim 16 of the present application defines “further comprising: feeding the bottoms stream to a second distillation column; and separating the contaminant from the extractive solvent in the second distillation column to form a second overhead stream comprising the contaminant and a second bottoms stream comprising the extractive solvent”.

However, the cited invention 1 discloses that “the mixture containing a part of the feedstock extracted and the extractive solvent may be subjected to stripping to remove the extractive solvent, or further purified to recover the extractive solvent” (refer to Paragraph [0015]). The cited invention 2 discloses that “the mixture containing a part of the feedstock extracted and the extractive solvent is separated by means of stripping and distillation, and the extractive solvent may be recycled for reuse in extractive distillation” (refer to Paragraph [0054]). The method of separating a contaminant and an extractive solvent by means of distillation is a customary means in consideration of the convenience and/or effectiveness of operation. Those skilled in the art can obtain the method without any difficulty.

Therefore, it’s easy for those skilled in the art to obtain claim 16 based on the cited inventions 1 and 2.

Japanese to English: Clinical Study reports
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - Japanese
た主因を病理学的に明らかにし得なかった。おそらく本剤の過大大量投与により急激な高度低血糖などが生じたものと推察された。
以上の結果から,ラツトを用いた13週間の反復投与毒性試験におけるMET-88の確実中毒量は雌雄とも1600mg/kg,また,無影響量は雄が25mg/kg,雌が25mg/kg未満と考えられた。しかし,毒性学的な無影磐量としては薬理作用に基づくと考えられる組織(肝)への軽度な脂肪の沈着のほかには基 質的変化を伴わず,しかも中毒性変化の何ら認められなかった雄が100mg/kg,雌が25mg/kgと推定ざれた。

要 約

ラットにMET-88を25, 100, 400および1600mg/kgの投与量で13週間経口投与による反復投与毒性ならびに5週間の休薬による回復性を検討し,以下の知見を得た。
1. 一般状態の観察では1600mg/kg群の雌雄に下痢あるいは軟便の排泄, 肛門周囲の汚れが認められ,雌1例を切迫屠殺した。
2. 体重,摂餌量の推移,尿検査,糞潜血検査,眼科学的検査には著変はみられなかった。
3. 血液学的検査では400mg/kg以上の群の雄に活性化部分ト□ンボプラスチン時間の短縮が,雌に白血球数の減少がみられた。1600mg/kg群では雌雄にヘモグロビン量,へ
マトクリット値,リンパ球率および数の減少と分葉核好中球および単球率の増加ある いは増加傾向がみられ,さらに雄に赤血球数および白血球数の減少,プ□卜ロンビン時間の短縮,雌に分葉核好中球数の増加がみられた。
4. 血液生化学的検査では100mg/kg以上の群の雌にカルシウムの減少が,400mg/kg以上の群の雌雄に遊離脂肪酸の増加,雄に7-GTPおよびアルカリ性ホスフ7 ターゼ活性の上昇あるいは上昇傾向とグルコースの減少,雌にリン脂質,総および遊離コレステ□一ルの減少がみられた。さらに1600mg/kg群では雌雄にGOT, GPTおよびLDH活性の上昇あるいは上昇傾向,中性脂肪.総ビリルビン,尿素窒素および無機リンの増加あるいは増加傾向とコレステロール•エステル比,NaおよびC1の減少あるいは減少傾向が,雄にコリンエステラーゼ活性の上昇,雌にクレアチニンの増加および7-GTP, アルカリ性ホスファターゼ活性の上昇とグルコース,総蛋白およびアルブミンの減少がみられた。
5. 病理学的検査では400mg/kg以上の群の雄および1600mg/kg群の雌に肝の重量および重量比の増加, 1600mg/kg群の雌雄に心の重量あるいは重量比の増加がみられ,病理組織学的に肝門脈域,腎近位尿細管と心,骨格筋あるいは舌の筋線維の脂防変性(あるいは沈着),胸腺の壊死リンパ球増加および腸間膜リンパ節のリンパ球減少,睇 チモーゲン顆粒の減少,腎糸球体毛細血管の変性などがみられた。電顕検査では肝および腎近位职 細管細胞内に脂肪沈着が認められたほかに著変はみられなかった。
6. 上記諸変化はいずれも休薬により回復ないし回復傾向を示し、可逆性の変化であった。

Translation - English
Based on the above results from the 13-week repeated dose toxicity study in rats, the reliably toxic dose of MET-88 was 1600 mg/kg in both males and females and the no observed effect dose was 25 mg/kg in males and below 25 mg/kg in females. Apart from mild fatty deposits in tissue (liver), which were considered to be attributable to pharmacological action, no substrate changes and no toxic changes were observed at 100 mg/kg in males or at 25 mg/kg in females, thus these were the estimated doses without toxic effect.

ABSTRACT

The following results were obtained from investigating the repeated dose toxicity of oral administration of MET-88 in rats, at 25, 100, 400, and 1600 mg/kg for 13 weeks, and recovery with 5 weeks of drug withdrawal.
1. Observations of general condition showed diarrhea or loose stools and soiling around the anus in both males and females in the 1600 mg/kg group, with one female being urgently euthanized.
2. There were no significant changes in body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, occult blood test or ophthalmological test results.
3. Hematological tests showed shortened activated partial thromboplastin time in males and decreased white blood cells in females in the groups receiving doses of 400 mg/kg or more. In the 1600 mg/kg group, both males and females showed a decrease in hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, lymphocyte percentage and count, and an increase or a tendency toward increase in segmented neutrophil count and monocyte percentage. In addition, males showed decreases in red blood cell and white blood cell counts and shortened prothrombin time and females showed an increase in segmented neutrophil count.
4. In the groups receiving doses of 100 mg/kg or more, blood biochemistry tests showed a decrease in calcium in females; however, in the groups receiving doses of 400 mg/kg or more, both males and females showed an increase in free fatty acids, and males showed an elevation or a tendency toward elevation in γ-GTP and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as a decrease in glucose, while females showed a decrease in phospholipids and in total and free cholesterols. In the 1600 mg/kg group, both males and females also showed an elevation or a tendency toward elevation in GOT, GPT, and LDH activity, an increase or a tendency toward increase in neutral fat, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus, and a decrease or a tendency toward decrease in cholesterol/ester ratio, Na and Cl, with males showing an increase in cholinesterase activity and females an increase in creatinine, γ-GTP and alkaline phosphatase activity and a decrease in glucose, total protein and albumin.
5. Pathological examination showed an increase in the weight and weight ratio of the liver in males in the groups receiving doses of 400 mg/kg or more and in females in the 1600 mg/kg group, and an increase in the weight or weight ratio of the heart in both males and females in the 1600 mg/kg group. Histopathological findings showed fatty degeneration (or deposit) in the hepatic portal region, renal proximal tubule, heart and skeletal muscles or tongue muscle fibers, an increase in necrotizing lymphocytes in the thymus, a decrease in lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes, a decrease in pancreatic zymogen granules, and degeneration of structures such as glomerular capillaries. Electron microscopy revealed no significant changes other than fatty deposits in the liver and renal proximal tubule cells.
6. All of the above findings showed recovery or a tendency toward recovery after the drug was withdrawn, so they are reversible changes.

English to Chinese: UNANIMOUS WRITTEN CONSENT OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS IN LIEU OF A SPECIAL MEETING
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - English
In lieu of a Special Meeting of the Board of Directors of ABC USA, Incorporated, a
Maryland corporation (the "Corporation"), the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the "Board"), in
accordance with the provisions of Section 2-408(c) of the Corporations and Associations Article of the
Annotated Code of Maryland, as amended, unanimously adopt the following resolutions:

WHEREAS, in connection with the OPIC Loan, OPIC is requiring XYC, Inc., a
Maryland corporation ("XYC"), the sole member of LMN Solutions LLC, a Maryland
limited liability company (“LMN"), to guarantee up to $3,500,000 of the OPIC Loan (the "XYC
Guaranty") pursuant to the terms and conditions set forth in that certain Project Completion Agreement
(the "PCA") which shall be deemed hereby reproduced for all legal purposes, by and among ABC
Global, the Corporation, Al Pacino, Charlize Theron, LMN,
XYC and OPIC; and

WHEREAS, XYC has agreed to enter into the PCA and provide the XYC Guaranty on the
condition that the Corporation, among others, enter into an Indemnification Agreement (the
"Indemnification Agreement") which shall be deemed hereby reproduced for all legal purposes, whereby
the Corporation shall agree to indemnify XYC against losses suffered by XYC under the XYC
Guaranty, and as security for such indemnification XYC is requiring the Corporation to enter into (i) the
previously approved Stock Issuance Agreement and (ii) a Promissory Quota Assignment Agreement by
and between the Corporation and Al Pacino (the "Quota Assignment") which shall be
deemed hereby reproduced for all legal purposes, whereby Al Pacino, upon the
occurrence of certain trigger events under the Indemnification Agreement, agrees and promises to assign
and transfer a 53.75% quota of ABC Global to the Corporation.
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT

FURTHER RESOLVED, that Al Pacino, as president of the
Corporation (the "President"), Judith Ivey, as secretary of the Corporation (the
"Secretary"), and/or Keanu Reeves, as treasurer of the Corporation (the "Treasurer";
the President, the Secretary and the Treasurer shall be known collectively as the
"Officers" and individually as an "Officer"), be and hereby are duly authorized and
directed on behalf of the Corporation to take any action and execute and deliver any and
all documents, including but not limited to the Security Agreement, as Officers of the
Corporation, which would allow the Corporation and ABC Global to consummate
the Security Transactions and perform under the Security Agreement and any other
documents executed in connection with the Security Transactions on such terms and
conditions and with such revisions and supplements thereto as each such Officer may
deem necessary or advisable, and with the signature of any such Officer appearing
thereon as establishing conclusively the Board's approval and confirmation of any such
modifications or supplements so effected, and that all past transactions of a nature set
forth above are hereby ratified and confirmed; and it is

Translation - Chinese
马里兰州公司ABC美国有限公司(简称“公司”)的董事会(简称“董事会”)不召开董事会临时会议,而依照经修订的《马里兰州注释法典公司和社团条款》第2-408(c)条的规定,一致通过下列决议:

鉴于,与OPIC贷款有关,OPIC现要求作为马里兰州有限责任公司LMN Solutions有限公司(简称“LMN”)唯一股东的马里兰州公司XYC有限公司(简称“XYC”)依照ABC Global、公司、Al Pacino、Charlize Theron、LMN、XYC和OPIC之间签订的某项目完成协议(简称“PCA”,该协议在所有法律目的上应视为在此重述)中的条款和条件,为OPIC贷款提供最高为3,500,000美元的担保(简称“XYC担保”);以及

鉴于,XYC已同意签订PCA并提供XYC担保,担保的条件之一是公司应签订一份赔偿协议(简称“赔偿协议”),该协议在所有法律目的上应视为在此重述,依照该协议,公司同意赔偿XYC在XYC担保中遭受的损失,并且作为对该赔偿的保证,XYC要求公司(i)签订之前已批准的《股份发行协议》;以及(ii)与Al Pacino签订一份《约定配额转让协议》(简称“配额转让协议”),该协议在所有法律目的上应视为在此重述,依照该协议,在发生赔偿协议所规定的某些触发事件时,Al Pacino同意和承诺将ABC Global的53.75%的股份配额转让给公司。

为此,

兹进一步决定,特此正式授权和指示公司总裁Al Pacino(简称“总裁”)、公司秘书Judith Ivey(简称“秘书”)和/或公司财务主管Keanu Reeves(简称“财务主管”,总裁、秘书和财务主管合称为“高管们”,单独称为“高管”),代表公司、以公司高管的身份采取为使公司和ABC Global完成该担保交易、履行该担保协议以及与该担保交易有关而签署的任何其他文件而需要采取的任何行动,以及签署和交付为此所需要的任何及所有文件,包括但不限于该担保协议,以及依照该每一位高管认为必要和合理的条款和条件而签署的与担保交易有关的任何其它文件,以及对该等文件作出其认为必要或合理的修订和补充,并且任何该高管在该等文件上的签字应视为结论性地构成董事会对于所实施的任何该等修订或补充的批准和确认,并且董事会特此澄清和确认上述性质的所有过往交易;以及
English to Chinese: Contract Translation
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - English
Upon the Church’s request, Contractor shall furnish to the Church executed copies of any such subcontractor agreements. Contractor shall require all persons and entities performing Services in connection with the Musical Products and Deliverable Items to execute a release in the form set forth in Exhibit D attached hereto, and Contractor shall deliver the original of the same to the Church. Contractor represents and warrants that all people that perform Services in connection with the Musical Products and Deliverable Items have granted releases for use of their names, likenesses, voices and performances in the Musical Products and the Deliverable Items. Contractor agrees to indemnify the Church and hold the Church harmless from any and all claims by the Members and Contractor shall pay for any damages resulting from such claims and shall pay all of the Church’s reasonable and necessary legal fees and costs associated with such claims. This Section shall survive the termination or expiration of this Agreement or the conclusion of any Project Assignment Contract.

1.4 Registration. Contractor hereby irrevocably assigns, transfers and delivers to the Church the right to seek copyright registration of the Musical Products and the Deliverable Items in the Church’s name, and Contractor agrees to execute all papers and to perform such other proper acts as Church may deem necessary to secure for the Church or its designee the rights herein. At the Church’s request, during and after the production of the Musical Products and Deliverable Items, Contractor agrees to execute documents, and will give testimony and take further acts requested by the Church to acquire, perfect, transfer, maintain and enforce patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret and other legal protection in connection with the Musical Products and the Deliverable Items, including without limitation filing of a copy of this Agreement with the appropriate government agency. Contractor hereby appoints the Secretary of the Church as Contractor’s attorneys-in-fact to execute documents on Contractor’s behalf for this purpose.
Translation - Chinese
如经教会要求,承包商应向教会提供任何该等分包商协议的已签署副本。承包商应要求履行与音乐产品和可交付项相关之服务的所有人员和实体均签署本协议附录 D 中规定形式的免责声明,承包商应将该免责声明的原件送交教会。承包商表示并保证,履行与音乐产品和可交付项相关之服务的所有人员均已给予免责声明,授权在音乐产品和可交付项中使用其姓名、肖像、语音和表演。承包商同意,对于成员提出的任何和所有索赔,其将给予教会赔偿,并使教会免受其害,承包商应支付因该等索赔引起的任何损害赔偿金,并应支付教会与该等索赔相关的所有合理且必需的法律费用和开支。本条规定应在本协议终止或到期或任何项目转让合同结束之后继续有效。

1.4 注册。承包商特此不可撤销地向教会转让、让渡和交付版权注册权,允许以教会的名义注册音乐产品和可交付项的版权,承包商同意签署和执行教会为了确保教会或其指定人员获取本协议中所述权利而认为必要的所有文件和所有其他适当行为。在制作音乐产品和可交付项期间和之后,承包商同意将签署教会所要求的相关文书,且提供教会所要求的相关证明并采取教会所要求的进一步措施,以获取、完善、转让、维护和执行与音乐产品和可交付项有关的专利、版权、商标、商业秘密和其他法律保护,包括但不限于向相应政府机构备案一份本协议。承包商特此任命教会的秘书担任承包商的事实授权代理人代表承包商为此目的签署文书。
Korean to English: IRB Test
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - Korean
본 통보서에 기재된 사항은 서울대학교의과대학/서울대학교병원 의학연구윤리심의위원회의 기록된 내용과 일치 함을 증명합니다.
본의학연구윤리심의위원회는 KGCP 및 ICH-GCP를 준수하며 생명윤리 및 안전에 관한 법률 등 관련 법규를 준수합니다. 본 연구와 이해관계(Conflict of Interest)가 있는 위원이 있을 경우 연구의 심의에서 배제하였습니다.
Translation - English
We certify that information contained in this Notice is consistent with the records at IRB of Seoul National University College of Medicine/Seoul National University Hospital.
This IRB complies with the applicable laws and regulations including KGCP, ICH-GCP, and Bioethics and Safety Act.
Any member who has a conflict of interest with this study has been excluded from this study review.
Japanese to English: BUTYL RUBBER-BASED ADHESIVE COMPOSITION, AN ADHESIVE TAPE USING THE BUTYL RUBBER-BASED ADHESIVE COMPOSITION, A WATERPROOF SHEET, AND A JOINED BODY FOR A ROOF USING THE BUTYL RUBBER-BASED ADHESIVE COMPOSITION OR THE ADHESIVE TAPE
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Patents
Source text - Japanese
【特許請求の範囲】
【請求項1】
瓦屋根の固定に用いるための粘着剤組成物であって、
(1)ブチルゴム100質量部と、
(2)シランカップリング剤0.2~5質量部と、
(3)ポリエチレン2~35質量部と、
を含有してなる瓦屋根用のブチルゴム系粘着剤組成物。
【請求項2】
前記瓦は、陶器瓦である請求項1記載のブチルゴム系粘着剤組成物。
【請求項3】
(2)ポリエチレンのVicat軟化点が90℃以下である請求項1または2に記載のブチルゴム系粘着剤組成物。
【請求項4】
90℃にて14週間暴露後の180°粘着力が30N/25mm以上である請求項1から3のいずれか一項に記載のブチルゴム系粘着剤組成物。
【請求項5】
請求項1から4のいずれか一項に記載のブチルゴム系粘着剤組成物を、テープ状に加工した粘着テープ。
【請求項6】
請求項1から4のいずれか一項に記載のブチルゴム系粘着剤組成物からなる粘着剤層と、
該粘着剤層に積層された防水シートと、
からなる屋根用防水シート。
【請求項7】
請求項5記載の粘着テープと、
該粘着剤等に積層された防水シートと、
からなる屋根用防水シート。
【請求項8】
請求項5記載の粘着テープを用いて接合した屋根瓦と防水シートの接合体。
Translation - English
[Claims]
[Claim 1]
An adhesive composition for use in the fixation of tile roofs, which is a butyl rubber-based adhesive composition for tile roofs, containing
(1) 100 parts by mass of butyl rubber, and
(2) Silane coupling agent 0.2 to 5 parts by mass, and
(3) 2 to 35 parts by mass of polyethylene.
[Claim 2]
The butyl rubber-based adhesive composition described in claim 1, wherein the roof tile is a ceramic roof tile.
[Claim 3]
(2) The butyl rubber-based adhesive composition described in either of claims 1 and 2, wherein the Vicat softening point of the polyethylene is 90C or lower.
[Claim 4]
The butyl rubber-based adhesive composition described in any of claims 1 to 3, wherein the 180 adhesive force after exposure at 90C for 14 weeks is 30N/25mm or more.
[Claim 5]
An adhesive tape obtained by processing the butyl rubber-based adhesive composition described in claims 1 to 4 into a tape form.
[Claim 6]
A waterproof sheet for roofs which comprises an adhesive layer made of the butyl rubber-based adhesive composition described in any of claims 1 to 4, and
a waterproof sheet laminated onto the adhesive layer.
[Claim 7]
A waterproof sheet for roofs which comprises the adhesive tape according to claim 5, and
a waterproof sheet laminated onto the adhesive, etc.
[Claim 8]
A joined body of roof tiles and a waterproof sheet joined by using the adhesive tape described in claim 5.
Japanese to English: PROPOSAL FOR ON-THE-FLY - AUTOMATED STORAGE TIERING (OTF-AST)
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Computers (general)
Source text - Japanese
概要:
ストレージシステムのコストパフォーマンスを向上する目的で,SSDとHDDを組み合わせた階層ストレージシステムが提案されており,一定期間にアクセス頻度の高いデータをSSDに置くことで高速化を図る仕組みである。しかし,ファイル共有ストレージへのアクセスパターンにおいては,記憶領域の狭い範囲に数分から数十分間IOが集中し,時間と共に別の領域に移動する特徴があるため,長い期間の頻度でデータを移動する従来型の階層ストレージシステムが有効ではない。
本論文では,短い時間でIO集中が発生した領域をその都度捉えてSSDに移動する On-The-Fly – Automated Storage Tiering (OTF-AST)の提案を行う。提案手法では,分単位の統計情報を用い,性能向上効果が期待出来る領域をIOの集中度とその継続時間よりその都度filteringすることで SSDにIOを集中させることに成功した。
今回,公開されているストレージアクセス履歴データである MSR Cambridge ワークロードを対象に評価を行い,SSDアクセス率が従来の階層ストレージシステム比で最大 45%向上し,user IO平均レスポンスが最大 11%向上することを明らかにした。
Translation - English
Abstract:
To improve the cost performance of a storage system, a tiered storage system combining SSDs and HDDs is proposed, which is a mechanism for increasing the speed by storing data of high access frequency in a certain period in SSD. However, with the file-sharing storage access pattern, IO is concentrated in a narrow range of memory areas for several to tens of minutes, and due to the characteristics of its movement to different areas as time elapses, a conventional tired storage system, which moves data at a frequency of a long period of time, is ineffective.
In this paper, the On-The-Fly Automated Storage Tiering
(OTF-AST), which captures areas where IO concentration occurs each time in a short time, and moves them to SSD, is proposed. With the proposed method, IOs are successfully concentrated on SSD by using the statistics information in the unit of minute and filtering the areas whose performance improvement are expected each time based on the IO concentration level and the duration of the concentration.
In this paper, the evaluation is made on the MSR Cambridge workload which is the publicly available storage access history data, and it is evident that compared to the conventional tired storage system, the SSD access rate is improved by up to 45% and the average user IO response is improved by up to 11%.
English to Chinese: Regulating Software Usage Rights in Detail
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: IT (Information Technology)
Source text - English
Regulating Software Usage Rights in Detail
________________________________________
By GRP Rainer LLP
Computers have become indispensable in private households and even more so in companies. When using software, licensing agreements, in particular, must be observed.

Anyone who regularly works with a computer also uses appropriate software. This applies both to private use and the commercial sector. Several programmes are already pre-installed; others can be downloaded, purchased or developed specifically for the needs of a business. In order to be able to use the software legally, corresponding usage rights need to be agreed to. This frequently happens without any great effort by clicking on a confirmation button.

However, particularly in the case of companies that require special software, there is considerably more variation in this regard. First of all, one must distinguish between non-exclusive and exclusive licences. While a non-exclusive licence grants the licensee a right of use, the licensor – generally the business which develops the software – can also grant the same rights to other users and continue to market the software.

An exclusive licence, on the other hand, grants the customer an exclusive right of use. In this case, the licensor is normally not allowed to issue further licences. For the business that has acquired an exclusive licence, the software can provide a competitive advantage vis-à-vis the other market participants or more effectively structure workflows. It is therefore enormously important for both sides to precisely define the usage rights so that there are no subsequent misunderstandings or legal disputes. Points such as the scope of the usage rights, duration of exclusive use, issuing of sub-licences to third parties and, of course, the licensing fees need to be clearly regulated in the licensing agreement.

In order for the drafting of the agreement to be as detailed and clear as possible, a lawyer versed in software law ought to be consulted. He will also know which other fields of law need to be taken into account accordingly. Copyrights, trademark rights or patent rights, for example, need to be taken into consideration. Should legal disputes nevertheless emerge at a later stage, the lawyer will assume the role of representing your interests and enforce claims and rights against third parties.

Translation - Chinese
详细规定软件使用权
________________________________________
GRP Rainer 律师事务所
电脑在家庭中已经变得不可或缺,在公司更是如此。在使用软件时,特别需要注意遵守软件许可协议。

任何常常使用电脑工作的人也会使用相应的软件。这一点同时适用于私人使用和商业部门。一些程序是预安装的;其他可以下载,购买,或者按照业务需求特别开发。为了能合法地使用软件,就需要对相应的使用权表示同意。通常情况下,这不需要费什么力,只要点击确认按钮就行。

不过,尤其是在需要特殊软件的公司,这个情况会变得更复杂。首先,使用者必须区分非专属许可和专属许可。非专属许可向被许可人授予使用权,许可人——通常是开发软件的企业——也可以向其他使用者授予同样的权利,并继续销售该软件。

而专属许可则是向客户授予专属的使用权。在这种情况下,通常不允许许可人再对外授予许可。对获得专属许可的企业而言,该软件可以带来某种相对其他市场参与者的竞争优势,或是更具效率的工作流程结构。因此,精确界定使用权对双方而言都极其重要,免得将来发生错误理解或法律争议。在许可协议中,需要清楚地规定诸如专属使用权的范围、向第三方作再许可、以及许可费等问题。

为了尽可能细致和清楚地起草协议,应当咨询熟悉软件法律法规的律师。他还应当了解需要加以考虑的其他法律领域。例如,需要考虑著作权、商标权或者专利权。倘若将来发生法律争议,这位律师将代表您的利益,执行针对第三方的索赔并主张权利。

Chinese to English: A METHOD FOR RECOVERING FUSED SALT CHLORINATION SLAG
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Patents
Source text - Chinese
权利要求书
1.熔盐氯化废渣的回收方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:
a、将熔盐氯化废渣与水混合,搅拌,过滤,得滤液和滤渣;其中,熔盐氯化废渣与水的固液比为1:(3~5)g/ml;
b、滤液重结晶,得再生熔盐渣。
2.根据权利要求1所述的熔盐氯化废渣的回收方法,其特征在于:所述熔盐氯化废渣为盐氯化法生产海绵钛或钛白粉得到的废渣。
3.根据权利要求2所述的熔盐氯化废渣的回收方法,其特征在于:所述熔盐氯化废渣由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 30~42%,MgCl2< 30%,KCl< 5%,FeCl210~15%,CaCl2< 10%,MnCl2< 5%,FeCl31~5%,Al2O30~3%,TiO22~5%,SiO2< 7%,C1~ 5%;
优选由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 35~40%,MgCl220~30%,KCl 0~2%,FeCl210~15%,CaCl24~10%,MnCl20~3%,FeCl31~5%,Al2O30~3%,TiO22~5%,SiO21~5%,C 3~5%;
或优选由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 33.6 %,MgCl227.63 %,KCl 2.69 %,FeCl212.13 %,CaCl25.24 %,MnCl21.66 %,FeCl32.24 %,Al2O32.77 %,TiO23.5 %,SiO25.7%,C2.84%。
4.根据权利要求1~ 3 任一项所述的熔盐氯化废渣的回收方法,其特征在于:所述熔盐氯化废渣中-200 目≥ 90%。
5.根据权利要求1~ 4 任一项所述的熔盐氯化废渣的回收方法,其特征在于:a 步骤搅拌于室温下进行,搅拌时间为1~ 1.5h。
6.根据权利要求1~ 5 任一项所述的熔盐氯化废渣的回收方法,其特征在于:所述再生熔盐渣由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 25.2~37.5%,MgCl2< 29.47 %,KCl< 4.46%,FeCl28.4~13.97%,CaCl2< 9.57%,MnCl2< 4.46%,FeCl30.8~4.46%;
优选由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 31.8~37.5%,MgCl218.2~29.47%,KCl0~3%,FeCl29.1~13.4%,CaCl23.6~9.57%,MnCl20~4.46%,FeCl30.8~3.46%;
或优选由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 37.26~37.45%,MgCl228.98~29.4%,KCl3.97~4.2 %,FeCl213.63~13.97 %,CaCl27.89~8.93 %,MnCl23.19~3.83 %,
FeCl33.45~3.85%。
7.再生熔盐渣在提高人造金红石品位中的用途,其特征在于:所述再生熔盐渣由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 25.2~37.5%,MgCl2< 29.47%,KCl< 4.46%,FeCl28.4~13.97%,CaCl2< 9.57%,MnCl2< 4.46%,FeCl30.8~4.46%。
8.根据权利要求9所述的再生熔盐渣在提高人造金红石品位中的用途,其特征在于:所述再生熔盐渣由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 31.8~37.5%,MgCl218.2~29.47%,KCl 0~3 %,FeCl29.1~13.4 %,CaCl23.6~9.57 %,MnCl20~4.46 %,FeCl30.8~3.46%;
或优选由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 37.26~37.45%,MgCl228.98~29.4%,KCl3.97~4.2 %,FeCl213.63~13.97 %,CaCl27.89~8.93 %,MnCl23.19~3.83 %,FeCl33.45~3.85%。


9.根据权利要求7或8所述的再生熔盐渣在提高人造金红石品位中的用途,其特征在于,将再生熔盐渣添加于人造金红石的酸浸步骤中,按质量计,再生熔盐渣 : 改性原料= 20~50:100 ;优选为,再生熔盐渣 : 改性原料= 40~50:100。
10.人造金红石的生产方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:
a、对钛铁矿进行氧化和还原处理,得到改性钛原料;
b、在改性钛原料中添加再生熔盐渣,然后加入盐酸,进行酸浸,得浸出液和浸出固体物料;
其中,所述再生熔盐渣由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 25.2~37.5 %,MgCl2< 29.47 %,KCl< 4.46 %,FeCl28.4~13.97 %,CaCl2< 9.57 %,MnCl2< 4.46 %,FeCl30.8~4.46%;
优选由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 31.8~37.5%,MgCl218.2~29.47%,KCl0~3%,FeCl29.1~13.4%,CaCl23.6~9.57%,MnCl20~4.46%,FeCl30.8~3.46%;
或优选由以下重量百分比组分组成:NaCl 37.26~37.45%,MgCl228.98~29.4%,KCl3.97~4.2 %,FeCl213.63~13.97 %,CaCl27.89~8.93 %,MnCl23.19~3.83 %,
FeCl33.45~3.85%;
按质量计,再生熔盐渣 : 改性原料= 20~50:100 ;
作为优选方案,按质量计,再生熔盐渣 : 改性原料= 40~50:100 ;
c、浸出固体物料洗涤、过滤、干燥、高温煅烧即得人造金红石;浸出液采用Ruthner废
酸焙烧法回收,得盐酸和铁粉,盐酸返回 b 步骤。
Translation - English
Claims
1. A method for recovering fused salt chlorination slag, characterized by comprising the steps of:
a. mixing the fused salt chlorination slag with water, stirring and filtering the mixture, thereby obtaining a filtrate and filter residues; wherein the solid-to-liquid ratio of the fused salt chlorination slag to water is 1:(3-5) g/ml;
b. recrystallizing the filtrate thereby obtaining regenerated fused salt slag.
2. The method for recovering fused salt chlorination slag according to claim 1, characterized in that the fused salt chlorination slag is the slag generated in the salt chlorination process for the production of titanium sponge or titanium dioxide.
3. The method for recovering fused salt chlorination slag according to claim 2, characterized in that the fused salt chlorination slag has the following mass percent composition: NaCl 30-42% , MgCl2 < 30%,
KCl < 5%, FeCl2 10-15%, CaCl2 < 10%, MnCl2 < 5%, FeCl3 1-5%, Al2O3 0-3%, TiO2 2-5%, SiO2
Japanese to English: EFFECTS OF ADDING SN IN N-BUTANE DEHYDROGENATION ON AN ALUMINA-SUPPORTED PT CATALYST PREPARED BY CO-IMPREGNATION METHOD AND SOL-GEL METHOD
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
3.4.触媒におけるSnの酸化状態と結晶相
還元処理後のPt/SnO2-Al2O3およびPt-Sn/Al2O3を用いたXPS測定の結果をFigs.5-1,5-2,5-3とTable 3に示す。結合エネルギー486.2~486.7eV,484.5eVはそれぞれSn(II,IV),Sn(0)に帰属される21),30),32),33)。Table 3より,両触媒ともにSnは主に酸化物として触媒表面に存在することが分かった。
同様に還元処理後のPt/SnO2-Al2O3およびPt-Sn/Al2O3についてのXRD測定結果をFig.6に示す。Fig.6(a)より,Pt/SnO2-Al2O3においては,γ-Al2O3に帰属される回折パターンのみが確認された。SnO2-Al2O3担体(Fig.2(b))で見られたSnO2は還元処理により無定形化したと考えられる。一方,Fig.6(b),(c)より,Pt-Sn/Al2O3ではSn含有量の増加に伴いPt-Snのバイメタリック相であるPtSnおよびPtSn2の形成と粒子成長が確認された。また,Sn含有量が多い場合には金属Sn相の形成も確認できたことから,Pt/SnO2-Al2O3よりもPtによるSn酸化物の還元が進行しやすいと考えられる。Pt共存下において,Ptからのスピルオーバー水素によりSn酸化物が還元されやすくなるとする報告は多い24)~26)。PtSn2の形成に関しては,Pt前駆体との塩化スズ共含浸時に生成する[PtCl2(SnCl3)2]2-錯体に起因すると考えられ,この錯体でPtとSnの原子比がPt:Sn=1:2であることからもPtSn2相が形成されやすい状態にあると言える。Sn過剰なPtSn2は不活性な相であると報告されている21),32),34)。本反応においてPt/SnO2-Al2O3がPt-Sn/Al2O3よりも高活性を示した要因の一つは,Sn酸化物が担体上に均等に分布するため,Sn過剰なPt-Snバイメタリック相が形成されず,活性相であるPt3Sn34),35)が高分散状態で担体表面に形成したためであると考察した。
Fig.7に反応後触媒のXRD測定結果を示す。Fig.7(a)より,Pt/SnO2-Al2O3ではSn含有量が13.2wt%であるにもかかわらず,Sn相およびPt由来のバイメタリック相は確認されなかった。一方,Fig.7(b)より,Pt-Sn/Al2O3では反応前と同様にPtSn,PtSn2相が確認され,PtSn2相の強度が相対的に減少するに伴いPtSn相の強度が増加していることが分かる。これらの比較から,Pt/SnO2-Al2O3においては,反応後5時間を経過した後でもPt3Sn粒子とSn酸化物が高分散に担体表面上に存在した状態を維持していると考えられ,触媒の安定性に優れていると言える。この結果はn-ブタン脱水素反応の結果とも一致しており,Sn含有量が13.2wt%のPt/SnO2-Al2O3では活性劣化が見られず,転化率は非常に安定していた。
Translation - English
3.4 Oxidation state and crystal phase of Sn in catalysts
The results of XPS analysis of Pt/SnO2-Al2O3 and Pt-Sn/Al2O3 after the reduction process are shown in Figs. 5-1, 5-2, 5-3 and Table 3. Their binding energies are respectively 486.2~486.7 eV and 484.5 eV, which are respectively attributable to Sn(II, IV) and Sn(0)[21, 30 , 32, 33]. Table 3 shows that Sn existed as an oxide on the catalyst surface of both catalysts.
Similarly, the results of XRD analysis of Pt/SnO2-Al2O3 and Pt-Sn/Al2O3 after the reduction processing are shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 6(a) shows only a diffraction pattern of Pt/SnO2-Al2O3 that is attributable to γ-Al2O3. It is believed that the SnO2 found in the SnO2-Al2O3 support (Fig. 2(b)) became amorphous in form by the reduction processing. On the other hand, Fig. 6(b), (c) show the formation and particle growth of PtSn and PtSn2, which are the bi-metallic phases of Pt-Sn, in the Pt-Sn/Al2O3 as the Sn content increases. Moreover, for a high Sn content, because it could be verified that the metal Sn phase was also formed, it was believed that Pt easily reduced Sn oxide as compared to Pt/SnO2-Al2O3. In the event of Pt coexistence, many reports state that the spillover hydrogen tends to reduce Sn oxide[24-26]. The PtSn2 is possibly formed by the complex [PtCl2(SnCl3)2]2- that is produced when the stannous chloride is co-impregnated with the Pt precursor. Because the complex has an atom ratio Pt:Sn = 1:2, it also can be said to be a state where the PtSn2 phase tends to form. It was reported that PtSn2 with excessive Sn was a non-active phase[21, 32, 34]. In this reaction, one of the reasons that Pt/SnO2-Al2O3 showed a higher activity than Pt-Sn/Al2O3 was that the Sn oxides were evenly distributed on the support and no Pt-Sn bi-metallic phase with excessive Sn was formed and the Pt3Sn as the active phase [34, 35] was possibly formed on the surface of the support in a highly distributed state.
Fig.7 shows the results of the XRD analysis of the catalysts after the reaction. It can be seen from Fig.7(a) that no Sn phase and bi-metallic phase caused by Pt is found in Pt/SnO2-Al2O3 although the Sn content is 13.2 wt%. On the other hand, it can be known from Fig.7(b) that the same phases of PtSn and PtSn2 are found in Pt-Sn/Al2O3 before and after the reaction although the intensity of PtSn phase increase as the PtSn2 phase relatively decreases. Through these comparisons, in Pt/SnO2-Al2O3 and Pt3Sn particles, the Sn oxides maintain the status of highly dispersive existence on the support surface even 5 hours have passed after the reaction, thus it can be said that the stability of catalyst is excellent. The results are consistent with the results of the n-butane dehydrogenation. No activity deterioration of Pt/SnO2-Al2O3 was found although the Sn content was 13.2 wt%, and the conversion rate was very stable.
Japanese to English: Real Property Purchase and Sale Agreement
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - Japanese
第4条(売買代金支払の前提条件)
前条に定める買主による売買代金の支払は、以下の各号に定める事項(但し、買主が任意の裁量により免除した事項を除く。)を前提条件とする。また売主は、以下の各号に定める条件がすべて満たされていることを売主が証する書面を、売買代金の支払までに買主に提出するものとする。もし、売買代金の支払後直ちに完了する条件があれば、売主は、その具体的な内容を売主が証する書面に記載するものとする。
(1) 第5条に定める負担の除去が完了していること、又は、売買代金の支払後直ちに完了すると買主により合理的かつ客観的に判断されていること。
(2) 第13条に定める売主の表明及び保証が重要な点において全て真実かつ正確であること。
(3) 売主が本契約に違反しておらず、かつ、売主が本物件の所有権移転時及び引渡し時(それぞれ第7条で定義する。)までに履行することを要する義務を全て履行していること、又は、売買代金の支払後直ちに完了すると買主により合理的かつ客観的に判断されていること。
(4) 第8条に定める買主に交付する登記関連書類が本物件の所有権移転登記の申請のために有効で十分な書類であること。
(5) 売買実行日までに別紙2-2「売買実行日までの売主の義務」に記載された売主の義務が履行されていること。
第5条(負担除去)
1. 売主は、本物件の所有権移転時までに、本物件について抵当権(根抵当権を含む。)・質権・先取特権・その他の担保権(譲渡担保権を含む。)、地上権・地役権・賃借権(但し、別紙4「テナントリスト」に記載された賃借権(本物件引渡し時においては本件賃借人)を除く。)、その他の用益権、差押え、仮差押え、債権差押え、租税公課・その他の賦課金の未納等、名目・形式の如何を問わず、買主の本物件に対する完全な所有権の行使の妨げとなる一切の負担(但し、別紙2「物件概要書」に記載された事項を除く。)を除去・抹消しなければならない。売主は、買主の第3条に定める売買代金の支払いと引換えに、かかる権利・負担の消滅に必要な一切の登記手続書類(もしあれば)及びその他の関係書類を、買主が指定した司法書士に対し交付する。なお、上記負担等の除去・抹消手続にかかる一切の費用(登記手続費用、司法書士費用を含む。)は売主の負担とする。
2. 売主は、本物件の所有権移転時までに、その責任と費用負担において、本契約に基づく取引について必要な全ての手続(政府機関その他の第三者の承認、同意、登録又は届出を含む。)を完了しなければならない。
3. 売主は、前各項に掲げるもののほか、売買実行日までに、別紙2-2「売買実行日までの売主の義務」に記載された売主の義務(但し、本契約の締結後に別途買主がその履践を免除したものを除く。)を完了しなければならない。

4. 前各項の定めにかかわらず、売主は、自らの負担と責任で別紙2-3「売買実行日以降の売主の義務」に記載の義務について、同別紙記載の各条件に従って履践を完了して買主の確認を得るものとする。但し、買主が免除し、若しくは買主との間で別途合意した義務についてはこの限りでない。

第11条(敷金の承継)
1. 売主は、本物件の引渡しのときに、本物件の引渡しの時点で本件賃借人から受領している預り敷金又は保証金の返還債務(以下、「敷金等返還債務」という。)を、買主に免責的に承継させるものとする。
2. 売主は、買主に対して、敷金等返還債務相当額の金銭を支払うものとする。当該支払いは、第3条第2項に定める売買代金の支払時に売主及び買主間で精算するものとする。
3. 売主が前項に基づき買主に対して支払うべき敷金・保証金・クリーニング費用返還債務相当額(平成30年4月27日においては金9,175,600円。但し、本物件の引渡しまでに敷金等返還債務相当額の金額が変更された場合は、当該変更後の金額とし、売主はかかる変更について買主に対し速やかにその合理的根拠資料と共に書面により通知する。)は、売主が買主より受領する売買代金と差引き決済により処理するものとする。
4. 本物件の引渡し以前に本件賃借人から収受した更新料、敷引又は敷金の償却等に関し、本物件の引渡し以降、本件賃借人から売主又は買主に対し何らかの請求(本物件の引渡し以前に売主が受領した更新料の金額が過大だとして返還の請求がされた場合を含む。)がなされた場合、売主は、適用法令の範囲内で、かかる請求に対して、自己の費用と責任をもって適切に対応するものとし、また、買主がこれによって損害等を被ったときは、売主はかかる損害等を補償する。

第13条(売主による表明・保証)
1. 売主は、買主に対して、以下の事項が本契約締結日及び売買実行日において、真実かつ正確であることを表明し、保証する。売主の買主に対する本条の表明及び保証の違反は、売主の故意、過失の有無を問わず、売主の本契約違反を構成するものとする。売主が本条規定の表明及び保証に違反した場合、売主は、当該違反に起因又は関連して買主に生じた損害及び費用を速やかに賠償する。
(1) 売主は、日本法に基づき適法に設立され有効に存在する法人であり、自己の財産を所有し、本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な権利能力及び行為能力を有しており、売主にとって本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な一切の行為(社内の授権手続を含むが、それには限られない。)を完了していること。
(2) 本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行は、日本国における法律、政令、省令、通達又はその他の規則、売主の定款、取締役会規則その他の社内規則、又は売主若しくはその財産を拘束する又はその財産に影響を及ぼす金銭消費貸借、担保権設定契約若しくはその予約又はその他の契約に反していないこと。
(3) 売主は、破産手続開始、民事再生手続開始又は類似の法的手続の申し立てをしておらず、第三者によるかかる手続の申し立てもされていないこと。売主は、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態になく、その他売主の信用状態に重大な懸念が発生していないこと。また、本契約に基づく売買取引の結果、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態にならないこと。
(4) 売主による本契約の締結及び履行は、正当な目的に基づきなされるものであり、詐害目的意図又は不法な目的に基づきなされるものではないこと。売主は本契約に基づく本物件の売却により、本物件の金銭の換価による財産の隠匿、無償の供与、その他売主の債権者を害する処分をする意思を有しておらず、また本契約に基づく本物件の売却はかかる売主の債権者を害する処分をする虞を現に生じさせるものではないこと。

(5) 本物件の売却に関して、売主は真正かつ有効な売買とする意図を有しており、本物件を担保に供するとの意図はないこと。
(6) 本物件が別紙3「売主の本物件に関する表明・保証事項」のとおりであること。但し、別紙2「物件概要書」に記載された事項のうち、別紙3「売主の本物件に関する表明・保証事項」に記載のいずれかに反するものには、売主の表明及び保証は及ばないものとするが、売主が物件概要書において約束した事項は、売主の本契約に基づく義務を構成するものとする。
2. 前項各号に定める表明事項に関し、誤りがあり又は不正確であったことが判明した場合、あるいは売買実行日までに変更が生じた場合には、売主は直ちに買主にその旨を書面で通知するものとする。
第14条(買主による表明・保証)
1. 買主は、売主に対して、以下の事項が本契約の締結日において、真実かつ正確であることを表明し、保証する。買主の売主に対する本条の表明及び保証の違反は、買主の故意、過失の有無を問わず、買主の本契約違反を構成するものとする。買主が本条規定の表明及び保証事務に違反した場合、買主は、当該違反に起因又は関連して売主に生じた損害及び費用を速やかに賠償する。
(1) 買主は、日本法に基づき適法に設立され有効に存在する法人であり、自己の財産を所有し、本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な権利能力及び行為能力を有しており、買主にとって本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な一切の行為(社内の授権手続を含むが、それには限られない。)を完了していること。
(2) 本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行は、日本国における法律、政令、省令、通達又はその他の規則、買主の定款、その他の社内規則(もしあれば)、又は買主若しくはその財産を拘束する又はその財産に影響を及ぼす金銭消費貸借、担保権設定契約若しくはその予約又はその他の契約に反していないこと。
(3) 買主は、破産手続開始、民事再生手続開始又は類似の法的手続の申し立てをしておらず、第三者によるかかる手続の申し立てもされていないこと。買主は、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態になく、その他買主の信用状態に重大な懸念が発生していないこと。また、本契約に基づく売買取引の結果、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態にならないこと。
2. 前項各号に定める表明事項に関し、誤りがあり又は不正確であったことが判明した場合、あるいは売買実行日までに変更が生じた場合には、買主は直ちに売主にその旨を書面で通知するものとする。
第15条(瑕疵担保責任)
1. 売主は、本物件の瑕疵(隠れたる瑕疵を含むが、これに限られない。)に関しては、その瑕疵があることを原因として本物件の引渡し後に買主に生じた損害、損失及び費用(第三者からの請求によるものを含む。)について、本契約に基づいて本物件の引渡しの日から2年以内に買主から書面で請求を受けた場合に限り、その責任を負うものとする。

なお、別紙2-2「売買実行日までの売主の義務」に記載された事項(買主が明示的に免除したものを除く。)については、本契約書の締結をもって買主による書面での請求がなされたものとみなす。
2. 本契約に関し、商法(明治32年法律第48号、その後の改正を含む。)第526条は適用されないものとする。
3. 前二項の規定は、本契約の他の条項(第13条を含むが、これに限らない。)に基づき買主が売主に対して有する権利に影響を与えるものではない。

第19条(反社会的勢力の排除)
1. いずれの当事者も次の各号の事項を確約する。
(1) 自らが、暴力団、暴力団関係企業、総会屋、極左若しくは極右団体、カルト等若しくはこれらに準ずる者又はその構成員(以下、総称して「反社会的勢力」という。)ではないこと。
(2) 自らの役員(業務を執行する社員、取締役、執行役又はこれらに準ずる者をいう。)が反社会的勢力ではないこと。
(3) 反社会的勢力に自己の名義を利用させ、本契約を締結するものでないこと。
(4) 本物件の売買が完了するまでの間に、自ら又は第三者を利用して、本契約に関して次の行為をしないこと。
ア 相手方に対する脅迫的な言動又は暴力を用いる行為
イ 偽計又は威力を用いて相手方の業務を妨害し、又は信用を毀損する行為
2. 一方の当事者が次のいずれかに該当した場合、相手方当事者は、何らの催告を要せずして、本契約を解除することができる。
(1) 前項第(1)号又は第(2)号の確約に反する申告をしたことが判明した場合
(2) 前項第(3)号の確約に反し契約をしたことが判明した場合
(3) 前項第(4)号の確約に反した行為をした場合
3. 買主は、売主に対し、自ら又は第三者をして本物件を反社会的勢力の事務所その他の活動の拠点に供しないことを確約する。
4. 売主は、買主が前項に反した行為をした場合には、何らの催告を要せずして、本契約を解除することができる。
5. 本条第2項の規定により相手方当事者が本契約を解除した場合、一方の当事者は違約金として売買代金の20%相当額を支払うものとし、かつ相手方当事者は、解除による損害・費用(第三者からの請求によるもの及び弁護士費用等を含むがこれらに限定されない。)を請求することができる。
6. 本条第2項の規定により相手方当事者が本契約を解除した場合には、一方の当事者は、解除により生じる損害について、相手方当事者に請求することはできない。
7. 第2項又は第4項の規定により本契約が解除された場合の解除及び違約金については、本条の規定によるものとし、第18条の規定は適用しない。

第21条(費用負担)
本契約に別段の定めがある場合を除き、買主及び売主は、本契約及び本契約に関連して作成又は締結される文書の準備、交渉及び締結並びにこれらに基づく義務の履行に関するすべての費用(弁護士費用、本契約書作成費用及びその他の印紙代を含むがこれらに限定されない。)を各自負担する。

Translation - English
Article 4 (Conditions for Payment of Sale Price)
The payment of the Sale Price made by the Buyer under the preceding article shall take the following as conditions (excluding the conditions waived by the Buyer where appropriate). In addition, the Seller shall, before payment of the Sale Price, deliver to the Buyer written materials proving that all conditions set out in the following have been satisfied. If some conditions will be met forthwith after payment of the Sale Price, the Seller shall state such conditions in writing to serve as evidence.
(1) The Buyer reasonably and objectively determines that the Removal of Encumbrances specified in Article 5 has been achieved or will be achieved immediately after payment of the Sale Price.
(2) The Seller’s representations and warranties set out in Article 13 are all true and accurate in all material respects.
(3) The Buyer reasonably and objectively determines that the Seller has not contravened this Agreement and that the Seller’s obligations to be fulfilled prior to transfer of the title to the Property and delivery of the Property (defined respectively in Article 7) have been fulfilled or will be fulfilled immediately after payment of the Sale Price.
(4) The registration-related documents that are handed over to the Buyer according to Article 8 shall be fully valid at the time of applying for registration of the transfer of title to the Property.
(5) As of the Closing Date, the Seller’s obligations stated in Exhibit 2-2 “SELLER’S OBLIGATIONS AS OF THE CLOSING DATE” have been fulfilled.

Article 5 (Removal of Encumbrances)
1. As of the date of transfer of title to the Property by the Seller, all rights to mortgage (including pre-set rights to mortgage), pledges, liens, collaterals (including transferable collaterals), superficies, easements, lease rights (save and except the lease rights listed in Exhibit 4 “LIST OF TENANTS” (the tenants herein at the time of delivery of the Property), other usufruct rights, mortgages, temporary mortgages, mortgage of obligations, unpaid taxes & dues and other levies and charges, and all other encumbrances (except for the matters stated in Exhibit 2 “OUTLINE OF PROPERTY”) on the exercise by the Buyer of full ownership of the Property, regardless of the name and form thereof, must be removed and eliminated. As the consideration for the payment by the Buyer of the Sale Price as set forth in Article 3, the Seller shall deliver all the registration documents (if any) and other relevant documents required for eliminating said rights and encumbrances to the judicial scrivener designated by the Buyer. In addition, all expenses (including registration fee and judicial scrivener fee) incurred in completing the procedures for the removal and elimination of the above-mentioned encumbrances shall be borne by the Seller.
2. The Seller must, before the transfer of title to the Property, complete all the procedures required for the transaction contemplated in this Agreement (including any approval, consent, registration or report issued by government agencies and other third parties) at its own responsibility and expense.
3. The Seller must, in addition to those listed in the preceding paragraphs, fulfill its obligations as stated in Exhibit 2-2 “SELLER’S OBLIGATIONS AS OF THE CLOSING DATE” (save and except those, the performance of which is exempted by the Buyer) as of the Closing Date.

4. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Seller shall complete the obligations described in Exhibit 2-3 “SELLER’S OBLIGATIONS AFTER THE CLOSING DATE” on the conditions set out in the same Exhibit and shall obtain acknowledgement from the Buyer with respect to completion such obligations, unless the obligations have been waived by the Buyer or have been otherwise agreed upon between the Seller and the Buyer.

Article 11 (Transfer of Security Deposits)
1. When delivering the Property, the Seller shall cause the Buyer to succeed to the liability for refund of deposits or security money received from the tenants herein as of the date of delivery of the Property (hereinafter referred to as “Liability for Refund of Deposits or Security Money”)
2. The Seller shall pay to the Buyer an amount equal to the amount of Liability for Refund of Deposits or Security Money. Such payment shall be settled by the Seller and the Buyer prior to payment of the Sale Price specified in paragraph 2 of Article 3.
3. The amount that is equal to the amount of the refund liability including deposits, security and cleaning fee shall be paid by the Seller to the Buyer according to the preceding paragraph shall be (9,175,600 Yen on April 27, 2018, provided however that if, before the delivery of the Property, there is any change in the amount of Liability for Refund of Deposits or Security Money, the amount shall be the changed amount. The Seller shall notify the Buyer in writing of such change and reasons for such change as soon as possible) settle the account by deduction from the Sale Price to be collected by the Seller from the Buyer.
4. With respect to the refund of the renovation fee and the deposit or security money for building restoration received from the tenants herein before the delivery of the Property, when the tenants make any claims to the Seller or the Buyer (including claims for a refund on the ground that the renovation fee collected by the Seller before the delivery of the Property is exorbitant) after the delivery of the Property, the Seller shall properly respond to such claims at its own expense and liability to the extent permitted by applicable laws and regulations and, if such response causes any losses to the Buyer, shall make compensation for such losses.

Article 13 (Seller’s Representations and Warranties)
1. The Seller represents and warrants to the Buyer that: the following are true and accurate as of the date of signing of this Agreement and the Closing Date. Any contravention by the Seller, whether intentionally or unintentionally, regardless of negligence or not, of the representations and warranties made to the Buyer under this Article shall be deemed as a default of the Seller under this Agreement. When the Seller contravenes the representations and warranties set forth in this Article, it shall compensate, as soon as possible, for any losses and expenses caused to the Buyer due to or in connection with such contravention.
(1) The Seller is a juridical person validly existing and organized under the laws of Japan and owns its properties, has the capacity for rights and actions necessary to execute this Agreement and perform the obligations herein, and has taken all actions (including but not limited to internal authorization) required for such execution and performance of this Agreement.
(2) The execution of this Agreement and the performance of obligations herein do not violate laws, government decrees, provincial degrees, notices or other rules of Japan, the Seller’s Articles of Association, board rules and other internal corporate rules, or agreements on loans for expenses, agreements or pledges on setting of collaterals, or other agreements that bind on the Seller or the Seller’s properties or have influences on the properties of the Seller.
(3) The Seller does not file for bankruptcy, or civil rehabilitation procedure or similar legal proceedings and is not a subject of any similar legal proceedings filed by a third person. The Seller is not in a state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness, and is not in a state that causes a major concern about the Seller’s credit status. In addition, the sale under this Agreement will not put the Seller in a state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness.
(4) The execution and performance of this Agreement by the Seller shall be for legitimate purposes and not for fraudulent purposes or intentions or illegal purposes. The Seller does not have the intention to, by sale of the Property herein, exchange the Property for money for concealing of asset, offer it for free or otherwise dispose of it that harms the Seller’s creditors. Furthermore, the sale of the Property under this Agreement is by no means a disposal that will harm the rights and interests of the Seller’s creditors.

(5) With respect to the sale of the Property, the Seller intends to conduct a true and valid sale and does not have the intention to use the Property as security.
(6) The Property is as set forth in Exhibit 3 “SELLER’S REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES”. However, the Seller’s representations and warranties do not cover those in Exhibit 2 “OUTLINE OF PROPERTY” that may be contrary to any of the provisions set out Exhibit 3 “SELLER’S REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES”, so the undertakings made by the Seller in the OUTLINE OF PROPERTY shall constitute the Seller’s obligations under this Agreement.
2. If the representations set forth in the preceding paragraphs are determined to be false or incorrect or have had any change as of the Closing Date, the Seller shall immediately notify the Buyer of such falseness, incorrectness or change in writing.
Article 14 (Buyer’s Representations and Warranties)
1. The Buyer represents and warrants to the Seller that: the following are true and accurate as of the date of this Agreement and the Closing Date. Any contravention by the Buyer, whether intentionally or unintendedly, regardless of negligence or not, of the representations and warranties made to the Seller under this Article shall be deemed as a default of the Buyer under this Agreement. When the Buyer contravenes the representations and warranties set forth in this Article, it shall, as soon as possible, compensate for any losses and expenses caused to the Seller due to or in connection with such contravention.
(1) The Buyer is a juridical person validly existing and organized under the laws of Japan. It owns its properties, has the capacity for rights and actions necessary to execute this Agreement and perform the obligations herein, and has taken all actions (including but not limited to internal authorization) required for such execution and performance of this Agreement.
(2) The execution of this Agreement and the performance of obligations herein do not violate laws, government decrees, provincial degrees, notices or other rules of Japan, the Buyer’s Articles of Association, board rules and other internal corporate rules (if any), or any agreements on loans for expenses, agreements or pledges on setting of collaterals, or other agreements that bind on the Buyer or the Buyer’s properties or have influences on the properties of the Buyer.
(3) The Buyer does not file for bankruptcy, or civil rehabilitation procedure or similar legal proceedings and is not a subject of any similar legal proceedings filed by a third person. The Buyer is not in a state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness, and is not in a state that causes a major concern about the Buyer’s credit status. In addition, the sale made under this Agreement will not put the Buyer in a state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness.
2. If the representations set forth in the preceding paragraphs are determined to be false or incorrect or have had any change as of the Closing Date, the Buyer shall immediately notify in writing the Seller of such falseness, incorrectness or change.
Article 15 (Liability for Warranty Against Defects)
1. With respect to any defects of the Property (including but not limited to hidden defects), the Seller shall be liable for any damages, losses and expenses (including any payment claims of a third party) caused to the Buyer due to such defects after the delivery of the Property provided that the Buyer submit a written request with respect to such liability within two years from the date of delivery of the Property under this Agreement. Furthermore, for the matters described in Exhibit 2-2 “SELLER’S OBLIGATIONS AS OF THE CLOSING DATE” (except for those expressly waived by the Buyer), the Buyer shall be deemed to have submitted said written request by the signing of this Agreement.
2. Article 526 of the Commercial Code (Act No. 48 of 1899, including subsequent revisions thereof) shall not apply to this Agreement.
3. The provisions of the preceding two paragraphs shall not prejudice the rights of the Buyer against the Seller under the other provisions hereof (including but not limited to Article 13).

Article 19 (Exclusion of Anti-Social Forces)
1. Either Party undertakes the following.
(1) It is not a Yakuza, or a Yakuza-related enterprise, or a Sōkaiya (professional trouble‐maker at shareholders meetings; fixers of stockholders’ meetings), or a far-left or far-right group, or heresy or other similar organizations or a member thereof (hereinafter collectively referred to as “Anti-social Forces”).
(2) Its cadres (i.e. executive employees, directors, executive directors or equivalent) are not Anti-social Forces.
(3) It will not allow Anti-social Forces to sign this Agreement in its name.
(4) During the period before the closing of the sale of the Property, it will not do any of the following by itself or via a third person.
A. Coercive behaviors or words or violence against the other Party.
B. Fraud or deterrence to obstruct the other Party’s business or damage the other Party’s reputation.
2. If either Party has any of the following, the other Party may rescind the Agreement without giving a notice:
(1) When it is found that a declaration in breach of the undertakings provided in subparagraph (1) or (2) of the preceding paragraph has been made;
(2) When it is found that an agreement in violation of subparagraph (3) of the preceding paragraph has been signed; or
(3) When an act in violation of the undertakings provided in subparagraph (4) of the preceding paragraph has been committed.
3. The Buyer undertakes to the Seller that it or a third person will not provide this Property to Anti-social Forces as an office or base.
4. Should the Buyer has an act in violation of the preceding paragraph, the Seller may rescind the Agreement without giving a notice.
5. If the other Party rescinds the Agreement pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, the breaching Party shall pay liquidated damages in an amount equal to 20% of the Sale Price and the other Party may also require payment for any damages and expenses (including but not limited to payments required by third parties and the attorney’s fees, etc.) caused by the rescission of the Agreement.
6. If the other Party rescinds the Agreement pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Article, the breaching Party may not request the rescinding Party to compensate for any damage caused by such rescission.
7. The rescission of this Agreement and liquidated damages pursuant to paragraph 2 or 4 shall be governed by this Article, and not by Article 18.

Article 21 (Burden of Expense)
Unless otherwise provided in this Agreement, all expenses (including but not limited to attorney’s fee, agreement preparation fee and other stamp taxes and dues) incurred in the preparation, negotiation or signing of this Agreement and the documents prepared or signed in connection herewith and for the performance of obligations hereunder shall be borne by the Buyer and the Seller respectively.
Chinese to English: Inhibitory Effects of Estradiol on Benzo(a)pyrene-Induced Lung Cancer in Male Mice
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - Chinese
吸烟是公认肺癌的最主要致病因素,苯并(a)芘〔benzo(a)pyrene, B(a)P〕是香烟烟雾中所含的主要致癌物。流行病学调查表明,女性对吸烟引起的肺癌比男性更敏感,在吸烟量相同的情况下,女性更容易引发肺癌[1],这可能与女性体内雌激素水平较高有关。不过也有学者持相反的观点,他们认为女性对肺癌的高敏感性与女性长期暴露于烹饪油烟有关[2],油烟中含有B(a)P等致癌物。在外源性雌激素作用下(如口服避孕药、雌激素替代疗法),女性患肺癌的危险性不但没有增加,反而降低[3, 4]。关于雌激素在肺癌发生过程中的作用,目前尚无明确结论。本试验建立以B(a)P灌胃诱发雄性昆明小鼠肺癌的动物模型,观察皮下注射雌二醇(17 β-estradiol, E2)对小鼠肺癌发病率及肿瘤数的影响。同时检测小鼠血清中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)及丙二醛(MDA)水平,探讨E2在B(a)P诱发肺癌中的作用,为进一步研究B(a)P诱发肺癌的作用机制提供论依据。
1材料与方法
1.1动物 5周龄雄性昆明小鼠100只,体重18~20g(军事医学科学院动物中心),均为清洁级动物。
1.2主要试剂 B(a)P,E2(美国Sigma公司);SOD及MDA 检测试剂盒(南京建成生物工程研究所)。
1.3动物分组 小鼠随机分为4组,每组25只,即对照组,B(a)P组,E2组和B(a)P + E2组。B(a)P组小鼠给予B(a)P 灌胃,3μmol/只,每周1次。E2组小鼠给予皮下注射E2,36 μg/只,每周1次。B(a)P+E2组小鼠同时给予B(a)P灌胃和皮下注射E2。溶剂对照组,通过相应途径给予橄榄油。处理 8周以后,给予8周的恢复期,共16周。对所有小鼠每天进行检查,每周测量体重。
1.4形态学及病理学诊断 见文献〔5〕。
1.5肿瘤发病率和肿瘤数计算 肿瘤发病率(%)=每组发生肿瘤的小鼠数/该组存活的小鼠总数X 100%;肿瘤数=每组肿瘤结节总数/该组存活的小鼠总数。通过检测表明,小鼠肺癌模型成功。
1.6氧化及抗氧化指标检测 血清SOD采用黄嘌呤氧化酶法测定,血清MDA采用硫代巴比妥酸法测定。
1.7统计分析 采用SPSS 10.0软件进行统计分析。对肿瘤数、血清SOD及MDA值用方差分析进行检验,肿瘤发病率用x2检验。
Translation - English
Smoking is recognized as the most important cause of lung cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is the main carcinogen contained in cigarette smoke. Epidemiological surveys show that women are more susceptible to lung cancer caused by smoking than men. With the same amount of smoking, women are more prone to lung cancer [1], which may be related to higher levels of estrogen in women. However, some scholars hold the opposite view that women's high susceptibility to lung cancer is related to women's long-term exposure to cooking fumes [2] which contain carcinogens such as B(a)P. Under the action of exogenous estrogen (such as oral contraceptives, estrogen replacement therapy), the risk of lung cancer has not increased, but decreased in women [3, 4]. There is no definite conclusion on the role of estrogen in the development of lung cancer. In this study, an animal model of lung cancer induced by gastric gavage of B(a)P in male Kunming mice was established to observe the effects of subcutaneous injection of
17 β-estradiol (E2) on the incidence of lung cancers and the number of lung tumors in mice. Also, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of mice were measured to investigate the effects of E2 on B(a)P-induced lung cancer to provide a theoretic basis for further studies on the mechanism of action of B(a)P induction of lung cancer.
1. Materials and methodsMethods
1.1 Animals:
100 Kunming mice, aged 5 weeks, weighing 18-20 g (Animal Center of Academy of Military Medical Sciences), which were all clean-grade animals.
1.2 Main reagents:
B(a)P, E2 (the Sigma company, based in USA); SOD and MDA test kits (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute).
1.3 Animal groups:
The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, 25 in each group, namely, control group, B(a)P group, E2 group and B(a)P + E2 group. Mice in B(a)P group were given B(a)P by gavage, 3 μmol / mouse, once a week. Mice in E2 group were given subcutaneous injection of E2, 36 μg / mouse, once a week. Mice in B(a)P + E2 group were given both B(a)P by gavage and E2 by subcutaneous injection. The solvent control group was given olive oil by the corresponding route. After 8 weeks of treatment, they were allowed an 8-week recovery, making it a total of 16 weeks. All mice were examined daily and body weight was measured weekly.
1.4 Morphological and pathological diagnosis:
See literature [5].


1.5 Calculation of tumor incidence and number of tumors:
Tumor incidence (%) = number of mice with tumor in each group / total number of surviving mice in this group  100%; number of tumors = total number of tumor nodules per group / total number of surviving mice in this group. The test showed that the mouse lung cancer model was successfully established.
1.6 Determination of oxidation and antioxidant index:
Serum SOD was determined by the xanthine oxidase method, and
serum MDA was determined by the thiobarbituric acid method.
1.7 Statistical analysis:
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 10.0 software. The number of tumors, serum SOD and MDA values were examined by variance analysis, and the incidence of tumors was examined by x2 test
Chinese to English: HYPERSPECTRAL STEALTH CAMOUFLAGE COATING AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREOF
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Chinese
权利要求书
1.一种高光谱隐身迷彩涂料,其特征在于按重量百分比该组合物由以下组分组成:
铟锡氧化物20%
废石英粉30%
滑石粉4%
钦白粉3%
乙二醇乙醚醋酸酯15%
硅酸钠1.0%
聚醚消泡剂0.3%
环氧树脂20%
胺固化剂20%
余量为正丁醇和二甲苯的混合物,其两者的质量比例为:正丁醇:二甲苯=1:1.5。
2.根据权利要求1所述的高光谱隐身迷彩涂料,其特征在于胺固化剂为三乙烯四胺、四乙烯五胺或由多乙烯多胺与二聚豆油酸缩聚而成的聚酰胺或它们的混合物。
3.—种如权利要求1所述的的高光谱隐身迷彩涂料的制备方法,其特征在于该方法按如下步骤完成:
1)按比例称取铟锡氧化物粉体20Wt%、废石英粉30Wt%、滑石粉4wt%、钛白粉3wt%、乙二醇乙醚醋酸酯15wt%、硅酸钠1.0%及聚醚消泡剂0.3wt%;
2)混合均匀后加入质量比例为1:1.5的正丁醇和二甲苯混合溶剂配制好的环氧树脂20wt%溶液,高速研磨3h;
3)加入质量比例为1:1.5的正丁醇和二甲苯混合溶剂配制好的胺固化剂20wt%溶液,继续研磨1.5h;
4)用质量比例为1:1.5的正丁醇和二甲苯混合溶剂调整涂料粘度至70s(涂-4杯,28℃),搅拌均匀即制得高光谱隐身反腐蚀涂料。
4.按照权利要求3所述的的高光谱隐身迷彩涂料的制备方法,其特征在于所述的铟锡氧化物粉体通过如下步骤获得:
1)首先用SnCl4•5H20和In粒分别配制SnCl4和InCl3水溶液,将两种溶液混合:
2)采用双滴加料的方式将Sn Cl4-In Cl3混台溶液和氨水溶液滴加到装有去离子水中,控制溶液的pH值在8.8、温度在50℃,滴加完成后,继续用搅拌浆搅拌,在50℃保温3h;
3)再经冷却、抽滤、用去离子水洗涤、在125℃条件下烘干、用研钵碾磨得到铟锡氧化物。
Translation - English
Claims
1. A hyperspectral stealth camouflage coating, characterized in that the composition comprises the following ingredients in percentage by weight:
20% indium tin oxide
30% waste quartz powder
4% talcum powder
3% titanium dioxide powder
15% 2-ethoxyethyl acetate
1.0% sodium silicate
0.3% polyether antifoaming agent
20% epoxy resin
20% amine curing agent
the remaining ingredient is a mixture of n-butanol and xylene, wherein the mass ratio n-butanol : xylene = 1:1.5.
2. The hyperspectral stealth camouflage coating according to
claim 1, characterized in that the amine curing agent is triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, polyamides prepared by polycondensation of polyethylene polyamine and dimer soyate, or mixtures thereof.
3. A method for preparing the hyperspectral stealth camouflage coating according to claim 1, characterized in that the method comprises the steps of:
1) weighing 20 wt% indium tin oxide powder, 30 wt% waste quartz powder, 4 wt% talcum powder, 3 wt% titanium dioxide powder, 15 wt% 2-ethoxyethyl acetate, 1.0 wt% sodium silicate, and 0.3 wt% polyether antifoaming agent;
2) mixing the aforesaid ingredients evenly, adding 20 wt% epoxy resin solution dissolved in a mixed solvent containing n-butanol and xylene at a mass ratio of 1:1.5, grinding the mixture at high speed for 3 h;
3) adding 20 wt% amine curing agent solution dissolved in the mixed solvent containing n-butanol and xylene at a mass ratio of 1:1.5, and further grinding the mixture for 1.5 h;
4) adjusting the viscosity of the coating to 70 s (TU-4 cup viscometer; 28°C) with the mixed solvent containing n-butanol and xylene at a mass ratio of 1:1.5, and stirring the mixture evenly thereby obtaining the hyperspectral stealth camouflage coating.
4. The method for preparing the hyperspectral stealth camouflage coating according to claim 3, characterized in that the indium tin oxide powder is obtained from the steps of:
1) preparing SnCl4 and InCl3 aqueous solutions with SnCl4 • 5H2O and indium powder respectively, and mixing the two solutions;
2) adding SnCl4 - InCl3 mixed solution and ammonia solution into deionized water by means of double dropping, controlling the pH value of the solution to 8.8 and the temperature of the solution at 50°C, further stirring the solution with an agitator blade upon completion of the dropwise addition, and maintaining the temperature at 50°C for 3 h;
3) performing cooling and suction filtration, washing the filter cake with deionized water, drying the filter cake at 125°C, and grinding the resultant with mortar thereby obtaining the indium tin oxide.
Chinese to English: METHOD FOR SYNTHESIZING BIOPLASTIC PRECURSOR POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE BY USING A LIGNIN-DEGRADING BACTERIUM
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Chinese
权利要求书
1.一种利用木质素降解菌合成生物塑料前体聚羟基脂肪酸酯的方法,其特征在于,所述的木质素降解细菌(Cupriavidus basilensis B-8)的保藏编号为CGMCC No.4240,用于生产聚羟基脂肪酸酯。
2.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,生产时用的培养基采用碱木质素作为唯一碳源。
3.根据权利要求2所述的方法,其特征在于,碱木质素碳源无需任何预处理。
4.根据权利要求2所述的方法,其特征在于,碱木质素浓度为1~6g/L。
5.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,生产时用的培养基的氮源浓度低于60mg/L。
6.根据权利要求1-5任一项所述的方法,其特征在于,生产时用的培养基为碱木质素1〜6g,(NH4)2SO4 0.28g,K2HPO41g,MgSO4 0.2g,CaCl2 0.1g,FeSO4 0.05g,MnSO4 0.02g,KH2PO41g,琼脂15g,蒸馏水l000mL,pH值为7.0~7.4。
7.根据权利要求6所述的方法,其特征在于,在试管中加入5mL的LB培养基,接入 Cupriavidus basilensis B-8菌株的单菌落,30℃和150rpm条件下培养生长,直至细菌在600nm处的光密度达到1.0;将培养物离心、冲洗,再接种至含有100mL生产时用的培养基的三角瓶中,30℃和150rpm条件下振荡培养48h。
8.根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,形成的聚羟基脂肪酸酯为聚羟基丁酸的均聚物。
Translation - English
Claims
1. A method for synthesizing a bioplastic precursor polyhydroxyalkanoate using a lignin-degrading bacterium, characterized in that the lignin-degrading bacterium (Cupriavidus basilensis B-8) has a deposit number of CGMCC No. 4240, for production of the polyhydroxyalkanoate.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the culture medium used for production adopts alkali lignin as the sole carbon source.
3. The method as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the alkali lignin carbon source does not need to be pre-treated.
4. The method as claimed in claim 2, characterized in that the alkali lignin has a concentration of 1~6 g/L.
5. The method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the culture medium used for production has a nitrogen source concentration lower than 60 mg/L.
6. The method as claimed in any one of claims 1-5, characterized in that the culture medium used for production comprises alkali lignin
1~6 g, (NH4)2SO4 0.28 g, K2HPO4 1 g, MgSO4 0.2 g, CaCl2 0.1 g, FeSO4
0.05 g, MnSO4 0.02 g, KH2PO4 1 g, agar 15 g, and distilled water 1000 mL and has a pH value of 7.0~7.4.
7. The method as claimed in claim 6, characterized in that the method comprises adding 5 mL of LB medium to a test tube, inoculating a single colony of the Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 strain, and culturing and growing it under the condition of 30°C and 150 rpm until the optical density of the bacteria at 600 nm reaches 1.0; centrifuging and washing the culture content, and then inoculating it into a flask containing 100 mL of the culture medium used for production, and then culturing it at 30°C with 150 rpm agitation for 48 h.
8. The method as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the polyhydroxyalkanoate formed is a homopolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate.
Chinese to English: Time Stamping Based on Delay Measurement in Sensor Networks
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: IT (Information Technology)
Source text - Chinese
3基于延迟测量的时间标识
3.1延迟分析
消息传输路径上的延迟细分为以下五个部分:
(1)发送处理延迟:从命令发送到准备发送的时间,由内核处理、上下文切换、系统调用来决定,和系统的负载有关系。
⑵媒体访问延迟:从准备发送到实际发送需要的时间,即消息在无线设备缓冲区的时间,也就是等待信道的时间。
(3)传输时间:无线设备发送报文花费的时间。因为报文长度和传输速度已知,因此此延迟可以估算,但该估算值的误差不小于发送-接收同步误差。在Mica平台上,最大的发送-接收同步误差为2μS。
(4)无线信号传播时间:信号经过空气到达接收者,无线信号的传播速度为300米,无线传感器设备距离通常小于100米,所以该延迟可以忽略。
(5)接收处理时间:从RF设备缓冲区到上层接口的时间。
3.2延迟测量的时间标记
我们采用传输延迟测量的方法提供数据时间标记服务,时间戳字段不记录数据的产生时刻,而是记录数据从产生到当前节点所经历的时间。每个节点在接收报文时在时间戳上加上通信延迟,节点发送报文时修改时间戳,加上在本节点的滞留时间。当目的节点接收到报文以后,以本地时间减去时间戳的时间就得到报文的产生时刻。
Translation - English
3 Time Stamping Based on Delay Measurement
3.1 Delay analysis
The delay on a packet transmission path is subdivided into five parts:
(1) Transmit processing delay: The time from transmission of an instruction to the preparation for transmission, determined by kernel processing, context switching, and system call, and related to system load.
(2) Media access delay: The time required from the time of preparation for transmission to the actual transmission, that is, the time when the

packet is in the buffer of the wireless device, i.e., the time of waiting for a channel.
(3) Transmission time: The time taken by the wireless device to send a packet. Since the packet length and transmission speed are known, this delay can be estimated, but the error of the estimate is not smaller than the transmit-receive synchronization error. On the Mica platform, the maximum transmit-receive synchronization error is 2 μs.
(4) Wireless signal propagation time: A signal reaches a recipient through the air. Since the propagation speed of a wireless signal is
300 meters / μs and the distance of between wireless sensor devices is usually shorter than 100 meters, the delay can be ignored.
(5) Receive processing time: The time of receipt from an RF device buffer to an upper interface.
3.2 Time stamp of delay measurement
The method of transmission delay measurement was used to provide the data time stamping service. The time stamp field does not record the moment of data generation, but records the time it takes for the data to be generated and reach the current node. Each node adds a communication delay to the time stamp when receiving a packet and, when sending the packet, modifies the time stamp by adding the time of stay at the node. After receiving the packet, the destination node obtains the time of generation of the packet by subtracting the time in the time stamp from the local time.
Chinese to English: ESTABLISHMENT OF AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION SYSTEM FOR EMBRYOGENIC CALLUS AND ACQUIREMENT OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS WITH DREB1C GENE IN GLANDLESS COTTON
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - Chinese
3结论与讨论
棉花遗传转化多利用nptll基因作为标记基因,近期另一个选择标记基因——潮霉素磷酸转移酶基因hpt应用也很普遍。hpt基因体积较小,很容易与其他没有选择标记的目的基因结合并导入植物基因组,并且适应的植物较广,对植物的伤害较小。棉花不同基因型、不同外植体部位对潮霉素的敏感性不同[26, 27]。因此,在棉花遗传转化过程中,对转化受体材料进行潮霉素敏感性试验,确定筛选培养基中潮霉素的适宜用量是非常必要的。
进行植物遗传转化时,受体材料的选择对转化能否成功有重要影响。良好的受体材料应兼具取材方便、易于转化和再生容易等特点。在棉花农杆菌介导的遗传转化中,多以棉花下胚轴为转化受体,但是棉花下胚轴分裂活性不强,获得转化子的频率较低,并且在蹿选培养基上能够生长的下胚轴需要继代多次才能获得大量愈伤组织,阳性愈伤组织进入分化阶段也比较慢。


这种转化体系从开始到获得再生苗一般需要1 a,甚至更长时间。采用农杆菌转化胚性愈伤,选择继代培养7 ~ 14d、处于活跃分裂状态的胚性愈伤组织作为转化受体,转化率可达56.3%,远高于以下胚轴为转化受体的转化率,且经过2次筛选便可进入分化培养,仅需5~6个月便可获得再生植株,大大缩短了棉花转基因周期。
以低酚棉胚性愈伤作为农杆菌的转化受体,成功将转录因子BREB1C基因导入棉花基因组中,获得了转基因植株,经PCR检测,初步确定转录因子DREB1C基因已插入低酚陆地棉Jisheng 1的基因组中,说明低酚棉胚性愈伤农杆菌介导法是可行的。
Translation - English
3 Conclusions and discussion
In genetic transformation of cotton, the nptll gene is mostly used as a marker gene. Another selective marker gene – hygromycin phosphotransferase gene, i.e., hpt, has also been widely used recently. The hpt gene, small in size, easily binds to other target genes without a selective marker and is introduced into the plant genome. In addition, it is suitable for a wide variety of plants and causes little harm to plants. Different genotypes and different explants of cotton have different sensitivity to hygromycin [26, 27]. Therefore, in the process of genetic transformation of cotton, it is necessary to carry out hygromycin sensitivity tests on the transformed receptor material, thereby determining the appropriate amount of hygromycin to be used in the screening medium.
During plant genetic transformation, selection of a receptor material has a major impact on whether the transformation will succeed. A good acceptor material should be characterized by easy accessibility, easy transformation, and easy regeneration. In Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of cotton, cotton hypocotyls are mostly used as transforming receptors; however, since cotton hypocotylar mitosis
/4
activity is not high, the frequency of obtaining transformants is low. Moreover, hypocotyls that can grow on a screening medium need to be subcultured several times to obtain a large amount of calli, and positive calli enter the differentiation stage relatively slowly.
/4
This transformation system generally takes 1 a, or even longer, from the beginning to the acquisition of regenerated seedlings. In Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli, embryogenic calli which have been subcultured for 7~14 d and are in vigorous division can bewere selected as the transformation receptor, and the transformation efficiency was can reach 56.3%, which was is much higher than the transformation efficiency achieved with hypocotyl as a transformation receptor. In addition, they can enter the differentiation culture stage can be entered after only 2 screenings, and it takes only 5~6 months to obtain regenerated plants, which greatly shortens the cotton transgenic cycle.
The embryogenic callus of glandless cotton was used as a transforming receptor for Agrobacterium, and the transcription factor DREB1C gene was successfully introduced into the cotton genome to obtain transgenic plants. It was confirmed by PCR that the transcription factor DREB1C gene was inserted into the genome of glandless land cotton Jisheng 1. This indicates that transfer of the gene into embryogenic callus of glandless cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is feasible.

Chinese to English: EXPRESSION OF ISOLEUCINE ZIPPER MODIFIED SOLUBLE CD40L IN PICHIA PASTORIS
General field: Science
Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - Chinese
2材料与方法
2.1质粒、菌株和主要试剂
巴斯德毕赤酵母宿主菌GS115和穿梭质粒 pPICZαA、抗菌素zeocin、YNB、及生物素购自 Invitrogen 公司,质粒 pORF-CD40L购自Invitrogen公司,大肠杆菌菌株XL-1-blue由本实验室保存,Pfu酶购自TaKaRa公司,限制性内切酶、dNTPs、T4多核苷酸激酶及T4DNA连接酶购自Fermenta公司,山羊抗人CD40L的多克隆抗体购自Santa公司,兔抗山羊的二抗购自中森公司,异亮氨酸拉链和所有引物均由上海博亚公司合成。
2.2 pPICZocA-IZ-sCD40L 质粒的构建
2.2.1 SCD40L基因的克隆根据文献报道的CD40LcDNA的序列,设计合成sCD40L的引物:5’- CGG TGA GAG ATT GTT GAT GCA AAA AGG TGA TCA-3,和 5,- GC TCT AGA GAG TTT GAG TAA GCC AAA GG -3’以 pORF- CD40L质粒为模板(TCT AGA为Xba I的酶切位点),进行PCR扩增,条件为94℃,30 s,50℃,30 s,72℃,60s;25 个循环后,72℃延伸 7 min;4℃保存。扩增得到3’引入了酶切位点Xba I和5’引入了两个亮氨酸的sCD40L基因(113-261aa)。
2.2.2异亮氨酸拉链的合成 根据巴斯德毕赤酵母密码子偏爱性,从已知的异亮氨酸拉链序列逆推出核苷酸序列AGA ATG AAG CAA ATC GAG GAC AAG ATC GAG GAG ATC TTG TCC AAG ATC TAC CAC ATC GAG AAC GAG ATC GCT AGA ATC AAG AAG TTG ATC GGT GAG AGA.以人工合成的方法得到IZ基因,全长99 bp,以IZ为模板,用引物:5’-ATA CTC GAG AAA AGA GAG AGA ATG AAG CAA ATC GAG GAC-3,和 5’-CCT TTT TGC ATC AAC AAT CTC TCA CCG ATC AAC-3,(CTC GAG 为 Xho I的酶切位点),进行PCR扩增,条件为94℃,30s, 54℃,30s,72℃、30s;25 个循环后,72℃延伸 7 min; 40℃保存。扩增得到5’引入了酶切位点Xho I和3’引入了两个亮氨酸的的IZ基因。
2.2.3 IZ-SCD40L基因的克隆 sCD40L基因片段和IZ基因片段为模板,用IZ的上游引物5’-ATA CTC GAG AAA AGA GAG AGA ATG AAG CAA ATC GAG GAC-3’和 CD40L 的下游引物5’- GC TCT AGA GAG TTT GAG TAA GCC AAA AGA TG-3’进行重叠PCR,条件为94℃,30 s,52℃,30 s,72℃、90 s;25 个循环后,72℃延伸 7 min; 40℃保存,得到了由两个亮氨酸连接IZ和 sCD40L 的基因 IZ-SCD40L。
2.2.4 pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L 质粒的构建用 Xho I和Xba I分别双酶切pPICZαA质粒IZ-sCD40L 基因片段后,用酶切产物进行连接,连接产物转化大肠杆菌XL-1-blue感受态细胞,涂布在含zeocin的 LLB平板(1%胰化蛋白胨,0.5%酵母提取物,1% NaCl,pH7,2%琼脂粉,Zeocin 25μg/ml)上,挑选阳性克隆,提取质粒进行分析。
2.5 pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L质粒的鉴定 对阳性克隆的提取质粒用Xho I和Xba I双酶切,将酶切阳性的质粒送上海博亚测序。
2.3转化巴斯德毕赤酵母及表型鉴定
将测序正确的pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L质粒用Sac I线性化,再将其电转化(电转仪产自eppendrof 公司)到巴斯德毕赤酵母GS115菌株中,电转化条件为:1.51kV,5ms,实验方法按照公司提供的标准操作进行(Invitrogen)。把电转化的GS115涂布在含zeocin的YPDS平板上(2 %胰化蛋白胨,1%酵母提取物,2 %葡萄糖,2 %山梨醇,2%琼脂粉, Zeodn 100μg/ml)。挑选阳性克隆,以5’AOX1和3’AOX1 引物(5’-GACTGGTTCCAATGACAAGC-3’;5’-GCAAATGGCAT2TCTGACATCC-3’)(Invitrogen)进行PCR分析,若IZ-sCD40L 基因整合到酵母基因组中并且为Mut+表型(甲醇利用正常型),PCR产物应有一条约1072 bp(564 + 508bp)的DNA条带和一条约2.2 kb的DNA条带,而 Mut8表型(甲醇利用缓慢型),PCR产物只有一条约1072 bp(564 + 508bp)的DNA条带。
2.4 IZ-SCD40L在酵母中的诱导表达
选取PCR鉴定正确的克隆菌(GS115/ pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L/Mut+)接种到 25 ml BMGY 培养基(1 %酵母提取物,2%蛋白胨,1.34% YNB,4 X10-5%生物素,1%甘油)的250 ml摇瓶中,于 28℃〜30℃/250〜300 rpm 培养至 OD600 = 2〜6(16〜18 h);室温下1 500〜3 000 g离心5 min,收集菌体,用BMMY(1%酵母提取物,2%蛋白胨,1.34%YNB,4X10-5%生物素,0.5%甲醇)重悬菌体,使OD600=1.0左右,置于1L的摇瓶中,用双层纱布封口,放置于28〜30℃/250〜300 rpm的摇床上继续生长,每24 h向培养基中添加100%甲醇至终浓度为0.5%〜1.0%诱导蛋白表达;收集0、24、48、72h的细菌上清。

2.5 SDS-PAGE 和 Western 印迹分析
将发酵液离心去除菌体,上清液用终浓度为20 %(WPV)的三氯乙酸/丙酮沉淀蛋白质。沉淀的蛋白质用1X蛋白质上样缓冲液溶解,在12%聚丙烯酰胺凝胶上进行还原性的SDS-PAGE电泳分析,Western印迹按《分子克隆实验指南》中的方法进行操作,一抗为山羊抗人CD40L的多克隆抗体,二抗为辣根素过氧化酶标记兔抗山羊IgG。
Translation - English
2 Materials and methods
2.1 Plasmid, bacterial strain and main reagents
Host Pichia pastoris strain GS115, shutter plasmid pPICZαA, antibiotic Zeocin, YNB, and biotin were purchased from the company Invitrogen; pORF-CD40L plasmid was purchased from the company Invitrogen; E. coli XL-1-blue was stored in our laboratory; Pfu enzyme was purchased from the company TaKaRa [sic! – Takara Bio Inc.?]; restriction endonuclease, dNTPs, T4 polynucleotide kinase and T4DNA
ligase were purchased from the company Fermenta [sic! - Fermenta Biotech Limited?]; goat anti-human CD40L polyclonal antibody was purchased from the company Santa; rabbit anti-goat secondary antibody was purchased from the company Zhongsen; isoleucine zipper and all primers were synthesized by Shanghai-based Boya Company Shanghai Boya company.
2.2 Construction of pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L plasmid
2.2.1 Cloning of the sCD40L gene
Based on the CD40L cDNA sequences reported in the literature, two primers of sCD40L were designed and synthesized: 5’-CGG TGA GAG ATT GTT GAT GCA AAA AGG TGA TCA-3’, and 5’-GC TCT AGA GAG TTT GAG TAA GCC AAA GG-3’. With pORF-CD40L plasmid as template (TCT AGA as the enzymatic cleavage site for Xba I), PCR amplification was carried out under the conditions of 94°C for 30 s, 50°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 60 s; after 25 cycles of amplification, elongation was conducted at 72°C for 7 min; the product was stored at 4°C. The amplification obtained an sCD40L gene (113-261 aa), which had a 3’ end that incorporated the cleavage site Xba I and a 5’ end that incorporated two leucines.
2.2.2 Synthesis of the isoleucine zipper
According to Pichia pastoris codon preference, the nucleotide sequence of AGA ATG AAG CAA ATC GAG GAC AAG ATC GAG GAG ATC TTG TCC AAG ATC TAC CAC ATC GAG AAC GAG ATC GCT AGA ATC AAG AAG TTG ATC GGT GAG AGA was deduced from the known isoleucine zipper (IZ) sequence. The IZ gene with a full length of 99 bp was manually synthesized. With IZ as template and using the two primers, 5’-ATA CTC GAG AAA AGA GAG AGA ATG AAG CAA ATC GAG GAC-3’ and 5’-CCT TTT TGC ATC AAC AAT CTC TCA CCG ATC AAC-3’ (CTC GAG as the enzymatic cleavage site of Xho I), PCR amplification was carried out under the conditions of 94°C for 30 s, 54°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 30 s; after 25 cycles of amplification, elongation was conducted at 72°C for 7 min. and the product was stored at 40°C. The amplification obtained the IZ gene which had the cleavage site Xho I incorporated in the 5’ end and two leucines incorporated in the 3’ end, respectively.
2.2.3 Cloning of IZ-sCD40L gene
With the DNA fragment of sCD40L and the DNA fragment of IZ as templates and using the forward primer of IZ, 5’-ATA CTC GAG AAA AGA GAG AGA ATG AAG CAA ATC GAG GAC-3’, and the reverse primer of CD40L of 5’-GC TCT AGA GAG TTT GAG TAA GCC AAA AGA TG-3’, PCR overlapping was carried out under the conditions of 94°C for 30 s, 52°C for 30s, and 72°C for 90 s; after 25 cycles of the overlapping, elongation was conducted at 72°C for 7 min.

and the product was stored at 40°C. The IZ-sCD40L gene, which had IZ and sCD40L that were connected through two leucines, was obtained.
2.2.4 Construction of the pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L plasmid
The DNA fragment of pPICZαA plasmid IZ-sCD40L was double digested by Xho I and Xba I, respectively. The digested product was ligated, and the ligated product was transformed into E. coli XL-1-blue competent cells. The cells were applied onto LLB plates containing Zeocin (1% tryptone, 0.5% yeast extract, 1% NaCl, pH 7, 2% agar powder, Zeocin
25 μg/ml). Positive clone was selected to extract the plasmid for analysis.
2.2.5 Identification of the pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L plasmid
The plasmid extracted from the positive clone was double digested with Xho I and Xba I, and the positive plasmid was sent to Shanghai-based Boya Company [sic! – Shanghai-based Bio Asia Co.?] Boya for DNA sequencing.
2.3 Transformation of Pichia pastoris and phenotype identification
The pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L plasmid, which was correctly sequenced, was linearized with Sac I, and the linearized plasmid was electroporated (with an electroporator made by Eppendrof [sic! – Appears to be a source typo for “Eppendorf”]) into Pichia pastoris strain GS115 under the conditions of 1.51 kV and 5 ms by following the standard operating procedure of the manufacturer (Invitrogen). The electroporated GS115 was applied onto YPDS plates containing Zeocin (2% tryptone, 1% yeast extract, 2% glucose,
2% sorbitol, 2% agar powder, Zeocin 100 μg/ml). Positive clone was selected to conduct PCR analysis using 5’AOX1 and 3’AOX1 primers (5’-GAC TGG TTC CAA TTG ACA AGC-3’ ; 5’-GCA AAT GGC AT2 TCT GAC ATC C-3’ ) (Invitrogen). If the IZ-sCD40L gene had been incorporated into the Pichia pastoris genome and was of a Mut+ phenotype (methanol utilization plus phenotype), the PCR product would have a DNA band at around 1072 bp (564 + 508 bp) and a DNA band at around 2.2 kb, while the PCR product of Muts phenotype (methanol utilization slow phenotype) would only have a DNA band at around 1072 bp (564 + 508 bp).
2.4 Inductive expression of IZ-sCD40L in Pichia pastoris
Positive clone identified by PCR (GS115/ pPICZαA-IZ-sCD40L/Mut+) was inoculated into 25 ml BMGY medium (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 1.34% YNB, 4 × 10-5 biotin, 1% glycerol) contained in a 250 ml shake flask, incubated at 28°C~30°C / 250~300 rpm until OD600 = 2~6 (16-18 h). The cells were harvested by centrifuging 1500~3000 g for 5 min. at room temperature and resuspended until OD600 = 1.0 in BMMY medium (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 1.34% YNB, 4 × 10-5% biotin, 0.5% methanol). Then the culture was placed in a 1 L shake flask with the mouth covered with two layers of sterile gauze, and the flask was placed in a shaking incubator of 28~30°C / 250~300 rpm to continue the growth of cells. 100% methanol was added to the culture every 24 hours until the final concentration reached 0.5%~1.0% to induce protein expression; the culture supernatant was collected at 0, 24, 48, 72 h.
/3
2.5 SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses
The fermented culture was centrifuged to remove the cells, and the supernatant was treated with trichloroacetic acid/acetone which had a final concentration of 20% (WPV) to precipitate the protein. The precipitated protein was dissolved in a 1 × protein sample loading buffer to conduct the reducing SDS-PAGE electrolysis analysis on 12% polyacrylamide gel. Western blot was carried out according to the procedure described in Laboratory Guide to Molecular Cloning, wherein the goat anti-human CD40L polyclonal antibody was used as the primary antibody, and horseradish peroxidase -labeled rabbit anti-goat IgG was used as the secondary antibody.
Chinese to English: A safety type LED ceiling lamp
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - Chinese
1.一种安全型LED吸顶灯,主要包括底盘、LED灯板、LED灯盖、电源和灯罩,所述灯罩与所述底盘螺纹连接后形成一空腔,所述LED灯板、电源设置于空腔内,所述LED灯盖设置于所述LED灯板上方并罩住LED灯板;其特征在于:所述LED吸顶灯还包括电源盖,所述电源盖设置于电源的上方并罩住电源。
2.根据权利要求1所述的安全型LED吸顶灯,其特征在于:所述电源盖采用绝缘材质设计而成的碗状结构,且其上端口设计有向外平行延伸形成裙边,裙边上设计有若干螺孔。
3.根据权利要求1所述的安全型LED吸顶灯,其特征在于:所述电源盖的底部设计有一开口,且开口处设置有一可透光的上盖和一卡环。



技术领域
[0001] 本实用新型涉及LED照明技术应用领域,尤其涉及一种安全型LED吸顶灯。

背景技术
[0002] LED吸顶灯相对于传统吸顶灯,其具有高光效,长寿命,环保,可调亮度和可调色温等优点。因此,随着LED技术的不断发展,LED吸顶灯取代传统吸顶灯是必然的。
[0003] 目前,现有的LED吸顶灯一般包括底盘、LED灯板、LED灯盖、电源和灯罩,灯板与灯罩通过螺纹连接,且LED灯板、LED灯盖和电源设置于底盘与灯罩之间;其中LED灯盖是用于罩住LED灯板,防止灰尘直接掉在LED灯上面。但是此种LED吸顶灯的缺点在于电源上方没有设置相关的安全措施来保护电源,导致灰尘直接落在电源上,而且在安装过程其他部件容易直接掉落在电源上,导致电源受损,直至LED吸顶灯不亮;另外在LED吸顶灯工作时,还容易使金属部件与电源的元部件接触,使金属部件导电,从而使LED吸顶灯导电;还存在容易被组装的员工触碰,导致电源的元部件松动或者损坏,进而影响LED吸顶灯的使用寿命。

发明内容
[0004] 为了解决上述现有的技术问题,本实用新型提供一种安全型LED吸顶灯,使电源具有防尘,防损坏的作用,同时还能提高LED吸顶灯的安全系数等级。
[0005] 本实用新型解决其技术问题所采用的技术方案是:
[0006] 一种安全型LED吸顶灯,主要包括底盘、LED灯板、LED灯盖、电源和灯罩,所述灯罩与所述底盘螺纹连接后形成一空腔,所述LED灯板、电源设置于空腔内,所述LED灯盖设置于所述LED灯板上方并罩住LED灯板;所述LED吸顶灯还包括电源盖,所述电源盖设置于电源的上方并罩住电源。
[0007] 作为本实用新型的进一步改进,所述电源盖采用绝缘材质设计而成的碗状结构,且其上端口设计有向外平行延伸形成裙边,裙边上设计有若干螺孔。
[0008] 作为本实用新型的进一步改进,所述电源盖的底部设计有一开口,且开口处设置有一可透光的上盖和一卡环。
[0009] 本实用新型所述的一种安全LED吸顶灯,设置有一电源盖罩住电源,具有防止灰尘掉落在电源的元部件上,防止元部件损坏,保护电源的作用,同时提高元部件的使用寿命;防止LED吸顶灯工作时其他金属部件与电源的元部件接触从而使金属部件带电,最后导致LED吸顶灯导电;另外还可以防止生产线上的员工在组装过程中触碰电源的元部件而导致损坏;该LED吸顶灯结构简单,安装方便,易更换
Translation - English
1. A safety type LED ceiling lamp, which mainly comprises a baseplate, an LED lamp board, an LED lamp cover, a power supply and a lamp covershield, wherein the lamp cover shield is screwed to the baseplate to form a cavity, the LED lamp board and the power supply are arranged in the cavity, and the LED lamp cover is disposed above the LED lamp board and covers the LED lamp board, characterized in that the LED ceiling lamp further includes a power supply cover, and the power supply cover is disposed above the power supply and covers the power supply.

2. The safety type LED ceiling lamp of claim 1, characterized in that the power supply cover is designed into a bowl-shaped structure made of an insulating material, its upper end outlet is designed to extend outwardly and in parallel to the edge to form a skirt, and the skirt is provided with a number of screw holes.

3. The safety type LED ceiling lamp of claim 1, characterized in that an opening is designed on the bottom of the power supply cover, and the opening is provided with a light-permeable upper cover and a snap clamping ring.


Technical Field
[0001] The utility model relates to the application field of LED lighting technology, in particular to a safety type LED ceiling lamp.

Background of the Invention
[0002] Compared with the a traditional ceiling lamp, the LED ceiling lamp has the advantages of high luminous efficiency, long life, environmental protection, adjustable brightness and color temperature, etc. Therefore, with the continuous development of LED technology, it is inevitable that the LED ceiling lamp replaces the traditional ceiling lamp.
[0003] At present, the existing LED ceiling lamp generally comprises a baseplate, an LED lamp board, an LED lamp cover, a power supply and a lamp covershield, and the lamp board is screwed to the lamp shieldcover. The LED lamp board, the LED lamp cover and the power supply are disposed between the baseplate and the lamp covershield. The LED lamp cover is used to cover the LED lamp board to prevent dust from falling directly on the LED lamp. However, the disadvantage of such an LED ceiling lamp is that no safety measures are provided above the power supply to protect the power supply such , causing that the dust directly falls on the power supply, and during the installation process, other components easily and directly fall upon the power supply during the installation process, causing the damages to the power supply, to be damaged until resulting in inadequate brightness of the LED ceiling lamp is not bright. In addition, when the LED ceiling lamp is working, it is easy to makefor the metal parts to come in contact with the components of the power supply, and thus the metal parts are electrically conducts electricityive, thereby making causing the LED ceiling lamp to conduct electricityive. They are also easily touched by lamp assembly workers employees, resulting in the loosening or damage of the components of the power supply, which in turn affects the service life of the LED ceiling lamp.

Contents of the Invention
[0004] In order to solve the above-mentioned prior art problems, the utility model provides a safety type LED ceiling lamp, which makes enables the power supply to have the functions ofbe dustproof and anti-protected from damages, and can also improve the safety factor ratinglevel of the LED ceiling lamp.
[0005] The technical solution adopted by the utility model to solve the technical problems thereof is:
[0006] A safety type LED ceiling lamp, mainly comprises a baseplate, an LED lamp board, an LED lamp cover, a power supply and a lamp covershield, wherein the lamp shield cover is screwed to the baseplate to form a cavity, the LED lamp board and the power supply are disposed in the cavity, and the LED lamp cover is disposed above the LED lamp board and covers the LED lamp board; the LED ceiling lamp further includes a power supply cover, and the power supply cover is disposed above the power supply and covers the power supply.
[0007] As a further improvement of the utility model, the power supply cover is made of an insulating material and designed into a bowl-like structure, and itsthe upper end outlet is designed to extend outwardly and in parallel to the edge to form a skirt, and the skirt is provided with a number of screw holes.
[0008] As a further improvement of the present invention, an opening is designed on the bottom of the power supply cover, and the opening is provided with a light-permeable upper cover and a clampingsnap ring.
[0009] The utility model relates to a safety LED ceiling lamp of the , utility model which is provided with a power supply cover to cover the power supply to . It has the functions of preventing dust from falling on the components of the power supply, preventing avoid the damage toof the components, protecting the power supply, and improveing the service life of the components; it prevents that when the LED ceiling lamp is working, other metal parts are prevented from coming into contact with the components of the power supply to make, and thus the metal parts conduct are electricitycally conductive and , thereby finally makeing the LED ceiling lamp conduct electricityive; in addition, it also prevents the employees workers on the production line from touching the components of the power supply during the assembly process and causing damages. The LED ceiling lamp has a simple structure, is convenient to install, and is easy to replace.
Japanese to English: Patient Medical Record (Hospitalization)
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - Japanese
PH)#新生児メレナ·ミルクアレルギー疑い:日齡3で粘血便認め当院NICU入院あy。日齡18; 再度血便出現 日齡26: エレンタールP+母乳 日齡54: ALST: カゼイン,ラクトフエリン,αラクトアルブミン限性。日齡68: 母乳は再開

嘔吐
入浴前 溢乳の後あリ シーツ交換実施
13時 コールあり 50CC程吐いたと 報告あり 咳嗽剌激で嗔射するように吐いたと 吐いた後は患児すっきり表情良くなったと
吸入吸引 哺乳前実施 黄色痰から徐々に白色痰へ移行粘稠ども改善 空腹啼泣見られる大泉門平坦 発熱なし
排尿あり 脱水症状なく 悪心見られない
嘔吐が続くようなら 脱水のリスク説明 観察報告指導
嘔吐持続せず
Translation - English
PH) # Newborn melena/milk allergy suspected: Bloody mucous in stool found at age of 3 days and admitted to NICU of our hospital. At age of 18 days, blood in stool occurred again; at age of 26 days: Elental P + breast milk; at age of 54 days: ALST: positive casein, lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin. At age of 68 days: breastfeeding resumed.

Vomiting
Bed sheet was changed before bathing and milk vomiting.
At 1 PM, we were called and informed that the child vomited about 50 CC. The vomiting was in an ejection manner caused by coughing, and the child looked better after vomiting.
Inhalation and suction were performed before breastfeeding, and yellow sputum was changed to white sputum gradually with improved viscosity. The child cried when hungry and the anterior fontanel was flat with no fever.
The child urinated without symptoms of dehydration or nausea.
The risk of dehydration has been explained if the vomiting continues, and the guidance is given on observation and reporting.
Vomiting not persistent.

English to Chinese: family office in Switzerland
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Advertising / Public Relations
Source text - English
There is no 'one size fits all' solution. Every family office functions differently, offers different services, and will therefore be able or, oppositely, completely unable to deliver the services you are looking for. As your family's wealth and future well-being strongly depend on the selection of the right provider, the selection process should be very thorough.

Wealth planning is the art of structuring your wealth while building it, preserving it, and in order to transfer it to the next generation tax-optimised. Wealth planning is a mix of tax planning, wealth protection, estate planning and business succession planning and relates to your total worldwide wealth. A good family office in Switzerland will support you with solid wealth planning services.

Inheritance and gift tax: Contrary to what most believe, Monaco does levy inheritance- and gift tax (transfer tax) from the families living in Monaco, but this is limited to movable and immovable properties located within the Principality (a so-called “situs tax”). The applicable tax rate depends on the relationship between the deceased and the beneficiary. The applicable tax rate for children, spouses, and also parents is 0%. Therefore in effect, in most cases, no inheritance tax is levied.

Hedge funds are alternative investment vehicles whose main benefit lies in their flexibility. Hedge funds can invest in a wide variety of asset classes (fixed income, equities, currencies, and commodities) and can implement their trades through long and short positions, derivatives and/or leverage.
Translation - Chinese
世上没有“一个尺码可以适合所有人”这种事。家族办公室各自的运作方式不同,提供的服务也不同,因此其既能够,也可能与之相反,完全不能够提供您所要的服务。您家族的财富和未来的幸福与保障在很大程度上要看您是否选对了服务商,因此选择过程应该十分细致彻底。

财富规划是一门艺术,是在建立财富的同时,做好财富的结构布局,保住财富,将财富以最优惠的税务传给下一代。财富规划是税务规划、保护财富、房地产规划和企业传承规划的综合规划,与您的全球总财富相关。在瑞士拥有良好的家族办公室将让您能够获得坚实的财富规划服务支持。

遗产和赠与税:与大部分人所想的相反,摩纳哥对居住在摩纳哥的家庭是要征收遗产和赠与税(转让税)的,但这两项税只对位于摩纳哥公国内的动产和不动产征收(即所谓的“就地税”)。相关税率视死者与受益人之间的关系而定,对于子女、配偶以及父母,税率为0%。因此,大部分情况下是不征收遗产税的。

对冲基金是另外的投资工具,其主要优点是灵活。对冲基金可以投资的资产类别很广泛(固定收益、股权、货币以及商品),并可以通过多头和空头头寸、衍生工具及/或杠杆进行交易。
Japanese to English: Japan real estate purchase and sale agreement
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - Japanese
第11条 (敷金の承継)
1.売主は、本物件の引渡しのときに、本物件の引渡しの時点で既存テナントから受領している預り敷金又は保証金の返還債務(以下、「敷金等返還債務」という。)を、買主に免責的に承継させるものとする。
2.売主は、買主に対して、敷金等返還債務相当額の金銭を支払うものとする。当該支払いは、第3条第2項に定める売買代金の支払時に売主及び買主間で精算するものとする。
3.売主が前項に基づき買主に対して支払うべき敷金等返還債務相当額(平成30年7月25日においては金9,807,000円。但し、本物件の引渡しまでに敷金等返還債務相当額の金額が変更された場合は、当該変更後の金額とし、売主はかかる変更について買主に対し速やかにその合理的根拠資料と共に書面により通知する。)は、売主が買主より受領する売買代金と差引き決済により処理するものとする。
4.本物件の引渡し以前に既存テナントから収受した更新料、敷引又は敷金の償却等に関し、本物件の引渡し以降、既存テナントから売主又は買主に対し何らかの請求(本物件の引渡し以前に売主が受領した更新料の金額が過大だとして返還の請求がされた場合を含む。)がなされた場合、売主は、適用法令の範囲内で、かかる請求に対して、自己の費用と責任をもって適切に対応するものとし、また、買主がこれによって損害等を被ったときは、売主はかかる損害等を補償する。

第13条 (売主による表明・保証)
1.売主は、買主に対して、以下の事項が本契約締結日及び売買実行日において、真実かつ正確であることを表明し、保証する。売主の買主に対する本条の表明及び保証の違反は、売主の故意、過失の有無を問わず、売主の本契約違反を構成するものとする。売主が本条規定の表明及び保証に違反した場合、売主は、当該違反に起因又は関連して買主に生じた損害及び費用を速やかに賠償する。
(1)売主は、日本法に基づき適法に設立され有効に存在する法人であり、自己の財産を所有し、本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な権利能力及び行為能力を有しており、売主にとって本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な一切の行為(社内の授権手続を含むが、それには限られない。)を完了していること。
(2)本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行は、日本国における法律、政令、省令、通達又はその他の規則、売主の定款、取締役会規則その他の社内規則、又は売主若しくはその財産を拘束する又はその財産に影響を及ぼす金銭消費貸借、担保権設定契約若しくはその予約又はその他の契約に反していないこと。
(3)売主は、破産手続開始、民事再生手続開始又は類似の法的手続の申し立てをしておらず、第三者によるかかる手続の申し立てもされていないこと。売主は、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態になく、その他売主の信用状態に重大な懸念が発生していないこと。また、本契約に基づく売買取引の結果、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態にならないこと。
(4)売主による本契約の締結及び履行は、正当な目的に基づきなされるものであり、詐害目的意図又は不法な目的に基づきなされるものではないこと。売主は本契約に基づく本物件の売却により、本物件の金銭の換価による財産の隠匿、無償の供与、その他売主の債権者を害する処分をする意思を有しておらず、また本契約に基づく本物件の売却はかかる売主の債権者を害する処分をする虞を現に生じさせるものではないこと。
(5)本物件の売却に関して、売主は真正かつ有効な売買とする意図を有しており、本物件を担保に供するとの意図はないこと。

(6)本物件が別紙3「売主の本物件に関する表明・保証事項」のとおりであること。但し、別紙2「物件概要書」に記載された事項のうち、別紙3「売主の本物件に関する表明・保証事項」に記載のいずれかに反するものには、売主の表明及び保証は及ばないものとするが、売主が物件概要書において約束した事項は、売主の本契約に基づく義務を構成するものとする。
2.前項各号に定める表明事項に関し、誤りがあり若しくは不正確であったことが判明した場合、又は売買実行日までに変更が生じた場合には、売主は直ちに買主にその旨を書面で通知するものとする。
第14条 (買主による表明・保証)
1.買主は、売主に対して、以下の事項が本契約の締結日において、真実かつ正確であることを表明し、保証する。買主の売主に対する本条の表明及び保証の違反は、買主の故意、過失の有無を問わず、買主の本契約違反を構成するものとする。買主が本条規定の表明及び保証に違反した場合、買主は、当該違反に起因又は関連して売主に生じた損害及び費用を速やかに賠償する。
(1)買主は、日本法に基づき適法に設立され有効に存在する法人であり、自己の財産を所有し、本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な権利能力及び行為能力を有しており、買主にとって本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行のために必要な一切の行為(社内の授権手続を含むが、それには限られない。)を完了していること。
(2)本契約の締結及び本契約上の義務の履行は、日本国における法律、政令、省令、通達又はその他の規則、買主の定款、その他の社内規則(もしあれば)、又は買主若しくはその財産を拘束する又はその財産に影響を及ぼす金銭消費貸借、担保権設定契約若しくはその予約又はその他の契約に反していないこと。
(3)買主は、破産手続開始、民事再生手続開始又は類似の法的手続の申し立てをしておらず、第三者によるかかる手続の申し立てもされていないこと。買主は、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態になく、その他買主の信用状態に重大な懸念が発生していないこと。また、本契約に基づく売買取引の結果、支払不能、支払停止又は債務超過の状態にならないこと。
2.前項各号に定める表明事項に関し、誤りがあり若しくは不正確であったことが判明した場合、又は売買実行日までに変更が生じた場合には、買主は直ちに売主にその旨を書面で通知するものとする。
第15条 (瑕疵担保責任)
1.売主は、本物件の瑕疵(隠れたる瑕疵を含むが、これに限られない。)に関しては、その瑕疵があることを原因として本物件の引渡し後に買主に生じた損害、損失及び費用(第三者からの請求によるものを含む。)について、本契約に基づいて本物件の引渡しの日から2年以内に買主から書面で請求を受けた場合に限り、その責任を負うものとする。なお、別紙2-2「売買実行日までの売主の義務」に記載された事項(買主が明示的に免除したものを除く。)については、本契約書の締結をもって買主による書面での請求がなされたものとみなす。
2.本契約に関し、商法(明治32年法律第48号、その後の改正を含む。)第526条は適用されないものとする。

3.前二項の規定は、本契約の他の条項(第13条を含むが、これに限らない。)に基づき買主が売主に対して有する権利に影響を与えるものではない。
Translation - English
Article 11 (Transfer of Deposits or Other Security Money)
1. When delivering the Property, the Seller shall cause the Buyer to succeed to the liability for refund of deposits or security money received from the existing tenants as of the date of delivery of the Property (hereinafter referred to as “Liability for Refund of Deposits or Other Security Money”).
2. The Seller shall pay to the Buyer an amount equal to the amount of Liability for Refund of Deposits or Other Security Money. Such payment shall be settled by the Seller and the Buyer prior to payment of the Sale Price specified in paragraph 2 of Article 3.
3. The amount that is equal to the amount of Liability for Refund of Deposits or Other Security Money and shall be paid by the Seller to the Buyer according to the preceding paragraph shall be (9,807,000 Yen on July 25, 2018, provided however that if, before the delivery of the Property, there is any change in the amount of Liability for Refund of Deposits or Other Security Money, the amount shall be the changed amount. The Seller shall notify the Buyer in writing of such change and reasons for such change as soon as possible) and settle the account by deduction from the Sale Price to be collected by the Seller from the Buyer.
4. With respect to the refund of the renovation fee and the deposit or security money for building restoration received from the existing tenants before the delivery of the Property, when the existing tenants make any claims to the Seller or the Buyer (including claims for a refund on the ground that the renovation fee collected by the Seller before the delivery of the Property is exorbitant) after the delivery of the Property, the Seller shall properly respond to such claims at its own expense and liability to the extent permitted by applicable laws and regulations and, if such response causes any losses to the Buyer, shall make compensation for such losses.

Article 13 (Seller’s Representations and Warranties)
1. The Seller represents and warrants to the Buyer that: the following are true and accurate as of the date of signing of this Agreement and the Closing Date. Any contravention by the Seller, whether intentionally or unintentionally, regardless of negligence or not, of the representations and warranties made to the Buyer under this Article shall be deemed as a default of the Seller under this Agreement. When the Seller contravenes the representations and warranties set forth in this Article, it shall compensate, as soon as possible, for any losses and expenses caused to the Buyer due to or in connection with such contravention.
(1) The Seller is a juridical person validly existing and organized under the laws of Japan and owns its properties, has the capacity for rights and actions necessary to execute this Agreement and perform the obligations herein, and has taken all actions (including but not limited to internal authorization) required for such execution and performance of this Agreement.
(2) The execution of this Agreement and the performance of obligations herein do not violate laws, government decrees, provincial degrees, notices or other rules of Japan, the Seller’s Articles of Association, board rules and other internal corporate rules, or agreements on loans for expenses, agreements or pledges on setting of collaterals, or other agreements that bind on the Seller or the Seller’s properties or have influences on the properties of the Seller.
(3) The Seller does not file for bankruptcy, or civil rehabilitation procedure or similar legal proceedings and is not a subject of any similar legal proceedings filed by a third person. The Seller is not in a state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness, and is not in a state that causes a major concern about the Seller’s credit status. In addition, the sale made under this Agreement will not put the Seller in a state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness.
(4) The execution and performance of this Agreement by the Seller shall be for legitimate purposes and not for fraudulent purposes or intentions or illegal purposes. The Seller does not have the intention to, by sale of the Property herein, exchange the Property for money for concealing of asset, offer it for free or otherwise dispose of it that harms the Seller’s creditors. Furthermore, the sale of the Property made under this Agreement is by no means a disposal that will harm the rights and interests of the Seller’s creditors.

(5) With respect to the sale of the Property, the Seller intends to conduct a true and valid sale and does not have the intention to use the Property as security.
(6) The Property is as set forth in Exhibit 3 “SELLER’S REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES”. However, the Seller’s representations and warranties do not cover those stated in Exhibit 2 “OUTLINE OF PROPERTY” that may be contrary to any of the provisions set out in Exhibit 3 “SELLER’S REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES”, so the undertakings made by the Seller in the OUTLINE OF PROPERTY shall constitute the Seller’s obligations under this Agreement.
2. If the representations set forth in the preceding paragraphs are determined to be false or incorrect or have had any change as of the Closing Date, the Seller shall immediately notify the Buyer in writing of such falseness, incorrectness or change.
Article 14 (Buyer’s Representations and Warranties)
1. The Buyer represents and warrants to the Seller that: the following are true and accurate as of the date of signing of this Agreement. Any contravention by the Buyer, whether intentionally or unintendedly, regardless of negligence or not, of the representations and warranties made to the Seller under this Article shall be deemed as a default of the Buyer under this Agreement. When the Buyer contravenes the representations and warranties set forth in this Article, it shall, as soon as possible, compensate for any losses and expenses caused to the Seller due to or in connection with such contravention.
(1) The Buyer is a juridical person validly existing and organized under the laws of Japan, owns its properties, has the capacity for rights and actions necessary to execute this Agreement and perform the obligations herein, and has taken all actions (including but not limited to internal authorization) required for such execution and performance of this Agreement.
(2) The execution of this Agreement and the performance of obligations herein do not violate laws, government decrees, provincial degrees, notices or other rules of Japan, the Buyer’s Articles of Association, board rules and other internal corporate rules (if any), or any agreements on loans for expenses, agreements or pledges on setting of collaterals, or other agreements that bind on the Buyer or the Buyer’s properties or have influences on the properties of the Buyer.
(3) The Buyer does not file for bankruptcy, or civil rehabilitation procedure or similar legal proceedings and is not a subject of any similar legal proceedings filed by a third person. The Buyer is not in a state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness, and is not in a state that causes a major concern about the Buyer’s credit status.In addition, the sale made under this Agreement will not put the Buyer in the state of insolvency, payment suspension or excessive indebtedness.
2. If the representations set forth in the preceding paragraphs are determined to be false or incorrect or have had any change as of the Closing Date, the Buyer shall immediately notify in writing the Seller of such falseness, incorrectness or change.
Article 15 (Liability for Warranty Against Defects)
1. With respect to any defects of the Property (including but not limited to hidden defects), the Seller shall be liable for any damages, losses and expenses (including any payment claims of a third party) caused to the Buyer due to such defects after the delivery of the Property provided that the Buyer submit a written request with respect to such liability within two years from the date of delivery of the Property under this Agreement. Furthermore, for the matters described in Exhibit 2-2 “SELLER’S OBLIGATIONS AS OF THE CLOSING DATE” (except for those expressly waived by the Buyer), the Buyer shall be deemed to have submitted said written request by the signing of this Agreement.


2. Article 526 of the Commercial Code (Act No. 48 of 1899, including subsequent revisions thereof) shall not apply to this Agreement.
3. The provisions of the preceding two paragraphs shall not prejudice the rights of the Buyer against the Seller under the other clauses hereof (including but not limited to Article 13).

Korean to English: Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - Korean
1. 신규성 및 진보성

1.1 독립항: 청구항 제1항

청구항 제1항에 기재된 발명과 근접한 인용문헌 이에는 유입유로(834),배출유로(814), 밸브몸체(810),및 밸브스풀(830)을 포함하는 공기배출장치 (800)가 제시되어 있습니다(단 락 [0040]-[0067] 및 도면 1-7 참조).

다만 청구항 제1항은 공기배출용 체크밸브가 유입유로를 포함하는 구체의 밸브스풀을 갖는 점에서 인용문헌 D1과 차이가 있지만,상기 밸브스풀에 형성된 유입유로는 통상의 기술자가 설계 변경할 수 있는 것이고,또한 상기 구체의 밸브스풀은 인용문헌 D2의 강구 (45) 를 포함하는 공기빼기 기능을 갖춘 유압 실린더로부터 통상의 기술자가 용이하게 도 출할 수 있는 것입니다 (단락 [0016]-[0018] 및 도면 2 참조). 인용문헌 D1과 D2의 기술분 야가 동일한 점과 구성을 고려해볼 때 인용문헌 D1에 인용문헌 D2의 특징을 결합하는데 기술적으로 어려움은 없으며, 효과면에서도 예측되는 당연한 효과 이외 현저히 향상된 효 과가 있다고 인정되지 아니합니다. 따라서 청구항 제1항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1과 인용문헌 D2에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다 (PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2 종속항: 청구항 제2항 내지 제11항

1.2.1 청구항 제2항

청구항 제2항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 인용문헌 D1에 기재된 제1 배출유로(814a)와 제2 배출유로(814b)와 실질적으로 동일합니다(단락 [0060] 및 4, 5 참조). 따라서 청구항 제2항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1과 인용문헌 D2에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다 (PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2.2 청구항 제3항

청구항 제3항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 밸브몸체가 인출입유로가 형성되는 제1 밸브몸 체와 수용부가 형성되는 제2 밸브몸체를 포함 것으로,이는 인용문헌 D2의 밸브본체 홀더 (41)와 시트링 (42)을 포함하는 공기빼기 기능을 갖춘 유압 실린더로부터 통상의 기술자가 용이하게 도출할 수 있는 것입니다 (단락 [0016]-[0018] 및 도면 2 참조). 따라서 청구항 제3항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1과 인용문헌 D2에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다 (PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2.3 청구항 제4항

청구항 제4항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 인용문헌 D2에 기재된 단차부(41a)와 실질적으 로 동일합니다 (도면 2 참조). 따라서 청구항 제4항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1과 인용 문헌 D2에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다 (PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2.4 청구항 제5항

청구항 제5항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 제2 배출유로가 구체의 밸브스풀의 배출위치와 차단위치 사이에서의 왕복 이동 방향을 따라 제2 밸브몸체에 함몰 형성되는 것으로,이는 인용문헌 D1의 제1 배출유로(814a)가 밸브스풀(830)의 제1 위치와 제2 위치 사이에서 왕 복 이동 방향을 따라 밸브몸체에 함몰 형성되는 것으로부터 통상의 기술자가 용이하게 도 출할 수 있는 것입니다 (단락 [0064],[0065] 참조). 따라서 청구항 제5항에 기재된 발명 은 인용문헌 D1과 인용문헌 D2에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다(PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2.5 청구항 제6항

청구항 제6항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 인용문헌 이에 기재된 밸브 탄성부재(850)와 실질적으로 동일합니다(단락 [0064] 및 도면 4,5 참조). 따라서 청구항 제6항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1과 인용문헌 D2에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다(PCT 제33조 (3)).

1.2.6 청구항 제7항

청구항 제7항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 탄성부재가 구체의 밸브스풀이 차단위치에서 배출위치로 이동되도록 탄성 바이어스 되는 것으로, 이는 인용문헌 D1의 밸브 탄성부재 (850)가 밸브 스풀을 탄성 바이어스 하는 구성으로부터 통상의 기술자가 용이하게 도출할 수 있는 것입니다(단락 [0064] 및 도면 4, 5 참조). 따라서 청구항 제7항에 기재된 발명 은 인용문헌 D1과 인용문헌 D2에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다(PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2.7 청구항 제8항

청구항 제8항에 기재된 발명은 인출입유로가 제1 밸브몸체에 형성되며,유압유가 인입 될 때 구체의 밸브스풀에 유압력을 제공하는 제1 인출입유로와 제1 인출입유로의 원주 방 향으로 제1 밸브몸체에 함몰 형성되고 구체의 밸브스풀과의 접촉 영 역은 노치 (notch) 가 공되어,유압유가 인입될 때 수용부로 유압유를 안내하는 제2 인출입유로를 포함하는 점 에서 상기 인용문헌 D1의 기재된 발명과 차이가 있으며, 상기 차이는 다른 인용문헌에도 기재가 되어 있지 않으며, 통상의 지식을 가진 자에게 자명하지도 않습니다. 따라서 청구 항 제8항은 신규성과 진보성이 있습니다 (PCT 제33조(2) 및 (3)).

1.2.8 청구항 제9항

인용문헌 D1 및 D2에는 청구항 제9항의 특징인 탄성부재의 탄성력을 구체의 밸브스풀에 제공하는 매개부재가 제시되어 있지 않으나, 이는 인용문헌 D3의 밸브스풀(30)의 상단에 구비된 고정체(32)로부터 통상의 기술자가 용이하게 도출할 수 있는 것입니다 (단락 [0032], [0033] 및 도면 7-9 참조). 인용문헌 D1 내지 D3의 기술분야가 동일한 점과 구성 을 고려해볼 때 인용문헌 D1 및 D2에 인용문헌 D3의 특징을 결합하는데 기술적으로 어려 움은 없으며, 효과면에서도 예측되는 당연한 효과 이외 현저히 향상된 효과가 있다고 인 정되지 아니합니다. 따라서 청구항 제9항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1 내지 인용문헌 D3

에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다 (PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2.9 청구항 제10항

청구항 제10항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 공기배출용 체크밸브가 밸브몸체의 접촉면과 의 사이에서 윤활력을 제공하는 윤활력 제공부를 포함하는 것으로, 이는 인용문헌 D1의 교축 작용부 (870) 로부터 통상의 기술자가 용이하게 도출할 수 있는 것입니다 (단락 [0066], [0067] 및 도면 4-7 참조) . 따라서 청구항 제 10항에 기 재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1 내지 인용문헌 D3에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다 (PCT 제33조(3)).

1.2.10 청구항 제11항

청구항 제11항에 기재된 부가적인 특징은 매개부재가 구체의 밸브스풀과 탄성부재 대비 낮은 경도를 갖는 것으로, 이는 통상의 기술자가 상황에 따라 적절히 선택하여 실시할 수 있는 주지의 기술입니다. 따라서 청구항 제11항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 D1 내지 인용 문헌 D3에 의해 자명하므로 진보성이 없습니다 (PCT 제33조(3)).

1.3 독립항: 청구항 제12항

청구항 제12항에 기재된 공기배출용 체크밸브는 청구항 제1항과 기술적 특징이 공통되 므로, 동일한 논리가 적용됩니다. 또한 인용문헌 이에는 피스톤(200) 및 실린더 (100)를 포함하는 발전소용 유압 액추에이터가 제시되어 있습니다(단락 [0040]-[0067] 및 도면 1-7 참조). 따라서 청구항 제12항에 기재된 발명은 인용문헌 이과 인용문헌 D2에 의해 자 명하므로 진보성이 없습니다(PCT 제33조(3)).

(참고: 청구항 제12항은 청구항 제1항의 공기배출용 체크밸브를 포함하고 있는 것으로 가 정하였습니다.)

2. 산업상 이용가능성

청구항 제1항 내지 제12항에 기재된 발명은 산업상 이용 가능합니다(PCT 제33조(4)).


Translation - English
1. Novelty and Inventive Step

1.1 Independent Claim: Claim 1

Document D1, which closely relates to the invention according to claim 1, discloses an air discharge device (800) comprising an inflow path (834), a discharge path (814), a valve body (810) and a valve spool (830) (see Paragraphs [0040] to [0067] and Figures 1 to 7).
Claim 1 is different from document D1 in that the exhaust check valve has a ball valve spool comprising an inflow path. The inflow path formed on said valve spool is a structure which those skilled in the art can change by design, and in addition, said ball valve spool can easily be realized by those skilled in the art according to the hydraulic cylinder comprising a steel ball (45) and having the exhaust function disclosed in document D2 (see Paragraphs [0016] to [0018] and Figure 2). Viewed from the same technical field which Document D1 and Document D2 belong to and the structures described in these two documents, there is no technical difficulty in combining the characteristics of Document D1 and Document D2, and in terms of effects, there is no significantly improved effect, except the predictable effects. Consequently, the invention as set forth in claim 1 can be easily implemented according to Document D1 and Document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2 Dependent Claims: Claim 2 through Claim 11

1.2.1 Claim 2

The additional characteristic described in claim 2 is essentially the same as the first discharge path (814a) and the second discharge path (814b) as described in Document D1 (see Paragraph [0060] and Figures 4 and 5). Consequently, the invention described in claim 2 can be easily implemented according to Document D1 and Document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.2 Claim 3

According to the additional characteristic described in claim 3, the valve body comprises a first valve body where inflow/outflow paths are formed and a second valve body where an accommodation portion is formed. However, those skilled in the art can easily realize the structure according to the hydraulic cylinder comprising a valve body holder (41) and a seat ring (42) and having the exhaust function as disclosed in Document D2 (see Paragraphs [0016] to [0018] and Figure 2). Consequently, the invention described in claim 3 can be easily implemented according to Document D1 and Document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.3 Claim 4

The additional characteristic described in claim 4 is essentially the same as the blocking portion (41a) as described in Document 2 (see Figure 2). Consequently, the invention described in claim 4 can be easily implemented according to Document D1 and Document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.4 Claim 5

According to the additional characteristic described in claim 5, the second discharge path is formed by denting the second valve body in the back-and-forth movement direction between the discharge position and the blocking position of the ball valve spool, and those skilled in the art can easily realize the second discharge path according to the structure formed by denting the valve body in the back-and-forth movement direction of the first discharge path (814a) between the first position and the second position of the valve spool (830) as disclosed in Document D1 (see Paragraphs [0064] and [0065]). Consequently, the invention described in claim 5 can be easily implemented according to Document D1 and Document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.5 Claim 6

The additional characteristic described in claim 6 is essentially the same as the valve's elastic component (850) as described in Document 1 (see Paragraph [0064] and Figures 4 and 5). Consequently, the invention described in claim 6 can be easily implemented according to Document D1 and Document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.6 Claim 7

According to the additional characteristic described in claim 7, the elastic component is elastically biased to move the ball valve spool from the blocking position to the discharge position, and those skilled in the art can easily realize the structure according to the valve's elastic component (850) which elastically biases the valve spool disclosed in Document D1 (see Paragraph [0064] and Figures 4 and 5). Consequently, the invention described in claim 7 can be easily implemented according to Document D1 and Document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.7 Claim 8

According to the invention described in claim 8, the inflow/outflow paths are formed on the first valve body and comprise a first inflow/outflow path (a hydraulic pressure is supplied to the ball valve spool when a hydraulic oil flows into the path) and a second inflow/outflow path (the second inflow/outflow path is formed by denting the first valve body in the circumferential direction of the first inflow/outflow path, the contact area between the second inflow/outflow path and the ball valve spool is notched, and the hydraulic oil is guided to the accommodation portion when the hydraulic oil flows into the second inflow/outflow path). The above-mentioned structure is different from the invention as set forth in Document D1, and said difference is not mentioned in other reference documents and is not obvious to those skilled in the art. Consequently, claim 8 has novelty and an inventive step (PCT Article 33 (2) and (3)).

1.2.8 Claim 9

Although the characteristic set forth in claim 9, namely, the medium component which supplies the elastic force of the elastic component to the ball valve spool, is not described in Document D1 and Document D2, those skilled in the art can easily realize this structure according to the fixing body arranged at the top of the valve spool (30) disclosed in Document D3 (see Paragraphs [0032] and [0033] and Figures 7 to 9). In view of the same technical field which Document D1 and Document D3 belong to and the structures described in these two documents, there is no technical difficulty in combining the characteristics of document D1 and document D2 with the characteristic of document D3, and in terms of effects, there is no significantly improved effect, except the predictable effects. Consequently, the invention described in claim 9 can be easily implemented according to document D1 to document D3 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.9 Claim 10

According to the additional characteristic described in claim 10, the exhaust check valve comprises a lubrication force supply portion which can supply a lubrication force between the contact surfaces of the valve body, and those skilled in the art can easily realize this structure according to the throttling portion (870) disclosed in document D1 (see Paragraphs [0066] and [0067] and Figures 4 to 7). Consequently, the invention described in claim 10 can be easily implemented according to document D1 to document D3 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.2.10 Claim 11

According to the additional characteristic described in claim 11, the hardness of the medium component is much lower than the hardness of the ball valve spool or the elastic component, and this characteristic is the prior art which those skilled in the art can properly select and implement according to the situation. Consequently, the invention described in claim 11 can be easily implemented according to document D1 to document D3 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

1.3 Independent Claim: Claim 12

The technical characteristic of the exhaust check valve described in claim 12 is the same as that described in claim 1, and therefore the same logic applies. In addition, there is reference document describing a hydraulic actuator for a power plant which comprises a piston (200) and a cylinder (100) (see Paragraphs [0040] to [0067] and Figures 1 to 7). Consequently, the invention described in claim 12 can be easily implemented according to document D2 and thus lacks an inventive step (PCT Article 33(3)).

(For your reference: By inference, claim 12 includes the exhaust check valve described in claim 1.)

2. Industrial Applicability

The invention described in claims 1 to 12 is industrially applicable (PCT Article 33 (4)).

Korean to English: FOB KEY FOR VEHICLE
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - Korean
【발명의 설명】
【발명의 명칭】
차량용 포브키{FOB KEY FOR VEHICLE}
【기술분야】
본 발명은 차량용 포브키에 관한 것으로서, 보다 상세하게는 버튼과 택트 스위치 사이에 버튼을 지지하는 버튼 지지 구조체를 설치함으로써, 택트 스위치를 누르기 위한 버튼의 작동력을 증대시킬 수 있고, 버튼의 유동에 의한 소음을 방지할 수 있는 차량용 포브키에 관한 것이다.
【발명의 배경이 되는 기술】
차량의 문 열림 기능이나 잠금 기능의 수행, 차량 엔진의 시동 기능 등을 수행하기 위한 포브(FOB)키가 널리 사용되고 있다.
도 1 및 도 2를 참조하면, 종래의 포브키(1)는 하우징(10)의 내부에 택트 스위치(30)와 전장 부품(40)이 설치된 인쇄회로기판(50)이 설치되고, 하우징(10)에는 택트 스위치(30)를 작동시키기 위한 버튼(20)이 설치되며, 택트 스위치(30)와 버튼(20) 사이에는 버튼(20)의 유동에 의한 소음을 방지하기 위해서 버튼(20)의 내측을 고정해주는 고무 재질의 키 패드(60)가 설치된다.
택트 스위치(30)를 누르기 위한 버튼(20)의 작동력은 택트 스위치(30)의 작동력(3N ~ 5N)과 키 패드(60)의 경도로 조절된다.
하지만 택트 스위치(30)의 작동력 조절과 키 패드(60)의 경도 조절만으로는 버튼(20)의 작동력을 증대시키는데 한계가 있었고, 이러한 구조적인 한계로 인해 버튼(20)의 유동에 의한 소음을 방지할 수 없게 되는 문제점이 있었다.
또한, 종래의 구조로는 새롭게 요구되는 버튼(20)의 작동력(13N)을 만족시킬 수 없는 문제점이 있었다.
본 발명의 배경기술은 대한민국 공개실용신안공보 제2016-0004173호(2016.12.07.
공개, 고안의 명칭 : 차량의 포브키 어셈블리)에 게시되어 있다.
【발명의 내용】
【해결하고자 하는 과제】
본 발명은 상기와 같은 문제점들을 개선하기 위해 안출된 것으로서, 버튼과 택트 스위치 사이에 버튼을 지지하는 버튼 지지 구조체를 설치함으로써, 택트 스위치를 누르기 위한 버튼의 작동력을 증대시킬 수 있고, 버튼의 유동에 의한 소음을 방지할 수 있는 차량용 포브키를 제공하는데 그 목적이 있다.
【과제의 해결 수단】
본 발명에 따른 차량용 포브키는:
내부 공간에 택트 스위치와 전장 부품이 설치된 인쇄회로기판을 수용하는 하우징과, 택트 스위치를 향해 이동 가능하도록 하우징에 설치되는 버튼과, 버튼을 택트 스위치로부터 이격시키는 방향으로 탄성 지지하는 버튼 지지 구조체를 포함하는 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 버튼은 작동력이 가해지는 몸체부와, 몸체부로부터 택트 스위치를 향하는 방향으로 돌출 형성되어, 작동력을 택트 스위치로 전달하는 로드부를 포함하는 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 버튼 지지 구조체는 버튼의 몸체부를 탄성 지지하고, 하우징에 형성되는 지지 블록에 지지되도록 설치되는 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 지지 블록에는 버튼의 로드부가 관통할 수 있도록 관통홀이 형성되는 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 버튼 지지 구조체는 버튼의 로드부가 관통할 수 있는 크기의 코일 스프링인 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 버튼 지지 구조체는 지지 블록에 지지되는 박판 형상의 베이스 플레이트와, 베이스 플레이트로부터 경사진 형태로 돌출 형성되어 버튼의 몸체부를 탄성 지지하는 탄성 지지편을 포함하는 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 베이스 플레이트에는 버튼의 로드부가 이동할 수 있도록 통로를 마련하는 가이드 홈이 형성되는 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 탄성 지지편은 하나의 버튼의 몸체부에 대해 한 쌍이 탄성 지지하도록 형성되고, 한 쌍으로 형성되는 탄성 지지편은 몸체부에 가까워질수록 서로 가까워지도록 경사진 것을 특징으로 한다.
또한, 한 쌍으로 형성되는 탄성 지지편의 단부에는 버튼의 몸체부에 대한 접촉 면적을 증가시키는 접촉 플레이트가 더 형성되는 것을 특징으로 한다.
【발명의 효과】
본 발명에 따른 차량용 포브키는 버튼과 택트 스위치 사이에 버튼을 지지하는 버튼 지지 구조체를 설치함으로써, 택트 스위치를 누르기 위한 버튼의 작동력을 증대시킬 수 있고, 버튼의 유동에 의한 소음을 방지할 수 있다.
【도면의 간단한 설명】
도 1은 종래의 차량용 포브키를 개략적으로 나타낸 도면이다.
도 2는 도 1의 A-A 단면도이다.
도 3은 본 발명의 일 실시예에 따른 차량용 포브키를 나타낸 분해 사시도로서, 버튼 지지 구조체의 제1 실시예가 적용된 도면이다.
도 4는 본 발명의 일 실시예에 따른 차량용 포브키를 나타낸 단면도로서, 버튼 지지 구조체의 제1 실시예가 적용된 도면이다.
도 5는 본 발명의 일 실시예에 따른 차량용 포브키를 나타낸 분해 사시도로서, 버튼 지지 구조체의 제2 실시예가 적용된 도면이다.
도 6은 본 발명의 일 실시예에 따른 차량용 포브키를 나타낸 단면도로서, 버튼 지지 구조체의 제2실시예가 적용된 도면이다.
Translation - English

[Description of the Invention]
[Title of the Invention]
FOB KEY FOR VEHICLE
[Technical field]
The present invention relates to a fob key for a vehicle. In particular, a button-supporting structure supporting buttons is arranged between the buttons and the touch switches to increase the operating force on a button when the corresponding touch switch is pressed down and avoid noise when the button moves.

[Background art]
Currently, a fob key is widely used to unlock or lock vehicle doors and start a vehicle engine.

As shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, for a traditional fob key 1, a printed circuit board 50 mounted with touch switches 30 and electrical parts 40 is arranged in the housing 10, buttons 20 used to start touch switches 30 are arranged on the housing 10, and a rubber keypad 60 fixing the inner side of the buttons 20 is arranged between the touch switches 30 and the buttons 20 to avoid noise from being produced when a button 20 moves.

When a touch switch 30 is pressed down, the operating force on a button 30 can be adjusted through the operating force (3 N to 5 N) on the touch switch 30 and the hardness of the keypad 60.

However, the increase of the operating force on a button 20 through the adjustment of the operating force on the corresponding touch switch 30 and the adjustment of the hardness of the keypad 60 is limited. Owning to the structural limitation, it is impossible to avoid noise from being produced when the button 20 moves.

In addition, the traditional structure cannot satisfy the requirement for the recently desired operating force (13 N) on a button 20.

The background art of the present invention is described in Korean Laid-Open Utility Model Gazette No. 2016-0004173 (published in December 7, 2016,

title of the utility model: fob key assembly for a vehicle).

[Disclosure of the invention]
[Technical problem]
The present invention is presented to solve the above-mentioned problem. The object of the present invention is to provide a fob key for a vehicle. Through the arrangement of a button-supporting structure supporting buttons between the buttons and the touch switches, the operating force on a button is increased when the corresponding touch switch is pressed down and noise can be avoided when the button moves.

[Technical solution]
A smart fob key for a vehicle according to the present invention includes:
a housing accommodating a printed circuit board mounted with touch switches and electrical parts, buttons arranged on the housing and able to move towards touch switches, and a button-supporting structure elastically supporting buttons in a direction far away from touch switches.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that a button comprises the following structures: a body portion an operating force is exerted on and a rod portion protruding from the body portion towards a touch switch to transfer the operating force to the touch switch.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that the button-supporting structure elastically supports the body portion of the button and is supported by the support block formed on the housing.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that through-holes are formed in the support block and the rod portions of buttons pass through the through-holes.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that said button-supporting structure is a coil spring whose size is so large that it allows the rod portion of a button to pass through.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that said button-supporting structure includes a base plate, which is sheet plate supported by said support block, and elastic support pieces aslant protruding from said base plate to elastically support said body portions of said buttons.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that guide slots are formed in said base plate to constitute channels allowing said rod portions of said buttons to move in.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that said body portion of said button is supported by a pair of said slant elastic support pieces, and said elastic support pieces approach each other as they approach said body portion.

Further, the present invention is characterized in that a contact plate is formed at the end of said pair of elastic support pieces to increase the area of contact with said body portion of said button.

[Advantageous effects]
For the fob key for a vehicle in the present invention, a button-supporting structure supporting buttons is arranged between the buttons and the touch switches to increase the operating force on a button when the corresponding touch switch is pressed down and avoid noise when the button moves.

[Brief description of the drawings]
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram for a traditional fob key for a vehicle.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of A-A of FIG. 1.
Fig. 3 is an exploded oblique view of the fob key for a vehicle in one embodiment of the present invention and is applicable to the first embodiment of the button-supporting structure.

Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the fob key for a vehicle in one embodiment of the present invention and is applicable to the first embodiment of the button-supporting structure.

Fig. 5 is an exploded oblique view of the fob key for a vehicle in another embodiment of the present invention and is applicable to the second embodiment of the button-supporting structure.

Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the fob key for a vehicle in another embodiment of the present invention and is applicable to the second embodiment of the button-supporting structure.

Chinese to English: TIMING PARAMETER ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL LOOP TO RECONFIGURABLE ARRAY MAPPING
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Computers: Hardware
Source text - Chinese
摘要:通过定义算法关键循环到可重构阵列映射的建立时间、保持时间等核心时序参数,分析存储器带宽有限、算法数据流图拓扑不规则等实际问题,给出配置时序模型的优化算法,提出路径特征等参数的描述形式,为可重构自动编译提供新的处理方式。验证结果表明, 在视频算法H.264关链循坏deblocking的映射过程中,该优化映射方法使得性能在原有基础上提升43%。
关键词:关键循环;可重构阵列;算法映射;时序模型;阵列建立时间;阵列保持时间
1 概述
可重构计算是结合软件灵活性和硬件高效性的计算形式。早在1960年,文献[1]就提出了可重构硬件的设计方法,受限于当时的制造工艺,直到90年代后期,这一 研究领域得到蓬勃发展。计算系统包括控制器和一组可重构的硬件,控制器负责可重构硬件的行为,而后者可以剪裁、重组,执行某一特定的任务,比如媒体处理,它的效率和专用集成电路(ASIC)接近。任务执行完成之后,这部分硬件又可以重新分配执行其他的任务,故有着类似通用处理器的灵活性。这种计算形式有很高的能量效率,对于数据密集型领域不断变化的算法有广阔的应用前景。本文将探讨算法到可重构硬件映射中的关键问题。
2 算法和关键循环
从算法分析的角度,应用中的一些关键算法占用了大量的计算时间。面从程序分析的角度,程序中的一些循坏占用了大量的计算时间[2]。这两者在某种意义上是等价的,因为关键算法在程序中体现为一些函数,而这些函数在程序中通常又是在循坏中调用。所以关键循环一般是关键算法在程序中的体现[3]。如H.264解码中的IDCT算法是占用大量计算时间的关键算法,其处理对象是4×4的像素块,对于一帧CIF格式(352/288)的图像来说,需要做6336次IDCT,在程序中,这就体现为关键的循循环。
Translation - English
Abstract:
By defining core timing parameters such as setup time and hold time of mapping from critical loops of an algorithm to a reconfigurable array, analyzing practical problems such as limited memory bandwidth and irregular data flow graph topology, giving an optimization algorithm for configuring the timing model, and presenting a descriptive form of parameters such as path feature, a new processing method is provided for reconfigurable auto-compiling. The verification result shows that the optimized mapping algorithm improves the original performance by 43% in the mapping of the critical loop – deblocking - in the H.264 video algorithm.
Keywords: Critical loop; reconfigurable array; algorithm mapping;
timing model; array setup time; array hold time

1. Overview
Reconfigurable computing is a form of computing which combines the flexibility of software and the high efficiency of hardware. Early in 1960, a design method for reconfigurable hardware was put forward in Reference [1]. Restricted by manufacturing processes at the time, the research field did not boom until late 1990s. A computer system comprises a controller and a set of reconfigurable hardware. The controller is responsible for the behaviors of reconfigurable hardware, while the reconfigurable hardware can be tailored and recombined to execute a specific task, for example, media processing, and the efficiency is close to that of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). After executing the task, the reconfigurable hardware can be reallocated to execute other tasks. Therefore, the reconfigurable hardware has the flexibility comparable to that of a general processor. This form of computing has a high energy efficiency and has a broad application prospect for ever-changing algorithms in data intensive field. In this document, key issues in the mapping of algorithms to reconfigurable hardware will be discussed.
2. Algorithm and Critical Loop
From the perspective of algorithm analysis, some critical algorithms in applications use a large amount of computing time. From the perspective of program analysis, some loops in programs use a large amount of computing time [2]. Critical algorithms and loops are equivalent in a sense because critical algorithms are functions in programs and these functions in programs are often invoked in loops. Therefore, critical loops are generally the reflections of critical algorithms in programs [3]. For example, the IDCT algorithm in H.264 decoding is a critical algorithm which uses a large amount of computing time, and its processing object is 4  4 pixel blocks. A frame of CIF image (352 / 288) requires IDCT being performed 6336 times. In the program, it is a critical loop.
Japanese to English: GPS SURVEY METHOD AND DEVICE THEREOF
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Computers: Software
Source text - Japanese
[特許請求の範囲]
[請求項1] GPSを用いた測量であって、対象測量地域の外に絶対位置が特定された第1基準局を設け、前記対象測量地域の内に移動可能な第2基準局を設け、前記第1基準局と第2基準局との間で第1GPS相対位置を測定し、前記第2基準局と被測量地点に置かれた移動局との間で第2GPS相対位置を測定し、前記第1基準局の絶対位置に前記第1GPS相対位置と第2GPS相対位置を加算して移動局の絶対位置を測量することを特徴とするGPS測量方法。
[請求項2] 対象測量地域の外に絶対位置が特定された第1基準局を設け、前記対象測量地域の内に移動可能な第2基準局を設け、被測量地点に移動局を設け、
前記第1基準局は、複数のGPS衛星から受信されたGPS電波の特定コードの到着時間差、または搬送波の位相ずれを求めて第1補正情報を形成するGPS受信機と、前記第1補正情報と前記絶対位置情報を前記第2基準局へ伝送する第1伝送手段を備え、
前記第2基準局は、入力した前記第1補正情報と複数のGPS衛星から受信されたGPS電波により、第1基準局と第2基準局との間の第1GPS相対位置を測定し、前記GPS電波の特定コードの到着時間差、または搬送波の位相ずれを求めて第2補正情報を形成するGPS受信機と、このGPS受信機の第2補正情報と前記第1GPS相対位置情報と前記入力した絶対位置情報を前記移動局へ伝送する第2伝送手段を備え、
前記移動局は、入力した前記第2補正情報と複数のGPS衛星から受信されたGPS電波により、第2基準局と移動局との間の第2GPS相対位置を測定し、この第2GPS相対位置に、入力した前記第1基準局の絶対位置と第1GPS相対位置と加算して移動局の絶対位置を測量するGPS受信機を備えた、ことを特徴とするGPS測量装置。
[発明の詳細な説明]
[0001]
[発明の属する技術分野]本発明は、陸上、海上土木工事などにおけるGPS測量方法に関するものである。
[0002]
[従来の技術]従来、陸上、海上土木工事などにおいてGPS測量方法が使用されている。このGPS測量方法は、複数個のGPS衛星からの電波を地上のGPS受信機で受信し自己の絶対位置を決定する(以下、単独測位と称す)ものである。しかしながら単独測位では、その絶対位置の精度は一般に10から50mの誤差を持つ。そこで、高精度な位置決定を行うには2組のGPS受信機を用いて一方を基準局、他方を移動局として、基準局を固定した状態で移動局のみ移動させ、その相互の相対位置を精度良く計測し移動局の位置を精度良く求める(以下、相対測位と称す)方法が考案された。この方法としてDGPS方式、RTK方式、スタティック方式などがあり、それぞれ、1m,1cm,5mmオーダー誤差で位置洗めができる。また、両局間の距離はそれぞれ、100km,10km,10km程度まで離す事が可能である。
[0003]そこで、精度良く測量を行う必要がある場合は、これらの方式のいずれかで行うことになるが、相対測位であるため、計測の基準となる基準局と被測量地点に置かれた移動局間の相対位置の測定を高精度に測定することになる。ここで、被測量地点の絶対位置を求める必要がある場合には、あらかじめ各地に設置されている三角点などから、三角測量法などによって基準局の絶対位置(緯度、経度)を求めておきこれから移動局の絶対値を、測定された相対位置を用いて計算により求めていた。
[0004]
[発明が解決しようとする課題]しかし、この方法によると、ある限られた範囲の複数の被測量地点間の相対位置が知りたい場合や、比較的限定された範囲の絶対計測であれば特に問題はないが、広い範囲に渡って絶対位置を求めたい場合においては、基準局と移動局間のデータ通信手段の制約などから一般に、基準局を適当な被測量範囲内に移動させる必要があるので、(1)基準局を移動させる毎に基準局の絶対位置を決定するための測量が必要、(2)その際に拠り所とする三角点の相対的位置誤差により基準局位置に誤差が発生する、という問題があった。
[0005]また、上記のように、GPSにおいても単独測位モードにおいて絶対位置を決定でき、これによって基準局で単独測位を行うことで三角測量無しに基準局の位置決定は可能であるが、GPSの仕様上、誤差が10から50m程度見込まれるため、精度の高い計測には不向きであった。
[0006]さらに、ある地点に恒久的な基準局を設置し、精度良く絶対位置を測量しておき、その間の相対位置を測定することで、移動局の絶対位置を求めることはできるが、この場合においては、離れた2地点間で同じGPS衛星を4ないし5局捉える必要があるので、周囲の地理的条件などから同時にそれらの衛星を捉えられる時間帯に制約を受け運用時間帯の制限を受ける可能性があった。
[0007]そこで、本発明は、何度も基準局の絶対位置測定を三角測量などの方法で繰り返すことなく、また単独測位によって基準局の絶対位置を求める場合と比較して十分高い精度で移動局の絶対位置を求めることができ、かつ運用時間帯の制約も受けないGPS測量方法およびその装置を提供することを目的としたものである。
[0008]
[課題を解決するための手段]前述した目的を達成するために、本発明のうち請求項1記載のGPS測量方法は、GPSを用いた測量であって、対象測量地域の外に絶対位置が特定された第1基準局を設け、前記対象測量地域の内に移動可能な第2基準局を設け、前記第1基準局と第2基準局との間で第1GPS相対位置を測定し、前記第2基準局と被測量地点に置かれた移動局との間で第2GPS相対位置を測定し、前記第1基準局の絶対位置に前記第1GPS相対位置と第2GPS相対位置を加算して移動局の絶対位置を測量することを特徴とするものである。
[0009]上記方法により、第2基準局を適当な対象測量地域内に移動し、また絶対位置が特定された第1基準局と第2基準局の第1GPS相対位置を求め、第2基準局と被測量地点に設置された移動局の第2GPS相対位置を求めることによって、広い対象測量地域で移動局の絶対位置が、従来のように何度も基準局の絶対位置測定を三角測量などの方法で繰り返すことなく、また、単独測位によって基準局の絶対位置を求める場合に比べても十分高い精度で、かつ運用時間帯の制約を受けることなく求められる。
[0010]上記方法を実現するため、請求項2記載のGPS測量装置は、対象測量地域の外に絶対位置が特定された第1基準局を設け、前記対象測量地域の内に移動可能な第2基準局を設け、被測量地点に移動局を設け、前記第1基準局は、複数のGPS衛星から受信されたGPS電波の特定コードの到着時間差、または搬送波の位相ずれを求めて第1補正情報を形成するGPS受信機と、前記第1補正情報と前記絶対位置情報を前記第2基準局へ伝送する第1伝送手段を備え、前記第2基準局は、入力した前記第1補正情報と複数のGPS衛星から受信されたGPS電波により、第1基準局と第2基準局との間の第1GPS相対位置を測定し、前記GPS電波の特定コードの到着時間差、または搬送波の位相ずれを求めて第2補正情報を形成するGPS受信機と、このGPS受信機の第2補正情報と前記第1GPS相対位置情報と前記入力した絶対位置情報を前記移動局へ伝送する第2伝送手段を備え、前記移動局は、入力した前記第2補正情報と複数のGPS衛星から受信されたGPS電波により、第2基準局と移動局との間の第2GPS相対位置を測定し、この第2GPS相対位置に、入力した前記第1基準局の絶対位置と第1GPS相対位置と加算して移動局の絶対位置を測量するGPS受信機を備えたことを特徴とするものである。
[0011]
[発明の実施の形態]以下、本発明の実施の形態を図面に基づいて説明する。図1は本発明の実施の形態を示す、GPS測量方法を実現するGPS局の配置図である。図示するように、原則として被測量範囲(対象測量地域)A外に基地基準局1を設置し、被測量範囲A内に移動基準局2を設置し、すなわち2つの基準局を設置し、被測量範囲A内の被測量地点に移動局3を設置する。移動基準局2は、被測量範囲Aが広い場合は適宜その位置を移動することができる。
[0012]基地基準局1の構成について説明する。GPSアンテナ11を、GPSアンテナ固定支持構造15を用いて、絶対位置(確定していない場合は後述の方法で確定する)に堅牢に固定する。GPSアンテナ固定支持構造15の構造は、鉄骨、鉄筋コンクリートなどの堅牢なものとし、設置地点で予測される風雨や地震などで、GPSアンテナ1の位置が変動する事のないようにする。[0013]GPSアンテナ11で受信されたGPS衛星からの電波は、GPS受信機12に導かれて信号処理され、信号処理された結果から移動基準局2向けの補正情報(後述する)が形成され、この補正情報と絶対位置情報は補正情報送信機13に出力される。補正情報送信機13は入力した補正情報と絶対位置情報を電波に乗せて(適当な変調方式で前記情報を変調し)、補正情報送信アンテナ14から移動基準局2に向けて空中に放射する。
[0014]上記補正情報について説明する。GPS測量の測位誤差は、GPS衛星から送られるGPS電波が地上までの伝搬の過程で、電離層や大気を通り抜ける際に伝搬方向がわずかに曲げられるなどの各種の擾乱を受け、それによって電波の到達時間が揺らぐ事などによって発生する。よって、絶対位置が特定されている固定基準局と、測位を行いたい移動局で同時に測位を行うと、GPS電波の伝搬の経路はほぼ同じであるため伝搬過程による誤差は同程度であると考えられ、基準局と移動局ではその誤差は両方の受信機に同じ大きさで発生し、基準局と移動局の相対位置の計測(相対測位)を行うと相殺されると考えられる。そこで、基準局は、複数のGPS衛星のGPS電波を変調している(に乗せて送られている)、C/Aコードの到着時間差(DGPS方式)、あるいは搬送波の位相ずれ(RTK方式)を正確に求め、この到着時間差あるいは搬送波の位相ずれにより補正情報を計算して出力する。
[0015]次に移動基準局2の構成について説明する。GPSアンテナ21を、GPSアンテナ半固定支持構造26を用いて、計測中は移動しないように固定する。GPSアンテナ半固定支持構造26の構造は、鉄骨、アルミ材などで、多少の風や振動でGPSアンテナ21の位置が変動する事のないようにしている。
[0016]GPSアンテナ21で受信されたGPS衛星からの電波は、GPS受信機22に導かれ、信号処理される。移動基準局2がいわゆる移動局として動作し、その位置を基地基準局1との相対測位によって決定する場合は、補正情報送受信アンテナ25によって基地基準局1から送られてくる補正情報と絶対位置情報が乗せられた電波を受信する。この電波は補正情報受信機24に送られここで復調され、補正情報と絶対位置情報が取り出される。補正情報は、GPS受信機22に送られる。GPS受信機22においては、GPSアンテナ21からのGPS電波およびこの補正情報によって、固定基準局1との間で相対測位を行い、移動基準局2の位置を決定する(この値を相対位置r1とする)。以後はこの値が移動基準局2が、基準局として動作し、補正情報を出力する際の基準データとなる。なお、移動基準局2の絶対位置を、固定基準局1の絶対位置に相対位置r1を加算することにより求める事もできる。
[0017]移動基準局2が基準局として動作する場合は、GPSアンテナ21で受信された電波を元に信号処理を行い移動局3向けの補正情報を形成する。この補正情報と相対位置r1情報と基地基準局1の絶対位置情報は、補正情報送信機23へ導かれ、補正情報送信機23は送り込まれた情報を電波に乗せて(適当な変調方式で前記情報を変調し)、補正情報送受信アンテナ25から移動局3に向けて空中に放射する。
[0018]次に移動基準局3の構成について説明する。GPSアンテナ31を、GPSアンテナ移動支持構造35を用いて、計測中は移動しないように固定する。GPSアンテナ移動支持構造35の構造は、鉄骨、アルミ材などで、多少の風や振動でGPSアンテナ31の位置が変動する事のないようにする。
[0019]GPSアンテナ31で受信されたGPS衛星からの電波は、GPS受信機32に導かれ、信号処理される。その際、補正情報受信アンテナ34によって移動基準局2から送られてくる補正情報と相対位置r1情報と基地基準局1の絶対位置情報が乗せられた電波を受信する。この電波は補正情報受信機33に送られここで復調され、補正情報と相対位置r1情報と基地基準局1が取り出され、GPS受信機32に送られる。GPS受信機32においては、GPSアンテナ31からのGPS電波およびこの補正情報によって、移動基準局との間で相対測位を行い、移動局3の相対位置を決定し(この値を相対位置r2とする)、この相対位置r2情報に相対位置r1情報と基地基準局1の絶対位置情報を加算して移動局3の絶対位置を求める。
[0020]上記構成によるGPS測量は、以下の手順で行う。
(1)基地基準局1の絶対位置を、三角測量などにより一度だけ精度良く計測する。これを固定基準局絶対位置(Xa, Ya)とする。
[0021](2)移動基準局2を、被測量範囲A内の任意の位置に置く。
(3)基地基準局1と移動基準局2間で相対測位により、相対位置関係を求める(DGPS方式による)。これを相対位置q(xr1,yr1)とする。
[0022](4)移動基準局2と被測量地点の移動局3間で相対測位により相対位置関係を求める(DGPS方式またはRTK方式による)。これを相対位置r2(xr2, yr2)とする。
[0023](5)次に示す計算式で移動局3の絶対位置(Xma, Yma)を求める。
Xma=Xa十xr1十xr2
Yma=Ya十yr1十yr2
(移動局絶対位置=基地基準局位置+相対位置r1+相対位置r2)
移動基準局2を移動させない場合は、上記手順(4)と(5)を繰り返し、測量を進める。
[0024]移動基準局2を移動させた場合は、上記手順(3)まで戻り相対位置r1を再測定しなおし測量を進める。このように、移動基準局2を適当な被測量範囲A内に移動させることができ、また絶対位置が特定された基地基準局1と移動基準局2の相対位置r1を求め、移動基準局2と被測量地点に設置された移動局3の相対位置r2を求めることによって、広い被測量範囲Aで被測量地点(移動局3)の絶対位置を、従来のように、何度も基準局の絶対位置測定を三角測量などの方法で繰り返すことなく、また、単独測位によって基準局の絶対位置を求める場合に比べても十分高い精度で、かつ運用時間帯の制約を受けることなく求めることができる。[0025]
[発明の効果]以上述べたように本発明によれば、第2基準局を適当な対象測量地域内に移動させることができ、また絶対位置が特定された第1基準局と第2基準局の第1GPS相対位置を求め、第2基準局と被測量地点に設置された移動局の第2GPS相対位置を求めることによって、広い対象測量地域で被測量地点(移動局)の絶対位置を、従来のように何度も基準局の絶対位置測定を三角測量などの方法で繰り返すことなく、また、単独測位によって基準局の絶対位置を求める場合に比べても十分高い精度で、かつ運用時間帯の制約を受けることなく求めることができる。
Translation - English
[Claims]
[Claim 1]
A GPS survey method which uses GPS for surveying, characterized in that a 1st reference station whose absolute position is specified and is outside a target surveyed area is provided, a 2nd reference station which is mobile inside said target surveyed area is provided, a 1st GPS relative position between said 1st reference station and 2nd reference station is surveyed, a 2nd GPS relative position between said 2nd reference station and athe mobile station, which is positioned at a surveyed location, is surveyed, said 1st GPS relative position and said 2nd GPS relative position are added to the absolute position of said 1st reference station to survey the absolute position of the mobile station .
[Claim 2]
A GPS survey device, wherein a 1st reference station whose absolute position is specified and is outside a target surveyed area is provided, a 2nd reference station which is mobile inside said target surveyed area is provided, and a mobile station is provided at a surveyed location, characterized in that,
said 1st reference station is equipped with a GPS receiver, which calculates the arrival time lag of specific codes of GPS radio waves received from a plurality of GPS satellites or the phase shift of a carrier wave to form 1st correction information, and a 1st transmission means which

transmits said 1st correction information and said absolute position information to said 2nd reference station,
said 2nd reference station is equipped with a GPS receiver, which surveys a 1st GPS relative position between the 1st reference station and the 2nd reference station through said 1st correction information that is input and the GPS radio waves received from a plurality of GSP satellites and calculates the arrival time lag of specific codes of said GPS radio waves or the phase shift of a carrier wave to form 2nd correction information, and a 2nd transmission means which transmits the 2nd correction information of said GPS receiver, said 1st GPS relative position information and said input absolute position information to said mobile station,
said mobile station is equipped with a GPS receiver which surveys a 2nd GPS relative position between the 2nd reference station and the mobile station through said 2nd correction information that is input and the GPS radio waves received from a plurality of GPS satellites and adds the absolute position of said 1st reference station that is input and the
1st GPS’s relative position to said 2nd GPS relative position to survey the absolute position of the mobile station.
[Detailed description of the invention]
[0001]
[Technical field of the invention]
The present invention relates to a GPS survey method used in terrestrial or marine civil engineering.

[0002]
Conventionally, a GPS survey method has been used in terrestrial or marine civil engineering. In such a conventional GPS survey method, a GPS receiver on land receives radio waves from a plurality of GPS satellites to determine its absolute position (hereinafter referred to as single point positioning). However, the accuracy of the absolute position by single point positioning usually has an error of 10 to 50 m . In order to achieve highly accurate positioning, another method is conceived where 2 sets of GPS receivers are used, wherein one set serves as a reference station and the other set serves as a mobile station. The reference station is kept fixed and only the mobile station is moved, their relative positions is measured with a high accuracy, and the position of the mobile station is calculated with a high accuracy (hereinafter referred to as relative positioning). This method has the DGPS mode, RTK mode, and static mode, which can conduct positioning at an order of error of 1 m, 1 cm, and 5 mm, respectively. Further, it is possible that the two stations are separated from each other at a distance of 100 km, 10 km, and 10 km, [sic! possible source error] respectively.
[0003]
Therefore, if it is necessary to survey with a high accuracy, any of these modes can be used. Because it is relative position measurement, the relative position between the reference station which serves as the survey reference and the mobile station which is positioned at the surveyed location will be determined with a high accuracy. Here, if it is necessary to obtain the absolute position of a surveyed location, the traditional practice is to obtain, by the triangulation method, etc., the absolute position (latitude and longitude) of the reference station from the triangulation points, which have been provided at each location in advance, thereby calculating the absolute value of the mobile station by using the determined relative position.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, in accordance with this method, if the relative position between a plurality of surveyed locations within a limited scope is desired or if the absolute position in a large scope is desired although there is no problem specifically if the absolute measurement is within a relatively limited scope, it is usually necessary to move the reference station within a proper surveyed scope due to the restriction of the data communication means between the reference station and the mobile station. Therefore, (1) it is necessary to conduct a survey to determine the absolute position of the reference station every time the reference station is moved and, (2) an error of the reference station position occurs due to the relative position error of the triangulation points which serve as the cornerstones at the time.
[0005]
As stated above, the absolute position can also be determined in the single-point positioning mode in GPS and accordingly it is possible to determine the position of the reference station by single point positioning at the reference station, without triangulation. However, because an error of 10 to 50 m is anticipated in view of the GPS specifications, it is not suitable for highly accurate measurements.
[0006]
Moreover, although it is possible to determine the absolute position of the mobile station by providing a permanent reference station at a location, surveying the absolute position with a high accuracy in advance and then measuring the relative position between the two stations. However, this method needs to have 4 to 5 stations capture the same GPS satellite between two separated locations. Therefore, it is possibly restricted by the time band of simultaneously capturing the satellite by these stations due to the surrounding geographic conditions and limited by the operation time band as well.
[0007]
Therefore, the purpose of the present invention is to determine the absolute position of the mobile station with a very high accuracy compared with the method of determining the absolute position of the reference station through single point positioning, without having to repeatedly measuring the absolute position of the reference station through triangulation, and to provide a GPS survey method and a device thereof which are not restricted by the operation time band.



[0008]
[Means to solve the problem]
In order to achieve the purpose stated above, the GPS survey method according to claim 1 of the present invention uses GPS for survey, wherein
/3
a 1st reference station whose absolute position is specified and is outside a target surveyed area is provided, a 2nd reference station which is mobile inside said target surveyed area is provided, a 1st GPS’s relative position is surveyed between said 1st reference station and 2nd reference station, a 2nd GPS’s relative position is surveyed between said 2nd reference station and the mobile station which is positioned at a surveyed location, said 1st GPS relative position and said 2nd GPS relative position are added to the absolute position of said 1st reference station to survey the absolute position of the mobile station.
[0009]
With said method, by moving the 2nd reference station within a proper target surveyed area, obtaining the 1st GPS relative position between the 1st reference station whose absolute position has been specified and the 2nd reference station and obtaining the 2nd GPS relative position between the 2nd reference station and the mobile station which has been provided at the surveyed location, the absolute position of the mobile station in a large target surveyed area can be obtained without having to repeatedly measuring the absolute position of the reference station by means of triangulation as in the past. This method has a very high accuracy compared with the method of obtaining the absolute position of the reference station by means of single point positioning and furthermore, and it is not restricted by the operation time band.
[0010]
In order to implement this method, in the GPS survey device according to claim 2, a 1st reference station whose absolute position is specified and is outside the target surveyed area is provided, a 2nd reference station which is mobile inside said target surveyed area is provided, and a mobile station is provided at the surveyed location, wherein said 1st reference station is equipped with a GPS receiver which calculates the arrival time lag of specific codes of GPS radio waves received from a plurality of GPS satellites or the phase shift of a carrier wave to form 1st correction information and a 1st transmission means which transmits said 1st correction information and said absolute position information to said 2nd reference station, said 2nd reference station is equipped with a GPS receiver which surveys a 1st GPS’s relative position between the 1st reference station and the 2nd reference station through said 1st correction information that is input and the GPS radio waves received from a plurality of GPS satellites and calculates the arrival time lag of specific codes of said GPS radio waves or the phase shift of the carrier wave to form 2nd correction information , and a 2nd transmission means which transmits the 2nd correction information of said GPS receiver, said 1st GPS’s relative position information and said input absolute position information to said mobile station, and said mobile station is equipped with a GPS receiver which surveys a 2nd GPS’s relative position between the 2nd reference station and the mobile station through said 2nd correction information that is input and the GPS radio waves received from a plurality of GPS satellites and adds the absolute position of said 1st reference station that is input and the 1st GPS’s relative position to said 2nd GPS’s relative position to survey the absolute position of the mobile station.
[0011]
[Embodiment of the invention]
The embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings below. Fig. 1 is a GPS station layout plan which shows an embodiment of the present invention that implements the GPS survey method. As shown in the drawing, in principle, the base reference
station 1 is provided outside the surveyed scope (target surveyed
area) A, the mobile reference station 2 is provided inside the surveyed scope A, i.e., 2 reference stations are provided, and the mobile
station 3 is provided at the surveyed location inside the surveyed
scope A. The position of the mobile reference station 2 can be moved as appropriate when the surveyed scope A is large.
[0012]
The composition of the base reference station 1 will be described next. The GPS antenna 11 is firmly fixed to the absolute position (to be determined with the method to be stated below if not determined) by using the GPS antenna fixing and supporting structure 15. The GPS antenna fixing and supporting structure 15 is a fixed and robust structure, such as a steel frame or reinforced concrete, and the position of the GPS
antenna 1 shall not be changed by wind or rain or earthquake, which is predicted at its installation location.
[0013]
The radio wave from the GPS satellite received by the GPS
antenna 11 is sent to the GPS receiver 12 for signal processing and the correction information (to be stated below) dedicated for the mobile reference station 2 is formed from the signal processing result. The correction information and the absolute position information are output to the correction information transmitter 13. The correction information transmitter 13 carries the input correction information and absolute position information on the radio wave (modulating said information with a proper modulation method) and transmits them from the correction information transmission antenna 14 into the sky towards the mobile reference station 2.
[0014]
Said correction information will be described next. GPS positioning errors occur because the GPS radio waves sent from the GPS satellite may be subject to various disturbances in the process of its transmission to the ground, for example, its transmission direction might be slightly bent when it goes through the ionosphere or the atmosphere, which results in the variation in the arrival time of the radio wave. Accordingly, when positioning is conducted at the same time at both the fixed reference station whose absolute position has been specified and the mobile station whose position is to be determined, it is thought that the error occurring in the transmission process is at the same extent because the transmission routes of the GPS radio waves are almost the same. The same error occurs in the receiver of the reference station and in the receiver of the mobile station, so the error is offset for the measurement of the relative position (relative positioning) between the reference station and the mobile station. Then, the reference station correctly calculates the arrival time lag of the C/A code (DGPS mode), which modulates (is sent by being carried on) the GPS radio waves of a plurality of GPS satellites or the phase shift of the carrier wave (RTK mode) and calculates correction information from said arrival time lag or the phase shift of the carrier wave and outputs the calculated correction information.
[0015]
Next, the composition of the mobile reference station 2 will be described. The GPS antenna 21 is fixed by using the GPS antenna semi-fixing and supporting structure 26 so that it would not move during measurement. The GPS antenna semi-fixing and supporting structure 26 is made of a steel frame, aluminum material, etc., so that the position of the GPS
antenna 21 would not be changed by any wind or vibration.
[0016]
The radio wave from the GPS satellite received by the GPS
antenna 21 is sent to the GPS receiver 22 for signal processing. The mobile reference station 2 works as the so-called mobile station and, in case that its position is determined by relative positioning with the base reference station 1, it will receive a radio wave which carries the correction information and the absolute position information which are sent from the base reference station 1 by the correction information transceiving antenna 25. Said radio wave is sent to the correction information receiver 24 and is demodulated here, and the correction information and the absolute position information are taken. The correction information is sent to the GPS receiver 22. In the GPS receiver 22, the GPS radio wave from the GPS antenna 21 and the correction information are used to measure its position relative to the fixed
/4
reference station 1, and the position of the mobile reference station 2 is determined (this value is taken as the relative position r1). Then, the value becomes the reference data when the mobile reference station 2 works as the reference station and outputs the correction information. Moreover, the absolute position of the mobile reference station 2 can also be calculated by adding the relative position r1 to the absolute position of the fixed reference station 1.
[0017]
When the mobile reference station 2 works as the reference station, signal processing is performed on the basis of the radio wave received by the GPS antenna 21, and correction information dedicated for the mobile station 3 is formed. Said correction information, the relative position r1 information and the absolute position information of the base reference station 1 are sent to the correction information transmitter 23, which carries the received information on the radio wave (modulating said information in a proper modulation mode) and transmits it from the correction information transceiving antenna 25 to the sky towards the mobile station 3.
[0018]
Next, the composition of the mobile reference station 3 will be described. The GPS antenna 31 is fixed by using the GPS antenna movably supporting structure 35. The GPS antenna movably supporting structure 35 is made of a steel frame or aluminum material, etc., so that the position of the GPS antenna 31 would not be changed by any wind or vibration.
[0019]
The radio wave from the GPS satellite received by the GPS
antenna 31 is sent to the GPS receiver 32 for signal processing. At this time, the radio wave, which carries the correction information, the relative position r1 information and the absolute position information of the base reference station 1 which is sent from the mobile reference station 2 by the correction information receiving antenna 34, is received. The radio wave is sent to the correction information receiver 33 and demodulated here, and the correction information, the relative position r1 information and the absolute position information of the base reference station 1 are taken out and sent to the GPS receiver 32. In the GPS
receiver 32, the GPS radio wave from the GPS antenna 31 and the correction information are used to measure its position relative to the mobile reference station, the relative position of the mobile station 3 is determined (said value is taken as the relative position r2) and the relative position r1 information and the absolute position information of the base reference station 1 are added to said relative position r2 information to calculate the absolute position of the mobile station 3.
[0020]
The GPS positioning using the composition stated above is implemented in the following steps.
(1) The absolute position of the base reference station 1 is measured with a high accuracy only once by means of triangulation. This value is taken as the absolute position of the fixed reference station (Xa, Ya).
[0021]
(2) The mobile reference station 2 is provided at any position inside the surveyed scope A.
(3) The relative position relation is calculated (in accordance with the DGPS mode) by measuring the relative position between the base reference station 1 and the mobile reference station 2. This value is taken as the relative position r1 (xr1, yr1).
[0022]
(4) The relative position relation is calculated by measuring the relative position between the mobile reference station 2 and the mobile station 3, which is the surveyed location (through the DGPS mode or the RTK mode). This value is taken as the relative position r2 (xr2, yr2).


[0023]
(5) The absolute position (Xma, Yma) of the mobile station 3 is calculated through the formula shown below.
Xma = Xa + xr1 + xr2 [sic! Here in source, “xr1” and “xr2” are presumed typos for “xr1” and “xr2,” respectively.]

Yma = Ya + yr1 + yr2 [sic! Here in source, “yr1” and “yr2” are presumed typos for “yr1” and “yr2,” respectively.]

(Mobile station absolute position = base reference station
position + relative position r1 + relative position r2)

If the mobile reference station 2 is not moved, above steps (4) and (5) are repeated to proceed with the position survey.
[0024]
If the mobile reference station 2 is moved, the process returns to said step (3) to measure the relative position r1 again and proceed with the position survey. In this way, the mobile reference station 2 can be moved inside a proper surveyed scope A. By calculating the relative position r1 between the base reference station 1 whose absolute position has been specified and the mobile reference station 2 and calculating the relative position r2 between the mobile reference station 2 and the mobile station 3 which has been provided at the surveyed location, the absolute position of the surveyed location (mobile station 3) within a large surveyed scope A can be calculated without having to repeatedly measuring the absolute position of the base station by means of triangulation as in the past. This method has a very high accuracy compared with the method of calculating the absolute position of the reference station by means of single point positioning and it is not restricted by the operation time band.
[0025]
[Effects of the invention]
As stated above, in accordance with the present invention, the 2nd reference station can be moved inside a proper target surveyed area. Moreover, by calculating the 1st GPS’s relative position between the
1st reference station whose absolute position has been specified and the 2nd reference station and calculating the 2nd GPS’s relative position between the 2nd reference station and the mobile station which has been provided set at the surveyed location, the absolute position of thea surveyed location (mobile station) in a large target surveyed area can be calculated without having to repeatedly measure the absolute position of the reference station as found in the convention methods such as the triangulation methodpast . Further, this method has a very high accuracy compared with the method of calculating the absolute position of the reference station by means of single point positioning and it is not restricted by the operation time band.
Korean to English: Agreement on Introducing APCN2 Submarine Cablesinto Korea between KT Corporation (KT) and AT&T Korea Transport Service
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - Korean
제6조(유지보수 및 장애복구) ①유지보수의 분계점은 케이티 부산 육양국의 AT&T Korea Transport Service가 KT로부터 임차한 해저 케이블 연동 국내 접속구간을 기준으로 하되, 케이티가 제공하는 회선의 유지보수는 케이티의 운용보전표준에 따라 케이티가 담당한다.
②APCN2 국제구간의 장애복구는 APCN2 해저케이블 복구계획에 따라 수행한다.
제7조(비용산정) ① 본 합의서에 의한 케이티의 비용산정은 AT&T의 APCN2 용량의 국내연결에 소요되는 설비구축비용과 그에 따른 유지보수비용으로 한다.
② 제3조에 의거 AT&T 용량의 국내인입에 소요되는 설비구축비용 (1회성)은 회선 (2코아)당 USD (United States Dollar) 500으로 한다.

③ 회선당 연간유지보수비용은 USD 12,000/년 (USD 1,000/월)으로 한다.
④ 국내 희망하는 장소까지 연결을 위한 해저 케이블 연동 국내 접속구간은 양사 합의하여 별도로 정한다.
⑤ 본 합의서의 산정요금에 대한 부가가치세는 별도로 한다.

제8조(청구 및 납입) ① 케이티는 제7조 제2항의 설비구축비용을 제5조의 설비제공일로부터 1개월 이내에 AT&T Korea Transport Service에게 청구서(Invoice)로 청구하며, AT&T Korea Transport Service는 청구일로부터 1개월 이내에 납부한다.
②케이티는 제7조 제3항의 연간유지보수비용을 매년 11월 10일까지 AT&T Korea Transport Service에 청구하며, AT&T Korea Transport Service는 청구일로부터 1개월 이내에 납부한다.

제9조(합의서의 해지) ① 당사자 중 일방에게 다음 각 호의 어느 하나에 해당하는 사유가 발생한 경우 상대방은 즉시 본 협정을 해지할 수 있다.
1. 본 합의서 상의 권리의무를 상대방의 동의 없이 양도회사의 계열회사가 아닌 제3자에게 양도하는 등 처분한 경우; 본 합의서상 계열회사는 (i) 설립 여부를 불문하고, 직접 또는 간접적으로 당사자의 지분과반을 보유하고 있는 회사(“모회사”) 및 (ii) 설립 여부를 불문하고, 당사자 또는 그 모회사가 직접 또는 간접적으로 50% 이상의 지분을 보유하고 있는 회사를 의미한다.
2. 주요재산에 대한 압류·가압류·가처분·강제집행 및 기타 이에 준하는 사유 등으로 본 합의서 상의 의무를 정상적으로 이행하기가 어려운 경우
3. 본 합의서상의 의무위반에 대하여 30일 이상의 기간을 정하여 그 시정을 요구하였음에도 불구하고 시정하지 않은 경우
4. 기타 상대방의 본 합의서 이행이 불가능하거나 현저히 곤란한 경우
② 전항의 해지는 손해배상의 청구에 영향을 미치지 아니한다.

제10조(시행일) 본 합의서는 양사가 기명 날인함으로써 효력이 발생하며, 양사는 본 합의서의 내용을 신의와 성실의 원칙에 의거 이행하여야 한다.

제11조(유효기간) ① 본 합의서의 유효기간은 2020.xx.xx까지로 하며, 유효기간 만료 2월전까지 양사간 이의가 없는 경우 1년씩 동일한 조건으로 자동 연장한다.
② 합의서 일부내용을 개정 또는 보완할 필요가 있을 경우 양사가 합의하여 개정한다.

제12조(책임제한) ① 제12조 제3항의 경우는 제외하고, 계약당사자 중 어느 누구도 다음 각호의 손해를 이유로 하여,본 합의서에 따른 채무불이행에 기한 손해배상책임을 부담하지 않는다.
1. 매출액, 이윤, 영업 또는 예상 절감액의 손실
2. 여하한 평판의 손상
3. 여하한 특별손해,간접손해

② 제12조 제3항의 경우는 제외하고, 일방당사자가 본 합의서에 따라 또는 본 합의서에 관련하여 부담할 손해액은 건 당 USD 25,000을 초과할 수 없고, 총 USD 100,000을 초과할 수 없다. 단,제7조 제2항 및 제7조 제3항에 따른 비용 지급 의무 불이행시 미지급 비용 및 지연이자를 전액 지급하여야 한다.
③ 제12조 제1항 및 제2항에 따른 책임제한은 사망, 개인상해, 기망, 지적재산권의 침해에 따른 책임에는 적용되지 않고, 법령 위반에 따른 과태료, 과징금 및 벌금에도 적용되지 않는다.

제13조(합의서보관) 본 합의서는 2부를 작성하여 양사가 각각 1부씩 보관한다.
Translation - English
Article VI (maintenance, warranty and repairs of faults) ①Thedividing point for maintenance and warranty is the national access area linking submarine cables that isleased by AT&T Korea Transport ServiceofKT Pusan Terminal Station from KT, and KT shallbe responsible for providing maintenance and warranty of linesto KT’s maintenance standards.
②Repairs of faults for the APCN2 international areashallfollow the repair plan of APCN2 submarine cables.
Article VII (cost calculation) ①Under this Agreement, cost calculation of KT includes the construction costs of equipment necessary for national connection of AT&T’sAPCN2 capacity and the costs of maintenance and warranty of the equipment.
②Under Article III, the construction costs of equipment necessary for nationalaccess of AT&T’sAPCN2 capacity (line 1) shall be 500 United States Dollar (USD) per line (2-core).
③Annual maintenance and warranty costs of each line shall be 12,000USD/year (1,000 USD/month).
④Thenational access arealinking submarine cablesfor connecting toa desired place in Korea shall be separately agreed upon by the two companies through consultations.
⑤The VAT of the costs calculated herein shall be handled separately.
Article VIII (invoicing and payment) ①KT shall, within one month after the date of equipment delivery as set out in Article V, submit an invoice to AT&T Korea Transport Service for the equipment construction costs as specified in Subparagraph 2, Article VII, and AT&T Korea Transport Service shall, within one month from the invoice, pay for the invoice.
②By November 10 each year, KT shallinvoice AT&T Korea Transport Service for the annual maintenance and warranty costs as specified in Subparagraph 3, Article VII, and AT&T Korea Transport Service shall, within one month from the invoice, pay for the invoice.
Article IX (rescission of the Agreement) ① If either party has any of the following circumstances, the other party may immediately rescind this Agreement.
1. (ii)Without consent of the other party, the party transfers the rights, obligations or otherwise hereunder to any third party other than its affiliated companies. The affiliated companies hereunder refer to: (i)a company (“parent company”), whether established or not,which holds over 50% of the party’s shares directly or indirectly; (ii) a company, whether established or not, in which either party or its parent company holds over 50% of shares, directly or indirectly;
2. The party has its main assets seized, temporarily seized, temporarily disposed of, enforced or otherwise, which makes it hard for the party to normally perform its obligations hereunder.
3. The party violates the obligations hereunder and refuses to mendthe violationfor over 30 days.
4. Other circumstances where the party is unable to perform or is prevented from performing this Agreement.
②The aforementioned rescission will not affect claim for any damages.
Article X (effective date) This Agreement shall enter into force as of the date of signing and affixing of the seals by both parties, and both parties shall abide by this Agreement honestly and in good faith.
Article XI (valid period) ① This Agreement shall remain valid throughxx month xx date, 2020. If either party does not have any objection within two months prior to the expiry date, this Agreement will automatically extend for another year.
②Any modification or supplement to part of the Agreement shall be agreed upon by both parties.
Article XII (responsibility restriction) ① Unless otherwise specified in Subparagraph 3, Article 12, either Party thereto shall not be liable for any losses caused by failure to perform the obligations hereunder under the grounds of the following losses.
1. Losses of sales, profits, turnover or expected reduction
2. Damages from a court judgement
3. Any special damages and indirect damages
②Unless otherwise specified in Subparagraph 3, Article XII, any loss borne by either party shall, in accordance with this Agreement or herein, not exceed 25,000 USD per case or 100,000 USD in total. However, in the event that the obligation of paying the costs under Subparagraphs 2 and 3, Article VIIis not fulfilled, the outstanding amount and the overdue interest must be paid in full.
③The responsibility restriction in Subparagraphs 1 and 2, Article XII does not apply to the responsibilities resulting from death, personal injuries, and infringement of reputation and intellectual property or any fine resulting from any violations of laws and regulations.
Article XIII (retention of the Agreement) This Agreement is made in duplicate copies, each party retaining one copy thereof.
Korean to English: Agreement Matters of the Japan-ROK Negotiations
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: International Org/Dev/Coop
Source text - Korean
绪 言
1951年 9月 8 美國의 桑港에서 二次大戰의 終幕을 告하는 聯合國의『對日本平和條約』이 署名調印되었 다. 이로서 日本은 1945年8月 15 日 無條件降服의 條約署名에서 부터 6年의 긴 歲月올 두고 聯合國의 占領下에 統治를 받아 내려 오다가 드디어 独立하게 되었다. 우리나라는 그 보다 3年前인 1948年에 自由選舉로서 合法的인 民主政府를 樹立하고 日本이 獨立을 獲得하자 마자 1951年 10月 20日에 韓日間에 엉크러져 있는 諸問題를 解決하기 위하여 韓日會談을 提起하였다. 그 뒤로 於焉13年5個月의 긴 時日을 두고 自由黨政權에서 9年,民主黨政權에서 1年,軍事政權에서 2年餘의 끈기있는 協商의 뒤를 이 어 이제 第三共和國은 이에 매듭올 지으려 한다.
1965年 2月 20 日에 韓日의 두나라 사이에서는 가장 어려 운 問題로 指目되고 있었던 基本關係의 條約이 合意에 이르러 假調印되었으니, 桑港 平和條約의 二條에서「日本은 韓國의 獨立을 承認한다」의 條文을 韓日間에서 再確認하고 必然的으로 1910年에 맺어진 韓日間의 合邦條約 其他의 모든 恥辱的인 舊條約이 抹殺되게 되는 것이며, 따라서 日本은 大韓民國을 承認하고 또 大韓民國은 日本國올 承認하는 段階에 이르는 것이다. 뒤이어서 1965年 4月 30 東京에서 ①韓日間의 請求權 解決 및 經濟協力에 關한 合意事項 ②在日韓國人의 法的地位 問題에 關한 合意事項 ③韓日間의 漁業問題에 關한 合意事項의 三個 懸案問題가 合意에 到達하여 두 나라의 代表가 이에 假調印하였으니 이로서 韓日間의 어려운 懸案問題는 일단, 解決의 端諸를 찾게 되었다.


앞으로 正式 調印까지 또한 허다한 우여곡절이 있을 것이 豫想되며,비록 政府間에서 正式調印이 필한다 하더라도 다 같이 國會의 비준을 받아서 効力을 발생하게 되는 것이니 相當한 時日이 所要될 것이다.
世間에 서 는 韓日회 담을 단순한 國文의 正常化또는 相互 利害關係의 해결에 중점을 두고 있는 것으로 알려지고 있으나 實은 聯合國의 對日平和條約等의 諸條約을 韓日間에서 실천 俱現하는 準平和條約을 締結하는 것이기 때 문에 더 욱 그 重要性을 높이 評價하고 있는 것이 다.
政府는 일찌기 韓日會談의 本格的인 절충에 들어갈 무 렵「韓日會談白書」를 刊行하여 政府가 韓日會談에 臨하는 基本方針과 그 姿勢를 밝힌바 있거니와,이제 基本關係•法的地位•財産請求權 및 漁業問題의 四大 懸案의 合意事項에 假調印을 필한 오늘에 이에 對한 各條文이 內包하고 있는 意圖와 그 精神을 소상하게 解說하여서 滿天下國民에게 밝혀 두고자 하는 바이다.
앞으로 兩國間의 正式調印이 되는 대로 다시 이를 修正補完하여 널리 國民 앞에 阐明하고자 하는 바이 다.
1965年15日
Translation - English
Introduction
On September 8, 1951, at the San Francisco peace conference held in San Francisco, USA, World War II was announced to terminate and the Treaty of Peace between the United Nations and Japan was signed. From then on, Japan terminated the 6-year occupation and ruling by the United Nations army since its signing of the Instrument of Surrender on August 15, 1945, and regained independence and sovereignty. In 1948, our country or the Republic of Korea (ROK) established the lawful democratic government through free election. After Japan regained its sovereignty, the country immediately proposed to hold the Japan-ROK negotiations to resolve many complicated issues between the two countries on October 20, 1951. Then, both sides began a negotiation process with a span of 13 years and another five months, during which the ROK was ruled by the Liberal Party for nine years, by the Democratic Party for one year, and by the military for over two years. Finally, such a long yet indomitable negotiation was closed by the Third Republic of Korea (translator’s note: refer to Park Jeonghee’s military regime).

On February 20, 1965, Japan and the ROK reached the treaty on the trickiest basic relations between the two countries, and initialed the treaty. Article II of the Treaty of Peace signed in San Francisco, “Japan recognizes the independence of the Republic of Korea”, is reconfirmed in the Treaty on Basic Relations. An inevitable result from the two treaties is that the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty concluded in 1910 and other humiliating old treaties were cleared away. From then on, Japan began to recognize the Government of the ROK, and the latter did the same to the former. On April 30, 1965, Japan and the ROK reached the agreements on three unsettled issues after the representatives of the two countries initiated such agreements. Such three issues were: (1) the agreement concerning the settlement of the right to claim compensation and to prosecute and the economic cooperation between Japan and the ROK; (2) the agreement concerning the legal status of the ROK’s nationals residing in Japan; and (3) the agreement concerning fisheries. By then, both sides found solutions to the tricky unsettled issues between the two countries. We predict that to finally achieve the purpose of officially sign the agreements concerned, both sides will have a long winding way to go. Inevitably, various disputes and objections will arise from this process. Even if the two governments finally enter into the official agreements, each agreement will not enter into force unless it is ratified by both the Diet of Japan and the National Assembly of the ROK. Therefore, this process will take quite long time.
It is widely believed that the Japan-ROK negotiations are to simply normalize diplomatic relations or resolve mutual, actual issues concerning the interests of both sides. In fact, the negotiations aim to implement the United Nations’ Treaty of Peace with Japan and other treaties in the specific Japan-ROK relations, and are of significance to conclude the quasi-Treaty of Peace. Therefore, the importance of these negotiations will certainly be assessed more highly.
At the key stage of the Japan-ROK negotiations, the Government of the ROK published the White Paper for the Japan-ROK Negotiations, which stated the basic policy and attitude of the government toward the Japan-ROK negotiations. Now, both sides have reached and initialed the agreements on four unsettled issues – basic relations, legal status, the right to claim compensation for property and to prosecute, and fisheries. Now it is time for us to interpret the implications behind each clause, so that all our nationals can understand the intention of signing these agreements and the inherent spirit of each clause.
After the two governments officially sign these agreements in the future, they will further interpret the agreement contents, complement and revise them, and expound them to the whole nation.

May 15, 1965
Korean to English: Boil-off Gas Re-liquefaction Apparatus and Method for Ship
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - Korean
(54) 발명의 명칭 선박용 증발가스 재액화 장치 및 방법
(57) 요 약
선박에 설치된 액화천연가스 저장탱크에서 발생하는 증발가스를 재액화하기 위하여 증발가스를 냉각 유체로 사용 하는 재액화 장치가 개시된다.
상기 선박용 증발가스 재액화 장치는, 상기 저장탱크로부터 배출되는 증발가스를 압축시키는 압축부; 상기 저장 (뒷면에 계속) 탱크로부터 배출되는 증발가스와 상기 압축부에서 압축된 증발가스를 열교환시키는 제 1 자가열교환기; 상기 압 축부 및 상기 제 1 자가열교환기를 거친 증발가스를 다시 한 번 냉각시키는 냉각부; 및 상기 냉각부에 의해 냉 각된 증발가스를 감압시키는 제 1 감압장치;를 포함하고, 상기 압축부는, 상기 저장탱크로부터 배출된 후 상기 제 1 자가열교환기에서 열교환된 증발가스를 압축시키는 압축기; 및 상기 압축기를 통과한 증발가스의 온도를 낮춰주는 열교환기;를 포함하고, 상기 냉각부는, 상기 제 1 자가열교환기로부터 상기 냉각부로 보내진 증발가스 를 압축시키는 여분압축기; 및 상기 여분압축기를 통과한 증발가스의 온도를 낮춰주는 여분열교환기;를 포함하 며, 상기 여분압축기는 상기 압축기가 고장난 경우에 압축기의 역할을 하고, 상기 여분열교환기는 상기 열교환 기가 고장난 경우에 열교환기의 역할을 한다.


Translation - English
(54) Title of invention: Boil-off Gas Re-liquefaction Apparatus and Method for Ship
(57) Abstract
The present invention discloses a re-liquefaction apparatus that uses boil-off gas as a cooling fluid to re-liquefy boil-off gas generated in a liquefied natural gas storage tank disposed in a ship.
The boil-off gas re-liquefaction apparatus for a ship comprises: a compressing portion for compressing boil-off gas discharged from the storage tank; a first self-heat exchanger for causing heat exchange between boil-off gas discharged from the storage tank and boil-off gas compressed in the compressing portion; a cooling portion for cooling again boil-off gas that has passed through the compressing portion and the first self-heat exchanger; and a first decompressor for decompressing the boil-off gas cooled by the cooling portion, the compressing portion comprising: a compressor for compressing boil-off gas subjected to heat exchange in the first self-heat exchanger after being discharged from the storage tank; and a heat exchanger for lowering a temperature of boil-off gas that has passed through the compressor, the cooling portion comprising: an additional compressor for compressing boil-off gas conveyed from the first self-heat exchanger to the cooling portion; and an additional heat exchanger for lowering a temperature of boil-off gas that has passed through the additional compressor, the additional compressor functioning as a compressor when the compressor becomes faulty, the additional heat exchanger functioning as a heat exchanger when the heat exchanger becomes faulty.
Japanese to English: Masking tape adhesive
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
[課題を解決するための手段]
すなわち、本発明は天然ゴムあるいはその変成物を主成分とし、これに網目構造を形成する熱反応性樹脂とその架橋剤及び反応性フュノール樹脂を配合して成るマスキングテープ用粘着剤に関するもので、前記問題点の解決を図ることができる粘着剤を提供するものである。
本発明においては、100℃以下のマスキングテープ製造条件でも十分反応が進行する熱反応性樹脂とその架橋剤により網目構造を形成させ、これに天然ゴムがからみ合い一種のIPN構造をつくることで初期に必要な凝集力、耐溶剤性が得られる。一方マスキングテープ製造条件ではほとんど反応せず、100℃を大きく超える塗料焼付け温度の様な高温下で反応が進行する反応性フェノール樹脂により、天然ゴムの主鎖切断による凝集力低下を補い耐熱性が向上する。
本発明において用いられる天然ゴムとしては通常使用しているリブドスモークドシート、エアドライシート、ペールクレーブなどが挙げられる。さらに天然ゴムにメタクリル酸メチルをグラフトしたへベアブラスMGやSPラバーなどの変成物も、天然ゴムに代えてあるいは天然ゴムとともに用いることができる。特にメタクリル酸メチルをグラフトした場合、後述する熱反応性樹とその架橋剤及び反応性フュノール樹脂との相溶性が向上するため好ましい,この場合グラフトメタクリル酸メチルの割合は天然ゴムの重量に対して10重量%〜100重量%の範囲が好ましい。10重量%未満だと反応性フュノール樹脂などに対して相溶性が十分でなく、100重量%を超えるとゴムのTgが上昇しすぎ粘着性を失う。市販されているへベアブラスMG — 30、49がこれに垓当する。
本発明で用いる網目構造を形成する熱反応性樹脂としては反応性の高い水酸基、カルボキシル基、アミノ基、エポキシ基などを2個以上もった化合物である,具体的には水酸基、カルボキシル基、ァミノ基、エポキシ基などを両末端に導入したイソブレンゴム、ブタジエンゴム、スチレンープタジェンゴム、アクリロニトリルーブタジエン(液状)ゴムや、ポリエステル、ボリウレタン樹脂、水酸基、カルポキシル基、アミノ基、エポキシ基をもつモノマーを共重合した(液状)アクリルゴムなどが挙げられる。
次にその架橋剤としては多官能イソシアネート、アミノ樹脂、アミン、エポキシ樹脂など通常用いられる熱反応性架橋剤が挙げられる。特に比較的低温で迅速に反応が進行する多官能イソシアネート、アミノ樹脂などが望ましい。ここでいう多官能イソシアネートとはトリレンジイソシアネート、ジフエニルメタンジイソシアネート、1,5ナフタレンジイソシアネート、ヘキサメチレンジイソシアネート、トリメチルヘキサメチレンジイソシアネート、トリフエニルメタントリイソシアネート、ボリフエニルメタンポリイソシアネートなど、あるいはトリレンジイソシアネートのトリメチロールブロパン付加体やヘキサメチレンジイソシアネートのビュレット体などの各種誘導体など、一般の架橋用に使用されるものが利用できる。


次にアミノ樹脂としてはメラミン、ベンゾグアナミン及び尿素などにホルムアルデヒドやアルコールを付加縮合したもので、メチロールメラミン、メチル化メチロールメラミン、ブチル化プチロールメラミン、メチロールべンゾグアナミン、メチロール尿素などが挙げられる。
特に好ましい熱反応性樹脂とその架橋剤としてはOH基を有する液状ポリブタジエンゴムと多官能イソシアネートが挙げられる。
また、熱反応性樹脂は天然ゴムあるいはその変性物100重量部に対して5〜100重量部好ましくは10〜50重量部配合され、架橋剤は熱反応性樹脂の官能基に対しほぼ当量部配合される。
本発明に用いられる反応性フェノール樹脂としてはP—アルキルフエノール、P —アリルフエノール、P -テルペンフエノールなどの各レゾール型フエノール樹脂やキシレン•フエノール樹脂及びこれらのメチロール基をハロゲンで置換した変成物などが挙げられる。これらの単独あるいは混合物のいずれを使用してもかまわない。これらの配合量は天然ゴムあるいはその変性物100重量部に対し0.5〜100重量部、好ましくは1〜50重置部である。0.5重量部より少ないと耐熱性が不十分であり、100重量部より多いとー部が粘着荆表面に析出し被着体を汚染することがある。
本粘着剤には、各種ロジン系樹脂、テルペン樹脂、テルペンフエノール樹脂などの天然物及びその誘導体や脂肪族系、脂頊族系又は芳香族系の石油樹脂及びクロマンインデン樹脂、スチレン系樹脂、フュノール系樹脂又はキシレン樹脂などの合成系樹脂等の公知の粘着付与剤を単独または混合して使用できる。
さらには、ブロセスオイル、エキステンダーオイルなどの石油系軟化剤やポリイソブチレン、液状ボリイソブレンなどの液状ゴムや合成可塑剤などの軟化剤、炭酸カルシウムや炭酸マグネシウム、酸化マグネシウム、酸化亜鉛、珪酸塩、珪酸などの各種充埴剤などを必要に応じて添加することができる。
またフエノール系、ホスファイト系、フエノールホスファイト系、チオエーテル系などの各種酸化防止荆や光安定剤、重金属不活性化剤などの老化防止剤の添加も可能である。
次にマスキングチープにする際の粘着テープの基材としては、使用温度に充分耐えるものを選定しこれを適宣、背面処理剤や下塗剤で処理して使用する。通常マスキングテープ用基材としてはボリブロビレン、塩化ビニル、ボリエステルなどの合成フィルム及びクレープ紙などが使用される。
[実施例]
次に実施例をもとに本発明を詳述するが、本発明はこれに限定されるものではない。
表1に示す粘着剤を厚さ80 μmのポリブロビレンフィルム(東レ合成フィルム(株)製:トレファンNO 3701T)に固形分で15 μmになる様に塗工し、実施例1, 2、比較例1〜4は 90 ℃ •1分間、比較例4は120℃ • 30分間加熱乾燥してマスキングテープを作製し、性能を評価した,結果も表1に合わせて示す。なお、評価方法を以下に示す。
(1)初期接着力:SUS — 430板を被着体としてJIS-C—2107に準じて測定した。
(2 )耐溶剤性:幅10 mm、長さ50 mmのテーブを25 ℃のトルエン中に浸漬し、3分間後に取り出し、粘着剤の性状を観察し、粘着剤が溶解し基材上にほとんど残っていないものを(×)とし、また基材上に粘着剤が残っているものを(〇)とした。
(3)耐熱性:SUS — 430BA板に貼り付けた状態で140 ℃ -100分間加熱後、室温に冷却させ剝離した際にSUS — 430BA板上に粘着剤の転着のないものを(〇)ややあるものを(△)顯著なものを(×)をして評価した。
(4)接着力の経時変化:SUS — 430BA板に貼り付けた状態で140 ℃— 100分間加熱したものの接着力の変化を%で示した。
Translation - English
[Problems that present invention tries to solve]
The objective of the present invention is to provide a masking tape adhesive which has excellent heat resistance without compromising the initial properties such as initial adhesion and solvent resistance.
[Method used to solve problems]
Specifically, to solve the above-mentioned problems, the present invention provides a masking tape adhesive which comprises a natural rubber or its modified product as the main component, and a thermoreactive resin, a crosslinking agent thereof and a reactive phenolic resin which are compounded to form a mesh structure on the main component.
In the present invention, a mesh structure is formed by a thermoreactive resin and a crosslinking agent so that the reaction proceeds sufficiently even at a masking tape manufacturing temperature of 100C or lower. Then, the necessary cohesion and solvent resistance can be obtained initially by creating an IPN structure with natural rubber entanglement. On the other hand, the reactive phenolic resin which hardly reacts under masking tape manufacturing conditions and reacts at high temperature such as in paint baking process in which the temperature greatly exceeds 100C compensates the decrease of cohesive force due to cutting of the main chain of the natural rubber, thus improving heat resistance.
Specific examples of the natural rubber used in the present invention are the commonly used ribbed smoked sheet, air dry sheet, pearl clave, etc. Furthermore, their modified products such as bare brass MG and SP rubber obtained by grafting methyl methacrylate onto the natural rubber can be used as the alternatives to the natural rubber or used together with the natural rubber. In particular, when the methyl methacrylate is grafted, it is preferable to improve the compatibility between the heat reactive resin described later and its crosslinker and reactive phenol resin. In this case, the relative weight ratio of the grafted methyl methacrylate to the natural rubber is preferably within the range of 10 wt%~100 wt%. If the ratio is lower than 10 wt%, the compatibility with reactive polyurethane resin etc. is not enough, and if it exceeds 100 wt%, the Tg of the rubber will rise too much to lose its tackiness. Commercially available Bare Brass MG — 30, 49 are applicable.
The thermoreactive resin for forming the mesh structure used in the present invention can be a compound having 2 or more of highly reactive hydroxyl group, carboxyl group, amino group, epoxy group, etc. Specific examples are isoprene rubber, butadiene rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber, acrylonitrile-butadiene (liquid) rubber which have a hydroxyl group, carpoxyl group, amino group, epoxy group, etc., introduced into both ends, polyester, polyurethane resin, and a (liquid) acrylic rubber copolymerized with a monomer having a hydroxyl group, a carpoxyl group, an amino group, or an epoxy group.
In addition, specific examples of the cross-linking agent are thermoreactive crosslinking agents commonly used such as polyfunctional isocyanates, amino resins, amines and epoxy resins. The polyfunctional isocyanates, amino resins, etc. Of which, those which can react rapidly at relatively low temperatures are particularly preferable. The polyfunctional isocyanate mentioned here can be toluene diisocyanate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, 1,5 naphthalene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, trimethylhexamethylenediamine diisocyanate, triphenylmethane triisocyanate, polyphenyl methane polyisocyanate, etc. or trimethylol propane adduct of toluene diisocyanate or various derivatives such as biuret of hexamethylene diisocyanate, which are commonly used for crosslinking.
Amino resins are obtained by adding and condensing melamine, benzoguanamine, urea, etc., to formaldehyde or alcohol, and examples
/3
are methylolmelamine, methylated methylolmelamine, butylated petitol melamine, methylol benzoguanamine, methylol urea, etc.
Liquid polybutadiene rubber and polyfunctional isocyanate having an OH group are particularly preferable as the thermoreactive resin and its crosslinking agent.
In addition, the thermoreactive resin is compounded in an amount of 5~100 parts by weight, preferably 10~50 parts by weight, based on 100 parts by weight of the natural rubber or its modified product, and the crosslinking agent is compounded in an equivalent amount to the functional group of the thermoreactive resin.
Specific examples of the reactive phenol resin used in the present invention can be resol type phenol resins such as P-alkylphenol, P-allylphenol, P-terpene phenol, etc., or xylene/phenol resins and their modified products in which the methylol group is substituted by halogen. They can be used alone or as a mixture. Their compounded amount is 0.5~100 parts by weight, preferably 1~50 parts by weight, based on 100 parts by weight of the natural rubber or its modified product. If the amount is less than 0.5 part by weight, the heat resistance is insufficient, and if the amount is more than 100 parts by weight, some may be deposited on the surface of the adhesive, causing adherend contamination.
Natural products such as various rosin resins, terpene resins, terpene phenol resins and their derivatives, aliphatic, alicyclic or aromatic petroleum resins, and synthetic resins such as chroman-indene resin, styrene resin, phenolic resin or xylene resins as well as other publicly known tackifiers can be used alone or as mixture with the adhesive of the present invention.
Furthermore, petroleum-based softeners such as process oil and extender oil, liquid rubber such as polyisobutylene and liquid polyisoprene, softeners such as synthetic plasticizers, or various filling agents such as calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, silicates and silicic acid can be added as needed.
Various antioxidants such as phenol type, phosphite type, phenol phosphite type and thioether type, and anti-aging agents such as light stabilizers and heavy metal deactivators can also be added.
Then, a substrate that can sufficiently withstand the operating temperature is selected for use as the adhesive substrate for the masking tape, and it is treated as appropriate with a back-treatment agent or primer. Synthetic films such as polypropylene, vinyl chloride, polyester and crepe paper are usually used as the substrate for the masking tape.
[Examples]
Next, the present invention will be explained with examples, but this invention is not limited these examples.
Coat the adhesive shown in Table 1 on an 80 m-thick polypropylene film (made by Toray Synthetic Film Co., Ltd., model: Trefan NO 3701T) to have a solid content of 15 m. Then, heat and dry it at 90C for 1 minute according to Examples 1, 2 and at 120C for 30 minutes according to Comparative Example 4 to make masking tapes as well as evaluating their performance, with the evaluation results shown in Table 1. The evaluation method is shown below.
(1) Initial adhesive strength: measured according to JIS-C-2107 standard with a SUS-430 plate as the adherend.
(2) Solvent resistance: Immersed a tape of 10 mm in width and 50 mm in length in toluene at 25C, took it out after 3 minutes, and observed the properties of the adhesive. The adhesives which dissolved and hardly had any left on the substrate were marked with (), and the adhesives which remained on the substrate were marked with (O).
(3) Heat resistance: Heated the SUS-430BA plate which had been coated with the adhesive at 140C for 100 minutes, and then cooled the plate to room temperature and separated the plate from the coating. The adhesives which were not transferred onto the SUS-430BA plate were marked with (O), those which had a little bit transferred were marked with (), and those which were obviously transferred were marked with ().
(4) Change in adhesion over time: the change in adhesion when the SUS-430BA plate bonded with the adhesive was heated at 140C for 100 minutes was indicated by %.

Japanese to English: MANUFACTURING METHOD OF A MOVABLE CONTACT COMPONENT OF A PUSH-BUTTON SWITCH
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - Japanese
(57) 特許請求の範囲
1導電性繊維シートと導電性ゴムシートとを接着して接点板を形成する工程と、前記接点板を短冊状に截断して細片条を形成する工程と、該細片条に絶縁性ゴムを射出成形することによカバ一部材を形成する工程と、前記成形体よプレス加工することにより可動接点部材を形成する工程より成々、傘形のカパー部材の下面に接点部を形成することを特徴とする押釦スイッチの可動接点部材の製造方法。
発明の詳細な説明
本発明はゴム接点を使用した押釦スイッチに係り、特に接点の接触抵抗が小さく、量産性に適する可動接点部材の製造方法に関する。
第1図は従来のゴム接点の製造方法を示すもので、1は導電性ゴムシートから打抜いた接片で、これを金型2aに挿入し、金型2b,2cによつ 絶縁性ゴム3に一体に成形したのち、これを打抜き加工することにより、第2図のような押釦スイッチ用の可動接点体4を製造するものであるが、接片1の金型2への挿入に手間がかかり、一体化する工程では可成りの時間(約10分)を要する。また前記導電性ゴムシートは伸縮性に富むため、シートのままの状態では、自動インサート成形には適しないので、前記のように、予め個々の接片1を打抜いておき、これを1個ずっ金型2aに揷入せねばならず、従って自動化が困難で量産に適しないという欠点があった。
本発明は叙上の欠点を除去せんとするもので、以下その実施例を図面にっいて詳細に説明する。第3図aは炭素繊維を薄布状に緻密に織って形成した導電性纖維シート10を示す。先ず第3図b,cに示す第1工程では、例えばシリコーンゴム中に炭素の微粉末を混合分散させた、いわゆる導電性ゴムシート11を、前記導電性纖維シート10と重ねて圧着して断面が同図cのような一枚の接点板12をフープ状に形成し、次に第3図dの第2工程では、前記接点板12を所定の幅a,…に截断して細片条13…を形成する。次に第3工程では細片条13を金型(図示せず)中に設定する。なお金型中には一定の間隔で後述のカバー部材に対応する傘形のキヤビテイーが金型内に設けられている。シリコーンゴムの如き絶緣材料を前記キヤビテイー内に射出して一体成形すると、細片条13扣傘形のカパー部材14…が結合される。該第3工程の成形に要する時間は僅かに約30秒である。第4図a, bは金型より取出した状態でa は下面図、bは上面図で、第5図は第4図bのA—A断面図、第6図はB — B断面図で、最終の第4工程では、第4図の状態からブレス加工して切断することによね、接点部15を有する個々の可 動接点体16 (第7図)が形成される。なお第8図は本発明による可動接点体16を使用した押釦 スイッチで、接点部15に対向して絶縁基板上に固定接点17, 17が形成されている。
叙上の如く本発明は、導電性繊維シートと導電性ゴムシートとを一体化した接点板12の段階で連続したフーブ状に形成し、該接点板12が殆ど 伸縮性がなく、且っ適度の強度を有するという特徴を利用したもので、自動インサート成形によつて多数の可動接点体を一度に成形することが可能となるものである。従って本発明を適用することにより、ゴム接点の製造の自動化が容易であり、量産性に富み、コストも低減され、廉価な押釦スイツチを提供し得る等の顕著な効果を奏し得るものである。
Translation - English
(57) Claims
1. A manufacturing method of a movable contact component of a push-button switch, which comprises a step of bonding a conductive fiber sheet and a conductive rubber sheet to form a contact plate, a step of cutting the contact plate into a strip shape to form narrow strips, a step of forming a cover component by injection molding of an insulation rubber onto the narrow strip, and a step of forming a movable contact component by press processing of said molded body, characterized in that a contact is formed on a lower surface of the umbrella-shaped cover component.
Detail description of the invention
The present invention relates to a push-button switch using a rubber contact, and particularly to a manufacturing method of a movable contact component having a small contact resistance suitable for mass production.
Fig. 1 shows a conventional manufacturing method of producing a rubber contact, wherein 1 is a contact piece punched out of a conductive rubber sheet, and the movable contact component 4 for a push-button switch as shown in Fig. 2 is manufactured by inserting the contact piece 1 into a mold 2a and molding it together with an insulation rubber 3 by molds 2b and 2c and then punching the molded product out. However, it takes time to insert the contact piece 1 into the mold 2 and the integration process takes considerable time (about 10 minutes). Further, since the conductive rubber is highly stretchable, so, in the sheet state, it is not suitable for automatic insert molding. As described above, it is necessary to punch out each contact piece 1 one by one in advance and insert it into one mold 2a respectively; therefore, it has the disadvantages of being difficult to automate and being unsuitable for mass production.
The present invention seeks to eliminate the disadvantages of the prior art, and the embodiments of the present invention will now be described in detail with reference to the drawings. Fig. 3(a) shows a conductive fiber sheet 10 in a thin cloth shape formed by finely weaved carbon fibers. First, in the 1st step shown in Figs. 3(b) and 3(c), for example, a so-called conductive rubber sheet 11, in which a fine powder of carbon is mixed and dispersed in a silicone rubber, is superposed on the conductive fiber sheet 10 to form a contact plate 12 like a hoop having a cross section as shown in Fig. 3(c). In the 2nd step as shown in Fig. 3(d), the contact plate 12 is cut into a predetermined width of a, ... to form narrow strips 13, .... Next, in the 3rd step, the narrow strip 13 is set into a mold (not shown). Umbrella-shaped cavities corresponding to the cover components described later are provided in the mold at regular intervals. When an insulation material such as silicone rubber is injected into the cavities and integrally molded, the narrow strip 13 and the umbrella-shaped cover component 14 ... are combined. The time required for the molding of the 3rd step is only about 30 seconds. Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) show the state when the product is taken out of the mold, a is a bottom view of it, and b is a top view. Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken along the line A-A of Fig. 4(b), and Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken along the line B-B of Fig. 4(b). Finally, in the 4th step, the individual movable contact components 16 (Fig. 7) having the contact portion 15 are formed by press processing from the state shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 8 shows a push-button switch utilizing the movable contact component 16 according to the present invention, in which fixed contacts 17, 17 are formed on an insulation substrate facing the contact portion 15.
As described above, according to the present invention, at the stage of the integral formation of the contact plate 12 by combining the conductive fiber sheet and the conductive rubber sheet, the contact plate 12 turns out in the form like a continuous hoop. Utilizing the features of the contact plate 12, that is, almost no elasticity and moderate strength, it is possible to form a large number of movable contact components at one time by automatic insert molding. Therefore, by applying
/2
the present invention, it is possible to achieve remarkable effects such as easy automatic production of rubber contacts, strong mass production capability, and reduced costs to provide push-button switches at low prices.
Japanese to English: Food for microwaving
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Furniture / Household Appliances
Source text - Japanese
1.発明の名称
電子レンジ用食品
2.特許請求の範囲
電子レンジ加熱が可能であり且つ一定形状を有する容器に、丸ごとの馬鈴薯又は少なくとも50cm2以上の大きさの馬鈴薯のブロックと調味料とを封入してあることを特徴とする電子レンジ用食品。
3.発明の詳細な説明
[産業上の利用分野]
本発明は、電子レンジで加熱してそのまま食卓に供することができる電子レンジ用食品に関する。
[従来の技術]
従来より、インスタント食品の一種として、熱湯で温めるだけで食することができるレトルト食品が知られている。レトルト食品はレトルトパウチに詰められたものであり、カレー、シチューなどが主流となっている。しかし、レトルト食品は鍋でお湯を沸かすという手間を要するという問題がある。
このため、より手軽なものとして、電子レンジで加熱するだけで食することができる電子レンジ用食品が人気を集めている。かかる電子レンジ用食品は、主に樹脂製のトレイに詰められた形態のものであり、開封後、そのまま電子レンジで加熱できるようになっている。
[発明が解決しようとする課題]
電子レンジ用食品は電子レンジで温めるだけでそのまま食することができるという手軽さはレトルト食品より高いものの、一般にレトルト食品より高価である。しかし、従来の電子レンジ用食品は、一般にカレーライスやスパゲッティー、グラタンといった食品であり、レトルト食品とあまりかわりばえしないため、レトルト食品にはない新しい電子レンジ用食品の出現が望まれている。
本発明はこのような事情に鑑み、従来にない新規な電子レンジ用食品を提供することを目的とする。
[課題を解決するための手段]
前記目的を達成する本発明に係る電子レンジ用食品は、電子レンジ加熱が可能であり且つ一定形状を有する容器に、丸ごとの馬鈴薯又は少なくとも50cm3以上の大きさの馬鈴薯のブロックと調味料とを封入してあることを特徴とする。
本発明で電子レンジ加熱が可能であり且つ一定形状を有する容器とは、電子レンジ加熱に対する耐熱性を有すると共に少なくとも一部がマイクロ波透過性を有しており、且つ一定形状を有して内部に所定の大きさの馬鈴薯を入れることができると共に外力からある程度保護することができる強度を有しているものをいう。
このような条件を満足する容器としては、例えばCSC缶(セントラル・ステイツ・キャン社〔米国〕製)を挙げることができる。CSC缶とは、本体がエチレンビニルアルコール共重合体樹脂やポリプロピレン樹脂を多層積層したシートからなり、その開口部にアルミ製の蓋を巻締めたものである。
また、丸ごとの馬鈴薯又は少なくとも50cm2以上の大きさの馬鈴薯のブロックとは、馬鈴薯そのまま、あるいは容器に封入できるように切断したり、その一部を削ったり、切り取ったりしたものをいい、皮がついたままのものでも皮を剥いたものでもよく、料理によって使い分ければよい。さらに馬鈴薯は、結果的に、そのまま食することができるように加熱調理されている必要があるが、加熱調理後に容器に充填してもよいし、生のまま容器に充填してその後加熱調理してもよい。
本発明で調味料とは、馬鈴薯に味を付与するものをいい、液体状、固体状、粉体状、あるいはこれらの混合状態の何れでもよく、各種のソースやたれ、肉や野菜などを煮込んだ具などを挙げることができる。
本発明の電子レンジ用食品は、丸ごとの馬鈴薯又は少なくとも50cm3以上の大きさの馬鈴薯のブロックと調味料とを上述した容器に封入したものであり、好ましくは封入後加熱殺菌して長期保存可能にするのがよい。
[作用]
本発明の電子レンジ用食品は、電子レンジ加熱可能な容器を用いているので、電子レンジ加熱することによりそのまま食卓に供することができ、且つ容器が一定形状を有しているので、丸ごとの馬鈴薯を外力から保護することができると共に他の容器に移し替えることなくそのまま食することができるものである。また、このように丸ごとの馬鈴薯又は少なくとも50cm2以上の大きさの馬鈴薯のブロックのまま電子レンジ加熱して食することができるので、馬鈴薯の素材の旨味をそのまま生かしたものであり、従来にはない食品である。さらに、一定形状の容器を用いているので製造の際、丸ごとの馬鈴薯の充填も機械化することができる。
因みに、丸ごとの馬鈴薯又は少なくとも50cm3以上の大きさの馬鈴薯のブロックをパウチ詰めにしようとした場合、機械充填が難しく、しかも、製品の運搬中等に丸ごとの馬鈴薯が崩れてしまい易いので、素材の旨味を充分に生かすことができない。
[実施例]
以下、本発明を実施例に基づいて説明する。第1図には一実施例に係る電子レンジ用食品の断面を示す。同図に示すように、容器1内には丸ごとの馬鈴薯2と、バターソース、そぼろあんなどの調味料3とが封入されている。
本実施例においては容器として上述したCSC缶を用いている。かかる容器1は、多層シートからなる樹脂製の容器本体1aの開口部にアルミ製の蓋1を巻締めたもので、直径89mm、高さ63mm、容積230cm3のカップ形状である。容器本体1aの外周には静電気防止機能を有する発泡性樹脂からなるシュリンクフィルム4が被せてあり、また、容器本体1aの上部には蓋1bを覆うようにポリエチレン製の外蓋5が設けられている。なお、外蓋5には息抜きのための孔5aが形成されている。
かかる電子レンジ用食品を食するには、第2図(a)に示すように、まず、外蓋5を外した後、アルミ製の蓋1bを取る。次に、第2図(b)、(c)に示すように再び外蓋5を被せた後、例えば500Wの電子レンジで90秒程度温める。そして、第2図(d)に示すように、そのままスプーン6等で食することができる。勿諭、他の容器に移して食してもよい。
次に、以上説明した本実施例の電子レンジ用食品の製造例について簡単に説明する。
まず、調味料3を調整すると共に皮を剥いた馬鈴薯2をゆでる。この馬鈴薯3の大きさは、前述した容器1の大きさとの関係上100~150cm3であることが好ましい。そして、調味料3と馬鈴薯2を容器本体1aに充填した後、巻締により蓋1bを装着し、密封する。その後、120℃で30分の条件で殺菌し、シュリンクフィルム4及び外蓋5を取付けることにより電子レンジ用食品とする。
ここで、馬鈴薯2は、上述したように調理済のものを封入する他、生のまま封入した後、加熱殺菌の際に調理するようにしてもよい。これにより、馬鈴薯の前調理を省くことができ、また、充填の際の崩れを防止することができる。
ところでCSC缶に他の食品を封入して殺菌する場合には、一般に、120℃で60分程度の条件で加熱する必要がある。
しかし、本発明の電子レンジ用食品では、加熱殺菌の条件を上述のように120℃で30分程度まで短縮することができる。これは、丸ごとの馬鈴薯の中心部分には少なくとも高耐熱性の菌は生息していないからである。一般の加熱殺菌条件は、容器の中心部まで全てが120℃で加熱殺菌される条件であるが、本発明の電子レンジ用食品では、容器の中心部分は丸ごとの馬鈴薯の中心部分であり、上述した理由から馬鈴薯の中心部分は必ずしも120℃で加熱殺菌する必要がなく、100℃程度で十分であるので、上述したように加熱殺菌の時間を大幅に短縮することができる。そのため、長時間の加熱殺菌による風味の低下がなく、素材の旨味を充分に生かすことができる。
さらに、上述した実施例のようにCSC缶を用い、加熱殺菌すると、常温で1年以上の保存が可能であり、レトルトパウチの6ヶ月と比べても長期保存性に優れたものとなる。
[発明の効果]
以上説明したように、本発明に係る電子レンジ用食品は、電子レンジで加熱することができると共に一定形状を有する容器に入っているので、簡易に食卓に供することができ、そのままスプーン一本で食することができる。また、馬鈴薯が丸ごと又は大きなブロックとして入っており、一定形状の容器により崩れが防止されているとともに、加熱殺菌時間を短縮できるので、馬鈴薯の素材としての旨味をそのまま生かすことができ、商品価値の高いものである。また、一定形状の容器を用いているので、丸ごとの馬鈴薯の機械充填も可能であり、製造コストを低く抑えることができ、パウチ詰めに比べて長期保存も可能である。
Translation - English
1. Tile of the invention
Food for microwaving
2. Claims
Food for microwaving, which is characterized by sealing a whole potato or a block of potato having a size of at least 50 cm3 and seasoning in a container that can be used for microwave heating and has a fixed shape.
3. Detailed description of the invention
[Field of industrial use]
The present invention relates to food for microwaving which can be heated in a microwave oven and directly provided to the table.
[Prior Art]
Conventionally, retort foods which can be eaten simply by heating up with boiling water are known as a kind of instant food. Retort foods are stuffed in retort pouches, and the mainstream retort foods are curry, stew, and the like. However, retort foods have a problem, which is that it takes time and effort to boil hot water in a pot.
For this reason, microwavable foods which can be eaten only by heating in a microwave oven are gaining popularity as they are more convenient. Such microwavable foods are mainly packed in resin trays and can be heated by a microwave oven directly after opening.
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
Although microwavable foods are more convenient to eat than retort foods as they only need heating in a microwave oven, they are generally more expensive than retort foods. Meanwhile, conventional microwavable foods are generally such foods as curry rice, spaghetti and gratin, and there is no successful substitution for retort foods; therefore, a new food for microwaving which is not seen in retort foods is desired.
/2
In view of such a situation, the objective of the present invention is to provide a new food for microwaving which could not be found in the past.
[Means to solved the problem]
For the above purpose, the food for microwaving according to the present invention is characterized by sealing a whole potato or a block of potato having a size of at least 50 cm3 and seasoning in a container that can be used for microwave heating and has a fixed shape.
In the present invention, the container that can be used for microwave heating and has a fixed shape is heat resistant to microwave heating and at least a part of it is microwave penetrable. Also, it has a fixed shape and an internal volume to put a potato of a certain size inside and certain strength for protection from external forces to some extent.
An example of the container satisfying such conditions is a CSC can (manufactured by Central States Can Co. (US)). A CSC can is a container whose main body is made of a sheet of multiple laminated layers of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer resin or polypropylene resin and whose opening is sealed by winding on an aluminum lid.
In addition, a whole potato or a block of potato of 50 cm3 or larger in size can be just a whole potato, or a part of a potato cut for loading into a container by shaving or cutting. It may be fresh with skin on or peeled and can be used according to the cuisine. Furthermore, the potato needs to be cooked to be ready for eating as is cooked, and it may be loaded into a container after being cooked or loaded into a container in a raw state and then cooked.
In the present invention, seasoning refers to the material used to give taste to a potato and may be in any form of liquid, solid, powder, or a mixture thereof. Examples include various sauces, gravies, as well as simmered ingredients such as ground meats or vegetables, etc.
The food for microwaving according to the present invention is a whole potato or a block of potato of 50 cm3 or larger in size with seasoning sealed in the above-mentioned container, preferably being sterilized by heat after sealing for long-term storage.
[Usage]
Since the food for microwaving of the present invention uses a container which can be used for microwave heating, it can be heated in a microwave oven and then directly provided to the table, and since the container has a fixed shape, it can protect the whole potato from external force and the cooked potato can be eaten directly from it without being transferred to another container. In addition, as described above, since we can taste a whole potato or a block of potato of 50 cm3 or larger in size directly after microwaving, the deliciousness of the potato material can be fully revived; it becomes a food not found in the past. Furthermore, since the container having a fixed shape is used, the loading of the whole potato can be mechanized at the time of manufacture.
Incidentally, it is difficult to mechanically load a whole potato or a block of potato of at least 50 cm3 or larger in size into a pouch, and moreover, a whole potato tends to collapse during transportation of the product, so the deliciousness of the potato material cannot be fully revived.
[Embodiment]
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described based on embodiments. Fig. 1 shows a cross section of an embodiment of food for microwaving. As shown in the drawing, a whole potato 2 and seasoning 3 such as butter sauce, fish powder or the like are sealed in the container 1.
In the present embodiment, the above-described CSC can is used as a container. The container 1 has a main body 1a which is made of a multilayer sheet with an opening sealed by winding on an aluminum lid 1b, and it has a cup shape with a diameter of 89 mm, a height of 63 mm, and a volume of
/3
230 cm3. A shrink film 4 made of a foaming resin having an anti-static electricity function is wrapped on the outer periphery of the main body 1a, and an outer lid 5 made of polyethylene is provided on the top of the main body 1a to cover the lid 1b. The outer lid 5 is formed with a hole for air ventilation.
In order to eat this food for microwaving, as shown in Fig. 2 (a), first, after removing the outer lid 5, remove the lid 1b made of aluminum. Next, as shown in Figs. 2 (b) and 2 (c), cover the outer lid 5 again, heat it for, e.g. about 90 seconds in a 500 W microwave oven. Then, as shown in Fig. 2 (d), eat it with a spoon 6 or the like directly. Of course, it may be transferred to another container for eating.
Next, a manufacturing example of the food for microwaving of the present embodiment mentioned above will be briefly described.
First, adjust the seasoning 3 and boil the peeled potato 2. The size of the potato 3 [sic! “3” is likely a source typo for “2”] is preferably 100~150 cm3 in view of the size of the container 1 described above. Next, after loading the seasoning 3 and the potato 2 into the container main body 1a, attach the lid 1b by winding it around the opening and seal the content. Then, carry out sterilization at 120oC for 30 minutes, and attach the shrink film 4 and the outer lid 5 thereafter to finish making the food for microwaving.
Herein, the potato 2 may be loaded and sealed in raw state and then be cooked by heating at the time of heat-sterilization, in addition to being cooked first and then loaded and sealed. If so, the pre-cooking of the potato can be omitted, and the collapse at the time of loading can be prevented.
Generally, if other foods are loaded into a CSC can, it is necessary to heat and sterilize at 120oC for about 60 minutes.
However, with the food for microwaving of the present invention, the time of heat-sterilization at 120C can be shortened to about 30 minutes as described above. This is because high heat resistant bacteria do not inhabit at least in the central part of the whole potato. The general heat-sterilization conditions are to heat all the portions up to the center of the container to 120C for sterilization. But with the food for microwaving of the present invention, the center of the container is just the central part of the whole potato, for this reason, the central part of the potato does not necessarily have to be heated to 120C for sterilization, and it is sufficient to heat the central part to about 100C only, and the heat-sterilization time can be significantly shortened as described above. Therefore, there is no degradation of flavor by long-time heat-sterilization, and the deliciousness of the material can be fully revived.
Furthermore, when heat-sterilization is performed using a CSC can as described in the above embodiment, storage for 1 year or more at normal temperature is possible, so it has excellent long-term storage capability compared to 6 months of storage for a retort pouch.
[Effects of the invention]
As described above, since the food for microwaving according to the present invention can be heated by a microwave oven and is loaded in a container having a fixed shape, it can be easily provided to the table and be eaten directly from the container with a spoon. In addition, since the potato is loaded uncut or as a large block and prevented by the container having a fixed shape from being collapsed, and the heat-sterilization time can be shortened, it is possible to fully revive the deliciousness of the potato material and create a high commercial value. Moreover, since the container having a fixed shape is used, the machine loading of the whole potato also becomes technically feasible, and reduced manufacture cost and long-term storage become possible compared with pouch packaging.
Japanese to English: METHOD OF PRODUCING URANIUM MONONITRIDE
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Nuclear Eng/Sci
Source text - Japanese
1. [発明の名称]
一窒化ウランの製造法
2. [特許請求の範囲]
(1)二酸化ウラン1モルに対して炭素3ないし4モルを混合し、この混合物を真空中もしくは不活性雰囲気中1350℃以上で加熱し一酸化炭素の排出が完了した後、さらにアンモニア気流または8~75%水素と92~25%窒素の混合気流中1400~1750℃で加熱し炭化水素の排出が完了した後、該アンモニアまたは水素。窒素混合気体を不活性気体に置換するかまたは真空に引いて冷却する事を特徴とする一窒化ウランの製造法。(2)炭化ウランをアンモニア気流または8~75免水素と92~25%窒素混合気流中で加熱し、炭化水素の排出が完了の後該反応気体を不活性気体に置換するかまたは真空に引いて冷却することを特徴とする一窒化ウランの製造法。
3. [発明の詳細な説明]
本発明は二酸化ウランを原料とする一窒化ウランの製造法に関する。さらに詳しくは、本発明は二酸化ウランをいつたん炭化ウランに転換し、この炭化ウランをアンモニアまたは水素·窒素混合気体と反応し一窒化ウランを製造する方法に関する。
核燃料物質の一窒化ウランの製造原料としては、製造コストが低いことから酸化ウランが望ましい。特に二酸化ウランは反応制御の容易なため一般に用いられている。二酸化ウランを原料とする製造法においては二酸化ウランを炭素で還元し窒化する。




従つて、二酸化ウランから製造された一窒化ウラン中の主な不純物は酸素と炭素である。そしてこれらの不純物量の低減のために今日まで多くの努力が払われて来た。以下二酸化ウランからの従来の一窒化ウランの製造法について述べる。
第1の方法は二酸化ウランと炭素をモル比で正確に1対2に混合し、この混合物を窒素気流中1500〜1700℃で加熱反応し一窒化ウランを製造するものである。この方法の長所は製造反応が単一の反応工程で終ることである。しかしながら、(1)反応をすみやかに進めるためには高い温度が必要である、(2)二酸化ウランと炭素をモル比で正確に1対2に混合することが困難である、⑶そのため高度の熟練と技術で製造しても窒化ウラン中に0.3重量%の酸素、0.15重量%の炭素等比較的高い濃度の不純物を含む等の欠点がある。そこで不純物酸素量を低下させるため、還元剤の炭素を少し過剰にし、この過剰炭素を水素で除く第2の方法が考えられた。
この方法は二酸化ウランと炭素をモル比で1対2.14〜2.16に混合しこの混合物を窒素中1600〜1700℃で反応させた後過剰炭素を水素で除く製造法である。この方法では、還元窒化、遊離炭素の除去、固溶炭素の遊離化、再度の遊離炭素の除去、高級窒化物の分解、等の5工程を経て一窒化ウランが製造される。この方法には(1)二酸化ウランと炭素の混合が容易である、(2)一窒化ウラン中の不純物酸素を0.1重量漆まで低下できる等の長所があるが、5工程にも及ぶ複雑な製造法である短所がある。
本発明の目的は従来の製造法の欠点および短所を排除した新たな、不純物酸素濃度の低い新規な一窒化ウランの製造法を提供することである。
本発明は二酸化ウランをいつたん酸素を含まない化合物に転換し、これを一窒化ウランに転換する2つの工程によつて一窒化ウランを製造せんとするものである。すなはち、詳しく述べると、二酸化ウランと炭素をモル比で1対3〜4の割合で混合する。この混合物を1350℃以上で真空中もしくは不活性雰囲気中で一酸化炭素の排出が終るまで加熱して炭化ウラン(UG一炭化ウラン、U2C3三炭化二ウラン、UC2二炭化ウラン)を製造する。この工程を炭化反応工程と称する。炭化ウランはさらにアンモニア気流もしくは水素。窒素混合気流中1400〜1750℃で炭化水素の排出が終るまで加熱して、一窒化ウランを生成する。これを窒化反応工程と称する。窒化反応工程終了の後、アンモニアもしくは水素。窒素混合気体をヘリウムに置換するか、反応炉中を真空引きして冷却する。かくして一窒化ウランが得られる。
次に実施例について本発明を説明する。
実施例1
二酸化ウランと炭素(黒鉛)をモル比で、1対3および1対4に混合した。各混合物は直径7mm、高さ2-3mm重さ約0.5gのペレツト状に成型した。このペレツ卜を誘導加熱炉中、ヘリウム気流中1600℃で2時間加熱し一酸化炭素の排出が終つた後、加熱炉中を流速0.5l/分のアンモニア気流もしくは1.0l/分の8%水素+92%窒素または75%水素+25%窒素気流に置換し1400〜1750℃で炭化水素の排出が終るまで加熱した。



反応終了の後反応炉中をヘリウムに置換する真空引きして冷却した。以上により格子定数4.8892〜48896Åの一窒化ウランが製造された。第1表に種々の条件下で製造した一窒化ウランの不純物の分析値を示す。
Translation - English
1. [Title of the invention]
A method of producing uranium mononitride
2. [Claims]
(1) A method of [sic! the handwritten correction is adding this word “of”] producing uranium mononitride, which is characterized by mixing 3~4 moles of carbon with 1 mole of uranium dioxide, heating the mixture at 1350C or higher in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere until emission of carbon monoxide is complete, then heating the mixture at 1400~1750C in an ammonia gas flow or in a mixed gas flow of 75% hydrogen and 92~25% nitrogen, until emission of hydrocarbon is complete; finally replacing the hydrogen and nitrogen mixed gas with an inert gas or vacuuming and cooling.
(2) A method of producing uranium mononitride, which is characterized by heating the uranium carbide in an ammonia gas flow or a mixed gas flow of 8~75% hydrogen and 92~25% nitrogen until emission of hydrocarbon is complete and replacing the reaction gas with an inert gas or vacuuming and cooling.
3. [Detailed description of the invention]
The present invention relates to a method of producing uranium mononitride using uranium dioxide as a raw material. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method of producing uranium mononitride by converting uranium dioxide to uranium carbide and reacting the uranium carbide with ammonia or a mixed hydrogen-nitrogen gas.
Uranium oxide is desirable as a raw material for producing a nuclear fuel material of uranium mononitride because of its low production cost. In particular, uranium dioxide is generally used because of easy reaction control. In the manufacturing method using uranium dioxide as a raw material, the uranium dioxide is reduced by carbon and nitridized .
/2
Therefore, the main impurities in uranium mononitride produced from uranium dioxide are oxygen and carbon. Up to now, much effort has been made to reduce the amount of these impurities. A conventional method for producing uranium mononitride from uranium dioxide is described below.
In a 1st method, uranium dioxide and carbon are mixed exactly in a molar ratio of 1:2, and this mixture reacts in a nitrogen gas flow by heating at 1500~1700C to produce uranium mononitride. The advantage of this method is that the production reaction is completed in a single reaction step. However, (1) a high temperature is required to accelerate the reaction; (2) it is difficult to mix uranium dioxide and carbon precisely in a molar ratio of 1:2; (3) therefore, even if it is produced with high levels of skills and technology, there is the disadvantage of having relatively high concentrations of impurities contained in the uranium nitride, for example, 0.3 wt% oxygen, 0.15 wt% carbon, etc. Therefore, in order to reduce the amount of oxygen impurity, a 2nd method has been conceived in which the reductant carbon is a little excessive, and this excessive carbon is removed by hydrogen.
Such a method is a process in which uranium dioxide and carbon are mixed in a molar ratio of 1:2.14~2.16, and the mixture reacts in nitrogen at 1600~1700C, and after the reaction, the excessive carbon is removed by hydrogen. In this method, uranium mononitride is produced through 5 steps including reduction nitridizing, removal of free carbon, liberation of solid solution carbon, a second removal of free carbon, and decomposition of higher nitride. This method has the advantages of (1) easy mixing of uranium dioxide and carbon, (2) oxygen impurity in uranium mononitride being 0.1 wt% or less, but it has the disadvantage of a complicated manufacturing method that involves 5 steps.
The objective of the present invention is to provide a new manufacturing method for a novel production of uranium mononitride with low oxygen impurity concentration to overcome the drawbacks and disadvantages of the conventional production methods.
The present invention is intended to produce uranium mononitride by 2 steps including converting uranium dioxide to an oxygen-free compound and converting this compound to uranium mononitride. Specifically, uranium dioxide and carbon are mixed in a molar ratio of 1:3~4. The mixture is heated at a temperature of 1350C or higher in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere until emission of carbon monoxide is completed to produce uranium carbides (UC uranium monocarbide, U2C3 diuranium tricarbide, and UC2 uranium dicarbide). This step is called carbonization reaction. The uranium carbides are further heated at 1400~1750C in an ammonia gas flow or a mixed hydrogen/nitrogen gas flow until the emission of hydrocarbon is completed to form uranium mononitride. This is called nitridizing reaction. After completion of the nitridizing reaction, helium is replaced with ammonia or a mixed hydrogen-nitrogen gas or the reactor is vacuumed and cooled. Thus, uranium mononitride is obtained.
The invention will now be described with embodiments.
Embodiment 1
Uranium dioxide and carbon (graphite) were mixed in a molar ratio of 1:3 and 1:4. Each mixture was formed into pellets with a diameter of 7 mm, a height of 2~3 mm, and a weight of about 0.5 g. The pellets were heated in a helium gas flow at 1600C for 2 hours in an induction furnace until emission of carbon monoxide was completed, then the atmosphere in the furnace was replaced with an ammonia gas flow at a flow rate of 0.5 l/min., or a mixed gas flow of 8% hydrogen + 92% nitrogen at a flow rate of 1.0 l/min., or 75% hydrogen + 25% nitrogen at a flow rate of 1.0 l/min.,
/3
and then heating at 1400~1750C was given until emission of hydrocarbon was completed. After completion of the reaction, helium was introduced to replace the gas in the reactor, then vacuumed and cooled. Thus, uranium mononitride having a lattice constant of 4.8892~4.8896 Å was produced. Table 1 shows analytical values of impurities in uranium mononitride produced under various conditions.
Japanese to English: POLYETHYLENE OXIDE COMPOSITION HAVING EXCELLENT HEAT RESISTANCE
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese

[特許請求の範囲]
[請求項1] ポリエチレンオキサイド100重量部に対して、イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤が少なくとも2重量部配合されて溶融混練されたものであることを特徴とする耐熱性に優れたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物。
[請求項2] 前記イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤が、2−メルカプトベンズイミダゾール、2−メルカプトメチルベンズイミダゾール、2−メルカプトベンズイミダゾール亜鉛塩及び2−メルカプトメチルベンズイミダゾール亜鉛塩からなる群より選ばれたものであることを特徴とする請求項1記載のポリエチレンオキサイド組成物。
[請求項3] 更にフェノール系酸化防止剤が少なくとも1重量部配合されて溶融混練されたものであることを特徴とする請求項1又は請求項2記載のポリエチレンオキサイド組成物。
[請求項4] 前記フェノール酸化防止剤が、N,N’−ヘキサメチレンビス(3,5−ジ−T−ブチル−4−ヒドロキシ−ヒドロシンナマミド)、1,3,5−トリメチル−2,4,6−トリス(3,5−ジ−T−ブチル−4−ヒドロキシベンジル)ベンゼン及び、2−T−ブチル−6−(3−T−ブチル−2−ヒドロキシ−5−メチル−ベンジル)−4−メチルフェニルアクリレートからなる群より選ばれたものであることを特徴とする請求項1〜3のいずれか1項に記載のポリエチレンオキサイド組成物。
[発明の詳細な説明]
[0001]
[発明の属する技術分野]本発明は、耐熱性に優れたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物に関するものであり、更に詳しくは、ポリエチレンオキサイドに特定のイミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤を配合して溶融混練して得られる耐熱性の極めて優れたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物、並びに、この組成物に更に特定のフェノール系酸化防止剤を配合して得られる耐熱性の極めて優れたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物に関する。
[0002]
[従来の技術]ポリエチレンオキサイドは、水溶性熱可塑性樹脂として近年様々な樹脂の改質剤として利用されており、とりわけポリエチレンオキサイドの有する親水性、制電性、機械的強度の特性が注目されている。しかしながら、ポリエチレンオキサイドは、そのままでは耐熱性が低く、空気中ではほぼ150℃付近から分解が始まる。そのため混練時の条件や加工時の条件等に制約があり、耐熱性が必要とされるエンジニアリングプラスチック等の分野へ応用することには問題がある。
[0003]そこで、これまで、耐熱性を付与する方法として、フェノール系一次酸化防止剤と燐系または硫黄系二次酸化防止剤の併用が一般的に行われてきているが、この方法によって耐熱性が改良されたポリエチレンオキサイドであっても、その耐熱性が十分なものとはいえなかった。
[0004]
[発明が解決しようとする課題]本発明は、上述の従来における問題点を解決し、耐熱性が飛躍的に改良されたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物を提供することを課題とする。
[0005]
[課題を解決するための手段]即ち、本発明者等は、前記課題を解決するために鋭意研究を重ねた結果、ポリエチレンオキサイドに特定のイミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤を一定量以上配合して溶融混練することにより、ポリエチレンオキサイドの耐熱性が著しく向上することを見い出し、本発明を完成するに到った。又、本発明者等は、上記化合物と特定のフェノール系酸化防止剤とを併用することによって、ポリエチレンオキサイドの耐熱性が更に向上されることも見い出した。
[0006]本発明の耐熱性に優れたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物は、ポリエチレンオキサイド100重量部に対して、イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤が少なくとも2重量部配合されて溶融混練されたものである。又、本発明は、上記ポリエチレンオキサイド組成物において、更にフェノール系酸化防止剤が少なくとも1重量部配合されて溶融混練されたものでもある。
[0007]
[発明の実施の形態]本発明の組成物におけるポリエチレンオキサイドは、高分子量ポリエチレンオキサイドとして市販されているものであって、その平均分子量は70,000以上であり、種々の市販品がそのまま利用できる。このようなポリエチレンオキサイドの具体例としては、例えばアルコックス(登録商標名: 明成化学工業(株)製)等が挙げられる。
[0008]一方、このようなポリエチレンオキサイド中に配合されるイミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤は、特に2−メルカプトベンズイミダゾール、2−メルカプトメチルベンズイミダゾール、2−メルカプトベンズイミダゾール亜鉛塩及び2−メルカプトメチルベンズイミダゾール亜鉛塩からなる群より選ばれた少なくとも1種であることが好ましい。本発明においては、このイミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤は、ポリエチレンオキサイド100重量部に対して2重量部以上が配合され、実用性の点からは2〜20重量部が好ましく、特に5重量部以上の配合により著しい耐熱性改良効果が得られる。この際、イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤の配合量が2重量部に満たないと(例えば1重量部の場合)、十分な耐熱性が得られず、逆に、配合量が20重量部を大きく越えると(例えば30重量部の場合)、ポリエチレンオキサイドとイミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤との溶融混練が困難になるので好ましくない。


[0009]又、本発明の組成物は、ポリエチレンオキサイドの耐熱性を改良する成分として、上記のイミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤の他に、更に特定のフェノール系酸化防止剤が配合されても良く、このような化合物の併用によって一層優れた耐熱性改良効果が付与できる。このようなフェノール系酸化防止剤としては、N,N’−ヘキサメチレンビス(3,5−ジ−T−ブチル−4−ヒドロキシ−ヒドロシンナマミド)、1,3,5−トリメチル−2,4,6−トリス(3,5−ジ−T−ブチル−4−ヒドロキシベンジル)ベンゼン及び、2−T−ブチル−6−(3−T−ブチル−2−ヒドロキシ−5−メチル−ベンジル)−4−メチルフェニルアクリレートからなる群より選ばれた少なくとも1種が好ましく、本発明では、このフェノール系酸化防止剤は、ポリエチレンオキサイド100重量部に対して1重量部以上が配合され、実用性の点からは1〜10重量部が好ましく、特に2重量部以上の配合によって著しい耐熱性改良効果が付与される。本発明の組成物にあっては、このようなフェノール系酸化防止剤の配合量が10重量部を大きく越えると、ポリエチレンオキサイドとの溶融混練が困難になるので好ましくない。
[0010]本発明の耐熱性に優れたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物を製造する際には、前記のポリエチレンオキサイドに、前記イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤を所定の配合比率で添加して混練するだけで良く、混練方法や配合成分の添加時期等が特に限定されるものではない。又、混練を行う際には、特殊な混練機が必要ではなく、プラスチックの混練において使用される一般的な混練機が使用できる。尚、フェノール系酸化防止剤を配合する場合にも同様であり、イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤とフェノール系酸化防止剤は同時に配合されても良い。このようにして、耐熱性の改良に効果的な特定の化合物が所定量配合された本発明のポリエチレンオキサイド組成物は、種々の形態に加工することができ、各種成形品やフィルム等の他、他の熱可塑性樹脂の改質用マスターバッチとしても使用することができる。
[0011]
[実施例]以下、本発明の実施例を示し、本発明を詳細に説明する。しかし、本発明はこれら実施例によって示されるものに限定されるものではない。各実施例において使用した配合成分、得られたポリエチレンオキサイド組成物の耐熱性測定法並びに、測定試料の作成方法は以下の通りである。
[0012]A.実験に使用したポリエチレンオキサイド組成物中の配合成分
①ポリエチレンオキサイド(PEO): PEOについては全て、明成化学工業(株)製のポリエチレンオキサイド(商品名: アルコックス R-1000、粘度平均分子量: 25〜30万)を使用した。
②イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤: 以下の4種類の化合物を使用した。2−メルカプトベンズイミダゾール(SUMILIZER MB、住友化学工業(株)製)、2−メルカプトメチルベンズイミダゾール(NOCRAC MMB、大内新興化学工業(株)製)、2−メルカプトベンズイミダゾール亜鉛塩(NOCRAC MBZ、大内新興化学工業(株)製)、2−メルカプトメチルベンズイミダゾール亜鉛塩(NOCRAC MMBZ 、大内新興化学工業(株)製)
③フェノール系酸化防止剤: 以下の3種類の化合物を使用した。N,N’−ヘキサメチレンビス(3,5−ジ−T−ブチル−4−ヒドロキシ−ヒドロシンナマミド) (IRGANOX 1098、チバガイギー社製)、1,3,5−トリメチル−2,4,6−トリス(3,5−ジ−T−ブチル−4−ヒドロキシベンジル)ベンゼン(IRGANOX 1330、チバガイギー社製)、2−T−ブチル−6−(3−T−ブチル−2−ヒドロキシ−5−メチル−ベンジル)−4−メチルフェニルアクリレート(SUMILIZER GM、住友化学工業(株)製)
[0013]B.測定試料の作成方法(PEO組成物の製造例)
以下の各表に示される配合比率に従って、前記のPEOと、イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤、フェノール系酸化防止剤を粉体状態で均一になるまで混合した。そして、得られた混合物を電気加熱式2本ロール混練機(江藤製作所(株)製)を使用して、90〜100℃で10分間混練し、各PEO組成物を得た。尚、各表中に示す配合量の単位は、いずれも重量部である。
[0014]C.PEO組成物の耐熱性測定方法
島津製作所(株)製の熱分析装置(TG−30、空気雰囲気下)を用い、各PEO組成物の試料10mGを採取し、以下の加熱条件で加熱後の重量損失を測定した。
加熱条件(I)・・・試料を室温から300℃まで10℃/分の昇温速度で加熱した。
加熱条件(II)・・・試料を室温から250℃まで10℃/分の昇温速度で加熱し、その後250℃で30分間保持した。
[0015]実施例1: イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤の添加による耐熱性改良実験
イミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤として、2−メルカプトベンズイミダゾール(SUMILIZER MB)を使用し、前記のPEO100重量部に対して、それぞれ0重量部、1重量部、2重量部、5重量部を配合し、得られた各試料の重量損失を加熱条件(I)及び(II)にて測定した。又、同様にして、他の3種類のイミダゾール系過酸化物分解剤(NOCRAC MMB、NOCRAC MBZ及び、NOCRAC MMBZ )を使用し、得られた各試料の重量損失を加熱条件(I)及び(II)にて測定した。各実験結果を以下の表1に示す。

Translation - English
Claims
[Claim 1] A polyethylene oxide composition having excellent heat resistance, characterized in that the composition is obtained by blending 100 parts by weight of polyethylene oxide with at least 2 parts by weight of an imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer and melt-kneading the blend.
[Claim 2] The polyethylene oxide composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer is selected from the group consisting of 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole, 2-mercaptomethylbenzoimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole zinc salt and 2-mercaptomethylbenzoimidazole zinc salt.
[Claim 3] The polyethylene oxide composition according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that the composition further comprised at least 1 part by weight of phenolic antioxidant and subjected to melt-kneading.
[Claim 4] The polyethylene oxide composition according to any one of claims 1~3, characterized in that the phenolic antioxidant is selected from the group consisting of N,N’-hexamethylene bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-hydrocinnamamide), 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tri(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzene, and 2-t-butyl-6-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzyl)-4-methylphenylacrylate.
[Detailed description of the invention]
[0001]
[Technical field of the invention]
The present invention relates to a polyethylene oxide composition having excellent heat resistance, and more particularly to a polyethylene oxide composition having excellent heat resistance obtained by blending polyethylene oxide with an imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer and melt-kneading the blend, and a polyethylene oxide composition having very excellent heat resistance obtained by further blending a phenolic antioxidant in the composition.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Polyethylene oxide as a water-soluble thermoplastic resin has been widely used as a modifier for various resins in recent years, and its properties, such as hydrophilicity, antistatic properties and mechanical strength, have gained widespread attention. However, polyethylene oxide displays low heat resistance and begins to degrade at around 150°C in air. Therefore, there are restrictions on the kneading conditions or processing conditions, and problems may arise when it is used in the field of heat-resistant engineering plastics, etc.
[0003]
Thus, phenolic primary antioxidants and phosphorus-containing secondary antioxidants or sulfur-containing secondary antioxidants have always been used as an approach to achieve excellent heat resistance, but the polyethylene oxide whose heat resistance is improved by this approach could not have adequate heat resistance.
[0004]
[Problem to be solved by the invention]
To solve the aforesaid problem, the present invention is intended to provide a polyethylene oxide composition with greatly improved heat resistance.
[0005]
[Solution to the problem]
To solve the aforesaid problem, the inventors conducted an intensive study and found that the heat resistance of polyethylene oxide can be remarkably improved by blending polyethylene oxide with a certain amount of an imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer and melt-kneading the blend. In addition, the inventors also found that the combined use of a phenolic antioxidant the aforesaid compound further improved the heat resistance of polyethylene oxide.
[0006]
The polyethylene oxide composition having excellent heat resistance of the present invention is obtained by blending 100 parts by weight of polyethylene oxide with at least 2 parts by weight of an imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer, and melt-kneading the blend. In addition, the composition of the present invention is also obtained by further blending the aforesaid polyethylene oxide composition with at least 1 part by weight of a phenolic antioxidant and melt-kneading the blend.
[0007]
[Mode of implementing the invention]
The polyethylene oxide in the composition of the present invention is a commercially available product in the form of high-molecular weight polyethylene oxide having an average molecular weight of 70,000 or above, and various commercially available products may be used directly. An example of such a polyethylene oxide is Alkox (registered trademark; manufactured by Meisei Chemical Works, Ltd.).
[0008]
In another aspect, a particularly preferable imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer for mixing with the polyethylene oxide is at least 1 selected from the group consisting of 2-mercaptobenzoimidazol, 2-mercaptomethylbenzoimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole zinc salt and 2-mercaptomethylbenzoimidazole zinc salt. According to the present invention, significantly improved heat resistance can be obtained by blending 100 parts by weight of polyethylene oxide with 2 or more parts by weight, preferably 2~20 parts by weight from a practical perspective, and particularly preferably 5 or more parts by weight of the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer. If the amount of the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer used is less than 2 parts by weight (e.g. 1 part by weight), adequate heat resistance could not be obtained. On the contrary, if the amount used is far more than 20 parts by weight (e.g. 30 parts by weight), it is difficult to melt-knead the polyethylene oxide and the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer, so such an amount is not preferred.
/3
[0009]
Moreover, as an ingredient used in the composition of the present invention to improve the heat resistance of polyethylene oxide, in addition to the aforesaid imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer blended, a phenolic antioxidant may be further included in the blend to better improve the heat resistance through the combined use of such compounds. Such a phenolic antioxidant is preferably at least 1 selected from the group consisting of N,N’-hexamethylene bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-hydrocinnamamide), 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tri(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzene, and 2-t-butyl-6-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzyl)-4-methylphenylacrylate. In the present invention, 100 parts by weight of polyethylene oxide are blended with at least 1 part by weight, preferably 1~10 pars by weight from the practical perspective, and particularly preferably 2 or more parts by weight of the phenolic antioxidant to achieve remarkably improved heat resistance. In the composition of the present invention, if the amount of the phenolic antioxidant used is far more than 10 parts by weight, it will be difficult to melt-knead it with polyethylene oxide.
[0010]
The polyethylene oxide composition having excellent heat resistance of the present invention may be manufactured by kneading the aforesaid polyethylene oxide with the aforesaid imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer at a certain blending ratio. The kneading method and the adding time for the blended ingredients are not particularly limited. In addition, it is not necessary to use a special kneader for kneading, so a regular kneader used in plastic kneading may be used. Same for blending of the phenolic antioxidant, a regular kneader can be used, and the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer and the phenolic antioxidant may be blended simultaneously. In this way, the polyethylene oxide composition of the present invention blended with predetermined amounts of specified compounds capable of improving heat resistance can be processed into various forms and can be used as various molded products or films as well as a master batch for the modification of other thermoplastic resins.
[0011]
[Examples]
Examples of the present invention are given below to describe the present invention in detail. However, the present invention is not limited to these examples. The blended ingredients used in various examples, the heat resistant test method for the polyethylene oxide composition obtained, and the method for preparing the specimens are shown below.
[0012]
A. Ingredients of the polyethylene oxide compositions used in experiments
(1) Polyethylene oxide (PEO): all PEOs used in the experiments were polyethylene oxide (product name: Alkox R-1000; viscosity-average molecular weight 250,000- 300,000) manufactured by Meisei Chemical Works, Ltd.
(2) Imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer: the 4 compounds, 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole (SUMILIZER MB; manufactured by Sumitomo Chemical Industry Company Limited), 2-mercaptomethylbenzoimidazole (NOCRAC MMB, made by Ouchi Shinko Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd.), 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole zinc salt (NOCRAC MBZ; made by Ouchi Shinko Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd.), 2-mercaptomethylbenzoimidazole zinc salt (NOCRAC MMBZ; manufactured by Ouchi Shinko Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd.), were used.
(3) Phenolic antioxidant: the 3 compounds, N,N’-hexamethylene bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-hydrocinnamamide) (Irganox 1098; manufactured by Ciba-Geigy Co., Ltd.), 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tri(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)benzene (Irganox 1098 1330; made by Ciba-Geigy Co., Ltd.), 2-t-butyl-6-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzyl)-4-methylphenylacrylate (Sumilizer GM, made by Sumitomo Chemical Industry Company Limited), were used.
[0013]
B. Method for manufacturing the specimens for testing (PEO composition manufacturing example)
The PEO, the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer, and the phenolic antioxidant in powdery state were blended according to the ratios shown in the tables below until attainment of an even blend. Then, the obtained blend was kneaded at 90~100°C for 10 min. using a double roller kneader with electric heating (manufactured by Eto Manufacturing Co., Ltd.), thereby obtaining various PEO compositions. It should be noted that the amounts of blended ingredients shown in various tables are expressed in parts by weight.
[0014]
C. Method for measuring heat resistance of the PEO compositions
10 mg specimen was used for each PEO composition to determine its weight loss after heating under the following heating conditions using a thermal analysis device manufactured by Shimadzu Corporation (TG-30; atmospheric air).
Heating conditions (I) ∙∙∙ the specimen was heated from room temperature to 300°C at a rate of 10 °C/min.
Heating condition (II) ∙∙∙ the specimen was heated from room temperature to 250°C at a rate of 10 °C/min. and then maintained at 250°C for 30 min.
[0015]
Example 1: heat resistance improvement experiment by adding the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer
100 parts by weight of the aforesaid PEO were blended with 0 part by weight, 1 part by weight, 2 parts by weight and 5 parts by weight of 2-mercaptobenzoimidazole (SUMILIZER MB) used as the imidazole-containing peroxide decomposer, respectively, and the weight losses of the specimens obtained were measured under the heating conditions (I) and (II). In addition, other 3 imidazole-containing peroxide decomposers (NOCRAC MMB, NOCRAC MBZ, NOCRAC MMBZ) were used to determine the weight losses of various specimens obtained under the heating conditions (I) and (II). The test results are shown below in Table 1.
Chinese to English: EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON HYDROGEN ENVIRONMENT EMBRITTLEMENT OF TYPE 316 SERIES AUSTENITIC STAINLESS SEELS AT LOW TEMPERATURES
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Metallurgy / Casting
Source text - Chinese
1. 緒言
クリーンエネルギーとして水素を利用する研究開発が進められており,その大量貯蔵法として液化水素による貯蔵が検討されている。オーステナイト系ステンレス鋼は低温靭性に優れているために液体水素貯蔵の構造用材料として期待されている。しかし, 304型や316型ステンレス鋼は水素により脆化することが知られており,電気化学的あるいは高温水素チャージされた試験片を用いた低温における水素脆化の研究が進められてきた1-5)。これらの研究において水素脆化は試験温度に依存する1-5)ことが明らかになり,例えば, Caskey 2)は高温水素チャージした316型ステンレス鋼の温度依存性を調べ,水素脆化は温度の低下と共に増加し, 200 K 付近で最大になり,その温度以下では温度の低下と共に減少することを報告している。また,オーステナイト系ステンレス鋼は水素ガス中で脆化(水素環境脆化)する6-16)ことも知られており,特に低温における水素環境脆化挙動が調べられており, 304型や316型ステンレス鋼の水素環境脆化の主たる要因は歪み誘起マルテンサイトにあることが分かってきた13,14)。このように,オーステナイト系ステンレス鋼の水素脆化についての研究は多く行われ,脆化に及ぼす因子も明らかになってきているが, 316型ステンレス鋼の水素環境脆化に及ぼす温度および歪み誘起マルテンサイトの生成量との関係については未だ十分明らかではない。
本研究においては,オーステナイト相の安定度の異なる三種類の316型オーステナイト系ステンレス鋼(SUS316, SUS316Lおよび SUS316LN)について, 80 Kから300 Kまでの温度範囲で, 1.1 MPaの水素およびヘリウム雰囲気下において引張試験を行い,水素環境脆化に及ぼす温度の影響および歪み誘起マルテンサイトの生成量との関係を検討した。

2.実験方法

水素環境脆化の評価は市販の316型ステンレス鋼としてSUS316, SUS316Lおよび SUS316LNを用いて引張試験で行った。供試材の化学組成を Table 1に示す。供試材を小型平滑丸棒試験片(平行部20 mm,直径 4 mm)に加工した後,水素環境脆化に及ぼす表面粗度の影響を避けるために, 試験片を0/4番までのエメリー紙研磨とgアルミナによるバフ研磨を施して試験に供した。なお,各種材料についてTable 2に示す熱処理を施した。評価試験方法として引張試験を行った。引張試験は当所で開発した低温水素環境材料試験装置15)を用いて, 80~300 Kの温度範囲で,歪み速度4.2×10-5 s-1で行った。引張試験雰囲気として1.1 MPaの水素ガス(純度 99.9999%)および 1.1 MPaのヘリウムガス(純度 99.999%)を用いた。試験後走査電子顕微鏡による破面観察およびフェライトメーターを用いて磁気測定により歪み誘起変態により生じた a′マルテンサイト量をフェライト換算量として測定を行った。
Translation - English
1. Introduction
While the research and development using hydrogen as clean energy are making progress, we are examining the storage by means of liquified hydrogen as a mass storage method. Austenitic stainless steel is an ideal structural material for liquid hydrogen storage because of its excellent low temperature toughness. However, type 304 and type 316 stainless steels are known to be embrittled by hydrogen, so studies of hydrogen embrittlement at low temperatures using test pieces charged electrochemically or with high-temperature hydrogen had been conducted 1-5). It was found in these studies that hydrogen embrittlement was obviously dependent on test temperatures 1-5). For example, Caskey 2) examined the temperature dependence of type 316 stainless steel charged with high-temperature hydrogen and reported that the hydrogen embrittlement increased as the temperature decreased and reached its maximum level at around 200 K and, then, in the range below this temperature, the embrittlement decreased as the temperature was lowered. Further, austenitic stainless steels are also known to be embrittled in hydrogen gas (hydrogen environment embrittlement) 6-16). After investigating the embrittlement behaviors in the hydrogen environment at low temperatures, we found that the strain-induced martensite is the main cause for Type 304 or 316 stainless steels’ hydrogen environment embrittlement 13, 14). Although many studies have been conducted on hydrogen embrittlement of austenitic stainless steels, and factors affecting the embrittlement have been clarified, the relationship between the temperature causing hydrogen environment embrittlement of type 316 stainless steel and the amount of strain-induced martensite generated is still not very clear.
In this study, a tensile test was conducted on three types of 316 austenitic stainless steels (SUS316, SUS316L and SUS316LN) with different austenite phase stability in the temperature range from 80 K to 300 K under 1.1 MPa hydrogen and helium environment to investigate the relationship between the temperature causing hydrogen environment embrittlement and the amount of strain-induced martensite generated.
2. Experimental method
The evaluation of hydrogen environment embrittlement was conducted by a tensile test using SUS316, SUS316L and SUS316LN as commercially available type 316 stainless steel. The chemical composition of the test material is shown in Table 1. After the test material was made into a small-sized smooth round bar test piece (having 20 mm of a parallel part, and a diameter of 4 mm), it was polished to emery paper No. 0/4 and buffed with γ alumina to avoid the influence of surface roughness on hydrogen environment embrittlement. In addition, the heat treatment shown in Table 2 was applied to the materials. A tensile test was conducted as an evaluation test method. The tensile test was conducted at a strain rate
of 4.2×10-5 S-1 in the temperature range of 80~300 K using a low-temperature hydrogen environment material test device 15) developed by our institute. Hydrogen gas of 1.1 MPa (99.9999% purity) and helium gas of 1.1 MPa (99.999% purity) were used as the tensile testing environment. After the test, we measured the amount of ′ martensite produced by strain-induced transformation as ferrite equivalent amount by observation of fractured surface with an electronic scanning microscope and magnetic measurement using a ferrite meter.
Japanese to English: A method for producing instant noodles contained in a frustoconical container
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Forestry / Wood / Timber
Source text - Japanese
1 発明の名称
截頭円錐台形状の容器に収納する即席麺の製造法
2 特許請求の範囲
麺体を截頭円錐台形状の容器と同型であって容器内周より稍小さい内周からなり、底面及び開閉自在の蓋に多数の小孔が設けられた金型に投入し、蓋を閉じて油熱処理し前記容器の中間部に保持される麺塊を得ることを特徴とする截頭円錐台形状の容器に収納する即席麺の製造法。
3 発明の詳細な説明
本発明は截頭円錐台形状の容器に収納する即席麺の製造法に関するものであって容器の携行において麺塊がこわれることなく、かつ喫食時に完全に麺線が復元しうる即席麺を提供しようとするものである。
従来より即席麺を発泡スチロールのような断熱容器に収納し、熱収縮性合成樹脂被膜で容器口部あるいは容器全体を密封し、喫食時にはこの被膜を破り、容器に熟湯を注いで麺線の復元を待って喫食する容器付即席麺がある。
この容器は携行時には包装容器として、復元時には調理容器として喫食時には食器として利用されるものであるが、復元による麺体の膨張を鑑みて、麺塊を容器内に充満させて包装することはできない。
従って容器内にはかなりの空隙がありこの容器付即席麺の輸送時あるいは運搬時の動揺、逆積により容器内の麺塊は移動し、崩れたり、折れたりする。
更にはこの麺塊の移動がはげしいときは発泡スチロール容器を破損することもある。
また容器付即席麺には乾燥野菜、乾燥肉等の乾燥具が麺塊と共に容器内に収納されているが既述のごとく麺塊が移動することにより、これらは分散して麺塊の下部に散在し、かつ乾燥具の形状の破損されているものもある。
従って復元したときのみばえはわるく商品価値を減少せしめている。
本発明は上述の欠点を解消するためになされたものであって今本発明に係る麺塊の製造方法を添附図面について詳述すると鉄若くはステンレススチールよりなる金型(1)は截頭円錐台形状であって同じ形状からなる容器(9)の内周よりその内周は稍々小さく、底面(2)及び開閉自在の蓋(3)は多数の小孔(4)を有する。
この金型(1)内へ常法により得られた厚さ約1mmの麺線からなる麺体(8)を一食分投入し、蓋(3)を閉じて油(6)内へ浸漬油揚する。
油温は130〜150℃ぐらいであって2〜3分間油揚すると麺線に含まれた水分が蒸散し、更に底面(2)の小孔(4)を通して挿上げる油の作用により、麺体(5)は蓋(3)の下部と密接し、金型の上方において油熱処理されることとなる。
この油熱処理工程は金型(1)に取付けた吊持具(7)をエンドレスチェーン(8)に係合し、多数の金型を油槽内で移動させながら連続的に行うことができる。
油熱処理された麺塊(5)は上面が水平であって、その外周は截頭円錐台の容器(9)内面より稍小さいから容器内に収納すれば自重により、上部と下部に多少の空間(10)を有して容器の中間部に保持される。
そこで上部の空間(10)に乾燥具(11)を充填し、蓋(12)をして全体を熱収縮性合成樹脂被膜(13)を以って被覆する。
本発明の製造法によって得られた麺塊(5)は容器の中間部に確実に保持されるものであるから容器内での移動がなく麺塊(5)が破損する恐れはない。
また乾燥野菜、肉、しいたけ等の乾燥具が麺塊の下部へ移動することもなく破損もない。
更に油熱処理のときに麺体(5)は蓋(3)の下部へ密接するように挿上げられているからその上部は麺線相互が凝縮し、下部は疎になっている。
従って復元にあたり容器口部から注ぐ熱湯はまず麺塊上部を復元しながら下部空間(10)に溜り、麺塊を底部から復元する。
このとき容器中間部に保持された麺塊は下部空間(10)にある熱湯の放熟を防げるので麺線は満遍無く復元される。
また容器(9)は截頭円錐台形状を呈するから片手でもって喫食することができ、戸外へ携行しうる携帯食品として利用され、食生活上に貢献するところ大である。
Translation - English
1. Name of the Invention
A method for producing instant noodles contained in a frustoconical container
2. Claims
A method for producing instant noodles contained [sic! the word “contained” is the translation of the two handwritten Japanese characters added to source by means of a correction] in a frustoconical container, which is characterized in that a noodle body is placed in a mold, which has a same shape as the frustoconical container but an inner circumference slightly smaller than the inner circumference of the container, a bottom and a removable lid with many small holes, and the lid is closed for oil heating treatment to obtain a noodle block held in the middle of the container.
3. Detailed Description of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method for producing instant noodles contained in a frustoconical container, which can prevent the noodle block from being broken when being carried by the container and ensure that the instant noodles can be completely restored into noodle strings at the time of eating.
Conventionally, instant noodles are stored in a heat insulation container such as Styrofoam, and the container opening or the whole

container is sealed with a heat-shrinkable synthetic resin film. To eat it, the film is peeled off, and hot water is poured into the container to restore the noodle block into noodle strings.
This container is used as a packaging container for carrying, as a cooking container at the time of noodle restoration, and as a dish for eating. However, in view of the noodle body expansion during noodle restoration, the container cannot be fully filled by the noodle block.
Therefore, there is a considerable space in the container, causing the noodle block in the container to move, collapse or break due to shaking or inversing during handling or transportation of the instant noodles in the container.
Furthermore, a violent movement of the noodle block may damage the foam container.
In addition, dried materials like dried vegetables and dried meat are stored together with the noodle block in the container. However, during the movement as described above, those dried materials are dispersed and scattered to the lower part of the noodle block and some of them suffers damages to the shape.
Therefore, when you restore the noodle block, the appearance of the noodles will be bad, so the commodity value is decreased.
/3
The present invention has been made to solve the above-mentioned drawbacks by providing a method for producing a noodle block, which will be described in detail with reference to the attached drawings. The mold (1) made of iron or stainless steel has a frustoconical shape with an inner circumference slightly smaller than the inner circumference of the container (9) of the same shape, a bottom (2), and a removable lid (3) with many small holes (4).
The noodle body (8) for one meal consisting of noodle strings with a thickness of about 1 mm produced by a conventional method is placed into the mold (1), the lid (3) is closed, and then it is immersed into oil (6) and fried.
The moisture contained in the noodle strings is evaporated after they are fried in the oil at a temperature of about 130~150C for 2~3 minutes. Furthermore, under the action of the oil which enters through the small holes (4) in the bottom surface (2), the noodle body (5) is pushed up to be in close contact with the lower part of the lid (3) and is subjected to oil heating treatment over the mold.
This oil heating treatment process can be carried out continuously by engaging the hanger (7) attached to the mold (1) to the endless chain (8) and then moving many molds in the oil tank.
Since the upper surface of the oil heating treated noodle block (5’) [sic! the single quote sign is added by a handwritten correction in the source] is horizontal, and its outer periphery is smaller than the inner surface of the frustoconical container (9), if it is contained in the container, by its own weight, some space (10) is maintained in the upper part and the lower part to keep it in the middle of the container.

Then, the upper space (10) is filled with dried materials (11), the lid (12) is closed, and then, they, as a whole, are covered with the heat-shrinkable synthetic resin film (13).
Since the noodle block (5’) [sic! the apostrophe is added by a handwritten correction in the source] obtained by the production method of the present invention is securely held in the middle of the container, there is no movement for the noodle block (5’) [sic! the apostrophe is added by a handwritten correction in the source] in the container, avoiding the possibility of damaging it.
In addition, dried materials like dried vegetables, meat, shiitake mushrooms will not move to the lower part of the noodle block, avoiding potential damages.
Furthermore, since the noodle body (5) is pushed up to move closer to the lower part of the lid (3) at the time of oil heating treatment, the upper part is dense noodles and the lower part is looser noodles.
Therefore, when the noodle block is being restored into noodle strings, while the hot water poured from the mouth of the container is making the upper part of the noodle block restore the noodle shape, it will flow to the lower space (10) and accumulate there, so the noodle block is restored from the bottom.
At this time, as the noodle block is held in the middle area of the container, which prevent the heat radiation of the hot water in the lower space (10), the noodle strings are restored evenly.

Besides, the container (9) has a frustoconical shape, which facilitates eating with one hand only, so the instant noodles can be used as portable foods that can be carried outdoors, which contributes greatly to the eating habits.
Chinese to English: Effects of magnesium sulfate combined with sodium chloride concentrated diluted solution nasal irrigation for endoscopic sinus operation of intraoperative bleeding and pain
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - Chinese
围手术期治疗是鼻内镜手术治疗过程中的关键环节,鼻内镜手术要取得理想疗效,除了手术过程规范、彻底以外,合理有效的围手术期处理对于保证手术效果起到举足轻重的作用[1]。2010-01—2011-12我们对慢性鼻-鼻窦炎、鼻息肉患者应用硫酸镁加浓氯化钠稀释液进行围术期鼻腔冲洗,取得了良好的效果,现报告如下。
1 资料与方法
1.1 临床资料
慢性鼻-鼻窦炎、鼻息肉患者151例,既往无鼻腔手术史,术前检查排除糖尿病、高血压、凝血功能异常等全身疾病。随机分为三组,按照2008年南昌会议标准[2]进行分类。A组50例,男23例,女27例;年龄18~75岁,平均(38.04±14.71)岁;病程0.5~40年,平均(7.53±6.44)年;其中慢性鼻-鼻窦炎23例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎伴鼻息肉7例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎并鼻中隔偏曲14例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎伴鼻息肉并鼻中隔偏曲6例。B组51例,男24例,女27例;年龄18~74岁,平均(38.02±14.02)岁;病程0.5~40年,平均(7.55±6.16)年;其中慢性鼻-鼻窦炎22例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎伴鼻息肉8例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎并鼻中隔偏曲16例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎伴鼻息肉并鼻中隔偏曲5例。C组50例,男24例,女26例;年龄18~73岁,平均(37.12±14.22)岁;病程0.5~30年,平均(7.44±6.26)年;其中慢性鼻-鼻窦炎24例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎伴鼻息肉6例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎并鼻中隔偏曲15例,慢性鼻-鼻窦炎伴鼻息肉并鼻中隔偏曲5例。三组患者资料具有可比性(P>0.05)。
1.2 方法
术前治疗:① 抗生素:三组患者均口服罗红霉素胶囊0.15 g,每日2次,连续5 d;② 黏液促排药:三组患者均口服盐酸氨溴索片30 mg,每日2次,连续5d;③ 局部糖皮质激素:三组均用丙酸氟替卡松鼻喷雾剂喷鼻,每日2次,连续5d;④鼻腔冲洗:A组用25%硫酸镁20 ml+10%氯化钠10 ml+0.9%氯化钠100 ml进行鼻腔冲洗,每日2次,连续5d;B组用10%氯化钠10 ml+0.9%氯化钠100 ml进行鼻腔冲洗,每日2次,连续5d;C组用0.9% 氯化钠100 ml鼻腔冲洗,每日2次,连续5d。
手术方法:三组患者均由同一位手术经验丰富的术者进行内镜鼻窦手术,采用局部麻醉,患者取仰卧位,头部抬高30°,以1%丁卡因20 ml+0.1%肾上腺素2 ml混合液浸泡的棉片行鼻腔表面麻醉,每隔10 min 1次,表面麻醉3次后,用2%利多卡因5 ml行鼻丘、中鼻甲前端浸润及蝶腭神经阻滞麻醉。按Messerklinger术式进行手术,用吸切器切除息肉,切除钩突,开放上颌窦,根据病情开放筛窦、蝶窦和额窦,清理病变组织,保留正常黏膜。鼻中隔偏曲患者同期行鼻中隔矫正术,鼻甲肥厚或息肉样变者切除部分鼻甲黏膜/鼻甲骨。术毕用明胶海绵及止血纱布填塞鼻腔,行鼻中隔手术者用凡士林纱条加压填塞。
1.3 观察指标
① 术中疼痛程度:术后采用视觉模拟量表(VAS)评估患者术中疼痛程度:无疼痛(VAS=0),轻度疼痛(0
Translation - English
Perioperative treatment is a key to the success of endoscopic sinus surgery. In order to achieve ideal effects, other than standardized and thorough surgery process, a reasonable and effective perioperative management plays a decisive role in ensuring a good surgical result [1]. From January 2010 to December 2011, we had conducted perioperative nasal irrigation with magnesium sulfate and concentrated sodium chloride diluted solution in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, and achieved good effects, which are now reported as follows.
1 Data and Methods
1.1 Clinical Data
This study included 151 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps who had no previous history of nasal surgery, and had systemic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and abnormal coagulation function excluded by preoperative examinations. The patients were randomized into three groups and classified according to the Criteria of the 2008 Nanchang Conference [2]. In group A, there were 50 cases, including 23 males and 27 females who were aged 18-75 years with an average age of (38.04±14.71) years, and had a disease course of 0.5-40 years with an average duration of (7.53±6.44) years. Among them, there were 23 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis, 7 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, 14 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal septum deviation, and 6 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and nasal septum deviation. In group B, there were 51 cases, including 24 males and 27 females who were aged 18-75 years with an average age of (38.02±14.02) years, and had a disease course of 0.5-40 years with an average duration of (7.55±6.16) years. Among them, there were 22 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis, 16 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal septum deviation, and 5 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and nasal septum deviation. In group C, there were 50 cases, including 24 males and 26 females who were aged 18-73 years with an average age of (37.12±14.22) years, and had a disease course of 0.5-30 years with an average duration of (7.44±6.26) years. Among them, there were 24 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis, 6 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, 15 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal septum deviation, and 5 cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and nasal septum deviation. The data in the three groups were comparable (P > 0.05).
1.2 Methods
Preoperative treatment: (1) Antibiotics: Patients in all the three patients orally took roxithromycin capsules 2 times a day for 5 d; (2) Mucous expectorant: Patients in all the three patients orally took ambroxol hydrochloride tablets 2 times a day for 5 d; (3) Topical glucocorticoids: Patients in all the three patients were given fluticasone propionate nasal spray 2 times a day for 5 d; (4) Nasal irrigation: Patients in Group A received nasal irrigation with 25% magnesium sulfate 20 ml + 10% sodium chloride 10 ml + 0.9% sodium chloride 100 ml, 2 times a day for 5 d; patients in Group B received nasal irrigation with 10% sodium chloride 10 ml + 0.9% sodium chloride 100 ml, 2 times a day for 5 d; and patients in Group C received nasal irrigation with 0.9% sodium chloride 100 ml, 2 times a day for 5 d.
Surgical methods: Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed by the same experienced surgeon for all patients in the three groups. The surgery was performed under local anesthesia, and patients were taken in a supine position with the head raised by 30. Nasal surface anesthesia was performed with cotton flakes soaked in the mixture of 1% tetracaine 20 ml + 0.1% adrenaline 1 time every 10 min. After 3 times of surface anesthesia, 2% lidocaine 5 ml was used for infiltration of agger nasi and anterior tip of middle turbinate and for sphenopalatine nerve block anesthesia. The surgery was performed with the Messerklinger approach. The polyps and uncinate process were removed with a suction cutter, and the maxillary sinus was opened. Also, depending on the condition, the ethmoid sinus, sphenoid sinus and frontal sinus were opened, pathological tissues were cleared, and the normal mucosa was preserved. Nasal septum correction was performed during this time in patients with nasal septum deviation. Some of turbinate mucosa/bones were removed for patients with turbinate hypertrophy or polypoid changes. After completion of the surgery, the nasal cavity was filled with gelatin sponge and hemostatic gauze, and for patients receiving nasal septum surgery, compressed filling with Vaseline gauze strips was performed.
1.3 Outcome Observation
(1) Intraoperative pain severity: The intraoperative pain severity was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) after surgery: no pain (VAS = 0), mild pain (0 < VAS ≤3), moderate pain (3 < VAS  7), and severe pain (7 < VAS  10). (2) Intraoperative bleeding: It was evaluated using the scoring system for Boezaart nasal endoscopic surgery field bleeding [3].
1.4 Statistical Analysis
The Ridit analysis was employed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Chinese to English: Computer Vision Scheme Used for the Automatic Landing of Unmanned Helicopter on Ship Deck
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: IT (Information Technology)
Source text - Chinese
摘 要:通过理论分析和计算机半实物仿真研究了一种应用于无人直升机自主着舰的双目立体计算机视觉系统及相关计算机视觉技术。研究了基于HSV 均匀色标的计算机视觉技术在无人直升机着舰控制中的应用。使用Hough 变换算法检测直线参数, 在Hough 变换中利用梯度信息, 它的应用打破了Hough 变换的计算瓶颈。整套算法的抗噪声能力很强, 达到了无人直升机自主着舰的实时性和实用性要求。
关键词:无人直升机;计算机视觉;图像分割;边缘提取;Houg h 变换
中图分类号:TP391 ;V249.1   文献标识码:A
为了让直升机自主完成着舰任务, 必须有能够测量相关信息并指挥无人直升机降落的自主着舰系统。利用计算机视觉技术可以测量摄像机与目标的相对姿态和位置, 在无人直升机上安装一套计算机视觉系统可以控制无人直升机自主完成着舰动作。本文通过分析无人直升机着舰过程的工况特点, 提出了一套完整的计算机视觉算法。计算机半实物仿真结果表明, 本文研究的计算机视觉算法能提供比较准确的相对位置和相对运动参数, 且能满足无人直升机着舰的实时性要求。参考文献[ 1] 介绍了一个计算机视觉技术应用于共轴直升机着陆控制的工程实例。其结果同样表明计算机视觉技术用于直升机着舰或着陆控制的可行性。
1  着舰系统结构模型
系统结构如图1 所示。当无人直升机返航到达母舰附近准备降落时, 机上的计算机视觉系统开始搜索代表着舰区域的特征图案。计算机视觉系统利用该特征图案的图像信息求解直升机与母舰的相对位置、姿态和运动参数, 主要是母舰摇摆运动及沉浮运动的周期和幅度。当甲板处于水平以及下沉的状态时控制直升机触舰。直升机上的装置与甲板上的鱼叉甲板锁配合动作就能完成计算机视觉自主定点着舰的过程。
Translation - English
Abstract
A binocular stereo vision computer system and its related computer vision technology for the automatic landing of an unmanned helicopter on a ship were studied by a theoretical analysis and semi-physical computer simulation. The application of the computer vision technology based on HSV uniform chromaticity scale to the control of landing of unmanned helicopters on a ship was studied. The Hough transform algorithm was used to examine linear parameters and gradient information was used in the Hough transform, which broke through the computing bottleneck of the Hough transform algorithm. The whole algorithm showed very strong resistance to noises and met the requirements for timeliness and practicability by the autonomous landing of unmanned helicopters on a ship deck.
Key words: unmanned helicopter; computer vision; image segmentation;
edge detection; Hough transform

Chinese Library Classification Number: TP391; V249.1
Document identification code: A
To allow a helicopter to autonomously land on a ship deck, an automatic landing system capable of measuring relevant information and directing the landing of an unmanned helicopter is required. The computer vision technology can be used to measure relative attitudes and positions between the camera and a target. A computer vision system can be mounted in an unmanned helicopter to control automatic landing of the unmanned helicopter. This paper proposes a complete computer vision algorithm by analyzing the operating characteristics of the process of landing an unmanned helicopter on a ship deck. Computer simulation results showed that the computer vision algorithm studied in this paper can provide relatively accurate relative positions and relative movement parameters, meeting the requirements for real-time landing of an unmanned helicopter on a ship deck. Reference [1] gave an engineering example in which the computer vision technology was applied to the control of the landing of coaxial helicopters. The results also demonstrated the feasibility of applying computer vision technology to the landing control of a helicopter on a ship deck or on the ground.
1 Structural model of the landing system
The system structure is shown in Fig. 1. When an unmanned helicopter returns and comes close to the depot ship and is about to land, the on-board computer vision system starts searching for the characteristic pattern representing the landing area. The computer vision system, based on image information retrieved from the characteristic pattern, obtains relative position, attitude and movement parameters of the helicopter and the depot ship, mainly the cycles and amplitudes of the yaws and the up and down movements of the depot ship. The helicopter is controlled to come into contact with the ship when the ship deck is level and is going down. The device in the helicopter cooperates with a harpoon deck lock on the deck to complete the process of automatic positioning and landing on the deck through the computer vision scheme.
Chinese to English: Preparation and Optical Properties of Nitro Polytrifluorostyrene
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - Chinese
摘要: 通过乳液聚合法制备聚三氟苯乙烯(PTFS),并使其与浓硫酸-浓硝酸的混酸反应,制备了一系列硝化率不同的硝化聚三氟苯乙烯(PTFS-NO2)。通过FT-IR和NMR研究了产物的化学结构及组成,通过DSC、TG研究了产物的热性能,并对PTFS-NO2薄膜的光学性能进行了表征。
结果表明:聚合物的硝化率可以通过混酸比例及反应温度进行调节。同PTFS相比,PTFS-NO2的光学透明性和双折射率均有显著提高,其双折射率可以达到0.0187。
关键词: 聚三氟苯乙烯;硝化;双折射率;表征

液晶显示(LCD)设备拥有工作电压低、微功耗、体积轻薄、无辐射、无闪烁等诸多优点,被广泛应用于移动电话、笔记本电脑、投影仪等领域。然而,由于液晶层的光学各向异性,导致了液晶显示视角狭窄的问题,为了改善其视角特性,人们相继开发出多种宽视角技术和新型显示模式,如共面转换(IPS-LCD)模式、多畴垂直取向(MVA)模式、轴对称排列微胞(ASM)模式等[1-2]。目前,IPS-LCD模式越来越成为主流的液晶示模式,被广泛应用于各种液晶显示设备。近期,研究人员观察到,聚三氟苯乙烯(PTFS)经过简单的流延成膜具有特殊的光学双折射性,其双折射率可达0.014,可应用于液晶显示屏、光开关和光控波导管等光学设备上。与传统的通过光聚合将液晶分子锁入到垂直排列中所制备的补偿膜相比,采用PTFS薄膜作为IPS-LCD的光学补偿膜其性能较优异,且具有相当大的成本优势[3],近期已经在Iphone6系列产品中获得应用。
液晶显示补偿膜(延迟膜)即是让液晶分子的双折射性质得到对称性的补偿,其在薄膜的面内或者面外具有一定的延迟量[1](R,即为双折射率(△n)与薄膜厚度(d)的乘积),所以要达到所需延迟量的补偿膜必须要有一定的厚度。虽然目前PTFS补偿膜基本能够满足IPS-LACD的光学补偿要求,但为了得到更加轻薄的LCD,只有不断提高补偿膜的双折射率。


Shin-Tson Wu[4]指出聚合物分子-*电子的跃迁是出现双折射率的主要因素。合成新的拥有更大-*共轭结构的聚合物是一个复杂而漫长的过程,而对已有的材料进行改性是一种简便而又经济的方法。本文首次使用硝化改性PTFS的方法,通过将硝基引入苯环,增加苯环上的极化率,以期得到具有更高双折射率的补偿膜材料。
本文采用混酸硝化改性的方法来进一步提高PTFS的光学双折射率。通过在不同条件下进行浓硫酸和浓硝酸的混酸进行硝化[5],制备了一系列不同硝化率的PTFS-NO2,并对材料的化学组成、热性能以及光学性能进行了研究。
1 实验部分
1.1 原料与试剂
三氟苯乙烯(TFS):化学纯,按文献[6]的方法制备,使用前减压蒸馏;过硫酸钾(KPS):分析纯,使用前精制,上海凌峰化学试剂有限公司;亚硫酸氢钠(NaHSO3):分析纯,上海凌峰化学试剂有限公司;十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS),化学纯,上海凌峰化学试剂有限公司;对硝基甲苯(PNT)、甲醇(CH3OH)、氯仿(CHCl3):分析纯,国药集团;浓硫酸( =98%、浓硝酸( =68%):上海凌峰化学试剂有限公司。
1.2 PTFS的合成
由于TFS单体反应活性低,且容易发生二聚反应,溶液和本体聚合等方法均难以得到高分子量的聚合产物[7],所以参照文献[7-8],本文使用乳液聚合的方法来制备PTFS,但聚合时仍然需要使用大量乳化剂,并经历较长的聚合时间。
将1.5 g SDS和40 mL蒸馏水加入到有磁子的250 mL四口烧瓶中。将10 g TFS投入到处于剧烈搅拌的烧瓶中,加入引发剂0.01 g KPS和0.005 g NaHSO3,聚合温度为50℃ ,反应72 h后,用甲醇沉淀,过滤并烘干,再用氯仿-甲醇溶解、沉淀2次,真空干燥24 h,得到白色同体产物8.7 g。
1.3 PTFS-NO2的合成
将1 g经乳液聚合法制备的PTFS加入到三口烧瓶中,用25 mL氯仿溶解。将8 mL浓硝酸和3 mL浓硫酸配成混合酸,配制温度低于20℃ 。室温下将混合酸滴加到三口烧瓶中,剧烈搅拌。待混合酸滴加完毕后,升温至40℃反应14 h。反应结束后先后用饱和碳酸氢钠溶液和蒸馏水反复洗涤反应液至中性,将有机相缓慢滴加到100 mL甲醇中,析出淡黄色沉淀,抽滤并用甲醇洗涤,滤饼在50℃下干燥4 h。产物经氯仿-甲醇溶解、沉淀2次,抽滤后真空干燥24 h,得到淡黄色同体产物0.9 g。
1.4 聚合物薄膜的制备
将0.1 g聚合物溶解在1 mL环戊酮中,涂膜于扁平玻璃基材上,于室温下挥发溶剂成膜,干燥后小心剥离,控制膜厚约为10μm。
1.5 测试与表征
聚合物用CDC13溶解,采用德国BRUKER公司AVANCE500核磁共振仪测定1H-NMR、19F-NMR,测试温度为25℃。
将样品溶解在二氯甲烷中,涂膜于KBr片上,采用美国热电公司Nicolet Magna-IR 550型傅里叶变换红外光谱仪测试,扫描范围为400~4000 cm-1。
采用美国Water公司高效凝胶渗透色谱仪测定分子量及其分布,THF为流动相,柱温25℃ ,以系列单分散性的聚苯乙烯为标样作标准曲线,经普适校正得到结果。
采用美国Perkin-Elmer公司Pyris 6型热重分析仪,N2气氛,温度范围25~800℃ ,升温速率10℃/min。
采用美国PE公司DSC8500型差示扫描量热仪,N2气氛,温度范围25~300℃,升降温速率10℃/min。采用美国Varian公司Cary500紫外-可见光谱仪测定薄膜的透光率(T),检测范围为300~700 nm。
采用美国Metrieon公司Model2010/M 棱镜耦合仪在633 nm 的波长下使用单层膜的模式测定薄膜的双折射率。
在测得633 nm波长处的折射率和透光率的前提下,根据文献[9]计算薄膜厚度。

2 结果与讨论
2. 1 PTFS 的结构表征
图1(a)是PTFS的1H-NMR谱图,化学位移为5~8处的峰归属于苯环中氢的吸收峰。图1(b)是 PTFS的19F-NMR谱图,化学位移为-120~-90处的峰归属于PTFS中-CF%-的氟吸收峰,-190~-160处的峰归属于PTFS中-CF-的氟吸收峰,且两者的积分面积比值为2:1。1H-NMR谱图与19F-NMR 谱图表明已成功合成出PTFS。GPC测得其数均分子量(Mn)为1.5×105,分子量分布(PDI)为2.2。
Translation - English
Abstract: Polytrifluorostyrene (PTFS) was prepared by emulsion polymerization, and then a series of nitro polytrifluorostyrenes (PTFS-NO2) with different nitrification rates were prepared using mixtures of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid as nitrating agents. The chemical structure and composition of the resultant polymers were characterized by FT-IR and NMR, and their thermal properties were explored by DSC and TG. In addition, the optical properties of the thin PTFS-NO2 film were characterized. The results showed that the nitrification rates of the polymers could be adjusted by changing the ratio of the mixed acids and reaction temperature. Comparing with PTFS, PTFS-NO2 exhibited significant increase in both light transmission and optical birefringence. The birefringence of PTFS-NO2 could reach 0.0187.
Key words: polytrifluorostyrene; nitration; birefringence; characterization
Chinese Library Classification Number: TB34 Document Code: B
Article ID: 1005-8478(2009)20-1583-03
DOI: 10.14133/j.cnki.1008-9357.2015.02.004
Liquid crystal display (LCD) equipment possesses many advantages, including low working voltage, low power consumption, light weight and small thickness, no radiation, no flicker, etc. It is widely used in mobile phones, notebook computers, projectors and other fields. However, the LCD has the problem of narrow viewing angle which is caused by the optical anisotropy of the liquid crystal layer. To improve the viewing angle characteristics of an LCD, a variety of wide viewing angle technologies and new display modes have been developed, for example, in-plane switching (IPS-LCD) mode, multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) mode and axially symmetric aligned micro-cell (ASM) mode, etc. [1-2] At present, IPS-LCD mode is becoming the mainstream LCD mode, which has been widely used in various LCD equipment. Recently, researchers have observed that polytrifluorostyrene (PTFS) has special optical birefringence after simple tap casting and the birefringence could reach 0.014. PTFS can be used in optical devices including LCD screens, optical switches and optically controlled wave-guide tubes. Comparing with the traditional compensation films prepared by locking liquid crystal molecules into vertical arrangement through photopolymerization, the optical compensation film using a thin PTFS film as IPS-LCD possesses superior performance and considerable cost efficiency [3], so it has been applied in Iphone6 [sic! “Iphone6” is likely a typo for “iPhone 6”] series products recently.
LCD compensation film (retardation film) is to allow the liquid crystal molecules to obtain symmetrical compensation in their birefringence properties, so that they can have a certain amount of in-plane and out-of-plane retardation in the thin film [1] (R is the product of birefringence (n) and thickness of the thin film). So, to achieve the required retardation, the compensation film must possess a certain thickness. Although the current PTFS compensation film can basically meet the optical compensation requirements of IPS-LCD, to get a thinner LCD, the only way to achieve the goal is to constantly improve the birefringence
of the compensation film. Shin-Tson Wu [4] pointed out that the transition of -* electrons in polymer molecules is the main factor for the occurrence of birefringence. The synthesis of a new polymer with a larger -* conjugated structure is a complex and lengthy process, while the modification of existing materials is a simple and economical method. In this study, the method of PTFS modification by nitrification was used for the first time to increase the polarizability of the benzene ring by introducing the nitro group into the benzene ring, to obtain a compensation film material with higher birefringence.
In this study, the optical birefringence of PTFS was further improved by the modification method using the mixed acid nitrification. A series of PTFS-NO2 with different nitrification rates were prepared using mixtures of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid as nitrating agents [5], and then their chemical compositions, thermal properties and optical properties were studied.
1 Experiment
1.1 Materials and Reagents
Trifluorostyrene (TFS): chemically pure. It was prepared according to the method reported in reference [6] and treated with reduced-pressure distillation before use. Potassium persulfate (KPS): analytically pure. It was obtained from Shanghai Lingfeng Chemical Reagent Limited Company and refined before use. Sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3): analytically pure, obtained from Shanghai Lingfeng Chemical Reagent Limited Company. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS): chemically pure, obtained from Shanghai Lingfeng Chemical Reagent Limited Company. P-nitrotoluene (PNT), methanol (CH3OH) and chloroform (CHCl3): analytically pure, obtained from China National Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd. Concentrated sulphuric acid (wH2SO4 = 98%) and concentrated nitric acid (wHNO3 = 68%): purchased from Shanghai Lingfeng Chemical Reagent Limited Company.
1.2 Synthesis of PTFS
Due to the low activity of TFS monomer and the easy occurrence of dimerization, it is difficult to obtain reaction products of polymers with high molecular weights by bulk polymerization, solution polymerization, etc. Therefore, referring to literature [7-8], emulsion polymerization was used to prepare PTFS in the study. However, a large amount of the emulsifier was still needed during the polymerization and the reaction time was relatively long.
SDS (1.5 g) and distilled water (40 mL) were added to a 250 mL four-mouth flask containing magneton. Then, 10 g TFS was put into the flask under intense agitation, and the initiator composed of 0.01 g KPS and 0.005 g NaHSO3 was added. The temperature of polymerization was 50C. After 72 h, the reaction system was precipitated with methanol, filtered and dried. After that, the system was dissolved and precipitated 2 times with chloroform-methanol. Finally, it was treated by vacuum drying for 24 h to obtain a white solid product in the quantity of 8.7 g.
1.3 Synthesis of PTFS-NO2
1 g of PTFS prepared by emulsion polymerization was added into a three-month flask and dissolved in 25 mL chloroform. The mixed acid was prepared by mixing 8 mL concentrated sulphuric acid with 3 mL concentrated nitric acid at a temperature below 20C. The mixed acid was dripped into the three-month flask at room temperature and stirred intensely. After the addition of the mixed acid, the reaction temperature was raised to 40C for 14 h. After the reaction, the reaction system was washed repeatedly with a saturated NaHCO3 solution and distilled water until it was neutralized, and then the organic phase was slowly dripped into 100 mL methanol to obtain a yellowish precipitate. Finally, the precipitate was treated by suction filtration and washed with methanol, and the filter cake was dried for 4 h at 50C. Then it underwent dissolution and precipitation with chloroform-methanol for 2 times, the product was dried by vacuuming for 24 h to obtain a yellow solid product in a quantity of 0.9 g.
1.4 Preparation of polymer thin film
0.1 g of the polymer was dissolved in 1 mL cyclopentanone and coated onto a flat glass substrate, and then the solvent was volatilized at room temperature to form a film. After drying, the film was carefully peeled off, and the thickness of the film was controlled to about 10 m.
1.5 Test and characterization
The polymer was dissolved with CDC13. Then 1H-NMR and 19F-NMR were tested using an AVANCE500 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer made by the Germany-based BRUKER company, under the test temperature of 25C.
The sample was dissolved in dichloromethane and coated onto a Kbr sheet. The test was performed with a Nicolet Magna-IR 550 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer made by the US-based Thermo Electron company, with a scanning range of 400~4000 cm-1.
The molecular weight and its distribution were determined by a high-performance gel permeation chromatography made by the US-based Water company using THF as the mobile phase. The column temperature was 25C. Then, a standard curve was plotted using a series of polystyrene as the standard samples and the results were obtained by universal calibration.
The Pyris 6 thermal gravimetric analyzer made by Perkin-Elmer, US was used under the atmosphere of N2. The temperature ranged was 25~800C and the temperature rise rate was 10 C/min.
The DSC8500 differential scanning calorimeter made by PE, US was used under the atmosphere of N2. The temperature ranged was 25~300C and the temperature rise rate was 10 C/min. The transmittance (T) of the thin film was determined by a Cary500 UV-vis spectrometer made by Varian, US with a detection range of 300~700 nm.
The birefringence of the thin film was measured by a 2010/M Model prism coupler made by Metrieon US using the single-layer film mode at a wavelength of 633 nm.
On the premise of obtaining the refringence and the transmittance at a wavelength of 633 nm, the thickness of the thin film was calculated according to reference [9].
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2 Results and discussion
2.1 Structural characterization of PTFS
The 1H-NMR spectrum of PTFS is shown in Fig. 1(a), in which the peaks with a chemical displacement of 5~8 belong to the absorption peaks of hydrogen in the benzene ring. The 19F-NMR spectrum of PTFS is shown in Fig. 1(b), in which the peaks with a chemical displacement of -120~-90 belong to the absorption peaks of fluorine of -CF2- in PTFS, and the peaks with a chemical displacement of -190~-160 belong to the absorption peaks of fluorine of -CF- in PTFS, and the integral area ratio of the two is 2:1. The 1H-NMR spectrum and the 19F-NMR spectrum showed that PTFS was successfully synthesized. Its number-average molecular weight (Mn) was 1.5105 measured with GPC, and its polymer dispersity index (PDI) was 2.2.
Chinese to English: Structural Modification and Biological Evaluation of Monomeric Compound from Pandanus Tectorius
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Chinese
2.3 合成方法
2.3.1 4′,5′-O-丙叉基-3′-O-咖啡酰奎宁酸(B1)的合成 参考文献的合成方法[11],于250 mL 圆底烧瓶中准确称取7.0 g(19.8 mmol)3-O-咖啡酰奎宁酸,加入60 mL 无水丙酮和40 mL 2,2-二甲氧基丙烷(DMP),搅拌反应呈悬浊液。向反应液中加入催化量(50 mg)TsOH,搅拌至反应液澄清,于室温下反应,TLC 监测反应结束后,用无水Na2CO3 中和至pH 值为5~6,抽滤,减压蒸除溶剂,残余物通过硅胶柱色谱纯化,得到咖啡酰奎宁酸衍生物B1。
2.3.2 3,4-苄氧基-4′,5′-O-丙叉基-3′-O-咖啡酰奎宁酸苄酯(B2)的合成 于100 mL 圆底烧瓶中准确称取0.1 g(0.25 mmol)化合物B1 和0.17 g(1.23mmol)无水K2CO3,加入40 mL 无水乙腈搅拌均匀,缓慢加入0.01 mL 溴苄,于氩气保护下回流反应,直到TLC 监测反应结束,减压蒸除溶剂,用50 mL 醋酸乙酯稀释,5% NaHCO3 洗至中性,有机层用无水Na2SO4 干燥。减压蒸除溶剂,残余物通过硅胶柱色谱纯化,得到咖啡酰奎宁酸衍生物B2。
2.3.3 4′,5′-O-丙叉基-3′-O-咖啡酰奎宁酸-1′-O-环内酯(B3)的合成 参考文献的合成方法[12],于25 mL圆底烧瓶中准确称取0.7 g(2 mmol)3-O-咖啡酰奎宁酸和0.35 g(6 mmol)无水丙酮,加入10 mL 无水四氢呋喃搅拌均匀,冰浴下缓慢滴加TMSOTf0.33 mL(2 mmol),滴毕于室温下反应过夜,加入冰的1 mol/L NaOH 溶液0.35 mL 淬灭反应,醋酸乙酯提取,有机层用无水Na2SO4 干燥。减压蒸除溶剂,残余物通过硅胶柱色谱纯化,得到咖啡酰奎宁酸衍生物B3。
2.3.4 4′,5′-O-丙叉基-3′-O-咖啡酰奎宁酸酰胺类化合物(B4~B8)的合成 参考文献的合成方法[11],于250 mL 圆底烧瓶中,准确称取衍生物B1 1.2 g(3 mmol)和BOP 1.5 g(3 mmol),在氩气保护的条件下,加入70 mL 无水混合溶剂THF-CH3CN(3∶2)搅拌至溶解。加入0.8 g(6 mmol)的DIEA 后,向反应液中滴加各种胺3 mmol,直到TLC 监测反应结束。减压蒸除溶剂,残余物通过硅胶柱色谱纯化,得到咖啡酰奎宁酸衍生物B4~B8。
2.3.5 3′-O-咖啡酰奎宁酸酰胺类化合物(B9~B13)的合成 参考文献的合成方法[13],于50 mL 圆底烧瓶中,分别准确称取2 mmol 衍生物B4~B8,加入TFA-DCM-H2O(9∶1∶1)的混合溶液20 mL,室温下搅拌反应0.5 h,至TLC 监测反应结束。减压蒸除溶剂,残余物通过硅胶柱色谱纯化,得到咖啡酰奎宁酸衍生物B9~B13。
2.4 MTT 法检测衍生物对MDCK 细胞毒性
用DMSO 将各衍生物溶解至50 mg/mL 的储存液。将细胞用培养液配成单个细胞悬液,接种到96孔板,37 ℃、5% CO2 环境下培养24 h。用培养液稀释衍生物,以等体积的DMSO 做溶剂对照。吸弃细胞培养液,加入含有衍生物或DMSO 的培养液,37 ℃,5% CO2 环境下培养48 h,每孔加入MTT 溶液(5 mg/mL)20 μL,继续培养4 h,小心吸弃孔内培养上清液,每孔加150 μL DMSO,37 ℃孵育10 min,使结晶物充分融解。用酶标仪在550 nm 波长处测吸光度(A)值,计算细胞存活率。
细胞存活率=A实验组/A对照组
衍生物对MDCK 细胞50%有毒浓度(50% cytotoxic concentration,CC50)用GraphPad Prism(GraphPad Software,San Diego,CA)分析计算。治疗指数(therapeutic index,TI)=CC50/EC50,每个实验均重复3 次。
2.5 衍生物体外抑制流感病毒复制作用[10]
MDCK 细胞在96 孔板中长成致密单层后接种流感病毒A/Beijing/7/2009(BJ09)(感染复数MOI=0.1),37 ℃孵育2 h,然后将细胞培养液换成含有不同浓度衍生物及2 mg/mL TPCK-treated 胰酶的培养液,继续培养24h,收集细胞上清测定病毒滴度,同时固定细胞做间接免疫荧光检测细胞内的病毒。衍生物50%有效浓度(50% effective concentration,EC50)用GraphPad Prism(GraphPad Software,San Diego,CA)软件分析计算。
3 结果与讨论
3.1 化合物实验数据
化合物B1:淡黄色粉末,收率90.1%。HR-MS m/z: 417.116 7(C19H22O9Na,计算值417.116 2 [M+Na]+)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 9.58 (1H, s,Ph-OH-3/4), 9.14 (1H, s, Ph-OH-3/4), 7.48 (1H, d, J =15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.05 (1H, d, J = 1.5 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.4, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.23 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.34~5.30 (1H,m, H-3′), 4.39~4.38 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.11~4.09 (1H, m, H-5′), 2.20~2.16 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.03~2.01(1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.92~1.89 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.83~1.79 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.40 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.25 (3H,s, H-8′/9′);13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 176.2(C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.5 (C-4), 145.6 (C-3), 145.4(C-7), 125.6 (C-1), 121.5 (C-6), 115.8 (C-10′), 114.9(C-5), 114.1 (C-8), 108.1 (C-2), 76.5 (C-4′), 73.2(C-1′), 72.7 (C-3′), 70.4 (C-5′), 36.4 (C-2′), 34.8(C-6′), 28.1 (C-8′), 26.0 (C-9′)。

化合物B2:白色粉末,收率68.5%。HR-MS m/z:687.257 3(C40H40O9Na,计算值687.257 0 [M+Na]+)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.55 (1H, d, J =15.7 Hz, H-7), 7.50 (1H, d, J = 1.7 Hz, Bn-H), 7.47~7.44 (4H, m, Bn-H), 7.40~7.36 (8H, m, Bn-H), 7.33~7.31 (3H, m, Bn-H, H-2), 7.22 (1H, dd, J = 2.0Hz, 8.3 Hz, H-6), 7.08 (1H, d, J = 8.3 Hz, H-5), 6.50(1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.37~5.33 (1H, m, H-3′), 5.19 (4H, s, Bn-CH2), 5.15~5.09 (2H, m, Bn-CH2), 4.41~4.39 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.12~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 2.24~2.20 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.10~2.07 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.99~1.96 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.88~1.84 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.26 (3H, s, H-8′/9′); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 174.2 (C-7′), 166.3 (C-9), 151.2 (C-4), 149.0 (C-3), 145.1 (C-7), 137.0 (CBn′′′-1), 136.8 (C-Bn′′′′-1), 135.2 (C-Bn′′-1), 128.8 (C-Bn′′′-3, 5), 128.7 (C-Bn′′′′-3, 5), 128.7 (C-Bn′′-3, 5, Bn′′′-4), 128.3 (C-Bn′′′′-4, Bn′′-4), 128.1 (C-Bn′′′-2, 6), 128.0 (C-1), 127.4 (C-Bn′′′′-2, 6), 127.3 (C-Bn′′-2, 6), 123.1 (C-6), 115.9 (C-10′), 114.3 (C-5), 113.9 (C-8), 109.7 (C-2), 77.4 (C-4′), 77.0 (C-1′), 74.0 (C-3′), 71.4 (C-Bn′′′-7), 71.1 (C-Bn′′′′-7), 70.7 (C-5′), 67.9 (C-Bn′′-7), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 28.1 (C-8′), 26.0 (C-9′)。
化合物B3:淡黄色粉末,收率66.7%。HR-MS m/z: 457.147 2(C22H26NaO9,计算值457.147 5 [M+Na]+)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 9.60 (1H, s, Ph-OH-3/4), 9.16 (1H, s, Ph-OH-3/4), 7.51 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.11~6.95 (2H, m, H-2, 6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 7.7 Hz, H-5), 6.25 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-8), 5.24~5.10 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.50~4.36 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.26 ~ 4.14 (1H, m, H-5′), 2.29 ~ 2.18 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.14~2.04 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.90~1.79 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.57 (6H, s, H-11′, 12′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.27 (3H, s, H-8′/9′);13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 173.7 (C-7′), 165.9 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.7 (C-3), 145.6 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.4 (C-6), 115.8 (C-10′), 114.9 (C-5), 113.7 (C-8), 110.4 (C-2), 108.2 (C-13′), 78.2 (C-4′), 75.6 (C-1′), 72.5 (C-3′), 69.4 (C-5′), 35.7 (C-6′), 34.0 (C-2′), 28.1 (C-11′), 27.9 (C-12′), 27.8 (C-8′), 25.7 (C-9′)。
化合物B4:淡黄色粉末,收率65.2%。HR-MS m/z: 484.194 6(C24H31NO8Na,计算值484.194 7 [M+Na]+)。1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.51~7.44 (2H, m, N-H, H-7), 7.06~6.98 (2H, m, H-2, 6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.24 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.43 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.38~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.42 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.10 (1H, m, H-5′), 4.04 ~ 3.95 (1H, m, H-1″), 2.26 ~ 2.21 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.98~1.94 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.81~1.77 (4H, m, H-2′/6′, H-2″, 5″), 1.68~1.55 (2H, m, H-2″, 5″), 1.53~1.44 (2H, m, H-3″, 4″), 1.44~1.35 (5H, m, H-8′/9′, 3″, 4″), 1.25 (3H, s, H-8′/9′);13C-NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 174.7 (C-7′), 166.0 (C-9), 148.5 (C-4), 145.7 (C-3), 145.4 (C-7), 125.7 (C-1), 121.5 (C-6), 115.9 (C-10′), 114.9 (C-5), 114.2 (C-8), 108.2 (C-2), 77.0 (C-4′), 74.2 (C-1′), 73.7 (C-3′), 71.1 (C-5′), 50.5 (C-1″), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 32.4 (C-2″), 32.3 (C-5″), 28.1 (C-8′), 26.0 (C-9′), 23.6 (C-3″, 4″)。
化合物B5:淡黄色粉末,收率68.9%。HR-MS m/z: 500.225 9(C25H35NO8Na,计算值500.226 0 [M+Na]+)。1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.74 (1H, t, J = 5.9 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.05(1H, d, J = 1.9 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.8, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-5), 6.24 (1H, d, J =15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.44 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.42~4.41 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.09~3.00 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.25~2.22 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.94 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.76~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.39~1.36 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.25 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.23 ~1.21 (6H, m, H-3″~5″), 0.83 (3H, t, J = 7.1 Hz, H-6″);13C-NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 174.9 (C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.5 (C-3), 145.2 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.7 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.0 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.8 (C-4′), 74.0 (C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 38.5 (C-1″), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 30.9 (C-2″), 28.9 (C-3″), 27.9 (C-4″), 25.8 (C-8′, 9′), 22.0 (C-5″), 13.8 (C-6″)。

化合物B6:淡黄色粉末,收率40.2%。HR-MS m/z: 506.238 1(C26H36NO9,计算值506.239 0 [MH]−)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.77 (1H, t, J = 5.6 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.7 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 2.0 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.9, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.24 (1H, d, J =15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.42 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.41 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.34~3.31 (4H, m, H-3″, 5″), 3.17~3.06 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.25~2.22 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.94 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.76~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.65~ 1.61 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.48~1.43 (2H, m, H-6″), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.33~1.28 (2H, m, H-7″), 1.26 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 0.86 (3H, t, J = 7.4 Hz, H-8″);13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 175.0 (C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.5 (C-3), 145.2 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.7 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.0 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.8 (C-4′), 74.0 (C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 69.7 (C-5″), 67.9 (C-3″), 37.0 (C-6′), 36.3 (C-1″), 34.4 (C-2′), 31.3(C-2″), 29.2 (C-6″), 28.0 (C-8′), 25.8 (C-9′), 18.8 (C-7″), 13.7 (C-8″)。
化合物B7:淡黄色粉末,收率38.8%。HR-MS m/z: 562.301 4(C30H44NO9,计算值562.301 6 [M-H]−)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.76 (1H, t, J = 5.8 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.7, 8.3 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.23 (1H, d, J =15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.41 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.41 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.34~3.32 (2H, m, H-3″), 3.24~3.20 (2H, m, H-5″), 3.16~3.07 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.26~2.22 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.95 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.78~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.65~1.61 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.41 (4H, s, H-8′/9′, 6″), 1.26~1.22 (11H, m, H-8′/9′, 7″~9″, 11″), 0.86~0.80 (6H, m, H-10″, 12″);13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 175.0 (C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.6 (C-3), 145.3 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.8 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.1 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.9 (C-4′), 74.0 (C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 68.2 (C-3″), 67.1 (C-5″), 39.0 (C-6″), 37.0 (C-6′), 36.2 (C-1″), 34.4 (C-2′), 30.0 (C-7″), 29.2 (C-8″), 28.5 (C-2″), 28.0 (C-8′), 25.8 (C-9′), 23.4 (C-11″), 22.5 (C-9″), 13.9 (C-10″), 10.9 (C-12″)。
化合物B8:淡黄色粉末,收率33.3%。HR-MS m/z: 642.400 1(C37H56NO8,计算值642.400 6 [M-H]−)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.71 (1H, t, J = 5.9 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 2.0 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.9, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-5), 6.23 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.42 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.40 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.10~2.99 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.25~2.21 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.94 (3H, m, H-2′/6′, 9″, 10″), 1.76~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.39~1.37 (2H, m, H-8″), 1.27~1.21 (29H, m, H-8′/9′, 2″~7″, 10″~17″), 0.84 (3H, t, J = 6.8 Hz, H-18″);13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 175.0 (C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.5 (C-3), 145.2 (C-7), 129.6 (C-9″, 10″), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.7 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.0 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.8 (C-4′), 74.0(C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 38.4 (C-1″), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 31.2 (C-2″), 29.1 (C-8″), 29.1 (C-11″), 29.0 (C-7″), 28.8 (C-12″), 28.7 (C-6″), 28.6 (C-13″), 28.5 (C-5″), 28.5 (C-4″), 27.9 (C-8′), 26.6 (C-14″), 26.5 (C-16″), 26.2 (C-15″), 25.8 (C-9′), 23.4 (C-11″), 22.0 (C-17″), 13.9 (C-18″)。
化合物B9:淡黄色粉末,收率78.0%。HR-MS m/z: 444.164 0(C21H27NO8Na,计算值444.163 4 [M+Na]+)。1H-NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.05 (1H, s, H-2), 6.99~6.90 (1H, m, H-6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-8), 5.45~5.33 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.28~ 4.19 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.75~3.67 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.54~3.42 (1H, m, H-1″), 2.10~1.92 (6H, m, H-2′, 6′, 2″), 1.78~1.66 (2H, m, H-3″), 1.78~1.66 (2H, m, H-4″), 1.52~1.42 (2H, m, H-5″);13C-NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.2 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.2 (C-2), 77.7 (C-4′), 74.3 (C-1′), 72.6 (C-3′), 71.9 (C-5′), 52.2 (C-1″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.6 (C-2′), 33.5 (C-2″, 5″), 24.8 (C-3″, 4″)。

化合物B10:淡黄色粉末,收率82.5%。HR-MS m/z: 460.194 8(C22H31NO8Na,计算值460.194 7 [M+Na]+)。1H-NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.58 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.09~7.01 (1H, m, H-2), 6.98~6.91 (1H, m, H-6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.0 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.43~5.37 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.28~4.19 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.73~3.70 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.21~3.17 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.11~1.91 (4H, m, H-2′, 6′), 1.55~1.45 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.35~1.26 (6H, m, H-3″~5″), 0.92~0.86 (3H, m, H-6″);13C-NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.6 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 123.0 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.3 (C-8), 115.1 (C-2), 77.8 (C-4′), 74.3 (C-1′), 72.6 (C-3′), 72.0 (C-5′), 40.2 (C-1″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 32.6 (C-2″), 30.4 (C-3″), 27.6 (C-4″), 23.6 (C-5″), 14.3 (C-6″)。
化合物B11:淡黄色粉末,收率71.5%。HR-MS m/z: 466.207 0(C23H32NO9,计算值466.207 7 [M-H]−)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-2), 6.95 (1H, dd, J = 1.8, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.42~5.38 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.24~4.23 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.72~3.70 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.48~3.46 (2H, m, H-3″), 3.43~3.41 (2H, m, H-5″), 3.30~3.28 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.12~2.07 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.04~2.00 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.95~1.92 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.78~1.74 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.57~1.52 (2H, m, H-6″), 1.40~1.34 (2H, m, H-7″), 0.92 (3H, t, J = 7.4 Hz, H-8″);13C-NMR (150 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.2 (C-2), 77.7 (C-1′), 74.0 (C-4′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 69.7 (C-5″), 67.9 (C-3″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 38.4 (C-1″), 32.9 (C-6″), 30.2 (C-2″), 20.4(C-7″), 14.2 (C-8″)。
化合物B12:淡黄色粉末,收率60.6%。HR-MS m/z: 522.269 5(C27H40NO9,计算值522.270 3 [M-H]−)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.9 Hz, H-2), 6.94 (1H, dd, J = 1.9, 8.1 Hz, H-6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-8), 5.42~5.38 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.23 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.72~3.69 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.47~3.45 (2H, m, H-1″), 3.31~3.28 (4H, m, H-3″, 5″), 2.13~2.07 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.04~2.00 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.95~1.92 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.78~1.74 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.50~1.46 (1H, m, H-6″), 1.33~1.28 (8H, m, H-7″~9″, 11″), 0.91~0.86 (6H, m, H-10″, 12″);13C-NMR (150 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6(C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.2 (C-2), 77.8 (C-1′), 75.0 (C-5″), 74.4 (C-4′), 72.7 (C-3′), 71.9 (C-5′), 70.4 (C-3″), 41.0 (C-6″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 38.4 (C-1″), 31.7 (C-7″), 30.3 (C-8″), 30.2 (C-2″), 24.9 (C-9″), 24.1 (C-11″), 14.4 (C-10″), 11.5 (C-12″)。
化合物B13:淡黄色粉末,收率67.3%。HR-MS m/z: 602.368 3(C34H52NO8,计算值602.369 3 [M-H]−)。1H-NMR (600 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 16.0 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-2), 6.94 (1H, dd, J = 1.7, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.43~5.38 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.24~4.23 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.73~3.71 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.23~3.15 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.13~2.08 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.05~1.92 (3H, m, H-2′/6′, 9″), 1.89~1.74 (1H, m, H-10″), 1.65~1.50 (4H, m, H-8″, 11″), 1.30~1.26 (24H, m, H-2″~7″, 12″~17″), 0.90~0.88 (3H, m, H-18″);13C-NMR (150 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.7 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.4 (C-9″), 115.2 (C-2), 115.2 (C-10″), 77.7 (C-1′), 74.4 (C-4′), 72.6 (C-3′), 71.9 (C-5′), 40.2 (C-1″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 30.7 (C-2″), 30.6 (C-8″), 30.5 (C-11″), 30.4 (C-3″), 30.4 (C-7″), 30.2 (C-12″), 30.2 (C-16″), 30.1 (C-15″), 30.0 (C-14″), 27.8 (C-13″), 27.8 (C-4″), 27.7 (C-6″), 26.0 (C-5″), 23.7 (C-17″), 14.4 (C-18″)。
3.2 细胞学实验结果
首先用MTT 法检测了各衍生物对MDCK 细胞的毒性,然后在无毒浓度范围内通过细胞学实验考察了衍生物B1~B13 对流感病毒体外感染MDCK细胞的抑制作用,具体结果见表1。衍生物B4、B6和B10 抑制病毒复制的EC50 分别为2.34、1.06 和19.88 μg/mL,但是B4 的细胞毒性更弱(CC50 为63.77μg/mL),治疗指数更高(TI=27.25),因此B4 具有更好的抗流感病毒活性,具有深入研究价值。
Translation - English
2.3 Synthetic method
2.3.1 Synthesis of 4′,5′-O-propylidene-3′-O-caffeoylquinic acid (B1)
Referring to the synthetic method in the reference [11], 7.0 g (19.8 mmol) 3′-O-caffeoylquinic acid was accurately weighed and added into a 250 mL round-bottom flask. Then, 60 mL anhydrous acetone and 40 mL 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) were added. The reaction solution was stirred to form a suspension. Next, to the reaction solution was added TsOH (50 mg) to the catalytic amount, and the mixture was stirred to become clear and transparent and reacted at room temperature. The reaction process was monitored by TLC. After the reaction completed, the solution was neutralized with anhydrous Na2CO3 to have a pH value of 5~6. Finally, the solution was treated with suction filtration and reduced pressure distillation to remove the solvent. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography and the caffeoylquinic acid derivative B1 was obtained.
2.3.2 Synthesis of 3,4-benzyloxy-4′,5′-O-propylidene 3′-O-caffeoylquinic acid (B2)

0.1 g of the compound B1 (0.25 mmol) and 0. 17 g of anhydrous K2CO3 (1.23 mmol) were accurately weighed and added into a 100 mL round-bottom flask. 40 mL of anhydrous acetonitrile was added and mixed well by stirring, and then 0.01 mL of benzyl bromide was added slowly. The reflux reaction was performed under the protection of argon until completion of the reaction as detected by TLC. Next, the reaction solution was treated with reduced pressure distillation to remove the solvent, and then diluted with 50 mL of acetic ether and washed with 5% NaHCO3 until it was neutral. Finally, the organic layer was dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and treated with reduced pressure distillation to remove the solvent. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography and the caffeoylquinic acid derivative B2 was obtained.
2.3.3 Synthesis of 4′,5′-O-propylidene-3′-O- caffeoylquinic acid-1′-O-ring lactone

Referring to the synthetic method in the reference [12], 0.7 g (2 mmol) 3′-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 0.35 g (6 mmol) anhydrous acetone were accurately weighed and added into a 25 mL round-bottom flask. 10 mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran was added with stirring to mix well, and then 0.33 mL (2 mmol) TMSOTf was dripped in slowly. The reaction was performed overnight at room temperature, and then 1 mol/L iced NaOH solution was added into the reaction solution for quenching reaction. The extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate. Finally, the organic layer was dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and treated with reduced pressure distillation to remove the solvent. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography and the caffeoylquinic acid derivative B3 was obtained.
2.3.4 Synthesis of 4′,5′-O-propylidene-3′-O-caffeoylquinic acid amide compounds (B4~B8)

Referring to the synthetic method in the reference [11], 1.2 g (3 mmol) derivative B1 and 1.5 g (3 mmol) BOP were accurately weighed and added into a 250 mL round-bottom flask. Under the protection of argon, 70 mL of anhydrous mixed solvent THF-CH3CN (3:2) was added with stirring until dissolved. After the addition of 0.8 g (6 mmol) DIEA, various amine (3 mmol) was dripped into the reaction solution until completion of the reaction as detected by TLC. Finally, the reaction solution was treated with reduced pressure distillation to remove the solvent. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography and the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives B4~B8 were obtained.
2.3.5 Synthesis of 3′-O-caffeoylquinic acid amide compounds (B9~B13)
Referring to the synthetic method in the reference [13], 2 mmol derivatives B4~B8 were accurately weighed and added into a 50 mL round-bottom flask. 20 mL of mixed solution TFA-DCM-H2O (9:1:1) was added, and the reaction solution was stirred for 0.5 h until completion of the reaction as detected by TLC. Finally, the solvent was removed by reduced pressure distillation. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography and the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives B9~B13 were obtained.
2.4 Detection of MDCK cytotoxicity by MTT assay
The derivatives were dissolved to prepare the storage solutions with a concentration of 50 mg/mL by DMSO, respectively. The single cell suspension was prepared with a medium solution and inoculated into 96-well plate. The cells were cultured at 37C in the environment of 5% CO2 for 24 h. The derivatives were diluted with the medium solution, respectively, and an equal volume of DMSO was used as the solvent control. After the cell medium solution was removed by suction, the medium solution containing the derivatives or DMSO was added for cell culture for 48 h at 37C in the environment of 5% CO2. Then 20 μL MTT solution (5 mg/mL) was added into each well to culture again for 4 h. Finally, the supernatant in each well was carefully sucked and removed, and 150 μL DMSO was added to each well to incubate at 37C for 10 min. to fully dissolve the crystal. The absorbance (A) value was measured at the wavelength of 550 nm with a microplate reader to calculate the cell survival rate.
Cell survival rate = A test group / A control group
GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA) was used to calculate and analyze the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values of the derivatives for MDCK cells. Therapeutic index (TI) = CC50 / EC50. Each experiment was repeated 3 times.
2.5 Inhibitory effect of the derivatives on the replication of influenza virus [10]

After growing into a dense monolayer in the 96-well plate, the MDCK cells were inoculated with the influenza virus A/Beijing/7/2009 (BJ09) (multiplicity of infection MOI = 0.1) to incubate at 37C for 2 h. Then, the medium solution was replaced with media containing different concentrations of the derivatives and 2 mg/mL TPCK-treated trypsin. After the cell was cultured for 24 h, the supernatant was collected to determine the titer of the virus. At the same time, the cells were fixed to detect the intracellular virus by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of the derivatives were calculated and analyzed by GraphPad Prism software (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA).
3 Results and discussion
3.1 Experimental data of the compounds
Compound B1: yellowish powder, yield 90.1%. HR-MS m/z: 417.1167 (C19H22O9Na, the calculated value 417.116 2 [M + Na] +). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 9.58 (1H, s, Ph-OH-3/4), 9.14 (1H, s, Ph-OH-3/4), 7.48 (1H,
/4
d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.05 (1H, d, J = 1.5 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.4, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.23 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.34~5.30 (1H,m, H-3′), 4.39~4.38 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.11~4.09 (1H, m, H-5′), 2.20~2.16 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.03~2.01(1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.92~1.89 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.83~1.79 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.40 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.25 (3H,s, H-8′/9′); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 176.2(C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.5 (C-4), 145.6 (C-3), 145.4(C-7), 125.6 (C-1), 121.5 (C-6), 115.8 (C-10′), 114.9(C-5), 114.1 (C-8), 108.1 (C-2), 76.5 (C-4′), 73.2(C-1′), 72.7 (C-3′), 70.4 (C-5′), 36.4 (C-2′), 34.8(C-6′), 28.1 (C-8′), 26.0 (C-9′).
Compound B2: white powder, yield 68.5%. HR-MS m/z:687.2573 (C40H40O9Na, the calculated value 687.257 0 [M + Na] +). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.55 (1H, d, J = 15.7 Hz, H-7), 7.50 (1H, d, J = 1.7 Hz, Bn-H), 7.47~7.44 (4H, m, Bn-H), 7.40~7.36 (8H, m, Bn-H), 7.33~7.31 (3H, m, Bn-H, H-2), 7.22 (1H, dd, J = 2.0Hz, 8.3 Hz, H-6), 7.08 (1H, d, J = 8.3 Hz, H-5), 6.50(1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.37~5.33 (1H, m, H-3′), 5.19 (4H, s, Bn-CH2), 5.15~5.09 (2H, m, Bn-CH2), 4.41~4.39 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.12~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 2.24~2.20 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.10~2.07 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.99~1.96 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.88~1.84 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.26 (3H, s, H-8′/9′); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 174.2 (C-7′), 166.3 (C-9), 151.2 (C-4), 149.0 (C-3), 145.1 (C-7), 137.0 (CBn′′′-1), 136.8 (C-Bn′′′′-1), 135.2 (C-Bn′′-1), 128.8 (C-Bn′′′-3, 5), 128.7 (C-Bn′′′′-3, 5), 128.7 (C-Bn′′-3, 5, Bn′′′-4), 128.3 (C-Bn′′′′-4, Bn′′-4), 128.1 (C-Bn′′′-2, 6), 128.0 (C-1), 127.4 (C-Bn′′′′-2, 6), 127.3 (C-Bn′′-2, 6), 123.1 (C-6), 115.9 (C-10′), 114.3 (C-5), 113.9 (C-8), 109.7 (C-2), 77.4 (C-4′), 77.0 (C-1′), 74.0 (C-3′), 71.4 (C-Bn′′′-7), 71.1 (C-Bn′′′′-7), 70.7 (C-5′), 67.9 (C-Bn′′-7), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 28.1 (C-8′), 26.0 (C-9′).
Compound B3: yellowish powder, yield 66.7%. HR-MS m/z: 457.1472 (C22H26NaO9, the calculated value 457.147 5 [M + Na] +). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 9.60 (1H, s, Ph-OH-3/4), 9.16 (1H, s, Ph-OH-3/4), 7.51 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.11~6.95 (2H, m, H-2, 6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 7.7 Hz, H-5), 6.25 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-8), 5.24~5.10 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.50~4.36 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.26 ~ 4.14 (1H, m, H-5′), 2.29 ~ 2.18 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.14~2.04 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.90~1.79 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.57 (6H, s, H-11′, 12′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.27 (3H, s, H-8′/9′); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 173.7 (C-7′), 165.9 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.7 (C-3), 145.6 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.4 (C-6), 115.8 (C-10′), 114.9 (C-5), 113.7 (C-8), 110.4 (C-2), 108.2 (C-13′), 78.2 (C-4′), 75.6 (C-1′), 72.5 (C-3′), 69.4 (C-5′), 35.7 (C-6′), 34.0 (C-2′), 28.1 (C-11′), 27.9 (C-12′), 27.8 (C-8′), 25.7 (C-9′).
Compound B4: yellowish powder, yield 65.2%. HR-MS m/z: 484.1946 (C24H31NO8Na, the calculated value 484.194 7 [M + Na] +). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.51~7.44 (2H, m, N-H, H-7), 7.06~6.98 (2H, m, H-2, 6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.24 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.43 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.38~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.42 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.10 (1H, m, H-5′), 4.04 ~ 3.95 (1H, m, H-1″), 2.26 ~ 2.21 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.98~1.94 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.81~1.77 (4H, m, H-2′/6′, H-2″, 5″), 1.68~1.55 (2H, m, H-2″, 5″), 1.53~1.44 (2H, m, H-3″, 4″), 1.44~1.35 (5H, m, H-8′/9′, 3″, 4″), 1.25 (3H, s, H-8′/9′); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 174.7 (C-7′), 166.0 (C-9), 148.5 (C-4), 145.7 (C-3), 145.4 (C-7), 125.7 (C-1), 121.5 (C-6), 115.9 (C-10′), 114.9 (C-5), 114.2 (C-8), 108.2 (C-2), 77.0 (C-4′), 74.2 (C-1′), 73.7 (C-3′), 71.1 (C-5′), 50.5 (C-1″), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 32.4 (C-2″), 32.3 (C-5″), 28.1 (C-8′), 26.0 (C-9′), 23.6 (C-3″, 4″).
Compound B5: yellowish powder, yield 68.9%. HR-MS m/z: 500.2259 (C25H35NO8Na, the calculated value 500.226 0 [M + Na] +). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.74 (1H, t, J = 5.9 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.05(1H, d, J = 1.9 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.8, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-5), 6.24 (1H, d, J =15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.44 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.42~4.41 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.09~3.00 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.25~2.22 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.94 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.76~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.39~1.36 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.25 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.23 ~1.21 (6H, m, H-3″~5″), 0.83 (3H, t, J = 7.1 Hz, H-6″); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 174.9 (C-7′),
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165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.5 (C-3), 145.2 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.7 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.0 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.8 (C-4′), 74.0 (C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 38.5 (C-1″), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 30.9 (C-2″), 28.9 (C-3″), 27.9 (C-4″), 25.8 (C-8′, 9′), 22.0 (C-5″), 13.8 (C-6″).
Compound B6: yellowish powder, yield 40.2%. HR-MS m/z: 506.2381 (C26H36NO9, the calculated value 506.239 0 [MH]−). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.77 (1H, t, J = 5.6 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.7 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 2.0 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.9, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.24 (1H, d, J =15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.42 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.41 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.34~3.31 (4H, m, H-3″, 5″), 3.17~3.06 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.25~2.22 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.94 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.76~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.65~1.61 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.48~1.43 (2H, m, H-6″), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.33~1.28 (2H, m, H-7″), 1.26 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 0.86 (3H, t, J = 7.4 Hz, H-8″); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 175.0 (C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.5 (C-3), 145.2 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.7 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.0 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.8 (C-4′), 74.0 (C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 69.7 (C-5″), 67.9 (C-3″), 37.0 (C-6′), 36.3 (C-1″), 34.4 (C-2′), 31.3(C-2″), 29.2 (C-6″), 28.0 (C-8′), 25.8 (C-9′), 18.8 (C-7″), 13.7 (C-8″).
Compound B7: yellowish powder, yield 38.8%. HR-MS m/z: 562.3014 (C30H44NO9, the calculated value 562.301 6 [M-H] −). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.76 (1H, t, J = 5.8 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.7, 8.3 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.23 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.41 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.41 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.34~3.32 (2H, m, H-3″), 3.24~3.20 (2H, m, H-5″), 3.16~3.07 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.26~2.22 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.95 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.78~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.65~1.61 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.41 (4H, s, H-8′/9′, 6″), 1.26~1.22 (11H, m, H-8′/9′, 7″~9″, 11″), 0.86~0.80 (6H, m, H-10″, 12″); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 175.0 (C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.6 (C-3), 145.3 (C-7), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.8 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.1 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.9 (C-4′), 74.0 (C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 68.2 (C-3″), 67.1 (C-5″), 39.0 (C-6″), 37.0 (C-6′), 36.2 (C-1″), 34.4 (C-2′), 30.0 (C-7″), 29.2 (C-8″), 28.5 (C-2″), 28.0 (C-8′), 25.8 (C-9′), 23.4 (C-11″), 22.5 (C-9″), 13.9 (C-10″), 10.9 (C-12″).
Compound B8: yellowish powder, yield 33.3%. HR-MS m/z: 642.4001 (C37H56NO8, the calculated value 642.400 6 [M-H] −). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 7.71 (1H, t, J = 5.9 Hz, N-H), 7.47 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 2.0 Hz, H-2), 7.00 (1H, dd, J = 1.9, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.76 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-5), 6.23 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.42 (1H, s, H-1′), 5.36~5.32 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.43~4.40 (1H, m, H-4′), 4.13~4.11 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.10~2.99 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.25~2.21 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.97~1.94 (3H, m, H-2′/6′, 9″, 10″), 1.76~1.75 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.41 (3H, s, H-8′/9′), 1.39~1.37 (2H, m, H-8″), 1.27~1.21 (29H, m, H-8′/9′, 2″~7″, 10″~17″), 0.84 (3H, t, J = 6.8 Hz, H-18″); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 175.0 (C-7′), 165.8 (C-9), 148.4 (C-4), 145.5 (C-3), 145.2 (C-7), 129.6 (C-9″, 10″), 125.5 (C-1), 121.3 (C-6), 115.7 (C-10′), 114.8 (C-5), 114.0 (C-8), 108.0 (C-2), 76.8 (C-4′), 74.0(C-1′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 38.4 (C-1″), 37.0 (C-6′), 34.5 (C-2′), 31.2 (C-2″), 29.1 (C-8″), 29.1 (C-11″), 29.0 (C-7″), 28.8 (C-12″), 28.7 (C-6″), 28.6 (C-13″), 28.5 (C-5″), 28.5 (C-4″), 27.9 (C-8′), 26.6 (C-14″), 26.5 (C-16″), 26.2 (C-15″), 25.8 (C-9′), 23.4 (C-11″), 22.0 (C-17″), 13.9 (C-18″).
Compound B9: yellowish powder, yield 78.0%. HR-MS m/z: 444.1640 (C21H27NO8Na, the calculated value 444.163 4 [M + Na] +). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.05 (1H, s, H-2), 6.99~6.90 (1H, m, H-6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-8), 5.45~5.33 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.28~ 4.19 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.75~3.67 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.54~3.42 (1H, m, H-1″), 2.10~1.92 (6H, m, H-2′, 6′, 2″), 1.78~1.66 (2H, m, H-3″), 1.78~1.66 (2H, m, H-4″), 1.52~1.42 (2H, m, H-5″); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.2 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.2 (C-2), 77.7 (C-4′), 74.3 (C-1′), 72.6 (C-3′), 71.9 (C-5′), 52.2 (C-1″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.6 (C-2′), 33.5 (C-2″, 5″), 24.8 (C-3″, 4″).
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Compound B10: yellowish powder, yield 82.5%. HR-MS m/z: 460.1948 (C22H31NO8Na, the calculated value 460.194 7 [M + Na] +). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.58 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-7), 7.09~7.01 (1H, m, H-2), 6.98~6.91 (1H, m, H-6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.0 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.43~5.37 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.28~4.19 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.73~3.70 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.21~3.17 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.11~1.91 (4H, m, H-2′, 6′), 1.55~1.45 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.35~1.26 (6H, m, H-3″~5″), 0.92~0.86 (3H, m, H-6″); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.6 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 123.0 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.3 (C-8), 115.1 (C-2), 77.8 (C-4′), 74.3 (C-1′), 72.6 (C-3′), 72.0 (C-5′), 40.2 (C-1″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 32.6 (C-2″), 30.4 (C-3″), 27.6 (C-4″), 23.6 (C-5″), 14.3 (C-6″).
Compound B11: yellowish powder, yield 71.5%. HR-MS m/z: 466.2070 (C23H32NO9, the calculated value 466.207 7 [M-H] −). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-2), 6.95 (1H, dd, J = 1.8, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.78 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.42~5.38 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.24~4.23 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.72~3.70 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.48~3.46 (2H, m, H-3″), 3.43~3.41 (2H, m, H-5″), 3.30~3.28 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.12~2.07 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.04~2.00 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.95~1.92 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.78~1.74 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.57~1.52 (2H, m, H-6″), 1.40~1.34 (2H, m, H-7″), 0.92 (3H, t, J = 7.4 Hz, H-8″); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.2 (C-2), 77.7 (C-1′), 74.0 (C-4′), 73.5 (C-3′), 70.8 (C-5′), 69.7 (C-5″), 67.9 (C-3″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 38.4 (C-1″), 32.9 (C-6″), 30.2 (C-2″), 20.4(C-7″), 14.2 (C-8″).
Compound B12: yellowish powder, yield 60.6%. HR-MS m/z: 522.2695 (C27H40NO9, the calculated value 522.270 3 [M-H] −). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.9 Hz, H-2), 6.94 (1H, dd, J = 1.9, 8.1 Hz, H-6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 8.1 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.8 Hz, H-8), 5.42~5.38 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.23 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.72~3.69 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.47~3.45 (2H, m, H-1″), 3.31~3.28 (4H, m, H-3″, 5″), 2.13~2.07 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.04~2.00 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.95~1.92 (1H, m, H-2′/6′), 1.78~1.74 (2H, m, H-2″), 1.50~1.46 (1H, m, H-6″), 1.33~1.28 (8H, m, H-7″~9″, 11″), 0.91~0.86 (6H, m, H-10″, 12″); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6(C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.8 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.2 (C-2), 77.8 (C-1′), 75.0 (C-5″), 74.4 (C-4′), 72.7 (C-3′), 71.9 (C-5′), 70.4 (C-3″), 41.0 (C-6″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 38.4 (C-1″), 31.7 (C-7″), 30.3 (C-8″), 30.2 (C-2″), 24.9 (C-9″), 24.1 (C-11″), 14.4 (C-10″), 11.5 (C-12″).
Compound B13: yellowish powder, yield 67.3%. HR-MS m/z: 602.3683 (C34H52NO8, the calculated value 602.369 3 [M-H] −). 1H-NMR (600 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 7.57 (1H, d, J = 16.0 Hz, H-7), 7.04 (1H, d, J = 1.8 Hz, H-2), 6.94 (1H, dd, J = 1.7, 8.2 Hz, H-6), 6.77 (1H, d, J = 8.2 Hz, H-5), 6.29 (1H, d, J = 15.9 Hz, H-8), 5.43~5.38 (1H, m, H-3′), 4.24~4.23 (1H, m, H-4′), 3.73~3.71 (1H, m, H-5′), 3.23~3.15 (2H, m, H-1″), 2.13~2.08 (2H, m, H-2′/6′), 2.05~1.92 (3H, m, H-2′/6′, 9″), 1.89~1.74 (1H, m, H-10″), 1.65~1.50 (4H, m, H-8″, 11″), 1.30~1.26 (24H, m, H-2″~7″, 12″~17″), 0.90~0.88 (3H, m, H-18″); 13C-NMR (150 MHz, CD3OD) δ: 176.6 (C-7′), 169.0 (C-9), 149.5 (C-4), 147.0 (C-3), 146.7 (C-7), 127.8 (C-1), 122.9 (C-6), 116.5 (C-5), 115.4 (C-8), 115.4 (C-9″), 115.2 (C-2), 115.2 (C-10″), 77.7 (C-1′), 74.4 (C-4′), 72.6 (C-3′), 71.9 (C-5′), 40.2 (C-1″), 40.0 (C-6′), 38.7 (C-2′), 30.7 (C-2″), 30.6 (C-8″), 30.5 (C-11″), 30.4 (C-3″), 30.4 (C-7″), 30.2 (C-12″), 30.2 (C-16″), 30.1 (C-15″), 30.0 (C-14″), 27.8 (C-13″), 27.8 (C-4″), 27.7 (C-6″), 26.0 (C-5″), 23.7 (C-17″), 14.4 (C-18″).

3.2 Results of cytological experiments
Firstly, the toxicity of these derivatives to MDCK cells was detected by MTT assay, and then the inhibitory effect of the derivatives B1~B13 in the range of non-toxic concentrations on in vitro infection of MDCK cells by influenza virus was investigated by cytological experiments. The specific results are shown in Table 1. The EC50 value of the derivatives B4, B6 and B10 for virus replication inhibition was 2.34, 1.06 and 19.88 g/mL, respectively, while the derivative B4 exhibited lower cytotoxicity (CC50 = 63.77 g/mL) and higher therapeutic index (TI = 27.25). Therefore, the derivative B4 possesses better anti-influenza virus activity and is worth a further study.

Japanese to English: Sentence Segmentation for Simultaneous Speech Translation by Maximizing Translation Accuracy
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Linguistics
Source text - Japanese
1はじめに
音声翻訳システムは長年の研究により精度が向上しており, 近年様々な分野へと応用の足を伸ばしている. 同時性を保ちながら目的言語へと翻訳する同時音声翻訳はその応用分野の一つである.しかし, 文を翻訳単 位とする従来の音声翻訳[1] では, 文の終了まで翻訳が開始されないため, 同時性が大きく損なわれる.このため, 機械翻訳の精度を極力維持しつつ入力文を短い単位に分割する文分割法が研究されている[2, 3, 4, 5]. しかし, 従来法では分割位置が主にヒューリスティクスに基づいており, 翻訳精度に及ぼす影響は直接考慮されていない.また同時性に影響を与える分割単位の平均単語数についても, 従来法では明示的な制御ができない.
そこで本研究では, 従来法では考慮されていない文分割時の翻訳精度の変化を用いて分割位置を自動的に決定するアルゴリズムを提案する.具体的には, 分割後の翻訳精度を最大化する分割位置を貪欲法に基づいて選択する手法を3種類定義する.またアルゴリズムのパラメータとして分割単位の平均単語数を導入し, 従来法では困難であった平均単語数の明示的な制御を可能とする.
本手法の有効性を検証するために, 英日翻訳タスクにおける実験的評価を行った.その結果, 従来法と比べてBLEU では同等程度, RIBES では高い精度が得られた.単語数の制御については, 指定した単語数からの誤差は 1 単語未満となった.
2同時音声翻訳における文分割
音声翻訳では, 入力話者の発話を認識し, 翻訳する. 対話などの翻訳の場合は発話が比較的短く, 発話が終了した時点で翻訳を開始すればよい.しかし講演などでは明らかな発話区切りがない場合が多く, 自動的に翻訳を開始するタイミングを判定する必要がある.翻訳の単位として, テキストの翻訳と同じように文を使用するのが自然である [1] が, 文の終了までに長い時間を要するため, 訳出の同時性が損なわれる.このため, 図1に示すように文末以外の適当な位置で文を区切って訳出する必要があり, これを行うための文分割法が研究されている.
同時音声翻訳のための文分割法は近年になっていくつか提案されている.Bangalore らは音声認識の無音区間を用いた手法を提案している [2].Fujita らは単語アラインメントがその位置で交差するかどうかの確率(右確率)を用いて分割を行う手法を提案しており, 無音区間による手法と比べて精度を維持したまま訳出速度の向上を実現している[3].Rangarajan らによる報告では英西翻訳タスクに対して複数の手法が評価されており, コンマ, ピリオドの位置をSVM で予測する手法と接続詞で分割する手法が最も高い精度であると述べられている [4].清水らによる研究では, 英日翻訳の同時通訳者の訳出タイミングを分析し, 英語の品詞が特定の組み合わせで現れる場合に分割位置とする手法を提案しており, コンマ, ピリオドの予測による手法と同等程度の精度を実現している [5].
ここに挙げたいずれの手法も音韻的, 言語的な特徴のみを使用して分割位置を決定しており, 分割位置が機械翻訳の精度にどのような影響を与えるかは直接考慮されていない.また, 文分割で生成される単語列の平均単語数は訳出時間に影響を与えるが, 同じくここに挙げたいずれの手法も, 平均単語数を直接制御できる手法ではない 1.次節以降では, 分割位置による翻訳精度の変化, 及び分割単位の平均単語数を指標に用いる文分割法を提案する.
3翻訳精度の最大化による文分割
提案法では学習済みの機械翻訳システムの出力を用いて文分割モデルの学習を行う.以下, 学習に用いる対訳データの原言語側の文をF = {fj |1 ≤ j ≤ N}, 目的言語側の参照文をε = {ej |1 ≤ j ≤ N}と表す. N は対訳文の数である.本来の音声翻訳では文末が明示されないため推定する必要があるが, ここでは文末推定は事前に行われているものとする.また, 機械翻訳システムを原言語文 f の関数 MT (f) として表す.

Translation - English
1. Introduction
Speech translation systems have been improved in accuracy by many years of research, and they have been applied to various fields in recent years. Simultaneous speech translation, which simultaneously translates into the target language, is one of its application fields. However, in conventional speech translation [1] with a sentence as a translation unit, because the translation is not started until the end of the sentence, the concurrency is largely lost. For this reason, a sentence segmentation method has been studied in which input sentences are divided into short units while maintaining the accuracy of machine translation as much as possible [2, 3, 4, 5]. However, in the conventional method, the segmentation positions are mainly based on heuristics, and their influence on translation accuracy are not directly considered. The conventional method also does not allow explicit control over the average number of words in a segmentation unit that affects simultaneousness.
Therefore, in this research, we propose an algorithm that automatically determines the segmentation positions according to the change of translation accuracy at the time of sentence segmentation, which has not been considered in the conventional method. Specifically, we define 3 methods for selecting segmentation positions based on the Greedy algorithm to maximize the translation accuracy after the segmentation. Moreover, the average number of words of segmentation units is introduced as a parameter of the algorithm, and an explicit control of the average number of words which has been difficult in the conventional algorithm is enabled.
In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, we made an experimental evaluation on English-Japanese translation tasks. As a result, compared to the conventional algorithm, this algorithm delivered comparable accuracy in the evaluation on the BLEU scale and higher accuracy in the evaluation on the RIBES scale. The control of the number of words had an error of 1 word or less from the specified number of words.
2 Sentence segmentation in simultaneous speech translation
In speech translation, the speech utterance of the speaker is recognized and translated. In the translation of relatively short speech utterance such as dialogues, the translation could be started after the speech utterance is finished. However, it is often that there are no clear speech breaks in lectures or the like, and it is necessary to automatically determine when to start translating. Although it is natural to use sentences as translation units in speech translation, same as in text translation [1], sometimes a sentence is long, and it may take a long time to finish it, so the simultaneousness of translation is lost. For this reason, as shown in Fig. 1, it is necessary to translate sentences by dividing them at appropriate positions other than at the end of the sentences, and a sentence segmentation method for doing this has been studied.
Several sentence segmentation methods for simultaneous speech translation have been proposed in recent years. Bangalore et al. have proposed a method using silence intervals for speech recognition [2]. Fujita et al. have proposed a method to perform segmentation using the probability (right probability) of whether word alignment intersects at that position or not, and the translation speed can be improved while maintaining accuracy compared to the silence segmentation method [3]. In the report of Rangarajan et al., several methods have been evaluated for English-to-Spanish translation tasks, and it is said that the algorithm of predicting the positions of commas and periods by SVM and the method of dividing by conjunction are the most accurate [4]. In a study by Shimizu et al. the translation timing of simultaneous English-to-Japanese interpreters had been analyzed, a method was proposed for dividing positions when English part-of-speech appears in specific combinations, and a degree of accuracy equivalent to that of the method of predicting the positions of commas and periods was realized [5].
In any of the methods mentioned above, segmentation positions are determined using only phonological and linguistic features, and the influence of segmentation positions on the accuracy of machine translation is not considered directly. Also, although the average number of words in the word sequence generated by sentence segmentation affects the translation time, none of the methods mentioned here can directly control the average number of words 1. In the following sections, we will propose a sentence segmentation method that uses the changes in translation accuracy by the segmentation positions and the average number of words in a segmentation unit as indexes.
3 Sentence segmentations by maximizing translation accuracy
In our proposed method, the sentence segmentation model learning is implemented using the output of a machine translation system that has already completed learning. Hereinafter, sentences at the source language side of bilingual translated data used for learning is represented as F = {fj|1 ≤ j ≤ N}, and reference sentences at the target language side as ε = {ej|1 ≤ j ≤ N}. N is the number of source-target bilingual sentences. Although in the original speech translation it is necessary to estimate the end of a sentence which is not clearly shown, here the end of sentence estimation has been performed in advance. In addition, the machine translation system is represented as the function MT(f) of the source language sentences f.
Japanese to English: Stabilization of Electroless Ni Plating Bath by Isocyanide Additives with  Acidity
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Japanese
1 .緒言
近年,国際的な環境意識の高まりからELVやRoHSといった環境法令が次々と発効しており,これら法規制に抵触する物質はもはや使用するのが困難な状況となっている1),2)。無電解Niめっき安定剤として広く用いられているPb, Cdもこれら法規制に抵触する物質である。また,代替物質として提案されているBiについても有害性等の情報が不明な点も多く,今後の動向次第では使用規制の可能性が懸念されている。そのため,業界では有機系安定剤が検討されてきた。
これまで,無電解Niめっき浴における有機系安定剤の作用機構には化学吸着が重要な役割を果たしていることが指摘されてきた 3), 4)。すなわち,浴中に発生したNi微小核にこれら有機系安定剤が急速に化学吸着し,表面を被毒することにより浴の自己分解が抑制される。このような有機系安定剤の化学吸着には,孤立電子対が関与していることが指摘されているが 3)~6),それらの報告によると,有機系安定剤の孤立電子対が金属表面に供与,共有されることにより化学吸着が行われ,いわば表面配位として捉えることができる。
一般に無電解めっき反応時の混成電位は著しく卑側に偏っている。また,先述したように配位結合は自ら有している孤立電子対を相手金属に供与・共有する結合である。このことから,金属イオンが低酸化数の場合などには古典的な配位結合を形成しにくく,混成電位が卑となる無電解めっき反応時には,先述のような古典的な表面配位を介した化学吸着では吸着が困難な状況にあることが想像できる。
近年,π電子逆供与を介した化学吸着の可能性が指摘されている 7)~10)。例えば,硫酸中におけるニトロベンゼンの鉄表面への吸着 7),銅電極に対するi-marononitriledithiolateの吸着状態の電位依存性 8),また液中ではないがPd表面へのCO分子の吸着などにπ電子逆供与が関与しているとの報告がある 9)。π電子逆供与性いわゆるπ酸性を有する物質はカルボニル化合物などに代表される物質で,古典的な配位結合を金属イオンとの間にσ軌道を介して結ぶとともに,電子が金属イオンからπ*軌道に逆供与されることにより補足的な結合が生じる。(図1)。このような結合により相手金属イオンが低酸化数の場合や,負電荷を有する場合にも安定した結合を結ぶことができると考えられている。
そこで,本研究では,無電解Niめっきの安定剤においてもこのようなπ電子逆供与を介した化学吸着を示す安定剤があるのではないかと考えた。π電子逆供与性を有する物質としては,例えばPF3やPCl3などといったリン化合物, AsR3, SbR3 のような砒素やアンチモン化合物, SR2などの2価の硫黄化合物,カルボニル,イソシアニド化合物などが報告されているが 11),本研究ではこれらπ酸性を有する物質のうち,未だ安定剤として指摘されていないイソシアニド化合物に着目し,無電解Niめっき浴の安定化効果の有無ならびにその特徴に関して検討を行った。


* E-mail : s_watanabe@kanigen.co.jp

2.実験方法
表1に今回の実験で用いた基本浴を示す。今回用いた基本浴は従来用いられている工業的なめっき組成で,本研究ではこの基本浴にイソシアニド化合物を添加した際のめっき浴の安定性・反応性を評価するとともに,その安定化効果の特徴を電気化学的に評価するために分極曲線の測定を行った。
表2に今回取り上げたイソシアニド化合物を示す。取り上げた化合物としては,分子構造および分子量に着目して,直線構造を有する1-isocyanobutane, 1-isocyanobutane と分子量が同一だが枝分かれ構造を有する tert-butyl isocyanide, tert-butyl isocyanide にさ らにイソプロピル基を付加した 2-isocyano- 2,4,4-trimethyl pentane,六員環を有する isocyanocyclohexane,ベンゼン環を有する isocyanomethyl benzene となっている。なお,これらイソシアニド化合物は水に直接溶けにくいため, 5 mL のイソプロピルアルコールに 1 mmol 添加し,さらに水を添加することにより 1 mmol/L としたものを用いた。
浴安定化効果は次の2つの方法で評価した。ひとつは分解抑制試験で,安定剤を添加していない基本浴にPdCl2を添加することにより強制的に浴の自己分解を引き起こし,次いでイソシアニド化合物を添加することにより分解反応が抑制されるかどうかを確認した。この評価により,分解により発生した微小Ni核の成長抑制効果が添加剤にあるかどうかを評価できると考えた。具体的には,基本液10 mLを試験管に採取し, 90 ℃に加熱, 100 ppmの PdCl2溶液を 20μL 添加することにより強制的にめっき浴を自己分解させる。
このとき用いたPdCl2溶液は3.6 wt% HCl 10 mLに PdCl2を0.5 g溶解させた後,水で希釈し総量を5 Lにすることにより得ている。なお,浴の分解の確認は,反応ガスおよび沈殿物の発生を目視で確認することにより行った。分解確認10秒後めっき浴に1 mmol/Lに希釈したイソシアニド化合物を1 mL添加し,自己分解が停止するかどうかを,反応ガスの有無,沈殿量変化を目視観察により確認した。さらに添加剤を添加してからしばらく90 ℃で放置し,最大20分間,再分解が生じるかどうかを目視で判定し,再分解が生じる場合は,添加剤を添加してからの時間を再分解時間と定義した。
また,安定化効果のもうひとつの評価方法として,工業的に用いられている安定性試験を行った12)~15)。この試験はあらかじめ添加剤を添加しためっき浴を60 ℃程度の低温で保持しながら触媒性物質を添加し続け,分解反応が始まる添加量を見積もる試験で,浴に対する触媒性物質の許容限界を調べる試験として工業的に行われてきた。具体的には,イソシアニド化合物を添加した基本液300 mLを60 ℃に保ちながら,先述した100 ppmのPdCl2 溶液を1分ごとに1 mLずつ添加し,分解までに添加したPdCl2溶液の体積を安定度と定義した。分解の判定はガスの発生および黒色沈殿の発生を目視観察することにより行っている。なお,本研究では 11 mLを上限としている。
イソシアニド化合物添加時のめっき速度は以下のように測定した。添加剤を添加した基本浴を用い,表面積 18.9 cm2の圧延鋼板にめっき浴容量500 mL, 温度90 ℃で1時間成膜した。めっき速度は成膜前後の重量変化を,あらかじめ測定した比重7.8 g/cm3で除することによりめっき膜厚に換算している。
なお,前処理は一般的な鉄材の前処理としてアルカリ脱脂(5分),酸洗浄(18 wt%塩酸, 1 分),電解洗浄(5 分), 活性化(18 wt%塩酸, 30 秒)を行っている。
添加剤による浴安定化効果の電気化学的特徴はカソード,アノード分極曲線を評価することにより調べた。10×10 mm の圧延鋼板を,先述と同様に前処理を行った後, 1μm Ni-P めっきを行い,これを作用極として,温度 50 ℃, pH 5.75, -0.8~-0.4 V (vs SCE)において, 10 mV/sの走査速度にてイソシアニド化合物を添加した条件でのアノード分極曲線ならびにカソード分極曲線を測定した。評価には北斗電工製 HZ-3000,対極には 10×20 mm の Pt 電極,参照電極としては飽和カロメル電極を用いて三電極法により測定した。また,作用極,対極間距離は5 cmで,参照電極にはルギン管の有無による差異が見られなかったため,これを使用していない。なお,アノード分極曲線は基本液からNiを除いた液を用いて, -0.8 V (vs SCE)から陽分極方向に,カソード分極曲線に関しては次亜リン酸を除いた液において-0.4 V (vs SCE)から陰分極方向に分極することにより測定した。

Translation - English
1. Introduction
In recent years, as the environmental consciousness rises globally, environmental laws and regulations such as ELV and RoHS come into effect successively. It is getting difficult to use substances that conflict with these legal regulations any more 1), 2). Pb, Cd widely used as the electroless Ni plating stabilizers are also the substances conflicting with these regulations. Moreover, Bi proposed as a substitute has many hazardous properties about which there is unclear information and it could possibly be restricted for use as the future trends change. Thus, the industry is looking into organic stabilizers.
So far, it was pointed out that chemical adsorption plays an important role in the work mechanism of the organic stabilizers for the electroless Ni plating bath. In other words, these organic stabilizers will be rapidly and chemically adsorbed to the Ni micronuclei produced in the bath and poison their surfaces to suppress the self-decomposition of the bath. It was also proposed that the lone pairs of electrons take part in the chemical adsorption of such organic stabilizers 3)~6). According to these reports, the lone pairs of electrons in the organic stabilizers are donated to the metal surface and are shared to realize the chemical adsorption. So to speak, they are captured via surface coordination.
Generally, during the electroless plating reaction, the mixed potential is biased obviously toward the base side. Moreover, as described above, the coordinate bond is to bond by donating and sharing its own lone pairs of electrons to the partner metal. Thus, if the metal ion has a lower oxidation number, it will be difficult to form a classic coordination bond. It can be imagined that, during the electroless plating reaction when the mixed potential becomes the base, chemical adsorption via the classic surface coordination will be difficult, as described above.
In recent years, it was also proposed that chemical adsorption is possible via the reverse donation of  electrons 7)~10). For example, it was reported that the reverse donation of  electrons was related to the nitrobenzene adsorption to the steel surface in sulfuric acid 7), the potential dependency of the adsorbed state of i-marononitriledithiolate [sic! the word “marononitriledithiolate” is possibly a source typo for “marononitrile dithiolate”] on the copper electrode 8) and the adsorption of CO molecules to the Pd surface even not in liquid 9). The carbonyl compounds are the typical substances having -electron reverse donation property, i.e.,  acidity. The classic coordination bond is with a metal ion formed via the  orbit and the electron is reversely donated to the * orbit of the metal ion to form a supplementary bond. (Fig. 1). Through such bonding, regardless of the lower oxidation number of the partner metal ion and the presence of negative charges, a stable bond can be formed.
Therefore, in this study, whether the electroless Ni plating stabilizers are providing chemical adsorption via such -electron reverse donation was examined. It was reported that the substances having the ability of -electron reverse donation were, for example, the phosphorus compounds such as PF3 and PCl3, arsenic and antimony compounds such as AsR3 and SbR3, divalent sulfur compounds such as SR2, carbonyl and isocyanide compounds 11). Of these compounds having  acidity, the isocyanide compounds that were not identified as a stabilizer were investigated in this study to check whether they had the stabilization effect on the electroless Ni plating bath as well as their stabilizing characteristics.
2. Experiment methods
Table 1 shows the basic bath composition used in this experiment. The basic bath used had the industrial plating composition that had been used conventionally. In this study, isocyanide compounds were added to this basic bath to evaluate the stability and reactivity of the obtained plating bath. In addition, the polarization curves were plotted to perform the electrochemical evaluation on the characteristics of the stabilization effect.
Table 2 shows the isocyanide compounds used in the study. In terms of the molecular structure and molecular weight, the compounds used included 1-isocyanobutane having a linear structure, tert-butyl isocyanide having the same molecular weight as 1-isocyanobutane but a branched structure, 2-isocyano-2,4,4-trimethyl pentane having an isopropyl group added to tert-butyl isocyanide, isocyanocyclohexane having a six‐membered ring, and isocyanomethyl benzene having a benzene ring. These isocyanide compounds are difficult to dissolve directly in water. Thus, 1 mmol each of them was respectively added into 5 mL of isopropyl alcohol and then water was added to form a 1 mmol/L solution for each sample.
The bath stabilization effect was evaluated by the following 2 methods. One was the decomposition suppression test, where PdCl2 was added into the basic bath containing no stabilizers to forcibly induce the bath self-decomposition, and then the isocyanide compound was added to verify whether the decomposition reaction was suppressed. In this way, whether the additive had a suppressive effect on the growth of the Ni micronuclei produced from the decomposition could be evaluated. Specifically, 10 mL basic bath solution was added to a test tube and heated to 90C, then 20 μL of 100 ppm PdCl2 solution was added to forcibly induce the plating bath to decompose by itself. The PdCl2 solution used was prepared through dissolving 0.5 g PdCl2 in 10 ml of 3.6 wt% HCl and then diluting with water to a volume of 5 L. In addition, the bath decomposition was verified through visually observing the occurrence of the reaction gas and precipitation. 10 seconds after the decomposition was verified, 1 mL of isocyanide
diluted to 1 mmol/L was added into the plating bath and visual observation was performed to check whether the self-decomposition stopped, whether there was a reaction gas and whether the precipitation amount changed. After the additive was added, the bath was allowed to stand for up to 20 min. at 90C. Then visual judgement of whether the decomposition reoccurred was made. If the decomposition reoccurred, then the duration after adding the additive was defined as the re-decomposition time.
Moreover, another method of evaluating the stabilization effect was the stability test used industrially 12)~15). In that test, the plating bath having the additive added was kept at a low temperature of about 60C while a catalytic material was added continuously to estimate the additive amount when the decomposition reaction started. It was used industrially to investigate the tolerance limit of the catalytic material to the bath. Specifically, 300 ml basic bath solutions having isocyanide compounds added were kept at 60C while 1 mL of 100 ppm PdCl2 solution each was added as described previously over a period of 1 min. and the volume of the PdCl2 solution added till decomposition started was defined as the degree of stability. The occurrence of decomposition was judged through visually observing the generation of a gas and black precipitation. In this study, 11 mL was adopted as the upper limit.
The plating rate when an isocyanide compound was added was determined as follows. Used the basic bath having the additive added to form a film at 90C in 1 hour on a rolled steel sheet having a surface area of 18.9 cm2 in the plating bath having a capacity of 500 mL. The plating rate was calculating through dividing the change in weight before and after film formation by the specific gravity of 7.8 g/cm3 measured in advance to get
the film thickness. Moreover, the pre-treatment was performed with the general iron pre-treatment methods including alkaline degreasing (5 min.), acid cleaning (with 18 wt% hydrochloric acid for 1 min.), electrolytic cleaning (for 5 min.) and activation (with 18 wt% hydrochloric acid for 30 sec.).
The electrochemical characteristics of the bath stabilization effect by the additive were investigated through evaluating the cathode and anode polarization curves. Performed the pre-treatment as described above on a 10  10mm rolled steel sheet and then carried out 1 m Ni-P plating. Used it as the working electrode to scan at a speed of 10 mV/s under the conditions of 50C, pH 5.75 and -0.8~-0.4V (vs SCE) to measure the anode polarization curve and cathode polarization curve when the isocyanide compound was added. The three-electrode method was employed for the measurement with HZ-3000 by Hokuto Denko, using a 10  20 mm Pt electrode as the counter electrode and a saturated calomel electrode as the reference electrode. Moreover, the working electrode and the counter electrode were spaced at 5 cm. Luggin capillary was not used in the reference electrode because there was no difference whether it was used or not. Furthermore, the anode polarization curve was measured using the solution with Ni removed from the basic bath solution to polarize from -0.8V (vs SCE) to the direction of anodic polarization, and the cathode polarization curve was measured using the solution with the hypophosphorous acid removed to polarize from -0.4V (vs SCE) to the direction of cathodic polarization.
Chinese to English: Adjuvant Effect of Total Polysaccharides from Poria cocos on H1N1 Influenza and HBsAg Antigens
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Chinese
茯苓(Poria)为非褶菌目(Aphylophorales)、多孔菌科(Polyporaceae)、卧孔属(茯苓属, Poria)、茯苓[Poria cocos(Schw.)Wolf.] 的干燥菌核, 具有利水渗湿、健脾、宁心之功效[1] 。近年来, 已有文献报道, 茯苓多糖对多种抗原具有疫苗佐剂活性。茯苓多糖与马雷克病病毒强毒株联用免疫维鸡可显著提高雏鸡的淋巴细胞转化率、NK细胞和巨噬细胞活性[2]。茯苓多糖200和1000μg与流感病毒(A/PR/8)灭活疫苗0.015或1.5μg免疫小鼠1次, 能增加小鼠血清IgG, IgG1和IgG2a抗体水平, 提高小鼠抗致死量流感病毒攻击的能力[3] 。小鼠ig给予茯苓多糖200mg·kg-1, 1周后ig 给予卵清蛋白(ovalbumin, OVA)进行免疫, 对肠道slgA分泌具有促进作用[4] 。给小鼠预先注射当归多糖和茯苓多糖0.2~1.0mg, 然后接种肺炎链球菌多糖-蛋白质结合抗原。结果显示, 当归多糖和茯苓多糖能显著促进IgG和lgM的产生, 并且联用多糖组小鼠用19F型肺炎链球菌攻击后, 血中的细菌能迅速清除[5] 。尽管已有文献报道茯苓多糖对OVA、马雷克病病毒活毒株及流感病毒灭活疫苗有较好的佐剂活性, 能提高免疫动物的体液免疫功能, 但所使用的茯苓多糖均未提及明确的制备方法和理化性质。因为不同制备方法所获得的多糖具有明显差异, 与佐剂作用效果密切相关。本研究采用50℃水提、醇沉和透析方法制备茯苓总多糖(P.cocos polysaccharides, PCP), 研究其理化性质, 以及对人用H1N1流感疫苗抗原和乙肝疫苗抗原的佐剂活性, 为茯苓多糖佐剂进一步的研究和应用奠定实验基础。
1材料与方法
1.1动物、药材、试剂和仪器
BALB/c小鼠, 雌性, 体质量18~20g, 购于军事医学科学院实验动物中心, 合格证号: 2012(军)-004。中药材茯苓饮片, 产地安徽, 北京仟草中药饮片有限公司。
基金项目: 国家科技重大专项(2012ZX09301-001-003); 国家科技重大专项(2013ZX09402103); 国家科技支撑计划课题(2011BAD26B02-3)
作者简介: 李帅(1989-), 男, 硕士研究生, 主要从事多糖化学和生物活性研究。
通讯作者: 单俊杰, E-mail: shanjunjie001@126.com, Tel: (010)66930644; 马百平, E-mail: mabaiping@sina.com, Tel: (010)66930265


葡萄糖、半乳糖醛酸、三氟乙酸、间羟联苯以及相对分子质量为6×103, 1×104, 4×104, 6.6×104和2.7×105的葡聚糖购于美国Sigma公司; 硼氢化钠购于美国ICNBiomedicals公司; 辣根过氧化物酶标记山羊抗小鼠IgG抗体和N-四甲基联苯胺均购自北京中杉金桥生物技术公司。H1N1流感病毒裂解液由北京科兴生物制品有限公司生产; 重组乙肝表面蛋白抗原(hepatitis B surface antigen, HBSAg)由大连汉信生物制药有限公司生产; 氢氧化铝由美国Thermo公司生产。胎牛血清购自美国Gibco公司; 1640培养基购自美国Hyclone公司; MTT购自美国Amresco公司。UV-2000紫外分光光度计, 上海龙尼柯仪器有公司; 高效液相色谱仪(Delta600, 2414示差检测器), 美国Waters公司; HP5890 II型气相色谱仪, 美国惠普公司; 旋转蒸发仪, 上海亚荣生化仪器厂; 分析天平, 美国Ohaus公司; LGJ25C冷冻干燥机, 北京四环冻干机厂; DZF6020真空干燥箱, 上海一恒科技有限公司; Varioskau Flash version 2.4.3型酶标仪和F1-01620型洗板机均为美国Thermo公司产品。
1.2 PCP的制备及其理化性质测定
取茯苓粉末1 kg, 加入蒸馏水15L, 50~55℃温度下浸泡5h。浸提液过滤, 滤液2533×g离心20min。残渣同样条件下进行第2次提取, 合并2次提取的水提液, 减压浓缩至1L, 然后加入95%乙醇3L进行醇沉48h。离心分离沉淀, 沉淀部分加入0.5L水搅拌溶解, 离心, 沉淀部分再同样操作2次。合并上清液, 装入透析袋(截留相对分子质量>1000), 用流水透析48h, 蒸馏水透析24h。透析液减压浓缩, 进行冷冻干燥, 获得PCP。采用苯酚-硫酸法测定PCP中糖含量[6] , 凝胶过滤色谱法测定总多糖中不同相对分子质量多糖的分布[7] , 毛细管电泳法测定总多糖的单糖组成[8] 。
1.3 H1N1流感疫苗免疫方案
BALB/c小鼠25只平均随机分为5组, 生理盐水(未免疫对照)、单用H1N1抗原(每鼠3μg)、H1N1+PCP 0.2mg (每鼠0.2mg)、H1N1+PCP 1.0mg (每鼠1.0mg)和H1N1+氢氧化铝(每鼠0.2mg)组。采用肌内注射途径免疫1次, 免疫后14d尾静脉采血, 测定H1N1抗原特异性抗体IgG滴度。
1.4乙肝疫苗免疫方案
BALB/c小鼠24只随机分为4组, 生理盐水组、HBSAg 2μg(每鼠2μg)组、HBSAg+PCP 1.0mg (每鼠1.0mg)组和HBSAg+氢氧化铝(每鼠0.2mg)组, 每组6只。采用肌内注射途径免疫2次, 其间隔28d。初次免疫后14d尾静脉采血, 分离血清, 测定乙肝特异性抗体滴度。二次免疫后14, 21, 28和35d分别尾静脉采血, 测定乙肝特异性抗体IgG滴度。
1.5 ELISA法检测血清抗体IgG滴度
小鼠血清用含0.1%吐温-20的磷酸缓冲液(PBST, pH=7.4)按1: 400的比例稀释。采用H1N1疫苗抗原或乙肝疫苗抗原包被液(0.05 mol·L-1碳酸盐缓冲液, pH=9.6)稀释至终浓度3 mg·L-1包被96孔板, 每孔加入100 μL, 4℃包被过夜。用PBST洗板3次, 再每孔加入200 μL 1%牛血清白蛋白(PBST配制), 37℃封闭1h。用PBST洗涤3次, 小鼠血清用PBST稀释, 连续倍比稀释6个梯度(1: 400~1: 12800), 然后各加入96孔酶标板, 每孔100 μL, 37℃孵育1h。弃去血清, PBST洗涤3次, 加入辣根过氧化物酶标记的羊抗鼠IgG抗体(用PBST1: 1000稀释), 每孔加入100 μL, 37℃孵育1h。PBST洗涤5次, 再加入N-四甲基联苯胺底物显色液, 每孔100 μL, 室温避光显色15 min。最后加入0.2 mol·L-1硫酸溶液终止显色, 每孔50 μL。采用酶标仪测定450nm吸光度(A450nm)。
1.6统计学分析
实验结果数据以 表示, 采用SPSS13.0统计软件进行one-way ANOVA方差分析。P
Translation - English
Poria is the dry sclerotia of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf., which belongs to Aphylophorales, Polyporaceae, Physisporinus (WolfPoria, Poria). Poria has the functions of removing dampness and promoting dieresis, invigorating the spleen, and calming and nourishing the heart [1]. In recent years, it has been reported in several literatures that Poria cocos polysaccharide has a vaccine adjuvant effect on many antigens. The lymphocyte transformation rate and the activity of NK cells and macrophages of the chicken that was immunized with Poria cocos polysaccharide plus highly virulent strain of Marek's disease virus were significantly improved [2]. The levels of serum IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies of the immunized mice were increased after the 1-time immunization with Poria cocos polysaccharide (200 and 1000 g) plus inactivated influenza virus (A/PR/8) vaccine 0.015 or 1.5 g, in addition to improving their ability against the lethal dose of influenza virus [3]. Moreover, the secretion of slgA in the intestinal tract was promoted in the mice which were given by ig of Poria cocos polysaccharide 200 mg∙kg-1 and immunized with ig administration of ovalbumin (OVA) at 1 week thereafter [4]. When the mice were pre-injected with Angelica sinensis polysaccharide and Poria cocos polysaccharide 0.2~1.0 mg and then inoculated with pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein binding antigen, the production of IgG and IgM was enhanced by Angelica sinensis polysaccharide and Poria cocos polysaccharide, and moreover, after the mice in the combined polysaccharides group were attacked with 19F streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria in the blood could be removed quickly [5]. Although it has been reported in existing literatures that Poria cocos polysaccharide has an ideal adjuvant effect on OVA, live strains of Marek's disease virus and inactivated influenza virus vaccine and can improve the humoral immunity function of the immunized animals, the definite preparation methods and physicochemical properties of the Poria cocos polysaccharide used were not mentioned. The reason may be that the properties of the polysaccharides prepared by different preparation methods are obviously different and they are closely related to the adjuvant effect. In this study, the total polysaccharides from Poria cocos (P. cocos polysaccharide, PCP) was prepared by extraction with water at 50°C, ethanol precipitation and dialysis to study its physicochemical properties and adjuvant effect on the antigens in H1N1 influenza vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine for human use, thus laying an experimental foundation for further research and application of the Poria cocos polysaccharide adjuvant.
1 Materials and Methods
1.1 Animals, medicines, reagents and instruments
The experimental animals were female BALB/c mice with a body weight ranging from 18~20 g, which were purchased from the Laboratory Animal Center of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences. The animal certification number is 2012 (Military)-004. Decoction pills of herbal

Fund project: National Science and Technology Major Project (2012ZX09301-001-003); National Science and Technology Major Project (2013ZX09402103); National Science and Technology Support Plan Project (2011BAD26B02-3)
About the author: LI S. (1989- ), male, MSc, the author is mainly engaged in the study of chemical and biological activities of polysaccharide.
Poria cocos with the origin of Anhui province, were purchased from Beijing Jing Qian Cao Traditional Chinese Medicine Decoction Pill Limited Company. Glucose, galacturonic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, m-hydroxybiphenyl and glucan with A relative molecular mass of 6  103, 1  104, 4  104, 6.6  104 and 2.7  105, respectively, were purchased from Sigma, a USA company; sodium borohydride was purchased from ICN Biomedicals, a USA company; horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti-mouse IgG antibody and N-tetramethylbenzidine were purchased from Beijing Zhongshan GoldenBridge Biotechnology Co. Ltd. The H1N1 influenza virus lysate was produced by Sinovac Biotech Ltd.; recombined hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) was produced by Dalian Hissen Bio-Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; and Al (OH)3 was produced by Thermo, a USA company. Fetal bovine serum was purchased from Gibco, a USA company; 1640 medium was purchased from Hyclone, a USA company; and MTT was purchased from Amresco, a USA company. UV-2000 ultraviolet spectrophotometer was made by Unico (Shanghai) Instrument Co., Ltd.; high performance liquid chromatograph (Delta 600, 2414 refractive index detector) was produced by Waters, a USA company; HP5890 II gas chromatograph was produced by Hewlett-Packard, a USA company; rotary evaporator was purchased from Shanghai Yarong Biochemical Instrument Factory; analytical balance was made by Ohaus, a USA company; LGJ25C freeze dryer was purchased from Beijing Sihuan Freeze Dryer Factory; DZF6020 vacuum drying oven was the product of Shanghai Yiheng Technical Co., Ltd.; Varioskau Flash version 2.4.3 microplate reader and F1-01620 microplate washer were the products of Thermo, a USA company.
1.2 Preparation of PCP and determination of its physicochemical properties
The Poria cocos powder with the amount of 1 kg was added into 15 L distilled water and soaked at 50~55°C for 5 h. The leaching liquor was filtered, and the filtrate was centrifuged at a rotation speed of 2533g for 20 min. Then, the residue was extracted for a 2nd time under the same conditions. The aqueous extracts from the 2 extractions were combined and concentrated under vacuum to 1 L, and then 3 L of 95% ethanol was added for ethanol precipitation for 48 h. Next, the centrifugation was performed to separate the precipitate, and 0.5 L water was added to the precipitate part to dissolve it by stirring, and the solution was centrifuged. The same operations were repeated 2 times on the precipitate. Finally, the supernatant was combined and loaded into a dialysis bag (with a molecular mass cutoff > 1000) to dialyze with running water for 48 h and then with distilled water for 24 h. The dialysate was concentrated under vacuum and then freeze-dried to obtain PCP. The polysaccharide content in the PCP was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method [6], the distribution of the polysaccharides with different relative molecular masses in the total polysaccharides was determined by gel filtration chromatography [7], and the monosaccharide composition of the total polysaccharides was analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis [8].

1.3 H1N1 influenza vaccine immunization regime
25 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, including normal saline group (unimmunized control), H1N1 antigen alone group (3 g per mouse), H1N1 plus PCP (0.2 mg per mouse) group, H1N1 plus PCP (1.0 mg per mouse) group, and H1N1 plus Al (OH)3 (0.2 mg per mouse) group. The mice were immunized with 1 intramuscular injection, and the blood samples were collected from a tail vein at 14 d after the immunization to determine the titers of H1N1 antigen-specific antibody IgG.
1.4 Hepatitis B vaccine immunization regime
24 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, including normal saline group, HBsAg group 2 g (2 g per mouse), HBsAg +plus PCP 1.0 mg (1.0 mg per mouse) group and HBsAg plus + aluminum hydroxide Al (OH)3 (0.2 mg per mouse) group, with 6 mice in each group. The mice were immunized by 2 intramuscular injections, 28 d apart between the two immunization injections. The blood samples were collected from a tail vein at 14 d after the first immunization, and the serum was separated to determine the titers of hepatitis B specific antibody. Moreover, the blood samples were collected from a tail vein at 14, 21, 28 and 35 d after the second immunization to determine the titers of hepatitis B specific antibody IgG.
1.5 Detection of the titers of serum antibody IgG by ELISA assay
The mouse serum was diluted with a phosphate buffered solution (PBST, pH = 7.4) containing 0.1% Ttween -20 at a ratio of 1: 400. The H1N1 influenza antigen or hepatitis B antigen coating solution (0.05 mol∙L -1 phosphate buffer solution, pH=9.6) which was diluted to the final concentration of 3 mg·L-1 was used to coat a 96-well plate with a volume of 100 L in each well and let stand at 4°C overnight. Then, the 96-wellcoated plate was washed 3 times with PBST, followed by the addition of 200 L of 1% bovine serum albumin (prepared with PBST) into each well. The plate was blocked at 37°C for 1 h. Then it was washed 3 times with PBST, and the mouse serum was diluted with PBST to 6 serial dilution gradients (1: 400~1: 12 800 ), which were respectively added to the wells of the 96-well ELISA plate, with 100 L in each well, to incubate at 37°C for 1 h. After the serum was removed, the plate was washed 3 times. Horseradish peroxidase labeled goat anti-mouse IgG antibody in the volume of 100 L was added to each well to incubate for 1 h. Then, the plate was washed 5 times with PBST, and then 100 L of N-tetramethylbenzidine substrate chromogenic solution was added to each well to develop color in dark for 15 min. Finally, 50 L of 0.2 mol∙L-1 sulfuric acid solution was added to each well to end the chromogenic reaction. The absorbance at 450 nm (A 450 nm) was measured using a microplate reader.
1.6 Statistical analysis
All the experimental result data were expressed as "x" ̅ "± s" . The one-way ANOVA analysis was performed using SPSS13.0 statistical software, and the differences were considered statistically significant when the P < 0.05.
2 Results
2.1 Yield of PCP and its physicochemical properties
The Poria powder was soaked and extracted twice in the warm water at 50°C. PCP was obtained from the leaching liquor by concentration, ethanol precipitation, dialysis and lyophilization, with the yield of 0.25%. The polysaccharide content in PCP was 40.8%. The analysis result of gel filtration chromatography showed that there were two absorption peaks of polysaccharide, and the relative molecular mass based on the peak height was 2.7  104 and 64.7  104, respectively. Moreover, PCP was composed of fucose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, the molar ratio of which was 1.00: 1.36: 0.48: 2.67.

2.2 Adjuvant effect of PCP on H1N1 influenza antigen
As shown in Fig. 1, at 14 d after PCP (0.2 or 1.0 mg per mouse) plus H1N1 influenza antigen (3 g per mouse) was used to immunize the BALB/c mice by 1 intramuscular injection, the titers of serum H1N1 specific antibody IgG of the mice in the H1N1 antigen alone group [sic! “H1N1 antigen alone group” is possibly a source mistake for “H1N1 plus PCP group”] were significantly increased, when compared with those in normal saline group (P < 0.01); compared with the H1N1 antigen alone group, there was no obviously difference in the serum antibody titers of the mice between the H1N1 plus PCP (0.2 mg) group and the alum adjuvant group, while the serum IgG antibody titers of the mice in the H1N1 plus PCP (1.0 mg) group were significantly increased (P < 0.05).



Japanese to English: SALES SUPPORT SYSTEM
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Automotive / Cars & Trucks
Source text - Japanese

[特許請求の範囲]
[請求項1]
顧客の属性データに基づいて、購入を推奨する車両の仕様(以下、推奨車両仕様)を演算する推奨車両仕様演算手段と、
前記推奨車両仕様の見積価格を演算する見積価格演算手段と、
前記推奨車両仕様を前記見積価格とともに一覧表形式の提案書として出力する出力手段とを備えることを特徴とする営業支援システム。
[請求項2]
請求項1の営業支援システムにおいて、
前記推奨車両仕様は、標準仕様とオプション仕様とを含み、
前記見積価格演算手段は、前記標準仕様の価格については標準仕様価格テーブルを参照し、前記オプション仕様の価格についてはオプション仕様価格テーブルを参照して前記見積価格を演算することを特徴とする営業支援システム。
[請求項3]
請求項1または2の営業支援システムにおいて、
前記出力手段から出力される一覧表形式は見積書を含み、
前記提案書および見積書のいずれかを選択する選択手段をさらに有し、
前記出力手段は、前記提案書が選択されると、前記推奨車両仕様を前記見積価格とともに前記提案書の形式としたデータを出力し、前記見積書が選択されると、前記推奨車両仕様を前記見積価格とともに前記見積書の形式としたデータを出力することを特徴とする営業支援システム。
[請求項4]
請求項1~3のいずれかの営業支援システムにおいて、
下取り車両の査定条件を入力し、入力された査定条件に基づいて下取り価格を算出する査定手段と、
査定された下取り価格が存在するか否かを判定する査定判定手段とをさらに備え、
前記見積価格演算手段は、前記査定判定手段により前記下取り価格の存在が判定されると、前記下取り価格を反映して前記見積価格を演算することを特徴とする営業支援システム。
[請求項5]
請求項1~4のいずれかの営業支援システムにおいて、
車両の支払い条件としてクレジットを指定する指定手段と、
前記クレジットが指定されているか否かを判定するクレジット判定手段と、
前記クレジット判定手段によりクレジットの指定が判定されると、前記見積価格と前記クレジットの条件とに基づいた支払い条件を算出するクレジット演算手段とをさらに有することを特徴とする営業支援システム。
[請求項6]
請求項1~5のいずれかの営業支援システムにおいて、
メッセージを記憶するメッセージデータペースと、
前記メッセージデータペースから前記メッセージを取得するメッセージ取得手段と、
前記メッセージの出力が指定されているか否かを判定するメッセージ判定手段とをさらに備え、
前記出力手段は、前記メッセージ判定手段により前記メッセージの出力指定が判定されると、前記取得したメッセージが前記提案書のメッセージ記载梱に印字される形式として前記提案書のデータを出力することを特徴とする営業支援システム。
[請求項7]
請求項1~6のいずれかの営業支援システムにおいて、
前記各種機能はサーバコンピュータとクライアントコンピュータで実行され、
前記クライアントコンピュータに接続されたモニタの画面に設けたボタンの操作に基づいて前記クライアントコンピュータから前記サーバコンピュータに送信される指示に従って前記サーバコンピュータは前記各種機能を実行し、

前記クライアントコンピュータに接続したプリンタは、前記サーバコンピュータの前記出力部から送信されるデータに基づいて、前記提案書または見積書を印刷することを特徴とする営業支援システム。
[請求項8]
コンピュータによって、
顧客の属性データに基づいて、購入を推奨する車両の仕様(以下、推奨車両仕様)を決定し、
価格テーブルに基づいて、前記推奨車両仕様の見積価格を演算し、
前記推奨車両仕様を前記見積価格とともに一覧表形式の提案書として外部出力手段へ出力することを特徴とする車両購入プラン提案書作成方法。
[発明の詳細な説明]
[0001]
[発明の属する技術分野]
本発明は、顧客の属性に適合した車両を提案する営業支援システムに関する。
[0002]
[発明の背景]
車両の販売にあたっては、各営業マンが顧客と応対し、印刷されたパンフレットなどを提示しながら商談を行っている。しかしながら、新人の営業マンは顧客のニーズにマッチした車両を即座に提案することができない。すなわち、営業マンの経験、能力によって営業成績は大きく左右される。
[0003]
本発明の目的は、顧客のニーズに合った車両を営業マンが即座に提案することができる営業支援システムおよび車両購入プラン提案書作成方法を提供することにある。
[0004]
[課題を解決するための手段]
(1)本発明による営業支援システムは、顧客の属性データに基づいて、購入を推奨する車両の仕様(以下、推奨車両仕様)を演算する推奨車両仕様演算手段と、推奨車両仕様の見積価格を演算する見積価格演算手段と、推奨車両仕様を前記見積価格とともに一覧表形式の提案書として出力する出力手段とを備えることを特徴とする。
¢2)本発明による車両購入プラン提案書作成方法は、コンピュータによって、顧客の属性データに基づいて、購入を推奨する車両の仕様(以下、推奨車両仕様)を決定し、価格テーブルに基づいて、前記推奨車両仕様の見積価格を演算し、推奨車両仕様を前記見積価格とともに一覧表形式の提案書として外部出力手段へ出力することを特徴とする。
[0005]
[発明の効果]
本願発明によれば、顧客の属性データを入力するだけで顧客に最適な車両を提案することができる。その結果、経験の浅い営業マンでも、顧客が車両購買意欲をかき立てられるような車両購入プランを提案でき、その後の商談につなげることができる。
[0006]
[発明の実施の形態]
図1~図9により本発明を車両販売の営業支援システムに適用した場合の一実施の形態を説明する。このシステムは、車両の新車販売時の営業に付随する各種事務処理を定型化するためのものであり、ここでは、主に提案書を作成する際の処理について説明する。
[0007]
図1は本実施形態における営業支援システムのシステム構成を示す図である。10は管理センタに設置されるホストコンピュータ、20~40は各地のディーラーにそれぞれ設置されるサーバである。ホストコンピュータ10とサーバ20~40は通信回線網IT1を経由してネットワーク接続されている。サーバ20~40には、各営業マンのモバイル式パーソナルコンピュータなどの携帯情報端末21~43が接続されている。ここで、携帯情報端末21~43がクライアント用コンピュータである。



[0008]
ホストコンピュータ10には、各種のサーバ11とデータペース15が接続されている。データペース15は、図2に示すように、顧客の属性データを格納する顧客データペース15A、販売する車両の標準仕様とその価格が記憶された標準仕様データペース15Bと、車両のオプション(付属品)とその価格が記憶されたオプションデータペース15Cと、下取り価格を査定するための査定データベース15Dと、出力される一覧表形式を記憶する一覧表データベース15Eと、各種メッセージの雛形が記憶されるメッセージデータベース15Fとを有する。
[0009]
本実施形態では、新車販売時の営業活動の支援として、顧客の属性に応じた車両を提案する。図3に示すように、ホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11は、機能的には、推奨車両仕様演算部11Aと、見積価格演算部11Bと、出力部11Cとを備える。推奨車両仕様演算部11Aは、顧客の属性データに基づいて、購入を推奨する車両の仕様(以下、推奨車両仕様)を演算する。見積価格演算部11Bは、推奨車両仕様の見積価格を演算する。出力部11Cは、推奨車両仕様を見積価格とともに一覧表形式の提案書または見積書としてのデータを出力する。
[0010]
図4は提案書の一例を示す。提案書には、顧客名を印字する印字櫊51、提案車種を印字する印字梱52、オプション明細を印字する印字櫊53、提案価格を印字する印字櫊54、支払い例を印字する印字梱55a, 55b、メッセージを印字する印字櫊56が設定されている。
[0011]
図5は見積書の一例を示す。見積書には、顧客名を印字する印字櫊61、推奨車種を印字する印字梱62、オプション明細を印字する印字櫊63、車両代を印字する印字櫊64、販売諸費用、税金、保険料等の明細を印字する印字襴65、クレジット支払い例を印字する印字櫊66a, 66b、諸費用内訳を印字する印字襴67,メッセージを印字する印字襴68が設定されている。すなわち、提案書は見積書に印字される内容の一部を抽出したものである。
[0012]
出力部11Cは、提案書または見積書を印刷するための一覧表形式のデータを作成して出力する。そのため、営業マンの携帯情報端末21~43の画面には提案書および見積書のいずれかを選択する選択ボタン(図6のボタン71,72)が設けられている。出力部11Cは、提案書ボタン72が操作されて提案書が選択されると、推奨車両仕様を見積価格とともに提案書の形式で出力する。見積書ボタン71が操作されて見積書が選択されると、推奨車両仕様を見積価格とともに見積書の形式で出力する。
[0013]
推奨車両仕様は、標準仕様とオプション仕様とを含む。標準仕様は車両ごとに設定されている。たとえば、ボデイタイプ、エンジン、駆動方式、ミッション、標準地/寒冷地仕様、グレードがそれぞれ設定されており、これらを組み合わせたものが標準仕様の車両として販売される。これらは、標準仕様データベース15Bに価格とともに設定されている。
[0014]
オプション仕様は、工場組立時に組み込まれるメーカオプションと、ディーラにて組み込まれるディーラオプションとを含み、これらも車両ごとに設定されている。たとえば、プライパシーガラス、15インチアルミホイール、サンルーフなどがそれぞれ設定されており、これらを組み合わることができる。これらは、オプションデータベース15Cに価格とともに設定されている。
[0015]
営業マンにより提案書作成が指示されると、推奨車両仕様演算部11Aは、顧客データべース15Aから提案書作成対象の顧客の属性データを読み込む。



属性データは、たとえば、性別、年齢、既婚/未婚、家族構成、年収、趣味などを含む。読み込まれた属性データは、予め定められた分析アルゴリズムにより分析されて力テゴライズされる。たとえば、次のような力テゴライズができる。
▲1▼男性、30才~25才、未婚、趣味がアウトドアであれば、四輪駆動のRV車両である「ABC」車を選択する。
▲2▼男性、50才~55才、既婚、家族は夫婦だけ、趣味が近郊への旅行であれば、エンジン排気量2500cc以上のセダン系車両である「XYZ」を選択する。
▲3▼男性、35才~40才、既婚、7人家族であれば、8人乗りのワゴン系車両である「イロハ」を選択する。
[0016]
なお、上記分析アルゴリムを次のように設計することができる。車両メーカの管理センタには全国のディーラから車両販売データが送られてくる。この車両販売データには、顧客の属性データ、購入車両の仕様、購入価格、支払い条件などが含まれる。管理センタでは、これらの販売データに基づいて、顧客属性に対する購入車両の仕様を分析し、上記A1▼~A3▼のような力テゴライズのアルゴリズムを設計する。車両販売データが電子デ一タとして管理センタに送信されてくる場合は、上記分析とアルゴリズムの設計はすべてホストコンピュータ10内で実行することができる。
[0017]
見積価格演算部11Bは、顧客属性から決定された仕様の車両価格を見積もる。標準仕様の価格については標準仕様データペース15Bの価格テーブルを参照し、オプション仕様の価格についてはオプション仕様価格データペース15Cの価格テーブルを参照して見積価格を演算する。
[0018]
ホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11は、機能的には、下取り車両の価格を査定する査定演算部11Dと、査定された下取り価格が存在するか否かを判定する査定判定部11Eをさらに備える。査定演算部11Dは、下取り車両の車種、年式、型式、付属品の種類、走行距離、自己履歴、傷などの査定条件が入力されると、入力された査定条件に基づいて下取り価格を演算する。査定判定部11Eにより、査定された下取り価格の存在が判定されると、見積価格演算部11Bは、下取り価格を反映して車両の見積価格を演算する。
[0019]
ホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11は、機能的には、クレジット判定部11Fとクレジット演算部11Gとをさらに備える。クレジット判定部11Fは、車両の支払い条件としてクレジットが指定されているか否かを判定する。クレジット演算部11Gは、クレジット判定部11Fによりクレジットの指定が判定されると、見積価格とクレジットの条件とに基づいた支払い条件を算出する。
[0020]
ホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11は、機能的には、メッセージ取得部11Hと、メッセージ判定部11Iとをさらに備える。メッセージ取得部11Hは、メッセージデータぺース15Fから提案書や見積書に印字するメッセージを取得する。メッセージ判定部11Iは、メッセージの出力が指定されているか否かを判定する。上記出力部11Cは、メッセージ判定部11Iによりメッセージの出力指定が判定されると、取得したメッセージが提案書のメッセージ記裁欄に印字される形式で提案書データや見積書データを出力する。
[0021]
次に以上説明した営業支援システムにより提案書を作成する具他的な手順を説明する。図6は、提案書作成の基本画面を示す図である。営業マンは、図示しない基本メニュー画面から「提案書作成」の項目を選択する。「提案書作成」を選択すると、商談を企画する顧客リストがモニタ画面に表示される。この顧客リストは営業マンが以前販売した顧客、あるいは、販売には至らなかったが、過去に接触した顧客も含まれる。また、新たに入力した新規開拓の顧客を含めることもできる。
[0022]



営業マンは、画面の表示されている顧客リストの中からいずれか1人を選択し、ホストコンピュータ10へ提案書作成を指示する。ホストコンピュータ10は、推奨車両演算部11の機能により、顧客の属性に合致した車両およびオプションを選択するとともに、見積価格演算部11Bの機能により、選択された車両およびオプションを見積もる。ホストコンピュータ10は、選択した車両とオプションの情報、および見積金額の情報をクライアントサーパ20へ送信する。
[0023]
クライアントサーバ20は受信した情報に基づいて提案書作成画面を作成し、提案書作成を要求している携帯情報端末21~43へこれらのデータを送信する。これにより携帯情報端末21には図6に示す提案書作成画面が表示される。この画面には、ホストコンピュータ10の推奨車両演算部11で演算した推奨車両である車種、メーカオプションがそれらの金額とともに表示される。
[0024]
図6の提案書で提案されている車両を変更する際は、図6の「お見積車」のボタン73を操作する。これにより、図7に示すような車種を選択する画面が表示される。図7は、プルダウン式の車種選択画面から例えば車種「ABC」を選択した場合の表示例である。ボデイタイプ、エンジン、駆動方式、ミッション、標準地/寒冷地仕様、グレードがそれぞれ表示されている。営業マンはこれらを組み合わせて選択する。営業マンが「見積内訳」のボタン74を操作すると、図6の画面表示に切り換わり、変更した車種が表示される。
[0025]
図7の画面のメーカオプション櫊に設けられている「選択」のボタン75を操作すると、図8のメーカオプション選択画面に切り換わる。選択した車種のメーカオプションの一覧が表示される。例えば、サンルーフを選択してOKボタンを操作すると、図6の提案書画面に切り換わり、メーカオプション梱の表示内容が変更される。
[0026]
図6の提案書表示画面の「下取車指定」のラジオボタン76を操作すると、図9に示すように、下取り車の査定条件入力画面が表示される。図9の画面において、車検までの日数、走行距離、修理履歴などを営業マンが入力すると、ホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11の査定演算部11Dは、入力された下取り条件に基づいて、下取り価格を算出する。ホストコンピュータ10は下取り価格を見積価格演算部11Aに送信し、見積価格を再計算する。
[0027]
図6の提案書表示画面のクレジットプルダウンメニュー77からクレジットの条件を,たとえば支払い月数を指定すると、ホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11の演算部11Gは、入力されたクレジット条件を見積価格演算部11Aに送信し、クレジット条件による支払い金額を計算する。
[0028]
営業マンが、図6の「メッセージ」のボタン78を操作すると、ホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11のメッセージ取得部11Hは、メッセージデータペース15Fから提案書や見積書に印字するメッセージを取得する。たとえば、「今回提案するワゴン系車両「イロハ」は大型ですので、大家族の東京太郎様に最適です」のように、ベテラン営業マンが使用するメッセージが、管理センタのデータベース15Fに予め格納されている。
[0029]
この場合、使用するメッセージによってはその効果が限られるので、どのメッセージを使用するかについても支援するシステムを採用することが好ましい。これは、ベテラン営業マンが、どの時点、どのような状況下で、どのようなメッセージを使用するかを統計的に処理してアルゴリズムを設計することができる。たとえば、大家族に対する大型車両の売り込み、アウトドア派の若年層に対するRV車両の売り込み、季節的な売り込みなどを力テゴライズし、そのように力テゴライズした条件下で使用するメッセージをそれぞれ記憶すればよい。


[0030]
メッセージ判定部11Iでメッセージの出力が指定されていることが判定されると、上記出力部11Cは、取得したメッセージが提案書のメッセージ記裁欄に印字される形式で提案書データや見積書データをクライアントサーバ20へ出力する。
[0031]
このようにして、提案書の記載内容がホストコンピュータ10のサーバ11で演算され、ホストコンピュータ10は、図6に示すように提案書印刷データをクライアントサーバ20へ供給する。クライアントサーバ20は提案書を要求している情報端末のモニタ上に図6の提案書内訳画面を表示する。営業マンが図6の「印刷」のボタン79を操作すると、図4に示すような提案書がプリンタで印刷される。
[0032]
以上説明したように、本実施の形態による営業支援システムによれば次のような効果が得られる。
(1)顧客の属性データを入力するだけで顧客に最適な車両を提案することができる。その結果、経験の浅い営業マンでも、顧客が車両購買意欲をかき立てられるような車両購入プランを提案でき、その後の商談につなげることができる。
(2)提案書は、見積書に比べて少ない情報を印刷した書面であり、商談のきっかけとするツールとして好ましい。すなわち、初めから見積書のような詳細な価格や諸費用を提示すると、顧客はえてして嫌悪感を抱くことを経験豊かな営業マンは実感している。そこで、上述したような簡易的な見積書である提案書を作成して商談のきっかけとする仕組みを採用すれば、経験の浅い営業マンでも経験豊かな営業マンと同等な営業成績を上げる可能性がある。
[0033]
(3)商談につながるようなメッセージを管理センタのデータペースに格納しておき、そのメッセージを選択するだけで提案書のメッセージ梱に印刷できるようにした。したがって、経験の浅い営業マンでも、熟練営業マンが使用する殺し文句を簡単に利用することができ、これによっても、商談開始の確率を向上することができる。
[0034]
以上説明した実施の形態の営業支援システムは一例であり、本発明の特徴である提案書が簡易に作成できるシステムであれば、上記構成に限定されない。すなわち、サーバコンビュータとネットワーク接続されたクライアントコンピュータで構成される営業支援システムとして説明した。しかし、顧客の属性データに基づいて、購入を推奨する車両の仕様(以下、推奨車両仕様)を決定し、推奨車両仕様の見積価格を演算し、推奨車両仕様を見積価格とともに一覧表形式の提案書として外部出力手段へ出力するものであれば、種々の態様が採用可能である。したがって、外部のネットワーク網を介さずに営業所内で完結するサーバ&クライアントシステムで実現しても良い。場合によっては、携帯情報端末で上記全ての機能を実現するようにしても良い
Translation - English
[Claims]
[Claim 1]
A sales support system, which is characterized by comprising: a recommended vehicle specification calculation means for calculating vehicle specifications recommended for purchase (hereinafter referred to as recommended vehicle specifications) based on customer attribute data;
a quoted price calculation means for calculating quoted prices of the recommended vehicle specifications;
an output means for outputting the quoted prices together with the recommended vehicle specifications as a proposal document in a list format.
[Claim 2]
The sales support system according to claim 1, which is characterized in that:
the recommended vehicle specifications include standard specifications and optional specifications;
the quoted price calculation means calculating the quoted prices of the standard specifications by referring to a standard specification price table and the quoted prices of the optional specifications by referring to an optional specification price table.
[Claim 3]
The sales support system according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that:
the list format outputted from the output means includes a quotation document;
the system further includes a selection means for selecting either the proposal document or the quotation document;
the output means outputs, in a proposal document format, data of the recommended vehicle specifications together with the quoted prices if the proposal document is selected, and outputs, in a quotation document format, data of the recommended vehicle specifications together with the quoted prices if the quotation document is selected.
[Claim 4]
The sales support system according to any one of claims 1~3, which is characterized by further comprising:
an assessment means which enters an assessment condition for a trade-in vehicle and calculates a trade-in price based on the entered assessment condition, and
an assessment judging means which judges whether there is an assessed trade-in price, wherein
the quoted price calculation means is configured to calculate a quoted price by reflecting the trade-in price when it is judged that there is a trade-in price.




[Claim 5]
The sales support system according to any one of claims 1~4, which is characterized by further comprising:
a specifying means which specifies a credit as a payment condition of a vehicle, and
a credit determination means which determines whether the credit is specified, and
a credit calculation means for calculating the payment condition based on the quoted price and the credit condition when the credit determination means determines that the credit is specified.
[Claim 6]
The sales support system according to any one of claims 1~5, which is characterized by further comprising:
a message database for storing messages, and
a message obtaining means for obtaining a message from the message database, and
a message determination means for determining whether an output of the message is specified, wherein
the output means outputs data of the proposal document in a format such that the obtained message is printed in a message field of the proposal document when the message determination means determines that the output of the message is specified.


[Claim 7]
The sales support system according to any one of claims 1~6, which is characterized in that:
various functions are executed by a server computer and a client computer, and
the server computer executes the various functions in accordance with an instruction transmitted to the server computer from the client computer through operations from a button provided on a screen of a monitor
/3
connected to the client computer, and
a printer connecting to the client computer prints the proposal document or the quotation document based on data transmitted from an output unit of the server computer.
[Claim 8]
The method for creating a vehicle purchase plan proposal document, which is characterized in that:
by a computer, vehicle specifications recommended for purchase (hereinafter referred to as recommended vehicle specifications) are determined based on customer attribute data, and
quoted prices of the recommended vehicle specifications are calculated based on a price table, and
a proposal document in a list format containing the quoted prices together with the recommended vehicle specifications is output to an external output means.
[Detailed Description of the Invention]
[0001]
[Technical Field to Which the Invention Belongs ]
The present invention relates to a sales support system that proposes a vehicle meeting customer attributes.
[0002]
[Background of the Invention]
In sales of vehicles, a salesperson meets with customers and holds business negotiations while presenting printed pamphlets and the like. However, a new salesperson cannot immediately propose a vehicle that matches a customer’s needs. In other words, the sales performance is greatly influenced by the experience and ability of the salesperson.
[0003]
An objective of the present invention is to provide a sales support system and a method for preparing a vehicle purchase plan proposal document, whereby a salesperson can immediately propose a vehicle that meets a customer’s needs.
[0004]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
(1) A sales support system according to the present invention, which is characterized by a recommended vehicle specification calculation means for calculating vehicle specifications recommended for purchase (hereinafter referred to as recommended vehicle specifications) based on customer attribute data, a quoted price calculation means for calculating quoted prices of the recommended vehicle specifications, and an output means for outputting the proposal document in a list format containing the quoted prices together with the recommended vehicle specifications.
(2) A method for creating a vehicle purchase plan proposal document, which is characterized in that a computer determines vehicle specifications recommended for (hereinafter referred to as recommended vehicle specifications) based on customer attribute data, calculates quoted prices of the recommended vehicle specifications based on a price table, and outputs a proposal document in a list format containing the quoted prices together with the recommended vehicle specifications to an external output means.
[0005]
[Effect of the Invention]
According to the present invention, it is possible to propose an optimal vehicle for a customer only by inputting the customer attribute data. As a result, even inexperienced salesperson can propose a vehicle purchase plan that encourages a customer to purchase vehicles and can lead to business negotiations thereafter.
[0006]
[Embodiment of the Invention]
An embodiment of the present invention applicable to a sales support system for vehicle sales will be described below with reference to Fig. 1~ Fig. 9. This system is intended to standardize various business

processes associated with sales at the time of selling a new vehicle, and a process at the time of creating a proposal document will be described mainly here.
[0007]
Fig. 1 is a figure showing a system configuration of a sales support system in the present embodiment. 10 is a host computer installed in the management center, and 20~40 are servers installed at dealers in various locations. The host computer 10 and the servers 20~40 are connected to one another via a communication network IT1. The portable information terminals 21~43 such as mobile personal computers of salespersons are connected to the servers 20~40. Here, the portable information terminals
/4
21~43 are client computers.
[0008]
Various servers 11 and databases 15 are connected to the host computer 10. The database 15 has, as shown in Fig. 2, a customer database 15A for storing customer attribute data, a standard specification database 15B for storing standard vehicle specifications for purchase and their prices, and an optional database 15C for storing vehicle options (accessories) and their prices, an assessment database 15D for assessing the trade-in price, a list database 15E for storing list formats to be outputted, and a message database 15F for storing various messages templates.


[0009]
In this embodiment, a vehicle according to customer attributes is proposed as support for sales activities at the time of new vehicle sales. As shown in Fig. 3, the server 11 of the host computer 10 functionally includes a recommended vehicle specification calculation unit 11A, a quoted price calculation unit 11B, and an output unit 11C. The recommended vehicle specification calculation unit 11A calculates vehicle specifications recommended for purchase (hereinafter referred to as recommended vehicle specifications) based on the customer attribute data. The quoted price calculation unit 11B calculates the quoted prices of the recommended vehicle specifications. The output unit 11C outputs data as a proposal document or as a quotation document in a list format containing the quoted prices together with the recommended vehicle specifications.
[0010]
Fig. 4 shows an example of a proposal document. The proposal document includes a print field 51 for printing the customer name, a print field 52 for printing the proposed vehicle model, a print field 53 for printing the optional specifications, a print field 54 for printing the suggested price, and print fields 55a, 55b for printing the payment examples, and a print field 56 for printing messages.
[0011]
Fig. 5 shows an example of a quotation document. The quotation document includes a print field 61 for printing the customer name, a print field 62 for printing the proposed vehicle model, a print field 63 for printing the optional specifications, a print field 64 for printing the vehicle price, a print field 65 for printing such as sales expenses, taxes, insurance, etc., and print fields 66a, 66b for printing the credit payment examples, a print field 67 for printing expenses breakdown, and a print field 68 for printing messages. That is, the proposal document is formed by taking a part of the contents printed on the quotation document.
[0012]
The output unit 11C creates and outputs data in a list format for printing a proposal document or a quotation document. Therefore, on the screens of the mobile information terminals 21~43 of the salespersons, selection buttons (buttons 71, 72 in Fig. 6) are provided for selecting a proposal document or a quotation document. When the proposal document button 72 is operated to select the proposal document, the output unit 11C outputs the recommended vehicle specifications together with the quoted prices in the format of a proposal document. When the quotation document button 71 is operated to select the quotation document, the recommended vehicle specifications are output together with quoted prices in the format of a quotation document.
[0013]
The recommended vehicle specifications include standard specifications and optional specifications. Each vehicle has standard specification settings. For example, vehicle shape, engine, drive system, transmission unit, specifications for standard / cold climate regions,


and grade are set respectively, and a vehicle having such a combination is sold as standard. These are set together with the prices in the standard specification database 15B.
[0014]
The optional specifications include a manufacturer's option incorporated at time of factory assembly and a dealer's option incorporated at the dealer’s location, and each vehicle also has optional specification settings. For example, privacy glass, 15-inch aluminum wheel, sunroof, etc. are set respectively, and these can be combined. These are set together with the prices in the optional database 15C.
[0015]
When a salesperson instructs creation of a proposal document, the recommended vehicle specification calculation unit 11A reads the attribute data of the customer, for whom a proposal document is to be created, from the customer database 15A. The attribute data includes,
/5
created, from the customer database 15A. The attribute data includes, for example, gender, age, married/unmarried, family structure, annual income, interest, etc. The read attribute data is analyzed by a predetermined analysis algorithm and categorized. For example, there can be the following categories.
▲ 1 ▼ For a male, 25~30~25 [sic! “30~25” is used in the source Japanese. It may be a typo] years old, unmarried outdoor person, he will select "ABC" car which is a four-wheel drive RV vehicle.
▲ 2 ▼ For a male, 50~55 years old, married, with a wife but without children and with an interest of trips to the outskirts, he will select "XYZ" which is a sedan vehicle with an engine displacement of 2500 cc or more.
▲ 3 ▼ For a male, 35~40 years old, married, with a family of 7 people, he will select "Iroha" which is an 8-seat wagon.
[0016]
The above analysis algorithm can also be designed as follows. Vehicle sales data is sent from dealers across the country to a vehicle manufacturer management center. The vehicle sales data includes customer attribute data, purchased vehicle specifications, purchased prices, payment conditions, and the like. Based on these sales data, the management center analyzes the purchased vehicle specifications with respect to the customer attributes and designs a categorization algorithm like the above ▲ 1 ▼~▲ 3 ▼. If the vehicle sales data is sent to the control center as electronic data, all the above analysis and algorithm design can be performed in the host computer 10.
[0017]
The quotation document price calculation unit 11B quotes the vehicle price with the specifications determined from the customer attributes. The prices of the standard specifications are calculated by referring to the price table of the standard specification database 15B, and the prices of the optional specifications are calculated by referring to the price table of the optional specification price database 15C.


[0018]
The server 11 of the host computer 10 functionally includes an assessment calculation unit 11D that assesses the price of a trade-in vehicle, and an assessment determination unit 11E that determines whether there is an assessed trade-in price. The assessment calculation unit 11D calculates the trade-in price based on the input assessment conditions after assessment conditions such as vehicle model, year, model, accessories type, travel mileage, own [sic! This word in the source does not make sense. Later in the document, the author uses the word "repair" before the word "history", so perhaps "own" is a source typo for "repair".] history, and scratches of the trade-in vehicle are inputted. When the assessment determination unit 11E determines there is the assessed trade-in price, the quotation document price calculation unit 11B calculates the vehicle quotation price reflecting the trade-in price.
[0019]
The server 11 of the host computer 10 further functionally includes a credit determination unit 11F and a credit calculation unit 11G. The credit determination unit 11F determines whether a credit is specified as a vehicle payment condition. After the credit determination unit 11F determines a credit is specified, the credit calculation unit 11G calculates payment terms based on the quoted price and the credit terms.
[0020]
The server 11 of the host computer 10 functionally further includes a message obtaining unit 11H and a message determination unit 11I. The message obtaining unit 11H obtains a message printed on a proposal document or a quotation document from the message database 15F. The message determination unit 11I determines whether an output of the message is specified. When the message determination unit 11I determines that an output of the message is specified, the output unit 11C outputs the proposal document data or the quotation document data in the format of printing the obtained message in the message entry field of the proposal document.
[0021]
Next, a specific procedure for creating a proposal document by the sales support system mentioned above will be described. Fig. 6 is a figure showing a basic screen of proposal document creation. A salesperson selects the option of "proposal document creation" from the basic menu screen (not shown). When "proposal document creation" is selected, a customer list for planning a business negotiation is displayed on the monitor screen. This customer list includes customers who have made a purchase offered by the salesperson previously, or customers with whom a sales agreement has not been reach but contact had been made in the past. It can also include newly developed customers whom were just entered into the system.




[0022]
/6
The salesperson selects any one 1 person from the customer list displayed on the screen and instructs the host computer 10 to create a proposal document. The host computer 10 selects a vehicle and options that match the customer attributes by the function of the recommended vehicle calculation unit 11 and makes a quotation of the selected vehicle and the options by the function of the quoted price calculation unit 11B. The host computer 10 transmits the information of the selected vehicle and options, and the quoted price to the client server 20.
[0023]
The client server 20 creates a proposal document creation screen based on the received information and transmits the data to the portable information terminals 21~43 requesting creation of a proposal document. Thereby, the proposal document creation screen as shown in Fig. 6 is displayed on the portable information terminal 21. On this screen, a recommended vehicle model and manufacturer's options are displayed together with the prices calculated by the recommended vehicle calculation unit 11 of the host computer 10.
[0024]
The "quoted vehicle" button 73 of Fig. 6 is operated to change the vehicle proposed in the proposal document in Fig. 6. A screen for selecting a vehicle model as shown in Fig. 7 is displayed by the operation. Fig. 7 is a display example at time of selecting, e.g. the vehicle model "ABC" from the pull-down type of vehicle model option screen. The vehicle shape, engine, drive system, transmission unit, suitable for standard/cold climate regions, and grade are displayed respectively. The salesperson selects these items in a combination. When the salesperson operates the "quotation breakdown" button 74, the screen is switched to the screen display of Fig. 6, and the changed car type is displayed.
[0025]
When the "select" button 75 provided in manufacturer's option field of the screen in Fig. 7 is operated, the screen is switched to the manufacturer's option selection screen of Fig. 8. A list of manufacturer's options for the selected car type is displayed. For example, when the sunroof is selected and the OK button is operated, the screen is switched to the proposal document screen of Fig. 6, and the display contents of the manufacturer's option field are changed.
[0026]
When the radio button 76 of "trade-in vehicle specification" on the proposal document display screen of Fig. 6 is operated, as shown in Fig. 9, an assessment conditions input screen of the trade-in car is displayed. On the screen in Fig. 9, when a salesperson inputs the number of days until vehicle inspection, driving mileage, repair history, etc., the assessment calculation unit 11D of the server 11 of the host computer 10 calculates the trade-in price based on the input trade-in conditions. The host computer 10 sends the trade-in price to the quoted price calculation unit 11A and recalculates the quoted price.
[0027]
For example, when a credit terms are specified from the credit pull-down menu 77 of the proposal document display screen in Fig. 6, for example, the number of months for payment, the calculation unit 11G of the server 11 of the host computer 10 sends the input credit terms to the quoted price calculation unit 11A and calculates the payment amount under the credit terms.
[0028]
When the salesperson operates the "Message" button 78 in Fig. 6, the message obtaining unit 11H of the server 11 of the host computer 10 obtains messages to be printed on a proposal document or a quotation document from the message database 15F. For example, messages used by veteran salespersons are stored in advance in the database 15F of the management center, such as "This proposed wagon series vehicle 'Iroha' is large, so it is suitable for a large family of Mr. Taro Tokyo".
[0029]
In this case, since the effect is limited depending on the message used, it is preferable to adopt a system that even supports about which message to use. It is possible to design an algorithm by statistically processing what kind of messages are used at what point of time and under what circumstances by veteran salespersons. For example, it is possible to categorize conditions into sales of large vehicles to large families, sales of RV vehicles to outdoor youth, seasonal sales or the like, and store messages used under such conditions.
/7
[0030]
When it is determined by the message determination unit 11I that the output of the message is specified, the output unit 11C outputs the proposal document data or the quotation document data in a format in which the acquired message is printed in the message entry field of the proposal document to the client server 20.
[0031]
In this manner, the entry contents of the proposal document are calculated by the server 11 of the host computer 10, and the host computer 10 supplies proposal document print data to the client server 20 as shown in Fig. 6. The client server 20 displays the proposal breakdown screen as shown in Fig. 6 on the monitor of the information terminal requesting the proposal document. When the salesperson operates the "print" button 79 of Fig. 6, a proposal document as shown in Fig. 4 is printed by a printer.
[0032]
As described above, according to the sales support system of the present embodiments, the following effects can be obtained.
(1) It is possible to propose an optimal vehicle for the customer only by inputting the customer attribute data. As a result, even inexperienced salesperson can propose a vehicle purchase plan that encourages customers to purchase vehicles, and can lead to business negotiations thereafter.

(2) The proposal document is a document in which less information is printed than the quotation document, and it is preferable as a tool to trigger business negotiations. In other words, experienced salespersons have realized that customers usually have an aversion before the presentation of detailed prices and expenses such as a quotation document from the beginning. Therefore, if a proposal document which has a simple quotation as described above is created and a mechanism to trigger business negotiations is used, even an inexperienced salesperson may achieve sales results equivalent to an experienced salesperson.
[0033]
(3) Messages that lead to business task are stored in the database of the management center, and it is possible to print them in the message field of a proposal document only by selection. Therefore, even an inexperienced salesperson can easily utilize the clincher sentences used by experienced salespersons, which can also improve the probability of starting business negotiations.
[0034]
The sales support system of the embodiment described above is an example, and it is not limited to the above configuration as long as it is a system that can easily create a proposal document which is a feature of the present invention. That is, it has been described as a sales support system configured of client computers connected to a server computer and a network. Various modes can be adopted as long as it is a system that the computer determines the vehicle specifications recommended to be purchased (hereinafter referred to as recommended vehicle specifications) based on the customer attribute data, calculates the quoted price of the recommended vehicle specifications, and outputs the proposal document in a list format having the quoted prices together with the recommended vehicle specifications to an external output means. Therefore, it may be realized by a server & client system completed in the sales office without passing through an external network. In some cases, all the above functions may be realized by a portable information terminal.
Japanese to English: ANTIBACTERIAL POLYESTER FIBER
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Textiles / Clothing / Fashion
Source text - Japanese
[請求項1]SiO2を主体とする銀系の無機系抗菌剤aを0.1質量%以上,リク酸塩を主体とする銀系の無機系抗菌剤bを0.3質量%以上含有するポリエステル繊維であって、かつ下記(1)~(3)の要件を満たすことを特徴とする抗菌性ポリエステル繊維。
(1) 繊維中の抗菌剤aと抗菌剤bの含有量の和が10質量%以下である,
(2) 10時間培養後の生菌数から算出した静菌活性値が2.2以上である。
(3) 100洗後の静菌活性値が2.2以上である。
[請求項2]アルカリ処理前後の色差(ΔE)が5.0以下である請求項1記載の抗菌性ポリエステル繊維,
[発明の詳細な説明]
[0001]
[発明の属する技術分野]本発明ほ、2種類の銀系の無機系抗菌剤を含有し、抗菌性能において、即効性と持続性を併せ持つ抗菌性ポリエステル繊維に関するものである。
[0002]
[従来の技術]ポリエチレンテレフタレ一トに代表されるポリエステルは、優れた機械特性及び化学特性を有するため、広範囲に使用されている。また、近年消費者の価値観の多様性、衛生に対する意識の高まりにより種々の抗菌性_維が実用化されている。
[0003]ポリエステル繊維に抗菌防臭性を付与する方法はこれまで多く提案されている。布帛に後加工方法で抗菌剤を固定化する方法としては、シリコン系第4級アンモニウム塩を用いる方法や、脂肪族系第4級アンモニウム塩を用いる方法がある。
[0004]しかしながら、これらは繊維表面に抗菌剤を固着させているので、洗濯や摩擦、摩耗により脱落し、抗菌性能が低下するという欠点を有する。また、特開昭56-148965号公報に記載されるような、イオン交換基を表面に含む繊維に銀イオンを結合させる方法や、同様の織維に遷移金属イオンを結合させる方法が提案されている。しかしながら、これらはイオン交換基を繊維表面に尊入させることが必要であり、アクリル'繊維には有効であってもポリエステル繊維のような官能基の少ないポリマーにほ不適である。
[0005]上記の問題点を解決するために、ポリエステルに抗菌性を有する粉体を含有させて、抗菌性ポリェステル繊維を得る方法もこれまでに数多く提案されており、特開昭59-133235号公報、特公昭63-54103号公報及び特開昭63-175117号公報には、抗菌性ゼオライト(銀ゼオライト)を溶融訪糸前にポリエステルに混合し、溶融紡糸して得られた抗菌性繊維が開示されている。
[0006]抗菌性ゼオライト及び抗菌性リン酸塩を含有する合成繊維は抗菌性が良好でその耐久性も優れているが、このような繊維は.ポリエステルの風合い改良の一手段であ.るアル々リ減量加工を行うと、抗菌成分である銀の酸化が生じて変色(着色)するため、白度が要求されるような用違への使用が制限されるという,欠点があった。また、ゼオライトが吸湿性であるため、水分率を低く保つこと_が困難である。
[0007]繊維中の銀量を減少させることで、アル力リ減量加工時の変色を抑制することほ可能だが、十分な抗菌性を有するものとならないため、アルカリ減量加工を施す用途では、取り扱いいという欠点がある。
[0008]そこで本発明者らは、特開平11-158730号公報において、抗菌剤として銀化合物を芯部に含有することによって、ブルカリ減置加工後の変色が改善された芯鞘型複合抗菌ポリエステル繊維を提案している。しかしながら、この繊維は複合夕イプ:め訪糸機を使用して製造する必要があるため製造工程が複雑になり、また効果を十分に発揮させるためにほ、繊維の芯鞘比率及びアルカリ減量比率が限定され、制御が困難であった。
[0009]また、本発明者らは特願2000-170037号において、主成分がリン酸の金属塩である銀系抗菌剤のナトリウム量をコントロールすることで、アルカリ減量加工後の変色が改善された抗菌ポリエステル繊維について提案している。しかし、抗菌性の即効性を求める場合、抗菌剤の添加量を増やす必要があり、コスト的に不利となってしまう
[0010]消費者のニーズの多様化に伴って、抗菌性能の即効性及び持続性を有し、かつ色調の良好な抗菌性繊維の要望が強まってきているが、これらの3条件(抗菌性の即効性、持続性及び良好な色調)を同時に満たすものほ未だに提案されていない。
[0011]
[本発明が解決しようとする諌題]本発明は上述のような問題点を解決し、可紡性が良好で低コストで得ることができ、抗菌性能において、即効性と持続性を併せ持ち、さらには、アル力リ処理を行っても変色(着色)が少ない、色調に優れた抗菌性ポリエステル繊維を提供することを技術的な課題とするものである。
[0012]
[課題を解決するための手段]本発明者らは、上記課題を解決するために鋭意検討した結果、本発明に到達した,すなわち、本発明は、SiO2を主体とする銀第の無機系抗菌剤aを0.1質量%以上、リン酸塩を主体とする銀系の無機系抗菌剤bを0.3質量%以上含有するポリエステル繊維であって、かつ下記(1)~(3)の要件を满たすことを特徴とする抗菌性ポリエステル繊維を要旨とするものである,,
(1) 織維中の抗菌剤aと抗菌剤bの含有量の和が10質量%以下である。
(2) 10時間培養後の生菌数から算出した静菌活性値が2.2以上である。
(3) 100洗後の静菌活性値が2.2以上である,

[0013]
[発明の実施の形態]以下、本発明について詳細に説明する。本発明の抗菌性ポリヱステル繊維は、2種類の銀系抗菌剤を繊維中に含有するものであって、これらの抗菌剤が繊維全体に均一に含有.されるょうなものであ.っても、繊維断面の一部、例えば芯輔型やサイドバイサイド型等の複合糸の一成分に含まれるものであってもよい。中でも抗菌剤成分の一部分が繊維表面に露出するような構造とすることが好ましい。また、繊維の形状は、丸断面、異形断面等のいずれであってもよい.。
[0014]本発明の繊維を構成するポリエステルは、ポリ'アルキレンザレフタレート、ポリアルキレンナフタレート等があるが、具体的にはポリエチレンテレフタレ—ト(PET)やポリトリメチレンテレフタレ一ト(PTT)、ポリブチレンテレフタレート(PBT)が好ましく用いられる。
[0015]ポリアルキレンテレフタレ一トおよびポリアルキレンナフタレートほ、ポリエステル特有の性能を損なわない範囲であれば、共重合成分を含有していてもよく共重合成分としては、イソフタル酸、無水フタル酸、ナフタレンジカルボン酸等の芳香族ジカルボン酸成分、アジピン酸、セバシン酸等の脂肪族ジカルボン酸成分、ジエチレングリコール、プロピレングリコ一ル、1, 4—シクロヘキシルジメタノール、ビスフエノールAのアルキレン才キシト'付加物等のグリコ一ル成分、4—ヒドロキシ安息香酸、εー力プロラクトン等のヒドロキジカルボン酸成分等が職デもれる。
[0016]本発明者らがこれまでに種々の無機系抗菌剤について検討を重ねた結果、抗菌剤にほ大きく分けて主に初期の抗菌性に力を発揮するもの(即効性のあるもの)と、初期の抗菌性は比較的弱いものの、様々な処理を経た後にも十分な効果を発するもの(持続性のあるもの)が存在することが判った。
[0017]主体成分がSiO2であるものは、比較的初期の抗菌性が高く、また、繊維中に添加しても、繊維製造時の操業性を損なうことがなく、強伸度特性の良好な繊維を得ることが可能であった,一方、主成分がリン酸の金属塩である抗菌剤は、初期の抗菌性よりもむしろ持続的に抗菌性を発揮するものであり、前者同様、繊維中添加しても、繊維製造時の操業性を損なうことがなぐ強伸度特性の良好な繊維を得ることが可能であった。
[0018]そこで、両者を併用することで本発明の目的とする、即効性と持続性を併せ持つ抗菌繊維を操業性を損なうことなく得ることが可能であることを見い出した。
[0019]本発明でいう抗菌剤aは、銀系の無機系抗菌剤であり、主体成分がSiO2であれば特に制限されないが、水に可溶なケイ酸系硝子中に銀イオンを保持したものを用いることが好ましい,ケイ酸系硝子は内部に銀イオンを安定的(こ保持し、わずかな水分の介在て''銀イオンを溶出することができるため、即効性を付与すること(こ効果的である。
[0020]また、抗菌剤bは、銀系の無機系抗菌剤であり、主成分がリン酸の金属塩からなるものであり、中でも抗菌剤の主成分がリン酸ジルコニウム銀、リン酸力ルシウム銀のいずれかであるものを用いることが好ましい。リン酸金属塩は水分が多量に存在する環境下でも銀の溶出を適度に制御するので、持続性を付与することに効果的である。なお、従来使用している主成分がゼオライト銀である抗菌剤は、ゼオライトは吸湿性であり、水分管理を十分に行う必要がある(水分が存在すると、紡糸中にポリエステルの加水分解が生じ、色調の良好な繊維を得るごとが難しい)ため好ましくない。
[0021]本発明の抗菌性繊維中に存在する抗菌剤の含有量は~抗菌剤aが繊維全体に対して0.1質量%以上、また、抗菌剤bが繊維全体に対して0.3質量%以上必要であり、かつ抗菌剤aと抗菌剤bの総含有量が10質量%以下である。
[0022]抗菌剤aの含有量が0.1質量%未満では.初期の抗菌性に寄与する銀量が十分にないため-、目的とする抗菌性の即効性を得ることができない。また、抗菌剤bの含有量が0.3質量%未満では耐久性に寄与する銀量が十分にないため、目的とする抗菌性の持続性を得ることができない。
[0023]さらに、両抗菌剤の総含有量が繊維全体に対して10質量%を超.えると、纺糸時の麟性が低下する。そこで、操業性の面からより好ましくは5質量%以下とずる。
[0024]このように、本発明の抗菌性繊維は、抗菌剤aを含有することで、10時間培養後の生菌数から算出した静菌活性値が2.2以上となる。この指標は、抗菌性の即効性を評価するための指標であり、静菌活性値がこの値未満では、目的とする抗菌性の即効性を満足しない。
[0025]一方、本発明の抗菌性繊維は、抗菌剤bを含有することで、100洗後(JAFET標準洗剤を使用し統一試験法にた方法で100回洗濯した後)の静菌活性値が2.2以上となる。この指標は、抗菌性の持続性を評価するための指標'であり,静菌活性値がこの德来満では、目的とする抗菌性の持続性を満足しない。
[0026]なお、本発明でいう靜菌活性値(抗菌性の評価)は次のように行ったものである。繊維製品衛生加エ協議会(JAFET)の統一試験法に準じて行った,滅菌後クリーンベンチ内で乾燥した検体(約18mmの正方形の試験片0.4g)に、予め高圧蒸気滅菌し氷冷した1/20濃度のニュートリエントブロスで生菌数を1±0.3.X105個/m1に調整した試験菌懸濁液0.2mlを検体全体に均一に浸みるように接種し、滅菌したキャップを締めける,これを37±1°Cで所定の時間培養する。培養後の生菌数を测定する。


試験菌としては、黄色ブドラ状球菌(Stephylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P)を用い、下記の方法で抗菌性の指標である静菌活性値を算出した。
静菌活性値:LogB-LogC
ただU試験成立条件(LogB-LogA)>1.5を満たすものとする。
A:標準布の接種直後に回収した菌数の平均値
B:標準布の18時間培養後回収した菌数の平均値
C:加工布の10時間又は18時間培養後回収した菌数の平均値10時間培養後の生菌数から算出した静菌活性値は、Cの加工布において10時間培養したものであり、100洗後の静菌活性値は、JAFETの標準洗剤を用ぃ、統一試験法に準じた方法で100回洗潘した後のサシプルをCの加工布とし、18時間培養したものである。そして、標準布には、抗菌防舆加工製品の加工効果評価試験マニユアルに規定のものを使用した。
[0027]さらに、本発明の抗菌性繊維は、上記のような抗菌剤を含有することによって、アルカリ処理前後の変色を防止することができるものであり、具体的にはアルカリ処理前後の色差(ΔE)が5.0以下であることが好ましく、さらには2.0以下であることが好ましい。
[0028]なお、ここでいうアルカリ処理とは、本発明の抗菌性ポリエステル繊維を筒編みしたものを用い、色調を測定した後、70°Cて''30分乾燥させ、70°Cに調整した10%水酸化ナトリウム溶液中で100分間の処理を施すことを'いう,_PETの場合,こめとぎめ減量率は10~30%となる。
[0029]そして、アルカリ処埋前後の色差(ΔE)は、筒編状の布帛のアルカリ処理前およびアルカリ処理後の色調(L, a, b値)をミノルタ(株)製色夥色差計CR-100で測定し、下式で算出するものである。
ΔE=[(ΔL*)2+(Δa*)2+(Δb*)2]1/2
ΔL*:アルカリ処理前後のL値の差
Δa*:アルカリ処理前後のa値の差
Δb*:アルカリ処理前後のb値の差
[0030]色差(ΔE)が5.0を超えると、通常のポリエステ/レや他の素材と混繊し、織編した後、アルカリ減量加工と染色加工を行うと、抗菌性繊維の部分だけが発色性が悪くなり、くすんて''見え基ようにな。また、アルカリ減量加工中の変色(着色)がひどい場合には、減量加工中に抗菌性繊維かう遊離した成分により他の素材も変色(着色)してしまう場合がぁり、その後の染色加工で染色斑や、発色不良が起こり好ましくない。
[0031]さらに、本発明の抗菌性ポリエステル繊維には、抗菌性の発現を阻害しないものであれば、例えば、紫外線吸収剤、制電剤、顔料、酸化チタン、ニ酸化珪素等を繊維製造中に添加したり、防ダニ剤、消臭剤等を繊維に付与させてもよい。
[0032]そして、本発明の抗菌性ポリエステル繊維は、常法により、溶融紡糸装置を用いて製造することができ、含有させる抗菌剤は、a、bともにポリマ一を重合するとき添加してもよいし、製糸工程中のポリマー溶融時に添加し均一に混練、分散させてもよい。さらにほ、抗菌剤を高濃度で含有するマスタ一ポリマーとべ一スポリマーとを混練して使用し繊維中に含有させてもよいし、抗菌剤を低濃度で含有するマスターポリマーをそのまま使用し繊維中に含有させてもよい。
[0033]
[作用]本発明の抗菌性ポリエステル繊維は、アル力リ処理後の変色(着色)がなく色調が良好であり、かつ即効性と持続性を併せ持つ、良好な抗菌性を有するものである。抗菌性能の発現のメカニズムについては定かではないが、主体成分がSiO2である抗菌剤ほ、抗菌性に開して有効に作用する銀イオンの溶出が比較的速いため、即効性のある抗菌剤となると考えられる。また、主成分がリン酸の金属塩である抗菌剤は銀イオンの溶出が比較的遅いため、即効性はないものの持続性の強い抗菌剤となるものと考えられる。さらに、アルカリ処理後の変色が少ないのは、銀イオンの溶出が速いSiO2系の抗菌剤を含有することにより、繊維表面には常に新たな銀イオンが更新され、アルカリによって変色した酸化銀は速やかに繊維表面から脱落するため'繊維表面に変色物が存在しないと考えられる,
[0034]
[実施例]次に、実施例によって本発明を具体的に説明する。なお、実施例おける特性値の測定、評価は次め通りである。
(a) 極限粘度〔η〕:
フエノールと四塩化工タンとの等重量混合液を溶媒とし、溫度20°Cで測定した。
(b) 抗菌性(静菌活性値)
前記の方法で測定した。
(c)アルカリ減量率
アルカリ処理前の試料を70°Cで30分乾燥した質量を〔B〕とし、アルカリ処理後の試料を蒸留水で洗浄し、70°Cで30分乾燥した後の質量を〔A〕とし、下記の式によりアルカリ減量率を算出した。
アルカリ減量率(%)={(B-A)/B}×100
(d)アルカリ処理前後の色差(ΔE)
前記の方法で測定した。
(e)操業性
24錘での製糸中における1日当たりの糸切れ数が、3回未満の場合は操業性、3~6回の場合は操業性Δ、6回を超える場合を×とした。
[0035]実施例1
通常用いられる単成分用溶融紡糸機台を用い、極限粘度が0.69、ガラス転移点溫度77°C,結晶化温度125°C及び融点259°CのPETチップを使用して溶融紡糸を行った。


その際、ポリマ一溶融時に,水溶性のケイ酸系硝子を主体とする無機系抗菌剤a(石塚硝子社製:「イオンピユア」)を繊維質量に対し0.5質量%、リン酸カルシウムを主体とする銀系の無機系抗菌剤b(サンギ社製:「アパサイザ一AK」)を繊維質量に対し0.5質量%となるように添加し、84デシテックス/24フィラメソトの半未延伸糸(POY)を紡糸速度3500m/分で製糸した。この半未延伸糸を延伸速度650m/分、延伸倍率1.5倍で延伸し、56デシテックス/24フィラメソトの延伸糸を得た。このとき、強伸度特性の良好な繊維を操業性よく得ることができた。次に、この繊維を1gの筒編み地にし、色調(b値)を測定した後、770°Cで30分乾燥させ、70°Cに調整した10%水酸化ナトリウム溶液中で100分間のアルカリ処理を施した。その後、アルカリを蒸留水で洗浄し、70°Cで30分乾燥させた。こめときのアルカリ減量率は21.4%であつた。
[0036]実施例2~6、比較例1~5
抗菌剤a、bの含有量が表1、2に示すものとなるように変更した以外は、実施例1と同様に行った。
[0037]実施例7
抗菌剤bとして主成分がリン酸ジルコニウム銀である抗菌剤を用い、抗菌剤a、bの含有量が表1に示すものとなるように変更した以外は、実施例1と同様に行った。
[0038]比較例6
抗菌剤bとして主成分がゼオライト銀である抗菌剤を用い、抗菌剤a、bの含有量が表2に示すものとなるように変更した以外は、実施例1と同様に行った。
[0039]実施例1~7、比較例1~6で得られた繊維の抗菌性、色調(b値)、色差(AE)、操業性の評価結果を表1、2に示す。
Translation - English
[Claims]
[Claim 1]
An antibacterial polyester fiber, which is a polyester fiber containing 0.1 mass% or more of a silver-based inorganic antibacterial agent a mainly composed of SiO2 and 0.3 mass% or more of a silver-based inorganic antibacterial agent b mainly composed of phosphate, and which is characterized by satisfying the following requirements (1)~(3):
(1) the sum of the contents of the antimicrobial agent a and the antimicrobial agent b in the fiber is 10 mass% or less,
(2) the bacteriostatic activity value calculated from the viable cell count after 10 hours of culture is 2.2 or more.
(3) the bacteriostatic activity value after 100 washes is 2.2 or more.
[Claim 2]
The antibacterial polyester fiber according to claim 1, wherein the color difference (ΔE) before and after alkali treatment is 5.0 or less.
[Detailed Description of the Invention]
[0001]
[Technical Field]
The present invention relates to an antibacterial polyester fiber which contains 2 types of silver-based inorganic antibacterial agents and has both immediate action and long-lasting action in terms of antibacterial performance.
[0002]
[Prior Art]
Polyester represented by polyethylene terephthalate is widely used because of its excellent mechanical and chemical properties. In recent years, various antibacterial fibers have been put into use due to consumers’ diversified values and increasing awareness of hygiene.
[0003]
Many methods for imparting antibacterial and deodorizing properties to polyester fibers have been proposed so far. There are the method of fixing an antibacterial agent on the fabric by post processing, the method of using a silicon-based quaternary ammonium salt, and the method of using an aliphatic-based quaternary ammonium salt.
[0004]
However, since they have an antibacterial agent fixed to the fiber surface, they have the disadvantage of reduced antibacterial performance as the agent comes off due to washing, friction and abrasion. Also, as described in the Japanese unexamined patent publication No. S56-148965, a method of bonding silver ions to fibers having ion exchange groups on the surface, and a method of bonding transition metal ions to similar fibers are proposed. However, they require incorporating ion exchange groups into the fiber surface and are unsuitable for polymers with fewer functional groups, such as polyester fibers, although they are effective for acrylic fibers.
[0005]
To solve the above problems, many methods have been proposed so far to obtain antibacterial polyester fibers by incorporating a polyester powder with antibacterial properties. The Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. S59-133235, Japanese Examined Patent Publication No. S63-54103 and Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. S63-175117 disclosed methods for obtaining antibacterial fibers by mixing antibacterial zeolite (silver zeolite) with polyester before melt-dissolving and spinning.
[0006]
Synthetic fibers containing antibacterial zeolite and antibacterial phosphate have good antibacterial properties and excellent durability, but if alkali treatment for weight loss which is a means of improving the texture of polyester is implemented, oxidation of silver antibacterial component occurs, causing discoloration (coloring), and as a result, they have the disadvantage of being limited in the use where whiteness is required. In addition, since zeolite is hygroscopic, it is difficult to keep the water content low.
[0007]
Although it is possible to suppress discoloration at the time of alkali treatment for weight loss by reducing the amount of silver in the fiber, it leads to insufficient antibacterial properties, so there is a drawback of difficulty in operability for applications where alkali treatment for weight loss is implemented.
[0008]
Therefore, the inventors of the present invention have proposed, in the Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. H11-158730, a core-sheath type compound antibacterial polyester with improved post-alkali treatment discoloration performance by containing a silver compound as an antibacterial agent in the core. However, since this fiber needs to be manufactured using a composite type spinning machine, the manufacturing process is complicated, and to deliver its full effects, the core to sheath ratio and the alkali reduction ratio of the fiber are limited and difficult to control.
[0009]
Further, the inventors of the present invention proposed an antibacterial polyester fiber in Japanese Patent Application No. 2000-170037 for improving the post-alkali treatment discoloration by controlling the amount of sodium in the silver-based antibacterial agent whose main component is a metal salt of phosphoric acid. However, when the immediate antibacterial effect is sought, it is necessary to increase the amount of the antibacterial agent added, which is not cost effective.
[0010]
With the diversified needs of consumers, the demand for antibacterial fibers having immediate antibacterial effect, long-lasting antibacterial action and good color tone has been intensified. Yet, nothing has been proposed that can simultaneously satisfy these 3 conditions (immediate action, lasting action, and good color tone).
[0011]
[Problems to be Solved by the invention]
It is an objective of the present invention to solve the problems as described above, and to provide an antibacterial polyester fiber with good operability and a low cost, having both immediate and long-lasting antibacterial actions, excellent color tone, and less discoloration (coloring) even after alkali treatment for weight loss.
[0012]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
As a result of the intensive study to solve the above problems, the inventors achieved the present invention. Specifically, the present invention relates to an antibacterial polyester fiber which is a polyester fiber containing 0.1 mass% or more of a silver-based inorganic antibacterial agent a mainly composed of SiO2 and 0.3 mass% or more of a silver-based inorganic antibacterial agent b mainly composed of phosphate, and which is characterized by satisfying the following requirements (1)~(3).
(1) The sum of the contents of the antimicrobial agent a and the antimicrobial agent b in the fiber is 10 mass% or less.
(2) The bacteriostatic activity value calculated from the viable cell count after 10 hours of culture is 2.2 or more.
(3) The bacteriostatic activity value after 100 washes is 2.2 or more.
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[0013]
[Embodiments of the Invention]
The present invention will be described in detail below. The antimicrobial polyester fiber of the present invention contains 2 types of silver-based antibacterial agents in the fiber, and these antibacterial agents may be uniformly distributed throughout the fiber. Also, it may be contained in a part of the cross section of the fiber, for example, in one component of the composite yarn of a core-sheath type, a side-by-side type or other type. Of these structures, the structure in which a part of the antibacterial agent component is exposed on the fiber surface is preferred. In addition, the fiber may have a round cross section or an irregular cross section or other shapes.
[0014]
The polyesters constituting the fiber of the present invention include polyalkylene terephthalate and polyalkylene naphthalate but specifically, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) are preferred.
[0015]
Polyalkylene terephthalate and polyalkylene naphthalate may contain a copolymerization component to the extent that the typical functions of the polyester are not impaired, and the copolymerization component may be an aromatic dicarboxylic acid component, e.g. isophthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, naphthalene dicarponic acid, etc., or an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid components e.g. adipic acid, sebacic acid, etc., or a glycol component e.g. diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 1,4-cyclohexyl dimethanol, alkylene oxide adduct of bisphenol A, etc., or a hydroxy carboxylic acid component e.g. 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, ε-caprolactone, etc.
[0016]
As a result of the investigation carried out by the inventors into various inorganic antibacterial agents, it is found that antibacterial agents can be roughly divided into those that mainly have early antibacterial power (immediate action) and those that have relatively weak antimicrobial activity initially but will have sufficient effects after various treatments (long lasting action).
[0017]
Antibacterial agents whose main component is SiO2 have relatively high initial antimicrobial activity, and even if added to fibers, they do not damage the operability during fiber production, and it is possible to obtain a fiber having good elasticity and tensile strength. On the other hand, antibacterial agents whose main component is a metal salt of phosphoric acid have sustained antibacterial action rather than the initial antibacterial power, and as in the former, even if added to fibers, they do not impair the operability during fiber production, and it is possible to obtain a fiber having good elasticity and tensile strength.
[0018]
Therefore, it has been found that, by combining the two agents, it is possible to obtain an antimicrobial fiber having both immediate power and long-lasting action without impairing the operability, thereby achieving the objective of the present invention.
[0019]
The antibacterial agent a in the present invention is a silver-based inorganic antibacterial agent, and although there are no particular limitations on it as long as its main component is SiO2, it is preferred that an agent, which retains the silver ions in the water-soluble silicate glass, is used. Since the silicate glass can stably retain the silver ions inside it and elute the silver ions in the presence of a small amount of water, it effectively delivers an immediate action.
[0020]
The antibacterial agent b is a silver-based inorganic antibacterial agent, the main component of which is a metal salt of phosphoric acid, and preferably it has either silver zirconium phosphate or calcium phosphate as its main component. Since metal phosphates appropriately control the elution of silver even in the presence of a large amount of water, they are effective in delivering a sustained action. In addition, a conventional antibacterial agent whose main component is zeolite silver is unfavorable, because zeolite is hygroscopic, it is necessary to strictly manage the water (when water is present, hydrolysis of the polyester occurs in the spun yarn, and it is difficult to obtain a fiber with a good color tone).
[0021]
The contents of the antibacterial agents present in the antibacterial fiber of the present invention are 0.1 mass% or more of the antibacterial agent a contains with respect to the total fiber and 0.3 mass% or more of the antibacterial agent b with respect to the total fiber, and the total content of the antibacterial agents a and b is 10 mass% or less.
[0022]
If the content of the antibacterial agent a is less than 0.1 mass%, the amount of silver contributing to the initial antibacterial power is insufficient such that the desired immediate antibacterial action cannot be obtained. In addition, if the content of the antibacterial agent b is less than 0.3 mass%, the amount of silver contributing to the sustained action is insufficient, such that the desired long-lasting antibacterial action cannot be obtained.
[0023]
Furthermore, if the total content of the two antibacterial agents is more than 10 mass% with respect to the total fiber, then the spinning operability will decrease. Therefore, the content is more preferably 5 mass% or less from the viewpoint of operability.
[0024]
Thus, the antibacterial fiber of the present invention contains the antibacterial agent a, so that the bacteriostatic activity value calculated from the viable bacteria number after 10 hours of culture is 2.2 or more. This index is used for evaluating the immediate antibacterial action, and if the bacteriostatic activity value is less than this value, the objective of immediate antibacterial action cannot be achieved.
[0025]
On the other hand, the antibacterial fiber of the present invention contains the antibacterial agent b, and the bacteriostatic activity value after 100 washes (after washing 100 times by the method according to a uniform test method using a JAFET standard detergent) is 2.2 or more. This index is used for evaluating the long duration of the antibacterial action, and if the bacteriostatic activity value is less than this value, the objective of long-lasing antibacterial action will not be achieved.
[0026]
The bacteriostatic activity value (evaluation of the antibacterial action) referred to in the present invention is as follows. It is conducted according to the Uniform Test Method for Testing Textile Products Sanitation and Care Association (JAFET). Pre-sterilize the specimen (0.4 g test piece of a square with the side of about 18 mm) that has been dried in a sterilized clean bench, and inoculate it with 0.2 ml of the test bacteria suspension adjusted to 1 ± 0.3  105 counts/ml of viable bacteria with an ice-cooled nutrient broth of a 1/20 concentration by uniformly soaking the entire specimen in it, and then tighten the sterilized cap. The specimen is cultured at 37 ± 1C for a predetermined time. The viable
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bacteria count is determined after culture. The bacteriostatic activity value, which is an index of antibacterial activity, is calculated by the following method, using Stephylococcus aureus (Stephylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P) as the test bacterium.
Bacteriostatic activity: Log B - Log C
However, the condition satisfying the test is (Log B - Log A) > 1.5.
A: Average number of bacteria collected immediately after inoculation on a standard cloth
B: Average number of bacteria collected after 18 hours of culture on a standard cloth
C: Average number of bacteria collected after 10 hours or 18 hours of culture on a processed cloth.
The bacteriostatic activity value calculated from the viable bacteria count after 10 hours of culture is obtained by culturing for 10 hours on a C processed cloth, and the bacteriostatic activity value after 100 washes is obtained by culturing for 18 hours on a C processed cloth after washing 100 times with the method according to the uniform test method using a JAFET standard detergent. The standard cloth was as specified in the processing effect evaluation test manual of antibacterial deodorant products.
[0027]
Furthermore, the antibacterial fiber of the present invention can prevent discoloration before and after the alkali treatment by containing the above-mentioned antibacterial agents and specifically, the color difference before and after alkali treatment (ΔE) is preferably 5.0 or less, more preferably 2.0 or less.
[0028]
The term "alkali treatment" as used herein means that after measuring the color tone using the knitted tubular antibacterial polyester fiber of the present invention, it is dried at 70C for 30 minutes and treated in a 10% sodium hydroxide solution adjusted to 70C for 100 minutes. If it is PET, the weight loss rate in the treatment is 10~30%.
[0029]
The color difference (ΔE) before and after the alkali treatment is the color tone (L, a, and b values) of the knitted tubular fabric before and after the alkali treatment measured with the color difference meter CR-100 manufactured by Minolta Co., Ltd and calculated by the following formula.
ΔE = [(ΔL*) 2 + (Δa*) 2 + (Δb*) 2] 1/2
ΔL*: difference in L value before and after the alkali treatment
Δa*: difference in a value before and after the alkali treatment
Δb*: difference in b value before and after the alkali treatment
[0030]
When the color difference (ΔE) exceeds 5.0, and a common polyester which is weaved with another material into a mixed fabric is subjected to alkali treatment for weight loss and dyeing, only the antibacterial fiber part becomes poor in coloring an is visibly dull in color. In addition, when discoloration (coloring) during weight loss alkali treatment is severe, the components that are liberated from the antibacterial fiber during weight loss treatment may also discolor (color) the other material, leading to unfavorable color spots and color defects in the subsequent dyeing process.
[0031]
Furthermore, in the antibacterial polyester fiber of the present invention, for example, an ultraviolet absorber, an antistatic agent, pigment, titanium oxide, silicon dioxide and the like may be added in the process of fiber manufacture, or an anti-mite agent, a deodorant and the like may be added to the fiber, provided that the development of the antibacterial property is not inhibited.
[0032]
Further, the antibacterial polyester fiber of the present invention can be manufactured by a conventional method using a melt spinning apparatus, and the contained antibacterial agents a and b may be added during polymerization. Alternatively, they may be added at the time of polymer melting in the yarn manufacture process and then uniformly kneaded and dispersed. Furthermore, they may be contained in the fiber by kneading the master polymer containing high concentrations of the antibacterial agents and the base polymer, or they may be contained in the fiber simply by using the master polymer containing low concentrations of the antibacterial agents.
[0033]
[Function]
The antibacterial polyester fiber of the present invention is free from discoloration (coloring) after the alkali treatment, has a good color tone, and has good antibacterial properties with both immediate action and long-lasting action. Although the mechanism of expression of the antibacterial performance is not clear, the antibacterial agent whose main component is SiO2 is believed to be the antibacterial agent with immediate action because the elution of silver ions, which effectively act to deliver the antibacterial effects, is relatively fast. In addition, since the antibacterial agent whose main component is a metal salt of phosphoric acid has a relatively slow elution of silver ions, it is believed to be a long-lasting antibacterial agent although it has no immediate action. Furthermore, the reason why there is little discoloration after the alkali treatment is that the silver surface is constantly updated with new silver ions by the SiO2-based antibacterial agent that elutes silver ions quickly, and there is no discolored material on the fiber surface because the silver oxide discolored by alkali rapidly comes off from the fiber surface.
[0034]
[Embodiments]
Next, the present invention will be described in detail by embodiments. In addition, the measurement and evaluation of the characteristics value in the embodiments are described below.
(a) Intrinsic viscosity [η]:
It is measured at a temperature of 20C by using a mixture of phenol and ethane tetrachloride in equal weights as the solvent.
(b) Antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic activity value)
It is measured by the method described in the above.
(c) Alkali weight loss rate
The sample before the alkali treatment is dried at 70C for 30 minutes to give a mass [B], and the sample after the alkali treatment is washed with distilled water and dried at 70C for 30 minutes to give a mass of [A], and the weight loss rate by alkali treatment is calculated by the following formula.
Alkali weight loss rate (%) = {(B-A) / B}  100
(d) Color difference (ΔE) before and after the alkali treatment
It is measured by the method mentioned in the above.
(e) Operability
The number of broken yarns per day during yarn production of 24 spindles was used to evaluate operability, and less than 3 was rated as operability O, 3~6 as operability Δ, and more than 6 as operability .
[0035]
Embodiment 1
Melt spinning was carried out on a commonly used single-component melt spinning machine by using PET chips having intrinsic viscosity of 0.69, a glass transition temperature of 77C, a crystallization temperature of 125C, and a melting point of 259C. At the time of melting
/5
the polymer, 0.5 mass%, with respect to the fiber, of an inorganic antibacterial agent (manufactured by Ishizuka Glass Co., Ltd.: "Ionpure") mainly composed of water-soluble silicate glass, and 0.5 mass%, with respect to the fiber, of a silver based antibacterial agent b (made by Sangi Co., Ltd.: “Apcider AK”) mainly composed of calcium phosphate were added, and the partially orientated yarn (POY) of 84 dtex/24 filaments is spun at a spinning speed of 3500 m/min. The partially orientated yarn is drawn at a drawing speed of 650 m/min. and a draw ratio of 1.5 to obtain a drawn yarn of 56 dtex/24 filaments. A fiber having good elasticity and tensile strength could be obtained with good operability. Next, the fiber was made into a 1 g knitted tubular fabric, and after the color tone (b value) was measured, it was dried at 770C for 30 minutes and then received the alkali treatment for 100 minutes in a 10% sodium hydroxide solution adjusted to 70C. Thereafter, alkali was rinsed off with distilled water and it was dried at 70C for 30 minutes. The weight loss rate by the alkali treatment was 21.4%.
[0036]
Embodiments 2~6, Comparative examples 1~5
The same procedures as in Embodiment 1 were carried out except that the contents of the antibacterial agents a and b were changed as shown in Tables 1 and 2.
[0037]
Embodiment 7
The same procedures as in Embodiment 1 were carried out except that an antibacterial agent whose main component was zirconium silver phosphate was used as the antibacterial agent b and the contents of the antibacterial agents a and b were changed as shown in Table 1.
[0038]
Comparative example 6
The same procedures as in Example 1 were carried out except that an antibacterial agent whose main component was zeolite silver was used as the antibacterial agent b and the contents of the antibacterial agents a and b were changed as shown in Table 2.
[0039]
Tables 1 and 2 show evaluation results of the antibacterial properties of color tone (b value), color difference (ΔE) and operability of the fibers obtained in embodiments 1~7 and comparative examples 1~6.
Japanese to English: STUDIES ON FLUORESCENCE OF COUMARIN DERIVATIVES (IV) FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS OF COUMARIN DERIVATIVES
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Japanese
実験の部
クマリン類の総螢光量の測定 使用機器,螢光基準物質(硫酸キニーネ),操作などは第3報のフロクマリン類と同様であり,また試料は第2報と同一物質であるため省略する.
定量濃度範囲の決定 使用機器 日立製螢光光度計FPL-2型,受光部:RCA 1928, 螢光励起フィルター:東芝製UV-D1b励起光源:東芝製SHL-100UV2,螢光選択フィルター:日立製43,47,53,試料セル:日立製専用試験管
螢光励起フィルターは365(UV-D1b),405,436,546の4種が付属しているが,クマリン誘導体の発螢光性とフィルターとの関係を検討した結果,365が最適であると判明したのでこれを使用した.なお365はガラスフィルターであるが,他は干渉フィルターである.
螢光選択フィルターは43,47,53および61の4種があり,61はガラス製で610mμより長波長の光線を透過し,その他は干渉フィルターで,それぞれ430,470,530mμに最大透過率を示し,励起光遮断用ガラスフィルターが組み合わせてある.クマリン誘導体の測定には,第2,3報で報告した螢光スペクトルの測定結果より,43,47,53の3種を使用するのが最適であった.
試料セルは試験管のため,角セルに比して誤差が多く,1〜2%程度の誤差があるため,各測定値毎に数回測定し,平均値を求めなければならなかった.
測定操作 クマリン誘導体は一般にアルカリ性溶液において,その発螢光性が増大するので,アルカリ性溶液について行なった.
クマリン誘導体の個々について,各濃度における螢光強度を測定し,濃度と螢光強度との間に直線関係の成立する範囲を見出した.たとえば,7-ethoxycoumarinについて述べれば,試料5mgをメトラー直示天秤で秤量し,EtOHに溶解,500ccとなし(100γ/cc),その一部をとり.10倍に希釈(10γ/cc),この液を最高濃度として,7.5,5.0,2.5,1.0,0.5γ/ccの各濃度溶液を調製し,(各液のpHは0.5N EtOH・KOH液で一定とする)これらの螢光相対強度を測定し,グラフを作る.しかし,この場合は高濃度のため消光作用が起こり,濃度に比例して螢光相対強度は高まらず,直線関係が成立しないので,これらを10倍に希釈,同様に測定した結果,1.0〜0.05γ/ccの間で直線関係が成立することを認めたので,この範囲を螢光定量に適当な濃度範囲であると決定した.
本研究に際し,終始その細部に亘り御指導御鞭撻頂いた当所所長刈米達夫博士並びに下村 孟博士,西本和光技官に深謝し,試料を分与して頂いた京都大学生薬教室,京都薬科大学松野隆男博士,日曹化工株式会社折田道夫氏,東洋化学薬品株式会社,測定機器を貸与された日立製作所に厚く御礼申し上げます.
Translation - English
Experiment
Measurement of total fluorescence quantity of coumarins
The instruments used, the fluorescence reference substance (quinine sulfate), the operation procedure, etc., are the same as those used in the 3rd report for fluorocoumarins, and the samples are the same as those used in the 2nd report, so they are not described herein.
Determination of quantified concentration range
Instruments used
Hitachi fluorescent photometer FPL-2; fluorescence receiver: RCA 1928; fluorescence excitation filter: Toshiba UV-D1b; excitation light source: Toshiba SHL-100UV2l; fluorescence selective filter: Hitachi 43, 47, 53; sample cells: Hitachi special test tubes
There are 4 types of fluorescence excitation filters, 365 (UV-D1b) and 405, 436, 546, but an examination of the relationship between the fluorescence emission of the coumarin derivatives and the filters found that 365 was the most suitable one. Further, 365 is a glass filter, and others are interference filters.
There are 4 types of fluorescence selective filters 43, 47, 53 and 61, but 61 is made of glass and transmits light having a wavelength longer than 610 m, and the others are interference filters with a maximum transmittance of 430, 470 and 530 m, respectively, and are combined with a light blocking glass filter. From the measurement results of the fluorescence spectra reported in the 2nd and 3rd reports, it was found that the most suitable ones for the determination of the coumarin derivatives were the 3 types, 43, 47 and 53.
Since the sample cell was a test tube, it had more errors compared to a square cell, and it had an error of about 1~2%. Therefore, it was necessary to measure several times for each measurement value and calculate their average value.
Measurement procedure
The coumarin derivatives generally have increased fluorescence emission when in alkaline solutions.
For each of the coumarin derivatives, the fluorescence intensity at each concentration was measured, and a range where a linear relationship was established between the concentration and the fluorescence intensity was found. Take 7-ethoxycoumarin as an example. 5 mg of sample was weighed with a Mettler direct-reading balance and dissolved in EtOH to 500 cc (100 γ/cc), from which, a portion was taken and diluted by 10 times (10 γ/cc) to prepare solutions with a highest concentration of 7.5, 5.0, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 γ/cc, respectively (the pH of each constant was adjusted to a certain level with 0.5 N EtOH ∙ KOH solution) for measuring the relative fluorescence intensity and plotting the graphs. However, in this example, the fluorescence quenching occurred because of the high concentrations, and the relative fluorescence intensity did not increase in proportion to the concentration, and a linear relationship was not established, so the solutions were further diluted 10 times and measurement was taken, and as a result, it was found that a linear relationship was established in the range of 1.0~0.05 γ/cc, so this range was determined to be a concentration range suitable for fluorescence quantification.
In this study, Dr. Tatsuo Kari, Director of the Institute, Dr. Tadao Shimomura, and Dr. Nishimoto Kazuko, who provided guidance and advice from beginning to end of the study, thanked Dr. Nishimoto and Dr. Nishimoto, and gave samples to them. Thank you very much to Dr. Takao, Michio Orita of Nisso Chemical Co., Ltd., Toyo Chemical Co., Ltd.,
My deeply felt thanks go to President Dr. Karigome Tatsuo had been providing detailed directions from the beginning to the end of this study, as well as Dr. Takeshi Shimomura and Engineer Kazuko Nishimoto. Thanks also go to the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, and Dr. Takao Matsuno from Kyoto Pharmaceutical University for sharing the samples with me, to Mr. Michio Orita from NISSO Fine Co., Ltd., to Toyo Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd. and to Hitachi, Ltd. for lending me the measuring instruments.
Chinese to English: RESEARCH OF STACK INJECTION MOLDS
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Chinese
1.2.3 直角进浇热流道叠层式模具
1995年俄罗斯的Grabovskij V.V.B [32]研制了一种直角进浇热流道叠层式模具, 我国的阎亚林、黄晓燕[33]也设计了这种直角进浇热流道叠层式模具(如图9)。该模具改变了进浇口的位置, 进浇口改在中间部分, 与开模方向成直角, 但需要直角式注射机。这种模具省去了热流道的延伸, 减少了熔体从注射机喷嘴流向分流板的距离, 方便了结构设计。
1.3 旋转叠层式模具
近几年德国的Keusgen H.B [34]设计了一种16+16腔的2种材料的旋转叠层式模具(图10), 这种模具就是把通常的多组份模具的典型成型方式改为在模具的一层注射一种材料进入型腔, 冷却后再旋转到另一层再注射第2种材料进入模具。旋转叠层式模具由在垂直轴上旋转的中心模板、动模板和定模板组成。中心模板可以有2个或4个面, 当模具打开时旋转180°或者90°。在一个循环之中, 中间部分在水平轴上旋转模板, 使模具型腔转面。
由Ferromatik Milacron欧洲公司与德国模具制造商Foboha公司合作开发的旋转叠层模具有1个4个面的中心模板, 它每一周期旋转90°。丹麦的Gram技术公司的旋转叠层(Spin Stack)模具有多达4个边挨着边的小的中心叠层结构, 各自又有4个面, 并且每一周期旋转90° [31]。
我国随着注塑成品成型要求的提高, 许多原本采用二次加工的双色制品, 逐渐利用旋转叠层式模具成型, 以提高产品质量及生产效率。
Translation - English
1.2.3 Rectangle gating stack molds with hot runners
In 1995, Grabovskij V. V. [32] from Russia developed a rectangle gating stack mold with a hot runner. Yan, Y. L. and Huang, X. Y. [33] from China also designed such a mold (Fig. 9). The mold moves the position of the inlet gate to the intermediate part, forming a right angle between the inlet angle and the mold opening direction, but a right-angle injection machine is needed. This kind of mold avoids the extension of the hot runner, reduces the melt flow distance from the nozzle of the injection machine to the spreader plate, and thus facilitates the structural design.
1.3 Rotary stack molds
In recent years, Keusgen H. [34] from Germany designed a 16+16-cavity rotary stack mold (Fig. 10) made of 2 kinds of materials. This kind of mold is to change the typical forming mode of a multi-component mold by injecting a material into the mold cavity from a layer of the mold, cooling the material and then rotating to another layer before injecting the 2nd material into the mold. The rotary stack mold comprises a central mold plate rotating on a vertical axis, a moving mold plate and a fixed mold plate. The central mold plate can be designed with 2 or 4 faces, so that the plate can rotate 180 or 90 when the mold is opened. In a cycle, the intermediate part can rotate the mold plate along the horizontal axis to make the mold cavity surface turn.
The rotary stack mold jointly developed by the European Ferromatik Milacron and the German mold manufacturer Foboha contains 1 central mold plate with 4 faces, which rotates 90 every cycle. The rotary stack mold developed by the Denmark Gram Technology is designed with up to 4 small central stack structures in a side by side design, wherein each central stack structure has 4 faces and rotates 90 every cycle [31].
With higher forming requirements for injection molding products in China, many two-color products, which were originally processed two times, have gradually begun to be molded by a rotary stack mold to improve product quality and productivity.
Chinese to English: MAGNETICALLY CONTROLLED TREADMILL
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Medical: Instruments
Source text - Chinese
[57]申请专利范围
1.一种磁控跑步机, 包括: 一机架, 其两端分别安装一个可旋转的滚筒; 一扶手, 系安装在机架的前部; 一跑步带, 系绕接在该机架两端的滚筒上; 及一阻尼装置, 包括一调节旋钮、一钢丝绳、一基座、一摆臂、一转轴、一飞轮、多块磁铁及一弹簧, 该调节旋钮安装在扶手上, 该钢丝绳的一端固定在该调节旋钮上, 该钢丝绳的另一端穿过该基座上的一导向孔后与该摆臂连接, 该基座固定在该机架上, 该摆臂的内端可转动的套接在该转轴上, 该摆臂的外端平行延伸出两块平板, 在两块平板的相对面上分别固定安装有该磁铁, 安装有该磁铁的两块平板分别伸至该飞轮外圈的一上表面及一下表面, 该飞轮固定套接在该滚筒的一端, 该转轴的下端固定在该基座上; 该弹簧一端挂接在该基座上, 该弹簧的另一端挂接在该摆臂上。
2. 如申请专利范围第 1 项所述之磁控跑步机, 其中, 该弹簧为拉伸弹簧。
3. 如申请专利范围第 1 项所述之磁控跑步机, 其中, 该调节旋钮包括一调节座、一拨板及一铰接轴; 该调节座固定安装在该扶手上, 该拨板下部间隙插入该调节座内且该拨板下部套接在该铰接轴上, 该铰接轴横向穿设在该调节座上。
图式简单说明
[第一图]系为本创作实施例之磁控跑步机的轴测图。
[第二图]系为本创作实施例之阻尼装置的轴测图。
[第三图]系为本创作实施例之调节旋钮的轴测图。
[第四图]系为本创作实施例之调节旋钮处于高档位的轴测图。
[第五图]系为本创作实施例之调节旋钮处于低档位的轴测图。
Translation - English
Claims
1. A magnetically controlled treadmill comprising a body frame, rotatable rollers being respectively installed at two ends of the body frame, a handrail mounted at the front end of the body frame, a treadmill belt wound around the rollers at the two ends of the body frame, and a damping device comprising an adjusting knob, a steel wire rope, a base, a swing arm, a rotation shaft, a fly wheel, a plurality of magnets and a spring, the adjusting knob being installed on the handrail, one end of the steel wire rope being fixed on the adjusting knob, the other end of the steel wire rope being connected with the swing arm after passing a guide hole in the base, the base being fixed on the body frame, an inner end of the swing arm being rotatably fitted onto the rotation shaft, two flat plates extending in parallel from an outer end of the swing arm, the magnets being fixedly installed on opposite surfaces of the two flat plates, the two flat plates with the magnets installed on them respectively extending to the upper surface and the lower surface of an outer ring of the fly wheel, the fly wheel being fixedly fitted onto one end of the roller, a lower end of the rotation shaft being fixed on the base, one end of the spring being hung on the base, and the other end of the spring being hung on the swing arm.
2. The magnetically control treadmill as claimed in claim 1, wherein said spring is a tension spring.

3. The magnetically controlled treadmill as claimed in claim 1, wherein the adjusting knob comprises an adjusting seat, a dial plate and a hinged shaft, the adjusting seat is fixedly installed on the handrail, a lower part of the dial plate is loosely inserted into the adjusting seat and the lower part of the dial plate is fitted onto the hinged shaft, and the hinged shaft transversely passes through the adjusting seat.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is an axonometric view of the magnetically controlled treadmill in the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is an axonometric view of the damping device in the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is an axonometric view of the adjusting knob in the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is an axonometric view of the adjusting knob in the high-speed position in the embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is an axonometric view of the adjusting knob in the low-speed position in the embodiment of the present invention.

Japanese to English: STUDIES ON THIAMINE 8-(METHYL 6-ACETYL-DIHYDROTHIOCTATE) DISULFIDE
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Japanese
(1)GSSG-reductase 活性の測定
Buzardら2)の報告に準拠しっぎの反応系を用いてGSSG-reductase活性の測定をおこなった.すなわち,反応系1.0mlあたりTris (hydroxymethyl) aminoethane • HCL緩衝液(pH7.4)100μモル,Ethylenediamine tetracetate 7.5μモル,血球溶血液5.4~5.8 mgHb相当量,NADPH*5)(Sigma Co., Type 1)1.0μモル,GSSG (Sigma Co., Grade III)1.5μモルを基本系としてpH7.4, 30℃, 30分間の反応をおこなった.NADPHの代りにNADP*6)(Sigma Co., Grade II)およびG6P*7) (Sigma Co.,2K塩)を添加するときはそれぞれ0.5および1.0μモルを加えた.反応終了後はBeutlerの方法3)により生成GSHを定量した.
(2)血球溶血液によるTATDの還元
反応系1.0mlあたりリン酸緩衝液(pH 7.4)80μモル, TATD 1.0μモル,血球溶血液7〜20mgHb相当量を基本系とした.NADPH, NADP, G6P, GSHの添加効果を検討するばあいの添加量は各成績に記した.反応は37.5℃で60分間おこない反応終了後冷却下で終末2%のメタリン酸で除たんぱくした上清をpH 4.5に調整後松井の方法4)で遊離B1を分離定量した.
(3)赤血球によるグルコース-14Cからの14CO2の生成
前報1)に準じて調製したウサギ洗浄血球を原血液と等密度にKRP*8)にけん濁させた液2.0mlにKRP0.8ml, 300mMグルコース-114Cまたは-214C (第一化学薬品) 0.2ml (いずれも0.1μc相当,0.9% NaClにとかす),TATD溶液(0.9% NaClにとかす)0.8mlを加え全量2.8 ml,PH7.4の反応系とした.Mb*9)を添加するばあいは 0.9%NaClにとかしTATDの代りに0.8ml添加し終末濃度が0.002%となるよう(こした.反応はCuppyら5)の考案によるゴム栓付き密閉コルベン中37.5℃, 2時間の振とう条件でおこなった.反応終了時に注射筒により1.07M Hyamin 10-X溶液(Packard Co.)0.3ml を CO2捕集バイァルに注入し,反応系には終末0.25Mの硫酸を加えて,さらに2時間振とう後バイアルをとり出し 0.5% 2,5-Diphenyloxazole および0.03% 1,4-Bis-2-(4-methyl-5-phenyloxazoly)-benzene (いずれも Packard Co.)を含むトルオール15mlに投入し,Packard製314 EX-2 型 Tri-Carb Liquid Scintillation Spectrometerにより14Cの放射能の測定をおこなった.
実験結果
(1)血球溶血液のGSSG-reductase活性
血球溶血液のGSSG-reductaseの基質GSSGおよびNADPHにたいする依存性は図1-A, Bに示したごとくで,それぞれにたいするKmは5.1×10-4Mおよび 5.0×10-4Mと計算された.100℃, 3分間熱処理した溶血液ではまったく活性はみられなかった.NADPHはNADP +G6P(両者の共存が必要)によっておきかえることができ(図1-C, D)G6P-dehydrogenase活性の存在およびGSSG-reductase系との共役が確かめられた.血球ではG6P-dehydrogenase活性の方がより豊富に存在することが知られている6).
Translation - English
(1) Measurement of GSSG-reductase activity
The GSSG-reductase activity was measured using a reaction system based on the report of Buzard et al. 2), and to be specific, as the basic system, 1.0 ml of the reaction system contained 100 mol of tris(hydroxymethyl) aminoethane HCL buffer (pH 7.4), 7.5 mol of ethylenediamine tetracetate, an equivalent of 5.4~5.8 mg Hb of erythrocyte hemolysate, 1.0 mol of NADPH *5) (Sigma Co., Type 1), and 1.5 mol of GSSG (Sigma Co., Grade III), and the system of pH 7.4 was allowed to react at 30°C for 30 minutes. If NADP *6) (Sigma Co., Grade II) and G6P *7) (Sigma Co., 2K salt) were added instead of NADPH, they were added in the amount of 0.5 and 1.0 mol respectively, and after completion of the reaction, the generated GSH was quantified by the Beutler method 3).
(2) Reduction of TATD by erythrocyte hemolysate
As the basic system, 1.0 ml of the reaction system contained 80 mol of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 1.0 mol of TATD, and an equivalent of 7~20 mg Hb of erythrocyte hemolysate. To examine the effects of adding NADPH, NADP, G6P, and GSH, the results of their various adding amounts were recorded. The reaction was carried out at 37.5°C for 60 minutes, and after completion of the reaction, the supernatant was deproteinized with the final 2% metaphosphoric acid under cooling and adjusted to pH 4.5, and free B1 was separated and quantified according to Matsui's method 4).
(3) Generation of 14CO2 from glucose-14C by erythrocytes
To 2.0 ml of a suspension of cleaned rabbit blood cells prepared according to the previous report 1) in KRP *8) with the same density as the raw blood, were added 0.8 ml of KRP, 0.2 ml of 300 mM glucose-114C or-214C (first chemical) (equivalent to 0.1 c, dissolved in 0.9% NaCl), and 0.8 ml of TATD solution (dissolved in 0.9% NaCl) so the reaction system had a total volume of 2.8 and pH 7.4. If Mb *9) was added, it would be dissolved in 0.9% NaCl and 0.8 ml of its solution would be added instead of TATD, and its final concentration was 0.002%. The reaction was carried out under shaking and at 37.5°C for 2 hours in a flask sealed by a rubber stopper, which was devised by Cuppy et al. 5). At the end of the reaction, 0.3 ml of 1.0 M Hyamin 10-X solution (Packard Co.) was injected with a syringe into a CO2 collecting vial, and the final 0.25 M sulfuric acid was added to the reaction system, and the vial was shaken for another 2 hours and was then taken out, to which 15 ml of toluene containing 0.5% 2,5-diphenyloxazole and 0.03% 1,4-bis-2-(4-methyl-5-phenyloxazoly)-benzene (both from Packard Co.) was fed, and Packard 314 EX-2 Tri-Carb Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer was used to measure the radioactivity of 14C.
Experimental results
(1) GSSG-reductase activity of blood cell hemolysate
The dependence of GSSG-reductase of blood cell hemolysate on substrate GSSG and NADPH was as shown in Fig. 1 – A, B, and Km of each of them was calculated to be 5.1 × 10-4 M and 5.0 × 10-4 M. Activity was not observed at all in the hemolysate which had been heat treated at 100°C for 3 minutes. NADPH could be replaced by NADP + G6P (existence of both was required) (Fig. 1 - C, D) and the presence of G6P-dehydrogenase activity and its conjugation with GSSG-reductase system were confirmed. It is known that in blood cells, the presence of G6P-dehydrogenase activity is more abundant 6).
Chinese to English: RESEARCH AND APPLICATION OF PRESENT FLAVOR PEPTIDES
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Food & Drink
Source text - Chinese
1.2综效性
每一种食物都有其特征味道, 而食物品味的呈现为其中各味道化合物之间的综合平衡表现。肽类因含有氨基和羧基两性基团而具有缓冲能力, 能赋予食品细腻微妙的风味。肽类不仅可直接对基本味产生贡献, 还可以与其他风味物质(如谷氨酸钠、肌苷酸钠、鸟苷酸钠、琥珀酸钠、酷酸钠、酸味剂等)产生交互作用, 明显提升或改变原有味感, 因此通常所说的各种肽的呈味效果是其综合效果, 与其作用条件有关。例如, Glu-Leu、Pro-Glu或Val-Ghu等二肽是通过他们的缓冲作用而增强食品风味。在面包、可可和花生发酵时释放出的短肽, 它们能在焙烤时形成多种杂环芳香族的化合物, 这是通过多肽与糖的美拉德反应及其降解而形成的[2]。某些碱性二肽具有很浓的咸味, 协同构成鲜味, 且其味感与氨基酸的离子化程度和反离子的存在有很大关系。Wang等[3]比较了BMP在不同pH下的感官性质, 结果显示其在pH为6.5时显鲜味, 9.5时为咸味和甜味而在3.5时为酸味。
2呈味肽的种类及其呈味机理
2.1甜味肽
甜味肽的研究已经取得了重大的突破, 这方面的研究也较为成熟, 发现的二肽甜味剂如阿斯巴甜(Aspartame)、阿粒甜(Alitame, 由L-天门冬氨酰、D-丙氨酸和C-端酰胺三部分组成)、等已经产业化, 因其甜度高、热量低, 已在食品和医药领域中获得了广泛的应用。目前发达国家正在积极探索从天然资源中开发新的低聚肽甜味剂如甜味赖氨酸二肽(N-Ac-Phe-Lys、N-Ac-Gly--Lys)、Monellin、Thaumatin、Pentadin、Curculin、Mabinlin等。
2.2苦味肽
Matoba等[4] 1970年从酪蛋白的胰蛋白酶水解产物中分离纯化出一种苦味肽, 结构为Cy-Pro-Phe-Pro-Val-1le; 大豆蛋白水解产物中也被分离纯化出多种苦味肽, 如Gly-Leu、Phe-Leu、leu-Lys、Arg-Leu、Arg-Leu-Leu等; Majarro-Grerra等从干酪中分离出苦味肽Llys-Pro、Phe-Pro、Val-Pro、Leu-Pro等; 后来Ney(1979年)、Adler-Nissen (1986年)总结了苦味肽产生机理, 认为苦味肽的苦味是由其所含的疏水性氨基酸引起的, 且其强弱与氨基酸的排列顺序有关, 如亮氨酸、苯丙氨酸等疏水性基团位于C一端则呈强苦味[5]。
由于乳酪、大豆蛋白等各种动植物原料水解产物中均存在不同程度的苦味, 限制了其水解产物的应用, 苦味存在原因也引起了各国的普遍关注。但苦味肽的具体产生机理仍不完善, 目前各国仍在研究其机理和寻求如何去除或减弱水解产物中产生的苦味肽, 以扩大水解产物的应用范围。
2.3酸味肽
酸味肽往往与酸味、鲜味密切相关。1969年Kirimura等提出γ-谷氨酰肽如Glu-γ-Gly、Glu-γ-A1a、Glu-γ-Glu呈酸涩味, 后来又发现酸性肽Gly-Asp、Ala-Glu, Glu-Leu等都具有鲜味的特性[6]。因此常把酸味肽看作为鲜味肽的一部分。
2.4咸味肽
1990年, Seki等[7]研究了咸味二肽Orn-β-Ala的理化性质, 发现二肽的咸味与氨基的解离程度以及是否有相对离子有关。一些碱性肽的盐如Orn-Tau·Hcl, Lys-Tau·Hcl, Om-Gly·Hcl, Lys-Gly·Hcl等具有咸味和鲜味的双重效果。咸味肽的发现, 在糖尿病、高血压患者等需要低钠食品的特殊人群的食品开发上, 有着潜在的利用价值。
2.5美味肽
美味肽(BeefyMeatyPeptide, BMP)最初是由Yamasaki[8]从牛肉的木瓜蛋白酶消化液中分离的八肽, 经鉴定其一级结构为Lys-Gly-Asp-Glu-Ser-Leu--leu-Ala, 分子量847Da。研究发现, 该八肽具有增强牛肉风味的功能, 因而被称为牛肉风味肽、美味提升肽或强化肽。国外报道了化学合成法合成的BMP的一些性质, 如有很强的鲜味, 与食盐、MSG有较好的协同作用, 鲜味肽不影响其它味觉(酸、甜、苦、咸), 且增强其各自的风味特征, 因此它们在各种蔬菜、肉、禽、乳类、水产类乃至酒类增味方面都有良好的效果。能增强牛肉味, 同时具有很好的热稳定性, 121℃灭菌20min, 仅有10%变性, 能满足食品工业生产中的热处理要求[9]。
由于美味肽的良好风味和稳定的性质, BMP很有希望代替MSG成为新一代风味强化剂。Tamura等1988年研究发现采用这三种组分的混合物或用咸味肽Orn-β-Ala代替Lys-G1y或用G1u-Glu代替酸味三肽Asp-Glu-G1u获得的风味均可与原八肽相当[10], Nishimura等[11], 1988年总结了从鱼蛋白水解产物中发现的呈鲜味的低聚肽Glu-Glu、Ser-Glu-Glu、Glu-Set、Thr-Glu、Glu-Asp、Asp-G1u-Ser的呈味特性和缓冲肽Gly-leu、Pro-G1u、Val-G1u、β-A1a-lHis的风味增效作用; Spanier等[12], 于1996年比较了合成的美味肽与MSG的呈味感官差异, 结果表明, 美味肽较MSG有更强的风味感觉与口感; 1998年, 日本味之素株氏会社发现谷胱甘肽具有很强的赋予“浓厚感和渗延感”的功能且能增强和维持香辣调味料及蔬菜风味的功能; 2002年雀巢公司的Schlichtherle-Cemy及Amadol对研究发现小麦面筋蛋白中含有许多具有强化呈味(鲜味、咸味、酸味)功能的小肽, 并提出了肽对食品鲜味的影响如下: 肽本身可能没有味道或味道很淡, 这类肽多半含有酸性氨基酸Glu或Asp, 在适当的浓度下, 这类肽与其他适当浓度的呈味成分(盐、味精、酸味剂)会有协2同效果或增味之功效。2009年, 张晓鸣等[14]利用酶解大豆蛋白制备鲜味肽, 对我国调味领域的发展有重要意义。
Translation - English
1.2 Comprehensive effects
Each food has its characteristic taste, and the flavor and taste of a food is a comprehensive balanced manifestation of various taste compounds. Due to the amino groups and carboxyl groups in their structures, peptides have a buffer capacity and impart a smooth and subtle flavor to foods. Peptides not only directly contribute to basic tastes, but also interact with other flavoring substances (such as monosodium glutamate, sodium inosinate, sodium guanylate, sodium succinate, sodium acetate, acidulant) to significantly improve or change the original taste. Therefore, the flavoring effects of various peptides are the comprehensive effects related to their acting conditions. For example, dipeptides, such as Glu-Leu, Pro-Glue or Val-Ghu, enhance food flavors through their buffer action. The short peptides released during the fermentation of bread, cocoa, and peanut form various heterocyclic aromatic compounds during baking and these aromatic compounds are generated from the Maillard reaction between polypeptides and sugars and the degradation of the latter [2]. Several alkaline dipeptides exhibit a strong salty taste and impart an umami taste through working synergistically with other flavor compounds, and their tastes are considerably related to the degree of ionization of amino acids and the presence of counterions. Wang et al. [3] compared the sensory properties of BMP at different pH values and found that when the pH was 6.5, 9.5, and 3.5, it elicited an umami taste, a salty and sweet taste, and a sour taste, respectively.
2. Types and flavor-imparting mechanism of flavor peptides
2.1 Sweetening peptides
Major breakthroughs have been made in the study of sweetening peptides and the study in this area is well developed. Dipeptide sweeteners, such as aspartame, alitame (consisting of L-aspartoyl, D-alanine and C-terminal amide), have been industrialized and widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their high sweetness intensity and low calorie. In developed countries, researchers have been developing new oligopeptide sweeteners, such as lysine peptides (N-Ac-Phe-Lys, N-Ac-Gly-Lys), Monellin, Thaumatin, Pentadin, Curculin, Mabinlin, from natural resources.
2.2 Bittering peptides
In 1970, from the tryptic hydrolysate of casein, Matoba et al. [4] isolated and purified a bittering peptide with the following structure: Cy-Pro-Phe-Pro-Val-Ile; various bittering peptides, such as Gly-Leu, Phe-Leu, Leu-Lys, Arg-Leu, and Arg-Leu-Leu, have been isolated and purified from the soy protein hydrolysate; Majarro-Grerra et al. isolated bittering peptides, such as Lys-Pro, Phe-Pro, Val-Pro and Leu-Pro, from cheese; later, Ney (1979) and Adler-Nissen (1986) summarized the formation mechanism of bittering peptides and believed that the bitter taste of bittering peptides was caused by their hydrophobic amino acids and the bitterness intensity was related to the amino acid sequences, for example, a strong bitter taste was perceived when hydrophobic groups, such as leucine and phenylalanine, were located at C-terminus [5].
The hydrolysates of some animal or plant raw materials, such as cheese, soy protein, elicit a bitter taste of varying intensities, which restricts the application of the hydrolysates. The cause of the bitterness has attracted widespread attention around the world. However, the formation mechanism of bittering peptides is not yet well-established, and researchers around the world have been discovering the formation mechanism and the method to remove or minimize the bittering peptides generated in the hydrolysates to expand the application scope of these hydrolysates.
2.3 Sour peptides
In general, sour peptides are often closely related to sourness and umami. In 1969, Kirimura et al. proposed that γ-glutamyl peptides, such as Glu-γ-Gly, Glu-γ-Ala, Glu-γ-Glu, elicited a sharp and sour taste, and later, they found that acidic peptides, such as Gly-Asp, Ala-Glu, Glu-Leu, exhibited a characteristic umami taste [6]. Therefore, sour peptides are usually regarded as a part of umami peptides.
2.4 Salty peptides
In 1991, Seki et al. [7] found in a study of the physico-chemical properties of a salty dipeptide Orn-β-Ala that the saltiness of dipeptides is related to the degree of dissociation of amino groups and the presence of counterions. Salts of several alkaline peptides, such as Orn-Tau∙Hcl, Lys-Tau∙Hcl, Orn-Gly∙Hcl, Lys-Gly-Hcl [sic! In all these instances of “Hcl”, “Hcl” is possibly a typo for “HCl”] elicit both saltiness and umami. The discovery of salty peptides has potential values of use in the development of low-sodium foods for special population groups, e.g., patients with diabetes or hypertension.
2.5 Beefy meaty peptide
Beefy meaty peptide (BMP) is an octopeptide initially isolated by Yamasaki [8] from the papain-digested beef juice, and it was identified to have a primary structure of Lys-Gly-Asp-Glu-Ser-Leu-Leu-Ala, and a molecular weight of 847 Da. Studies have shown that this octopeptide enhances the beef flavor, so it is also called beefy flavor peptide, flavor-enhancing peptide or fortifying peptide. Researchers overseas reported several properties of BMP obtained by the chemical synthesis method, for example, strong umami taste and being able to work synergistically with table salt and MSG. It does not damage other tastes (sourness, sweetness, bitterness and saltiness), but enhances the characteristic flavors of the respective tastes. Therefore, it is highly effective in enhancing the flavors of various vegetables, meats, poultry products, dairy products, aquatic products and alcoholic drinks. BMP enhances the beef flavor and exhibits outstanding thermal stability with only 10% denatured after 20-min sterilization at 121°C, meeting the heat treatment requirements in food processing and production [9].
Due to its outstanding flavor and stability, BMP has the potential of replacing MSG as a new-generation flavor enhancer. In 1988, Tamura et al. [10] found that using a mixture of these three ingredients or replacing
/3
Lys-Gly with a salty peptide Orn-β-Ala or replacing a sour tripeptide Asp-Glu-Glu with Glu-Glu produced a flavor equivalent to that of the original octopeptide [10]. In 1988, Nishimura et al. [11] reviewed the taste characteristics of umami oligopeptides found in fish protein hydrolysate, such as Glu-Glu, Ser-Glu-Glu, Glu-Set, Thr-Glu, Glu-Asp, Asp-Glu-Ser, and summarized the flavor-enhancing effects of buffer peptides, such as Gly-Leu, Pro-Glu, Val-Glu, β-Ala-His; in 1996, Spanier et al. [12] compared the differences between synthetic BMP and MSG in terms of taste and sensory properties, and found that BMP displayed a stronger flavor and mouthfeel than MSG; in 1998, Japan-based Ajinomoto discovered that glutathione had a strong ability to elicit a “thick and penetrating sensation” while enhancing and maintaining the flavors of aromatic and spicy condiments and vegetables; in 2002, Schlichtherle-Cemy and Amadol of the Nestle Company found that wheat gluten protein contained many small peptides with taste-enhancing functions (such as umami, saltiness and sourness) and proposed that peptides had the following effects on the umami taste of foods: peptides themselves may be tasteless or have a week taste and usually contain acidic amino acids Glu or Asp, but at suitable concentrations, these peptides can work synergistically 2 [sic! “2” is possibly added by mistake in the source] with other flavoring ingredients (table salt, MSG, acidulant) of suitable concentrations or can enhance the flavors. In 2009, Zhang, X. M. [14] prepared umami peptides from enzymatic hydrolysate of soy protein, and these umami peptides are important for the development of the seasoning and spices industry in China.
Japanese to English: METHOD FOR INSERT BLOW MOLDING OF PANELS
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
[請求項1]
金型内キャビティー面から該金型内キャビティー面の内側に突き出て突設された複数個のマグネットに、リーンフォースパイプを該マグネットの磁力により固定し、その後パリソンを型締めし、該パリソン内にエアを吹き込むことによって該リーンフォースパイプをインサート成形することを特徴とするパネルのインサートブロー成形方法
[請求項2]
金型内キャビティー面から該金型内キャビティー面の内側に突き出て突設されたマグネットをエアシリンダや油圧シリンダ等によって吹込み完了前に引抜くことを特徴とする請求項1に記載されたパネルのインサートブロー成形方法
[発明の詳細な説明]
[技術分野]
[0001]
本発明は、パネルにリーンフォースパイプをインサートしてブロー成形する方法に関するものである。
[背景技術]
[0002]
従来から、リーンフォースパイプをパネルに装着するには、ブロー成形後のパネル成形品本体にドリル等により孔をあけ、該リーンフォースパイプを圧入している。
[特許文献1]特開平11-156926
[0003]
しかし、ブロー成形後に孔あけ、圧入という余分な工程を要していたため、コストアップになるという欠点があった。
[発明の開示]
[発明が解決しようとする課題]
[0004]
解決しようとする問題点は、ブロー成形後の成形品の孔あけ、リーンフォースパイプの圧入という余分な工程を省くことができないという点である。
[課題を解決するための手段]
[0005]
本発明は、金型内キャビティー面から内側に突き出て突設されたマグネットに、リーンフォースパイプを該マグネットの磁力により固定し、その後パリソンを型締めし、該パリソン内にエアを吹き込むことによって該リーンフォースパイプをインサート成形することを最も主要な特徴とする。
[発明の効果]
[0006]
本発明の成形方法によると、ブロー成形完了と同時にリーンフォースパイプのインサートが完了しているので、ブロー成形後の成形品の孔あけ、リーンフォースパイプの圧入という余分な工程を必要としないという利点がある。
[発明を実施するための最良の形態]
[0007]
マグネット付きの金型を使用して該リーンフォースパイプをインサートブロー成形することにより、安価なリーンフォースパイプ付きのパネルを製造するという目的を、該パネルの強度を損なわずに実現した。
Translation - English
[Claim 1]
A method for insert blow molding of panels, characterized in that, a reinforcement pipe is fixed to a plurality of magnets by a magnetic force of the magnets, the magnets being provided by protruding from an internal cavity surface of a mold to the inner side of the internal cavity surface of the mold, and then a parison is clamped, and by blowing air into the parison, the reinforcement pipe is formed by insert molding.
[Claim 2]
The method for insert blow molding of panels according to claim 1, characterized in that the magnets that are provided by protruding from the internal cavity surface of the mold to the inside of the internal cavity surface of the mold are pulled out by an air cylinder, a hydraulic cylinder or the like before the completion of the blowing.
[Detailed description of the invention]
[Technical field]
[0001]
The present invention relates to a method of inserting a reinforcement pipe into a panel and blow molding it.
[Background technology]
[0002]
Conventionally, in order to mount a reinforcement pipe in a panel, a hole is drilled in the body of the molded product of panel after the blow molding, and the reinforcement pipe is press-fitted into the hole.
[Patent document 1] Japanese laid-open patent publication No. H11-156926
[0003]
However, since extra steps of drilling and press-fitting after blow molding are required, there is the drawback of an increased cost.
[Disclosure of the invention]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
[0004]
The problem to be solved is the need for extra steps of drilling a hole in the molded product after the blow molding and press-fitting the reinforcement pipe into the hole.
[Means for Solving the Problems]
[0005]
The main characteristic of the present invention is that the reinforcement pipe is fixed by the magnetic force of magnets which protrude inward from an internal cavity surface in the mold, and then the parison is clamped and air is blown into the parison, thereby the reinforcement pipe is formed by insert molding.
[Effect of the invention]
[0006]
According to the molding method of the present invention, since the insert of the reinforcement pipe is completed simultaneously with the completion of the blow molding, the extra steps of drilling a hole in the molded product after blow molding and press-fitting the reinforcement pipe in the hole are saved, which is advantageous.
[Best mode for implementing the invention]
[0007]
By using a mold with magnets for insert blow molding the reinforcement pipe, the objective of manufacturing an inexpensive a panel with a reinforcement pipe is realized, without damaging the strength of the panel.
Japanese to English: HIGH-SPEED MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OF BLINKS BY USING INTELLIGENT VISION SENSOR
General field: Science
Detailed field: IT (Information Technology)
Source text - Japanese
1.はじめに
 近年、眼に表れる情報と健康状態との関係が注目を集めており、眼球運動や瞬目の計測結果から被験者の眠気の度合いをとらえるアプローチ等が報告されている[1][2]。これまでの瞬目計測に関する報告は、計測手段と情報の精細さによって分類できる。計測手段は侵襲計測か非侵襲計測かで分けることができ、侵襲計測は計測対象者の眼部に何らかのセンサを装着した計測が行われるものであり、非侵襲計測は主にビデオカメラを用いた計測法が採られる。侵襲計測手段による報告では、鎌倉らはEOGを用いることで時間分解能の高い瞼位置の変化情報を筋電位の変化から捉えており[1]、Casseらは瞼に遮光ユニットをとりつけ、瞳孔からの近赤外反射光が瞬目によって欠けるようにし、眼前に設置したビデオカメラで捉えている[2]。ビデオカメラを用いた非侵襲計測手段による報告では、ビデオ画像から瞼位置を求める必要がある。足立らは画像の輝度情報の微分値を用いて上下瞼部の抽出から瞼位置の算出を行い[3]、Chauらは画像を2値化することで、眼の部位を抽出している[4]。Choiらは上記2例の報告とは異なり、各時刻のビデオカメラ画像中の1列を横に並べて眼部変化画像をつくり、その画像を2値化することで滑らかな瞼位置の経時変化を得ている[5]。侵襲計測に比較して非侵襲計測はより自然な状態が計測できるが、これまでの装置は、ビデオカメラが秒30フレームの画像取得を行う点に計測速度が制約され、100ミリ秒程度で生じる瞬目を正確に計測することが難しかった。

そこで我々は、非侵襲計測手段で瞬目の高速の特徴量を計測するため、kHzオーダのフレーム速度を持つインテリジェントビジョンセンサ(IVS)を用いた瞬目計測装置を構築した。次節ではIVSについて説明する。
2.インテリジェントビジョンセンサ(IVS)
 例えば、時速150kmで向かってくる球を打ち返すロボットを想定する。一般的なビデオカメラを用いた場合、毎秒30コマのフレームレートが前提となるが、このシステムでは1コマの間に1.4m進み、視覚情報をもとにロボットがボールを打ち返すような制御は難しいことが予想される。一方、kHzオーダのフレームレートを持つIVSで捉えた1コマは4cmの変化に留まるため、ロボットに対してkHzオーダの高速フィードバック制御を行うことで、ロボットの持つ能力を最大限に活かした制御が可能となる。IVSの512×512画素の受光部は部分読み出しによって、128×128画素の面像処理時には毎秒2400コマの画像取得と画像処理を実現し、232×232画素を処理する際には毎秒1000コマの画像を、512×512画素を処理時には毎秒248コマの画像を処理できる。近赤外波長に高感度を有する受光部で受けた情報は、最大12bitで許み出すことができる。並列演算部では1次元や2次元の重心演算、複数点の重心演算、3×3のフィルタリング演算等が実時間で実行可能であるため、カメラからLVDS方式にて出力する信号を画像情報の代わりに画像処理後の画像や後段の処理に必要な特徴量のみとすることで、高速なセンシングと制御に適した構成となっている。IVSは高速瞬目計測装置の他、固視微動計測器[6]や3次元形状計測、画像認識による物体追尾、IVSを2器用いることによる距離計測といった、高速カメラとしての利用だけでなく、オンライン検査カメラ、計測用センサ等としても利用されている。

Translation - English
1. Introduction
Recently, the relationship between the information appearing in the eye and the health status has attracted attention, and an approach has been reported which captures the degree of sleepiness of a subject from the result of measurements of eye movements and blinks [1] [2]. Reports about eye blinking measurements so far can be classified by the measurement means and the fineness of the information. The measurement means can be divided into invasive measurement and non-invasive measurement. In the invasive measurement, measurement is performed with a certain kind of sensor attached to the eye of the subject person, and the non-invasive measurement mainly uses a video camera for measurement. In the reports by means of the invasive measurement, Kamakura et al. used EOG to capture the information about changes in the eyelid position with a high time resolution from the changes in the myoelectric potential [1], and Casse et al. attached a light shielding unit to the eyelid so that the near infrared reflected light from the pupil was cut off when the eye blinks and was captured by a video camera set in front of the eye [2]. In the reports by means of the noninvasive measurement using a video camera, it is necessary to obtain the eyelid position from the video image. Adachi et al. calculated the eyelid position from the extraction of the upper and lower eyelids using differential values of the luminance information of the images [3], and Chau et al. extracted the position of the eye by 2narizing [sic! The source uses number “2” in place of “bi”] the image [4]. Unlike the reports of the above 2 cases, Choi et al. arranged the video images of each time point side by side in 1 row to create an eye position change image and 2narized [sic! The source uses number “2” in place of “bi”] this image to obtain smooth eyelid position changes over time [5]. Although the non-invasive measurement can conduct measurements in more natural conditions compared to the invasive measurement, the existing devices are limited by the measurement speed of acquiring images by video cameras at 30 frames per second, so they are difficult to correctly measure eye
/2
blinks of about 100 milliseconds. Therefore, we have built an eye blink measurement device using an intelligent vision sensor (IVS) with a frame rate on the order of kHz to measure feature values of high-speed eye blinks by means of the non-invasive measurement. In the next section, the IVS is described.
2. Intelligent vision sensor (IVS)
Now, imagine a robot that hits back a ball coming at 150 km per hour. When a general video camera is used, a frame rate of 30 frames per second is assumed, but in this system, advancement of 1.4 m is made in 1 frame period, and it can be expected that it is difficult to control the robot to hit back the ball based on the visual information. On the other hand, since 1 frame captured by IVS with a frame rate of kHz order has only a change of 4 cm, by performing a high-speed feedback control of kHz order on the robot, it is possible to have a control that makes full use of the ability of the robot. Through partial readout by the light receiving unit of 512  512 pixels of IVS, acquisition of 2400 frames images per second and image processing can be achieved in the image processing of 128  128 pixels, and processing of 1000 frames per second in the processing of 232  232 pixels, and processing of 248 frames per second in the processing of 512  512 pixels are possible. It is possible to read the information received by a light receiving unit having a high sensitivity to near infrared wavelengths at a maximum of 12 bit [sic! the source uses the singular unit “bit” here]. To achieve real-time execution of the 1-dimensional or 2-dimensional center of gravity calculation, center of gravity calculation of a plurality of points, 3  3 filtering calculation, etc., the parallel calculation unit is a configuration suitable for high-speed sensing and control by using only the images after image processing and the feature values necessary for post-processing, instead of the image information, to output the signal from the camera in the LVDS mode. In addition to being used as a high-speed eye blink measurement device, IVS can be used as a high-speed camera for object tracking through a fixation fine movement measurement instrument [6] or through 3-dimenstional shape measurement and image recognition and for distance measurements by using 2 IVS instruments, and it can also be used as an on-line inspection camera, a measurement sensor, etc.
Japanese to English: DESIGN OF NANO-SIZED PARTICLE OF METAL OXIDES BY FLOW-THROUGH SUPERCRITICAL WATER METHOD
General field: Science
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
6 複合金属酸化物合成
複合金属酸化物のシングルナノ粒子合成についても基本的に上述した理論で合成可能と考えている.しかし,最大の課題は目的物を単一相で得ることにある.ZnAl2O4を一例とすると,たとえばZn(NO3)2,Al(NO3)3,KOHを原料として合成した場合,条件により副生成物としてA1OOHやZnOが生成する.従来は温度,圧力,濃度を操作変数として絨毯爆撃的に実験を行い,単一相生成領域を決定する必要があった.これに対し筆者らは,金属酸化物の溶解度計算により副生成物であるAlOOHやZnOが完全溶解し,かつ目的物であるZnAl2O4の溶解度の極めて低い単一相生成領域を推定し,それに基づき実験を行った.その結果,実験結果は計算結果と同様の傾向を示し,本手法の有効性を確認している37).
7 形態制御
水の臨界点近傍では,若干の温度圧力操作により水の物性の急激な変化にともないイオン反応平衡,つまり,溶液中の溶存金属イオン錯体種の存在割合も大きく変化する.結晶成長面はその存在割合により制御可能である.実際にAlOOHの合成において,臨界点近傍で実験条件を操作することにより菱形の板状粒子,六角板状粒子,剣状粒子およびフットボール状粒子の合成が可能となる3).またKTiO3やZnO合成においても,適切な反応条件を設定することで,アスペクト比の極めて高いナノワイヤーやナノロッドの合成が可能となる11),15).
8 酸化還元反応制御
超臨界水は酸化剤である酸素や還元剤である水素と任意の組成で均一相を形成することから高効率な酸化還元反応場として期待できる.Ni(II)塩からのNi微粒子合成や,LiOHとCo(II)塩からのLiCoO2微粒子合成,LiOHとMn(II)塩からのLiMn2O4合成のような系においては反応場にギ酸や過酸化水素水溶液の熱分解により水素や酸素を供給し,それにより金属の酸化数を制御し,目的生成物を単一相で得ることが可能となる9),10),38).
9 おわりに
ナノ粒子設計という観点において流通式超臨界水熱合成法の有効性について説明した.本手法の実用化には超臨界水中での水熱合成反応の機構の解析,物性データの蓄積に加えて,原料溶液の急速昇温用混合部の開発が鍵と考えている.これまでの研究においてT字型の流路(内径0.3~5mm)内で原料溶液および加熱水を混合する手法を用いてきた.本手法は,従来の回文式に比較すれば急速昇温・冷却が可能となる.しかし最近の混合部の熱流動解析に関する報告によると,低温高密度と高温低密度の二流体混合において,渦流の発生や,混合部後の反応管内においても完全に混合し目的温度に到達するまで一定の距離(時間)を要し,それまでは高温流体と低温流体が二層流のようなものを形成することが明らかになってきている39)~42).反応速度の極めて早い超臨界水場を利用した本手法において,核発生・成長過程を厳密に制御し,均質な単分散ナノ微粒子を得るためには,新規な視点に立った急速昇温用マイクロリアクターの開発が急務と考えている.
超臨界水反応場を利用した材料創生技術が真に次世代産業基盤を担うものへと成長していくためには,その有用性の実証を進めていくと同時に,産官学の英知を集め,技術の基盤化,体系化を図っていくことが重要と考えています.関係各位のご理解とご支援を賜れればと思っております.
Translation - English
6. Composite metal oxide synthesis
It is considered that the synthesis of single nanoparticles of complex metal oxides can also be performed basically by the theory described above. However, the biggest problem is to obtain the target product in a single phase. Taking ZnAl2O4 as an example, when Zn(NO3)2, Al(NO3)3 and KOH are used as raw materials for its synthesis, AlOOH or ZnO is generated as a by-product depending on the conditions. Conventionally, it was necessary to conduct carpet bombing experiments with temperature, pressure, and concentration as operation variables to determine the single-phase formation region. To do this, the authors completely dissolved the by-product AlOOH or ZnO according to the solubility calculation of the metal oxides and estimated the single-phase formation region where the solubility of the target substance ZnAl2O4 is extremely low, and, on this basis, conducted experiments. As a result, the experimental results show the same tendency as the calculation results, confirming the effectiveness of this method 37).
7. Shape control
Near the critical point of water, by some temperature and pressure operations, there will be rapid changes in the physical properties of water, and the equilibrium of the ion reaction, that is, the ratio of the dissolved metal ion complex species present in the solution also greatly changes. The crystal growth surface can be controlled by this ratio. In fact, in the synthesis of AlOOH, by operating the experimental conditions near the critical point, it is possible to synthesize rhombus plate-like particles, hexagonal plate-like particles, sword-like particles, and football-like particles 3). Further, also in the synthesis of KTiO3 and ZnO, by setting appropriate reaction conditions, it is possible to synthesize nanowires and nanorods with extremely high aspect ratios 11), 15).
8. Redox reaction control
Supercritical water can be expected to be a highly efficient redox reaction field by forming a homogeneous phase of any composition with oxygen where it is the oxidant or with hydrogen where it is the reducing agent. In systems such as the one for synthesis of Ni microparticles from Ni(II) salts, the one for synthesis of LiCoO2 microparticles from LiOH and Co(II) salts, and the one for synthesis of LiMn2O4 from LiOH and Mn(II) salts, it is possible to obtain the target product in a single phase by supplying hydrogen or oxygen to the reaction field from the thermal decomposition of a formic acid or hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution, and then controlling the oxidation number of the metal 9), 10), 38).
9. Conclusion
The effectiveness of the flow-through supercritical hydrothermal synthesis method was explained from the viewpoint of nanoparticle design. In the application of this method, in addition to the analysis of the mechanism of the hydrothermal synthesis reaction in supercritical water and the accumulation of physical property data, the development of a mixing unit for rapid temperature increase of the raw material solutions is considered to be a key. In the past studies, we have used the method of mixing the raw material solution and the heating water in a T-shaped flow passage (with an inner diameter of 0.3~5 mm). This method can achieve rapid heating and cooling, compared to the conventional palindrome [sic! The word “palindrome” is likely a typo for “batchwise”] method. However, according to recent reports on heat flow analysis of the mixing unit, in the mixing of two fluids, one having a low temperature and high density and the other having a high temperature and low density, a certain distance (time) is required for the generation of vortices and complete mixing even in the reaction tube after the mixing unit to reach the target temperature, and before reaching this point, it is evident that the high-temperature fluid and the low-temperature fluid form a two-layer flow 39)~42). In this method using the supercritical water field where the reaction speed is extremely early [sic! The word “early” is likely a typo for “quick”], in order to precisely control the process of formation and growth of nuclei and to obtain homogeneous monodispersed nanoparticles, we believe the urgent task is to develop a microreactor for rapid heating from the new point of view.
For the material creation technology using the supercritical water reaction field to grow and serve as the next-generation industrial foundation, we believe the important things are to push forward the demonstration of its usefulness, gather the wisdom of the industry, government, and academia, and to establish the technology as the foundation and to systematize it. We will appreciate the understanding and support from the parties concerned.
Japanese to English: Semiconductor device
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - Japanese
1.発明の名称
半導体装置
2.特許請求の範囲
パターン上の角を四分円の円孤よりも短かい孤形状をもたせるか、あるいは複数の鈍角を組み合わせた形状をもたせた耐酸化性被膜を有する主表面から、半導体基板の該主表面下が選択酸化されてなることを特徴とする半導体装置。
3.発明の詳細な説明
本発明は半導体装置の構造に関するものである。
現在用いられているシリコン窒化膜を耐酸化性被膜として、単結晶シリコンあるいは多結晶シリコンを選択酸化し、素子を形成する際、パターン上の各線分が不連続点を有する場合、その部分で該基板に格子欠陥を誘発したり、最悪の場合基板自体にクラック等が発生したりすることがある。
その原因としては、該基板を選択酸化することによる酸化部での体積膨脹による不連続点でのストレスの集中があげられる。そこで、このストレスの集中を緩和し、欠陥及びクラック等の発生を抑えることがデバイス作製上重要な要素になっている。
以上の問題点を解消した半導体装置が本発明の特徴である。
それでは以下図面を用いて、従来の形状での欠陥及びクラックの発生状況を説明し、そしてその後で本発明の特徴を説明する。
第2図(A)は従来用いられているトランジスターの形状の一例である。この場合、コレクタコンクタト部1及びベース領域2は矩形をなしており、選択酸化時には体積膨脹によるストレスの集中がその交点で起こる。この点についてもう少し詳細に説明する。第1図-(A)は、各素子の形状の1モデルであり、標準形として矩形を用いて表わしている。ここで、矩形7内は、耐酸化性被膜を被覆した領域であり、シリコン基板の表面を酸化せずに残す領域であり、その外側領域6は酸化すべき領域を示す。

そこで注目すべき点は矩形の角10である。領域6を酸化すると、矩形7の上辺8は、ベクトル的に考えると8に対し垂直方向11(←)の圧力、水平方向12(←)の圧力、そして該主面に対し垂直な方向(図では示されていない)の圧力を受ける。また、右辺9も前述8の場合と同様にベクトル11(←),12(←)等の圧力を受ける。ところが、両辺にかかる圧力は被酸化部にそのストレスを緩和することができるが、問題の点10では、周りが酸化膜になるため、そのストレスを緩和することができずにストレスの集中が起こり、欠陥等の誘発の原因になる。
第3図(A)の、多結晶シリコンを用いた配線3を敷設する場合も、前述のように該配線3の終端部4あるいは、直角に折れ曲がった部分5でもストレスの集中が起こる。特に、線幅aに対して線長bの比、つまり(b/a)が大きくなると、その傾向は強まるものと思われる。以上、2例で示したように該素子の周辺線分が不連続点を有する場合、被酸化領域の体積膨脹によるストレスの集中が、その点に起こり、シリコン基板の結晶欠陥及びクラックを誘発し、トランジスターの特性の劣下あるいはショート、断線等の不良の原因にもなっている。
上記のストレスの集中を避け、分散を計った構造が本発明の特徴である。第2図(B)は、第2図(A)の矩形の直交する2辺の交点でのストレスを分散させるために、四分円の円孤よりも短かい孤形を用いて、緩やかな曲線で結び、矩形の角を取り除き交点1点でのストレスの集中による欠陥誘発を抑えている。あるいは第2図(C)のように、前記四分円状の円孤に代わり、複数の鈍角を用い、形状の急激な変化を避け、交点1点でのストレスの集中を複数点に分散するようにしている。なお、同図では、3つの鈍角の場合を示している。ここで、もう少し具体的な説明を加えると、第1図(B)のように、点10における圧力はベクトルの絶対値としては同じでも加わる方向がそれぞれ異なっており、上辺8、右辺9方向の成分に分解すれば小さくなる。また、ストレスの緩和も領域7に対して行なわれやすく、点10一点での集中は避けられる。また、第1図(C)では、不連続点10が3点に分散されていることからも、第1図(A)での点10とではストレスの大きな緩和がなされている。
第3図(B)は、第2図(B)の場合を多結晶シリコン配線の場会に適用したものであり、第2図(B)と同様四分円以下の円孤を用いている。第3図(C)も同様に複数の鈍角の組み合わせの場合を示している。特に、多結晶シリコン配線の場合は、基板に多結晶を用いているため欠陥の誘発というよりも、基板のクラックの発生を抑えることが目的である。なお、前述の補足説明として、四分円の半径は線幅の約半分程度は必要である。
4.図面の簡単な説明
第1図(A)乃至第1図(C)は選択酸化パターンをモデル化した時のストレスのかかり方あるいは特定領域での状況を示す平面図で、このうち第1図(A)は従来の、第1図(B)、第1図(C)は各々本発明の実施例の平面図である。また、第2図(A)及び第2図(B)、第2図(C)はいずれもトランジスターの基本的な形状を示す平面図であり、このうち第2図(A)は従来の形状、第2図(B)は四分円孤を用いた本発明の実施例の形状、第2図(C)は鈍角の組み合わせによる本発明の実施例の形状を示す平面図である。また、第3図(A)乃至第3図(C)は多結晶シリコン配線の一形状を示す平面図であり、このうち第3図(A)は従来の形状、第3図(B)、第3図(C)は本発明の実施例の形状を示す平面図である。
Translation - English
1. Title of the invention
Semiconductor device
2. Claims
A semiconductor device, characterized in that, from a main surface of a semiconductor substrate, which has an oxidation resistant film with corners on a pattern being made into a shape of an arc shorter than a quadrantal arc or into a shape of a combination of a plurality of obtuse angles, selective oxidization is conducted below the main surface.
3. Detailed Description of the Invention
The present invention relates to a structure of a semiconductor device.
When an element is formed by selectively oxidizing single crystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon using a currently used silicon nitride film as an oxidation resistant film, lattice defects may be induced in the substrate, and in a worst case, cracking may occur in the substrate itself. The reason is concentration of stress at discontinuous points due to volume expansion of the oxidized parts by selective oxidation of the substrate. Therefore, reducing the concentration of stress and suppressing the occurrence of defects such as cracking are important in device fabrication.
A semiconductor device that solves the above problems is a feature of the present invention.
Next, the occurrence of defects and cracks in a conventional shape will be described using the drawings and then the features of the invention will be described.
Fig. 2(A) shows an example of the shape of a conventionally used transistor. In this example, the collector contact 1 and the base region 2 are rectangular, and during selective oxidation, concentration of stress due to volume expansion occurs at the intersections. This will be explained in more detail. Fig. 1(A) shows 1 model of the shapes of the elements, and the standard shape of rectangle is used. Here, the inside of the rectangle 7 is a region covered with an oxidation resistant film, which is a region where the surface of the silicon substrate is left without being oxidized, and
/2
the outer region 6 is a region to be oxidized. The point to be noted is the corner 10 of the rectangle. When the region 6 is oxidized, the upper side 8 of the rectangle 7 will receive a pressure, if the vector is considered, in the vertical direction 11 (←) and a pressure in the horizontal direction 12 (←), both directions being relative to 8, and a pressure in a direction perpendicular to the main surface (not shown in the figure). The right side 9 also receives pressures of vectors 11 (←) and 12 (←), similar to the side 8 described above. However, the pressure applied to the two sides can relieve the stress in the oxidized part, but at point 10, since its periphery becomes an oxidized film, the stress cannot be alleviated and stress concentration occurs, causing defects.
In the case of laying the wiring 3 using polycrystalline silicon as shown in Fig. 3(A), stress concentration also occurs at the end 4 of the wiring 3 or the part 5 which is bent at a right angle, as described above. Particularly, when the ratio of the line length b to the line width a, that is, (b/a) increases, that tendency is intensified. As shown in the above 2 examples, when the peripheral line segment of the element has discontinuous points, concentration of stress will occur at those points due to volume expansion of the oxidized region and induce crystal defects and cracks in the silicon substrate. This is also a cause of inferiority of the characteristics of the transistor or defects such as short circuit or disconnection.
A structure which can avoid the above-mentioned stress concentration and disperse the stress is a feature of the present invention. As shown in Fig. 2(B), to disperse stress at the intersections of the 2 sides of the rectangle which intersect at the right angle of Fig. 2(A), arcs shorter than a quadrantal arc are used to connect with a smooth curve and remove the corner of the rectangle, thus inhibiting the induction of defects caused by concentration of stress at 1 intersection point. Alternatively, as shown in Fig. 2(C), instead of the quadrantal arc, a plurality of obtuse angles are used to avoid abrupt changes in shape and to disperse stress from 1 intersection point to a plurality of points. Note that, in the figure, 3 obtuse angles are shown. Here, to add a more specific description, as shown in Fig. 1(B), even if the pressures applied at the point 10 have the same absolute value of the vectors, their directions are different, and they will become smaller if they are broken in the directions of the side 8 and side 9. In addition, alleviation of stress can be also easily performed for the area 7, and concentration at one point 10 can be avoided. Further, as shown in Fig. 1(C), there are 3 discontinuous points 10, so stress at the point 10 of Fig. 1(A) is now greatly alleviated.
Fig. 3(B) shows an example where the example of Fig. 2(B) is applied to the polycrystalline silicon wiring, and arcs shorter than a quadrantal arc are used in the same way as shown in Fig. 2(B). Similarly, Fig. 3(C) shows an example of a combination of a plurality of obtuse angles. In particular, in the case of polycrystalline silicon wiring, the occurrence of cracks in the substrate is suppressed rather than induction of defects when polycrystals are used for the substrate. As a supplementary note on the above description, the radius of the quadrantal arc needs to be about half of the line width.
4. Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 (A) to Fig. 1(C) are plan views showing how stress is applied when a selectively oxidized pattern is modeled or the conditions in a particular region, of which, Fig. 1(A) is a plan view of a conventional device, and Fig. 1(B) and Fig. 1(C) are plan views of embodiments of the present invention. Fig. 2(A), Fig. 2(B) and Fig. 2(C) are all plan views showing the basic shapes of the transistor, of which Fig. 2(A) shows a conventional shape, and Fig. 2(B) is a plan view showing the shape of the embodiment of the present invention using quadrantal arcs, and Fig. 2(C) is a plan view showing the shape of the embodiment of the present invention using a combination of obtuse angles. In addition, Fig. 3(A) to Fig. 3(C) are plan views showing one shape of the polycrystalline silicon wiring, of which Fig. 3(A) shows a conventional shape, and Fig. 3(B) and Fig. 3(C) are plan views showing the shapes of the embodiments of the present invention.
Chinese to English: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A ROLLER BIT SEAL TESTING MACHINE
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Engineering (general)
Source text - Chinese
2.焦耳热效应
密封圈在工作的过程中受到箍紧—产生摩擦热—收缩—更箍紧—产生更多摩擦热…反复循环的过程, 加速了密封圈的老化。除此以外间隙咬伤、橡胶老化等也很容易造成密封失效。
3.动载荷作用
牙轮钻头与井底和井壁过渡区的互作用力的大小和方向有很大的随机性, 这就造成牙轮在轴径上既有轴向窜动又有周向摆动, 引起密封圈内外间隙的变化[1]。
牙轮钻头密封试验机就是尽可能地模拟出上述工况条件下进行密封圈的密封性能试验, 试验的时候将密封圈按要求装配到试验机中, 然后运转试验机直到密封圈出现泄露, 此时运转已经持续的时间即是橡胶密封圈或者金属密封的寿命。本试验机设计方案中有一点要特别指出的是试验的过程中主轴转动, 而试验机的外套筒以及固定在其上的静试件保持静止, 这与钻头工作时牙轮转动轴径不动的实际情况是相反的, 之所以这么确定设计方案主要是出于以下两方面的考虑:
(1)牙轮钻头的钻速不是很高, 其转动所产生的离心力可以忽略不计, 更改动静试件安装位置不会对试验结果产生明显的影响。
(2)如果采用主轴固定套筒静止的方案, 在主轴的轴向至少要开4个细长孔用以注入钻井液、安装冷却/加热盘管、安装热电偶。而目前细长孔的加工还存在一定的难度[4], 同时在轴端安装盘管接头以及热电偶接头时也会受到轴端面积的限制, 因此最终决定采取主轴转动外壳静止的设计方案, 虽与牙轮转动轴颈不转的实际不符, 但密封动静件的相对运动是一样的。
该试验机系统主要由: 试验机、泥浆缓冲罐、电机扭矩仪总成、计算机数据采集和控制系统组成。
该试验机系统主要由: 试验机、泥浆缓冲罐、电机扭矩仪总成、计算机数据采集和控制系统组成。
试验机: 测试密封圈寿命。在牙轮钻头的设计中要求牙轮的径向摆动量不超过120μm, 所以该试验机在设计和加工的过程中对其同轴度、表面粗糙度、端面圆跳度等都有很高的要求。
泥浆缓冲罐: 为试验机提供泥浆和规定的试验压力。缓冲罐与试验机之间通过软管相连。往泥浆罐中注满泥浆后调节氮气瓶出口减压器使缓冲罐中压力达到规定值, 这个压力其实就是密封试验的工作压力。泥浆罐上部装有安全阀, 其额定压力为1MPa, 一旦泥浆罐中压力超出了1MPa安全阀将自动泄压, 从而保证泥浆罐和试验机的安全。
电机扭矩仪总成: 用于安装电机(附带变速器)、扭矩仪、小带轮等。在实验台桌外将上述设备安装在电机底座上, 再将其整体安装到实验台桌的下层, 这样既便于设备安装, 同时也便于调整扭矩仪与电机之间的同轴度。安装完成后对正大小带轮并调节中心距到预定位置。
计算机数据采集和控制系统: 主要是完成对系统工作状态的检测, 获得准确的试验数据, 对密封圈的密封性能和使用寿命给出科学的评价。传感器的性能好坏直接影响系统的性能, 如果传感器不能灵敏地感受被测量, 或者不能把被测量精确地转换成电信号, 其他仪表和装置的精确度再高也无意义。因此, 要慎重选择传感器, 并分析其测量误差[5]。
Translation - English
2. Effect of Joule Heat
When a roller bit works, the seal ring suffers a cyclic process of being clamped tight, producing frictional heat, shrinking, being clamped tighter and producing more heat. This process accelerates the aging of the seal ring. In addition, clearance bites and rubber aging also easily cause a sealing failure.
3. Action of Dynamic Load
The magnitude and direction of the interaction force between a roller bit and the transitional zone between the well bottom and the well wall are very random. This will cause not only an axial endplay, but also a circumferential swing to the gear wheel on the shaft journal. As a result, the inner and outer clearances of the seal ring vary [1].
The roller bit seal testing machine is used to simulate the above-mentioned working conditions as much as possible to test the sealing property of the seal ring. At the time of the test, assemble the seal ring in the testing machine as required, and then run the testing machine until a leakage from the seal ring occurs, and the running duration until the leakage occurs is the service life of the rubber seal ring or metal seal ring. It should be noted in the design scheme for the testing machine that the main shaft rotates during the test while the outer sleeve of the testing machine and the stationary test piece fixed on the testing machine stay still. This is just opposite to the actual situation that the gear wheel rotates but the shaft journal stays still when the bit works. The design scheme is so determined mainly in view of the following two aspects:
(1) The speed of a roller bit is not high, the centrifugal force resulted from the rotations of the roller bit can be ignored, and changing the installation position of the stationary test piece will not have a significant influence on the test result.
(2) If the scheme where the main shaft is fixed and the sleeve stays still is adopted, at least four slender holes need to axially be opened in the main shaft to inject a drilling fluid, install a cooling/heating coil and install a thermocouple. Currently, it is still difficult to machine slender holes, however [4]. In addition, the installation of the coil joint and thermocouple junction at the axial end is also restricted by the area of the axial end. Therefore, the design scheme where the main shaft rotates but the housing stays still is adopted. Although this scheme does not comply with the actual situation where the gear wheel rotates but the shaft journal does not rotate, the relative motion between the movable and stationary test pieces is the same.
The testing machine system mainly consists of a testing machine, a slurry buffer tank, a motor and torque meter assembly and a computer data acquisition and control subsystem.
Testing machine: Used to test the service life of the seal ring. In the design of a roller bit, it is required that the radial swing of the gear wheel should not exceed 120 m. Therefore, high coaxiality, low surface roughness and low endface circle run-out are required during the design and machining of the testing machine.
Slurry buffer tank: Used to provide slurry and the stipulated test pressure for the testing machine. The buffer tank and the testing machine are connected with a hose. After the slurry tank is filled with slurry, the gas regulator at the outlet of the nitrogen cylinder is regulated until the pressure in the buffer tank reaches the stipulated value, which is actually the operating pressure for the seal test. A relief valve is installed at the top of the slurry tank. The rated pressure of the relief valve is 1 MPa. Once the pressure in the slurry tank exceeds 1 MPa, the relief valve will automatically relieve the pressure, thus guaranteeing the safety of the slurry tank and the testing machine.
Motor and torque meter assembly: Used for installing a motor (a speed governor attached), a torque meter and a small pulley. The above-mentioned devices are first installed on the motor base beyond the experiment workbench, and these devices together with the motor base are installed as an entirety at the lower layer of the experiment workbench. This facilitates not only the installation of the devices, but also the regulation of the coaxiality between the torque meter and the motor. After the installation, the large and small pulleys are aligned and the central distance is regulated to the preset position.
Computer data acquisition and control subsystem: Mainly used to complete the detection of the working condition of the system, obtain accurate test data, and give a scientific evaluation for the sealing property and the service life of the seal ring. The performance of the sensors directly influences the performance of the testing machine system. If the sensors cannot sensitively sense the measured values or cannot precisely convert the measured values into electrical signals, it makes no sense no matter how high the accuracies of other instruments and devices are. Therefore, sensors must be selected carefully and their measurement errors need to be analyzed.
Japanese to English: NUCLEAR REACTOR STRUCTURE
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Energy / Power Generation
Source text - Japanese
明細書
1.考案の名称 原子炉構造
2.実用新案登録請求の範囲
半円球殻状底部と同底部から上方に延び炉心を取り囲む筒状胴部と遮蔽プラグが挿着される上部開口とよりなる原子炉容器及び前記底部から下方に向って突出形成された支持ボスに遊嵌する環状凹みを具え前記底部と前記胴部とを取り囲む薄肉保護容器を有し,前記原子炉容器の前記開口の周囲に形成されたフランジ部材及び前記保護容器に形成されたスカート部材を介して支持されることを特徴とする原子炉構造。
5.考案の詳細な説明
本考案は原子炉に関し,特に保護容器を有する原子炉の支持構造に関する。
原子炉容器は,その大きさ,高温容器としての性質,その他種々の条件を考慮して車下据付方式により建屋に支持されるが,耐震性能の要求に応じてその下部を水平方向に支持する構造物が設けられる。原子炉容器が別の保護容器によって取り囲まれる所請二重構造のものにおいては,原子炉容器,保護容器の夫々を前記した方式により据付,支持しようとすると極めて複雑な構造となり,高温容器として種々の不具合が発生する。
(1)

第1図は,そのような原子炉の従来構造を示したものである。図において,原子炉容器01は,建屋[illegible]上部床02に上部フランジを介して垂下据付けられ,保護容器03も建屋の中間床に据付けられている。
中間床04は,原子炉容器01の高温の中高部分に近いことから保護容器03の支持部は,熱応力に対拠するために図示のような二重構造となり外筒05のフランジを介して保護容器03は支持される。
このため,保護容器03の構造が複雑になるという不具合と断熱材を添設するとしてもスカート05の近辺からの放散熱量が多く建屋内温度の上昇が大きいという不具合が生じていた。
又,原子炉容器01の支持ボス06は,保護容器03の環状凹み07を介して支持筒08により水平方向に支持されているが,熱伝達の関係から熱変化の追従性が悪く,該部分の熱応力を少くするためには,各部材間に大きな隙間が必要となり,そうすると地震発生時の水平方向相対変位が大きくなるという不具合が生じていた。
字加(印章)
(2)

本考案は,前記した従来構造の不具合に鑑みなされたもので,構造の単純な放散熱量の少ないかつ地震発生時の相対変位量の小さい原子炉構造を提供することを目的とする。
以下図示の一実施例に基づいて本考案を説明する。
第2図において,内部に炉心構造物1を支持する原子炉容器3は,半円球殼状の底部5と胴部6よりなり,上部に開口7を有する。開口7の周囲には環状のフランジ8が形成され,建屋9の上部床10にフランジ8が載設されている。換言すれば,原子炉容器3は,フランジ8を介して上部床10に垂下支持されている。
開口7内に挿入して設けられた連蔽プラグ12には,制御棒等(図示しない)を含む炉心上部機構14が貫ぬいて装着されている。
字訂正(印章)
(3)

原子炉容器3には,図示しない冷却材配管に継合する入口ノズル及び出口ノズル(共に図示しない)が一体的に形成されている。
原子炉容器5の胴部6及び底部5を取り囲む保護容器16は,一体的に形成されたスカート17により建屋9の下部床19に固定され支持されている。原子炉容器3と保護容器16の間の空間の厚さは冷却材が厚子炉容器3より漏出した場合等を想定して,できるだけ小さく設定されている。
スカート17に囲まれた保護容器16の座部には,環状の凹み21が形成され,その凹み21は,底部5の下面に下方に向って突出形成された円筒状の支持ボス22に嵌合している。凹み21の内周面と支持ボス22の外周面の製作据付時の隙間は,通常運転時の温度条件において好適となるように設定されている。保護容器16及び原子炉容器3の周囲には,図において右半分が省略して示されているように断熱材23が布設されている。
(4)


前記した構成を有する本実施例において,通常運転への移行に伴ない原子炉容器3は,温度が上昇し,下部床19に向って伸び,他方保護容器16は,原子炉容器3より幅射その他により受熱して昇温し,その上部は上部床10に向って延びていく。
原子炉の性質上,炉心構造物1より下方は,上方に比し相対的に低温であるが,ある程度は昇温し,支持ボス22は半径方向に膨張する。凹み21は,支持ボス22に遅れて昇温し半径方向に膨張するが,昇温の遅れによる熱膨張量の差は予め設定した前記隙間により吸収される。保護容器16よりの熱の放散は,断然材23によって大方防止される。
地震が発生したときは,原子炉容器3は底部5において,支持ボス22,スカート17により支持され,上部においてフランジ8により支持される。炉心構造物1はそれ自身の剛性及び胴部6,底部5等の剛性に応じて水平方向に撓む。
(5)

前記した実施例によれば,保護容器16はスカート17のみによって支持されるので,その構造が単純化され,その重量や各部に発生する熱応力が軽減化されると共にスカート17は,原子炉容器5の高温部に近接していないので建屋9の内部の温度上昇を抑制することができる。
又,熱変化の遅れによる熱膨張量の差を吸収する隙間が,支持ボス22と凹み21の間の1個所のみとなるので隙間の集積量が従来のものに比し小さくなり,地震発生時の胴部6の遮蔽プラグ12に対する相対水平変位量を低減することができ,ひいては制御棒の緊急挿入挿入性の信頼性を向上することができる。
Translation - English
Specification
1. Name of the utility model
Nuclear reactor structure
2. Registered claims of the utility model
A nuclear reactor structure, which is characterized in that it comprises a nuclear reactor vessel formed by a semicircular shell bottom, a cylindrical body extending upward from the bottom and enclosing a reactor core, and a top opening in which a shielding plug is inserted, and a thin-shelled, protective container enclosing said bottom that has a annular recess loosely fitted to a support boss projecting downward from said bottom, and that it is supported through a flange component formed on the periphery of said opening of said nuclear reactor vessel and a skirt component formed on said protective container.
3. Detailed description of the utility model
The present utility model relates to a nuclear reactor, and more particularly to a support structure of a nuclear reactor having a protective container.
The nuclear reactor vessel is supported by a building by the suspending [sic! A typo is corrected here by changing the original word “car” to “suspending”] installation method in consideration of its nature of a large size and high temperature, and various other conditions, and a structure is provided for horizontal support of its lower part in response to its demand for vibration resistance. In the case of a double-layer structure in which the nuclear reactor vessel is surrounded by another protective container, to install and support
/4
each of the nuclear reactor vessel and the protective container according to the method described above, a very complicated structure will be needed, and as a high-temperature vessel, various problems will occur.
Fig. 1 shows a conventional structure of such a nuclear reactor. In the figure, the reactor vessel 01 is suspended from the upper floor 02 of [sic! The word “of” is added here by means of a correction.] the building via an upper flange, and the protective container 03 is also mounted to the intermediate floor 04 of the building.
Since the intermediate floor 04 is close to the middle to upper part of the reactor vessel 01 where the temperature is high, the support for the protective container 03 has a double-layer structure as shown in the figure to withstand thermal stress and supports the protective container 03 through the flange of the outer cylinder 05.
For this reason, the structure of the protective container 03 becomes complicated and the heat dissipation from the vicinity of the skirt 05 is large even if a heat insulating material is added, so there is also the problem of high temperature rises in the building.
Also, although the support boss 06 of the reactor vessel 01 is horizontally supported by the support cylinder 08 via the annular recess 07 of the protective container 03, the ability to follow the
/5
heat change is poor due to heat conduction, and to reduce the thermal stress in this area, a large gap is required between the components, which will cause great relative horizontal displacements at the time of an earthquake.
The present utility model was made in view of the problems of the conventional structure described above, and it is an objective of the present utility model to provide a simple reactor structure with a small amount of heat dissipation [sic! A typo is corrected here by changing the original word “emitting” to “dissipation”.] and small relative displacements when an earthquake occurs.
Next, the present utility model will be described based on an embodiment shown in the drawings.
In Fig. 2, the nuclear reactor vessel 3 supporting the core structure 1 inside is composed of a semicircular shell-like bottom 5 and a body 6 and has an opening 7 on the top. An annular flange 8 is formed around the opening 7, and the flange 8 is mounted on the upper floor 10 of the building 9. In other words, the reactor vessel 3 is suspended from and supported by the upper floor 10 via the flange 8.
An upper core mechanism 14 including a control rod, etc., (not shown) passes through and is attached to the shield plug 12 inserted
/6
into the opening 7. An inlet nozzle and an outlet nozzle (both not shown) joined to a coolant pipe (not shown) are integrally formed on the reactor vessel 3.
The protective container 16 enclosing the body 6 and the bottom 5 of the reactor vessel 3 is fixed to and supported by the lower floor 19 of the building 9 by an integrally formed skirt 17. The thickness of the space between the reactor vessel 3 and the protective container 16 is set as small as possible, assuming that the coolant leaks from the atsuko [sic! The word “atsuko” is likely a typo for “nuclear”.] reactor vessel 3.
An annular recess 21 is formed in the seat of the protective container 16 surrounded by the skirt 17, and the recess 21 is fitted to a cylindrical support boss 22 which is formed to project downward from the lower surface of the bottom 5. The clearance between the inner peripheral surface of the recess 21 and the outer peripheral surface of the support boss 22 at the time of manufacture and installation is set so that it is suitable for the temperature conditions during normal operation. A heat insulating material 23 is laid around the protective container 16 and the nuclear reactor
/7
vessel 3 as shown with the right half being omitted in the figure.
In this embodiment which has the above-described configuration, the nuclear reactor vessel 3 has a temperature rise and extends toward the lower floor 19 as it transitions to normal operation, and the protective container 16 has a temperature rise as it receives radiation from the nuclear reactor vessel 3 as well as other heat, and its upper part extends toward the upper floor 10.
Due to the nature of the nuclear reactor, the lower part of the core structure 1 has a relatively lower temperature than the upper part, but it has a temperature rise to a certain degree, and the support boss 22 expands in the radial direction. The recess 21 has a temperature rise later than the support boss 22 and radially expands, but the difference in thermal expansion due to the delayed temperature rise is absorbed by the preset clearance. Heat dissipation from the protective container 16 is largely prevented by the heat insulating material 23.
When an earthquake occurs, the nuclear reactor vessel 3 is supported at the bottom 5 by the support boss 22 and the skirt 17 and is supported at the top by the flange 8. The core structure 1 bends in the horizontal direction depending on its own rigidity and the
/8
rigidity of the body 6, the bottom 5, etc.
According to the embodiment described above, since the protective container 16 is supported only by the skirt 17, the structure is simplified, the weight and the thermal stress generated in each part are reduced, and since the skirt 17 is not close to the high temperature part of the nuclear reactor vessel 3, the temperature rise inside the building 9 can be suppressed.
In addition, since the clearance that absorbs the difference in thermal expansion due to the delay of the temperature change is only 1 place between the support boss 22 and the recess 21, the total clearance is smaller compared to that of a conventional device, and the amount of horizontal displacement [sic! A typo is corrected here by changing the original word “position” to “displacement”.] of the body 6 relative to the shield plug 12 at time of an earthquake can be reduced, and the reliability of an emergency insertion of the control rod can be improved.
Japanese to English: Application of Synthetic Mica to Cosmetics
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Dentistry
Source text - Japanese
2.2マイカの合成方法
マイカの合成方法としては, 水熱合成法, 固相反応法, 溶融合成法がある。水熱合成法は, 高温高圧の水熱条件化で合成する方法で, 溶融法では合成できないとされる白雲母の合成か可能である。しかし, 局温高压設備が必要でマイカの大量生産には不向きである。固相反応法は, 700〜1000℃の高温常圧下で反応させる方法で種々のマイカの合成について報告されている2)。固相反応法では, 大結晶のマイカの合成は困難である。溶融合成法は, 千数百度cの高温で原料を溶融後, 冷却し, 結晶を析出させる方法で比較的結晶性の良好なマイカを得ることができる。大門等は, るつぼ降下法により高さ 15cm, 幅5cm, 厚さlcmのブック状結晶を得ている3)。工業的には量産性, 経済性の点から, 溶融法が有利とされている。溶融法は, 加熱方式により外熱式(るつぼ法)と内熱式に大別されるが, エネルギー効率や生産性の点で内熱式の方が量産に適している。筆者等は, 内熱式溶融合成法によりマイカを合成している4)。この方法は, 一対のカーホンの主電極の間にカーポンあるいは, SiC系の発熱体を配置し, この電極の周囲を原料で覆い, 通電する。通電初期には, 発熱体の周囲から溶融開始し, やがて溶融体が主電極にまで広がると, 溶融体を通じて電流が流れるようになり溶融が進行する。溶融体の温度は, 1400〜1600℃である。溶融が完了した後, 冷却し結晶を晶出させる。合成マイカの原料は, SiO2, A12O3及びMgO等の酸化物及び, K2SiF6, KF等のフッ化物である。長石, かんらん岩, タルク等の天然鉱物もSi, Al, Mg源として使用できる。合成するマイカの種類に応じてこれらの原料を配合し, 合成を行う。
2. 3結晶構造と種類
合成マイカの結晶構造は, 天然マイカと同様で、SiO4 正四面体を基本ユニットとし, この四面体が六角網目状に連なって四面体層を形成している(Fig.1, Fig.2)5)。この四面体層の間に6配位のMg2+, Li+等の八面体イオン層がある。この四面体一八面体一四面体のサンドイッチを 2:1層と呼んでおり, これが層状に重なっている。2:1層と2:1層の間に「層間イオン」と呼ばれる, アルカリ金属または, アルカリ土類金属イオンが, 弱いイオン結合で配位している。例えば合成フッ素金雲母の様に, 層間イオンの種類がカリウムの場合, 天然マイカと同様の性質を有する非膨潤性合成マイカとなる。また, ナトリウム四珪素雲母の様に, 層間イオンがナトリウムの場合には, 水等の極性溶媒に膨潤する膨潤性合成マイカとなる。ただし, ナトリウム金雲母の場合, 層間はナトリウムであるが, 四面体層にアルミニウムが配位しており, 非膨潤性となる。膨潤性は, 単に層間イオンの種類のみで決定される訳でなく, 四面体層, 八面体層のイオンの種類も関係する。合成マイカのおもしろさの一つは, 成分を変えることにより全く性質の相反する鉱物を合成できることである。たとえば, フッ素四ケイ素雲母で, 層間イオンをKとした場合, 膨潤性は無く絶縁性のマイカとなるが, Naとした場合は, 膨潤性があり導電性のマイカとなる。
Translation - English
2.2 Mica synthesis method
As the synthesis methods of micas, there are hydrothermal synthesis method, solid phase reaction method, and melt synthesis method. Hydrothermal method is synthesis under hydrothermal conditions of a high temperature and a high pressure, and it can synthesize muscovite that cannot be synthesized by the melt synthesis method. However, it is not well oriented to mass production of micas due to the need for high-temperature and high-pressure equipment. The solid phase reaction method is a method in which the reaction is carried out at a high temperature of 700oC~1000oC under normal pressure and the synthesis of various micas has been reported 2). With the solid phase reaction method, it is difficult to synthesize micas of large crystals. In the melt synthesis method, the raw materials are melted at a high temperature of several hundreds to a thousand degrees C and then cooled to precipitate crystals, and this method can obtain micas having relatively good crystallinity. Daimon et al. obtained a book-like crystal 15 cm high, 5 cm wide and 1 cm thick by the crucible descending method 3). The melt synthesis method is industrially advantageous in terms of mass productivity and economy. The melt synthesis method is divided by the heating method into the external heating method (crucible method) and the internal heating method, but the internal heating method is more suitable for mass production in terms of energy efficiency and productivity. The authors have synthesized micas with the internal heating melt synthesis method 4). In this method, a carbon or SiC-based heating element is placed between a pair of main electrodes of carbon, and the electrodes are covered with the raw material and energized. At the initial stage of energization, melting starts from the periphery of the heating element, and eventually the melt spreads to the main electrodes, and electric current flows through the melt and melting proceeds. The temperature of the melt is 1400~1600oC. After melting is complete, the melt is cooled to crystallize. The raw materials for synthesizing micas are oxides such as SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO, and fluorides such as K2SiF6 and KF. Natural minerals such as feldspar, peridotite and talc can also be used as sources of Si, Al and Mg. Depending on the type of mica to be synthesized, these raw materials are blended to carry out the synthesis.
2.3 Crystal structure and type
The crystal structure of a synthetic mica is the same as that of a natural mica with an SiO4 tetrahedron as the basic unit, and the tetrahedra are connected into a hexagonal network to form a tetrahedral layer (Fig. 1, Fig. 2) 5). Between the tetrahedral layers is an octahedral ion layer of 6-cooridnation of Mg2+, Li+, etc. This tetrahedron-octahedron-tetrahedron sandwich is called a 2:1 layer, and this layer is stacked layer by layer. Between one 2:1 layer and another 2:1 layer are alkali metal or alkaline earth metal ions called “interlayer ions” which are coordinated by weak ionic bonds. For example, as in the synthetic fluorphlogopite, when the type of interlayer ion is potassium, the synthetic mica will be non-swellable and have the same properties as a natural mica. Also, as in the sodium tetrasilicon mica, when the interlayer ion is sodium, the synthetic mica will be swellable and will swell in a polar solvent such as water. However, in sodium phlogopite, although the interlayer is sodium, aluminum is coordinated to the tetrahedral layer and the mica becomes non-swellable. Swelling is not determined solely by the type of the interlayer ion but also relates to the type of ions in the tetrahedral layer and the octahedral layer. One of the interesting aspects of synthetic micas is that it is possible to synthesize minerals with completely opposing properties by changing the ingredients. For example, in fluorine tetrasilicon mica, when the interlayer ion is K, the mica is non-swellable and is not conductive, but when it is Na, the mica is swellable and conductive.
Japanese to English: DIALYSIS AGENT AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING THE SAME
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Japanese
[0010]本発明の透析用剤は、電解質のうち炭酸水素ナトリウム以外の成分からなる粉末(A剤)と、炭酸水素ナトリウムを含有する粉末(B剤)とからなる。
[0011]A剤は、主に透析液に必要な電解質を供給するものであり、塩化ナトリウム、塩化カリウム、塩化カルシウム、塩化マグネシウム、酢酸ナトリウム、酢酸を含有する。これらの電解質のうち、塩化ナトリウム、塩化カリウム、酢酸ナトリウムについては、その一部または全部をB剤に配合することも可能である。A剤中には、一般的にpH調整剤として酢酸が含有されるが、本発明では、酢酸を酢酸ナトリウムと結合したナトリウムジアセテートのかたちで含有させることを特徴としている。
[0012]ナトリウムジアセテートは、酢酸ナトリウム1モルに対して酢酸1モルが結合した複合結晶(固体酢酸あるいは粉末酢酸ともよばれる)である。酢酸と酢酸ナトリウムとを撹拌混合することにより得られるが、酢酸ナトリウムが固体であるので、通常の酢酸ナトリウム粉末に等モルの酢酸を加えて撹拌混合すると、シャーベット状の生成物(おそらく、ナトリウムジアセテー卜、酢酸ナトリウム、酢酸の混合物)が得られ、完全に反応した粉末状のナトリウムジアセテートが得られない場合もある,あらかじめ酢酸ナトリウムを粉砕して表面積を大きくすると、よく反応して、粉末状のナトリウムジアセテートが得られるので好ましい。
[0013]通常の透析用剤の場合、酢酸1モルに対して酢酸ナトリウムが2〜4モル処方されるので、透析用剤に必要な酢酸ナトリウムの1部分を使用することで、酢酸をナトリウムジアセテートとして固体化することが可能である。酢酸ナトリウムを過剰量使用する場合は、遊離の酢酸の量が減少し、酢酸がさらに揮散しにくくなるので、透析用剤に必要な酢酸ナトリウムの全量をあらかじめ酢酸と混合しておくことが好ましい。この場合、ナトリウムジアセテートと酢酸ナトリウムとの混合粉末が得られるので、これを使用してA剤を製造する。
[0014]酢酸は、溶解時にpHが7.2〜7.4の範囲になるように配合する必要がある。そして、希釈後の透析液として、2mEQ/リットル程度になるように使用するのが適当である。
[0015]A剤は、A剤成分のうち電解質(複化ナトリウム、塩化カリウム、塩化マグネシウム、塩化カルシウムなど)と、必要に応じてブドウ糖に、あらかじめナトリウムジアセテート粉末を配合し、造粒して製造するのが好ましい。
[0016]造粒方法としては、特に限定されず種々の方法が採用できる。ナトリウムジアセテートが造粒の途中で溶解すると本発明の効果が減少するので、乾式の造粒方法が好ましいが、造粒特性または造粒物の特性を向上させるために、小量の水を添加することは可能である。水の添加量が5重量%以下の場合には、造粒工程における酢酸の揮発は実質上生じない。水の添加量が2〜4重量%の場合は、造粒が良好でかつ酢酸の揮発が少ないので、特に好ましい。ただし、水の最適添加量は、電解質などの粒径分布に依存するため、実際には用いる原料の粒径分布を考慮して決定しなければならない。
[0017]造粒方法として具体的には、押し出し造粒、転動造粒、圧縮造粒、流動層造粒、撹拌造粒などの方法が好ましく採用できる。
[0018]造粒に際しては、A剤の各成分の粒子径は積算分布曲線における90%径(d90)として250μm以下、好ましくは180μm以下、特に好ましくは100μm以下が適している。粒子径が250μmを超える場合には、造粒物の機械的強度が不十分となり、粉化しやすくなり、また、溶解速度も遅くなるので好ましくない。粒径の大きな電解質を原料として用いる場合は、適宜粉砕を行ってから造粒するのが好ましい。
[0019]A剤造粒物の粒径は、0.1〜10mm程度にするのが好ましい。粒径が0.1mmに満たない場合は、造粒物の流動性が阻害されたり、粉化して飛散するなど取扱いが困難になるおそれがある。逆に、粒径が10mmを超える場合は、造粒物の機械的強度が不十分となり、粉化しやすくなり、また、溶解速度も遅くなるおそれがあるので好ましくない。
[0020]造粒工程の後、必要に応じて乾燥操作を行う。ナトリウムジアセテートは水のない状態では、150℃以下の温度で安定であるが、水があると反応して酢酸が揮発しやすくなるので、乾燥温度は30〜90℃の範囲で行うのが好ましい。乾燥の方法として具体的には、バンド乾燥器、円盤乾燥器、通気乾燥器、回転乾燥器等を使用することにより、高強度で溶解性の良好な造粒物を得ることができる。ナトリウムジアセテートの分解防止の目的で、乾燥の雰囲気として、酢酸雰囲気を採用することもできる。
[0021]本発明においては、ナトリウムジアセテー卜以外のA剤成分を上記のような方法で造粒した後、ナトリウムジアセテートを混合することにより、造粒物表面にナトリウムジアセテートを付着させることも可能である。この場合、他の成分の造粒の際に酢酸が揮発することがないので、湿式の造粒方法も採用することが可能であり、乾燥時により高い温度を採用できるという利点があるが、造粒物の表面にナトリウムジアセテートに富む層が形成されるので、やや固結しやすくなるので、注意が必要である,

[0022]本発明の透析用剤において、B剤は炭酸水素ナトリウムを含有する粉末である。炭酸水素ナトリウム単独であってもよいが、A剤に含まれる電解質成分のうちカルシウム塩またはマグネシウム塩以外の電解質成分(塩化ナトリウム、塩化カリウム、酢酸ナトリウム)の一部又は全部、さらには、ブドウ糖を含有させても差し支えない。B剤を造粒物にすると、流動性及び溶解性が良好になるので好ましい。B剤が、炭酸水素ナトリウムと他の電解質あるいはブドウ糖との混合造粒物にすると、溶解速度が大きな造粒物が得られる。
[0023]B剤を造粒する場合、その方法は特に限定されず種々の方法を採用することができる。A剤の造粒と同様、炭酸水素ナトリウムと必要に応じて他の電解質及び/又はブドウ糖を混合し、好ましくは小量の水を添加して造粒する方法が採用できる。このときの水の添加量は、A剤よりやや多い1〜25重量%が好ましい。水添加量が1重量%に満たない場合には、粒子強度が低くなり粉化しやすくなるので好ましくない。逆に、25重量%を超える場合には造粒が困難となるおそれがあるので好ましくない。
[0024]B剤の成分も、造粒の際にはA剤と同様に、粒子径はd90として250μm以下、好ましくは180μm以下、特に好ましくは100μm以下の微粉末であることが好ましい。粒子径が250μmを超える場合は、造粒物の機械的強度が不十分となり、粉化しやすくなり、また、溶解速度が遅くなるので好ましくない。粒径の大きな電解質を原料として用いる場合は、適宜粉砕を行ってから造粒するのが好ましい。
[0025]B剤造粒物の粒径は、0.1〜10mm程度にするのが好ましい。粒径が0.1mmに満たない場合には、造粒物の流動性が阻害されたり、粉化して飛散するなどして、取扱いが困難になるおそれがあるので好ましくない。逆に、粒径が10mmを超える場合は、造粒物の機械的強度が不十分となり、粉化しやすくなり、また、溶解速度が遅くなるおそれがあるので好ましくない。
[0026]B剤を造粒した後、必要に応じて乾燥を行う。その際、炭酸水素ナトリウムの分解防止のため、炭酸ガス雰囲気を用いるのが好ましい。炭酸ガス濃度としては5%程度以上を採用するのが好ましい。乾燥は30〜90℃において行なうのが適当であり、具体的乾燥手段としては例えば、バンド乾燥機、円板乾燥機、通気乾燥機、回転乾燥機等を採用することにより、高強度及び易溶性で均一で組成安定性の良好な顆粒を得ることが可能となる。
[0027]本発明の重曹透析用剤を用いて、透析液を作製するには、A剤およびB剤を必要な濃度になるように溶解して混合すればよい。A剤中に酢酸が含有されているので、特にpHの調整を行わなくても、所定のpHの透析液が得られ、かつ、カルシウムまたはマグネシウム成分の沈澱も生じない。
[0028]
[実施例]
(実施例1)あらかじめ粉砕機(ボールミル)でd90が100μm以下に粉砕した無水酢酸ナトリウム12.608kgに氷酢酸2.5636kgを加え、混合機内で均一に混合し、酢酸ナトリウムとナトリウムジアセテー卜との混合物からなる粉末を得た。この粉末に、塩化ナトリウム119.129kg、塩化カリウム2.864kg、塩化カルシウム・2水塩4.236kg、塩化マグネシウム・6水塩1.953kg、ブドウ糖19.21kgの粉砕混合物を添加し、加湿・混練後、押出し造粒機にて造粒した。得られた造粒物を酢酸ガス雰囲気下、73℃、10〜15分の通風乾燥を行い乾燥粉末状組成物(A剤)を得た。
[0029](実施例2)あらかじめ粉砕機(ボールミル)でd90が100μm以下に粉砕した無水酢酸ナトリウム12.608kgに氷酢酸2.5636kgを加え、混合機内で均一に混合し、酢酸ナトリウムとナトリウムジアセテートとの混合物からなる粉末を得た。一方、塩化ナトリウム119.129kg、塩化カリウム2.864kg、塩化カルシウム・2水塩4.236kg、塩化マグネシウム・6水塩1.953kg、ブドウ糖19.21kgの粉砕混合物を、加湿・混練後、押出し造粒機にて造粒した,得られた造粒物を、流動層中で80℃、5〜10分加熱しながら、上記の酢酸ナトリウムとナトリウムジアセテートとの混合物からなる粉末を添加して、さらに造粒して乾燥粉末状組成物(A剤)を得た。
[0030]〔試験例〕実施例1及び2で得られた粉末状組成物(A剤)の一部を、それぞれ所定量の水に溶解し、乾燥粉末中の各成分の含有率を測定した,結果を乾燥粉末に対する各成分の量を重量%として表1に示す。目標値とは、配合した成分が粉末中に均一に配合され、損失がないとした場合の値である。なお、分析法としては、Na+およびK+はイオン電極法で、Ca2+、Mg2+、Cl-は滴定法で、ブドウ糖および酢酸は高速液体クロマトグラフィーで測定した。
Translation - English
[0010]
The dialysis agent of the present invention comprises a powder (agent A) composed of components other than sodium hydrogencarbonate and a powder (agent B) containing sodium hydrogencarbonate in the electrolytes.
[0011]
The agent A mainly supplies necessary electrolytes to the dialysate, and contains sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium acetate, acetic acid. Of these electrolytes, sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium acetate can be partially or entirely incorporated in the agent B. Although the agent A generally contains acetic acid as a pH adjuster, the present invention is characterized in that the acetic acid is contained in the form of sodium diacetate combined with sodium acetate.
[0012]
Sodium diacetate is a complex crystal (also called solid acetic acid or powder acetic acid) in which 1 mole of acetic acid is combined with 1 mole of sodium acetate. It is obtained by stirring and mixing the acetic acid and sodium acetate, but since sodium acetate is a solid, an equal molar amount of acetic acid is added to a common sodium acetate powder and mixed by stirring to obtain a sherbet-like product (probably a mixture of sodium diacetate, sodium acetate and acetic acid), and it may not be possible to obtain completely reacted powdery sodium diacetate. Preferably, the sodium acetate is ground in advance to increase the surface area and to react well to obtain powdery sodium diacetate.
[0013]
In a conventional dialysis agent, the formulation is 2~4 moles of sodium acetate per 1 mole of acetic acid, so by using 1 part of the sodium acetate necessary for the dialysis agent, it is possible to made acetic acid into a solid as sodium acetate. When an excessive amount of sodium acetate is used, the amount of free acetic acid decreases, and it is harder for the acetic acid to volatilize; therefore, it is preferable to pre-mix the whole amount of the sodium acetate necessary for the dialysis agent with the acetic acid. In this way, a mixture powder of sodium diacetate and sodium acetate is obtained and is used to produce the agent A.
[0014]
Acetic acid needs to be formulated to have a pH in the range of 7.2~7.4 when it is dissolved. Then it is suitable for use as dialysate after it is dissolved to a concentration of about 2 mEq/liter.
[0015]
Preferably the agent A is produced by mixing the electrolytes in the agent A (sodium complex, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, etc.) with glucose, if necessary, in advance to prepare a sodium diacetate powder, and then granulating it.
[0016]
There no particular limitations on the granulation method, and various methods can be adopted. Although the dry granulation method is preferred because the effect of the present invention will be reduced if sodium diacetate dissolves during granulation, a small amount of water may be added to improve the granulation performance or the characteristics of the granulates. When the amount of water added is 5 wt% or less, volatilization of acetic acid does not substantially occur in the granulation step. Particularly preferable, the amount of water added is 2~4 wt%, because it enables good granulation and the evaporation of acetic acid is small. However, since the optimum amount of water added depends on the particle size distribution of the electrolytes, etc., it should be determined in consideration of the particle size distribution of the raw materials used.
[0017]
Specifically, extrusion granulation, rolling granulation, compression granulation, fluidized bed granulation, stirring granulation and the like can be used as the preferred granulation methods.
[0018]
At the time of granulation, the particle size of each component of the agent A, as the 90% diameter (d90) in the cumulative distribution curve, is 250 m or less, preferably 180 m or less, particularly preferably 100 m or less. If the particle size exceeds 250 m, the granulates will not have adequate mechanical strength and will easily become powdery, and the dissolution rate is also low, so it is not preferable. When an electrolyte having a large particle size is used as a raw material, it is preferable to grind it into appropriate sizes and then granulate it.
[0019]
The particle size of the agent A granulates is preferably about 0.1~10 mm. If the particle size is less than 0.1 mm, the flowability of the granulates may be impaired, or the granulates may become difficult to handle, for example, it may become powdery and scattered. On the other hand, when the particle size exceeds 10 mm, the granulates will not have sufficient mechanical strength and will easily to become powdery, and the dissolution rate is also slow, so it is not preferable.
[0020]
After the granulation step, the drying operation is performed as necessary. Sodium diacetate is stable at a temperature of 150°C or lower in the absence of water, but when water is present, it will react, and the acetic acid is easily volatile, so preferably it is dried in a temperature range of 30~90°C. Specifically, a band drier, a disk drier, an air drier, a rotary drier or the like may be used to dry it to obtain a granulated product having a high strength and good solubility. An acetic acid atmosphere can also be adopted as the drying atmosphere for the purpose of preventing the decomposition of sodium diacetate.
[0021]
In the present invention, it is also possible to bind sodium diacetate to the surface of the granules by mixing in the sodium diacetate after granulating the agent A components other than sodium diacetate by the method as described above. If so, since acetic acid does not volatilize during granulation of such other components, it is possible to adopt a wet granulation method, and it has the advantage of being able to use a higher temperature for drying, but care should be taken because a layer rich in sodium diacetate will be formed on the surface of the granulates, so some consolidation can occur easily.
/4
[0022]
In the dialysis agent of the present invention, the agent B is a powder containing sodium hydrogen carbonate. Although sodium hydrogen carbonate may be used alone, it may contain a part or all of the electrolyte components (sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium acetate) other than a calcium salt or a magnesium salt in the electrolyte components contained in the agent A, and further glucose. It is preferable to make the agent B into granulates because granulates have good fluidity and solubility. When the agent B is mixture granulates of sodium hydrogen carbonate and other electrolytes or glucose, a granulation product having a high dissolution rate is obtained.
[0023]
If the agent B is granulated, its granulation method is not particularly limited, and various methods can be adopted. Similar to the granulation method of the agent A, sodium hydrogencarbonate may be mixed with other electrolytes and / or glucose as needed, and preferably, a small amount of water is added, and then the mixture is granulated. The amount of water added at this time is preferably 1~25 wt%, which is slightly more than that added for the agent A. If the amount of water added is less than 1 wt%, the particle strength will be low, and powdering may easily occur, so it is not preferable. On the other hand, if the amount exceeds 25 wt%, the granulation process will be difficult, so it is not preferable.
[0024]
Like the agent A, the components of the agent B are also preferably fine powders having a particle diameter d90 of 250 m or smaller, preferably 180 m or smaller, particularly preferably 100 m or smaller. If the particle size exceeds 250 m, the mechanical strength of the granulated product is insufficient, powdering tends to occur, and the dissolution rate becomes low, so it is not preferable. When an electrolyte having a large particle size is used as a raw material, it is preferable to appropriately grind it before the granulation process.
[0025]
It is preferable that the particle size of the agent B granulates is about 0.1~10 mm. If the particle size is smaller than 0.1 mm, the flowability of the granulated produce may be impaired, or it may become powdery and scattered, which makes the handling difficult, so it is not preferable. On the other hand, when the particle size exceeds 10 mm, the mechanical strength of the granulated produce is insufficient, powdering is likely to occur, and the dissolution rate may be low, so it is not preferable.
[0026]
After granulating the agent B, drying is performed as necessary. At this time, to prevent decomposition of the sodium hydrogen carbonate, it is preferable to use a carbon dioxide gas atmosphere. Preferably, the carbon dioxide gas concentration is about 5% or higher. A suitable drying temperature range is 30~90°C, and the specific drying means may be, for example, a band dryer, a disc dryer, a through-flow dryer, a rotary dryer, etc. If so, a granulated product which is uniform and has a stable composition, a high strength and good solubility can be obtained.
[0027]
To prepare a dialysate using the sodium bicarbonate dialysis agent of the present invention, the agent A and the agent B may be dissolved to the required concentrations and mixed. Since acetic acid is contained in the agent A, a dialysate having a predetermined pH can be obtained without particularly adjusting the pH, and precipitation of the calcium or magnesium component does not occur.
[0028]
[Examples]
(Example 1)
2.5636 kg of glacial acetic acid was added to 12.608 kg of anhydrous sodium acetate which had been ground with a grinder (ball mill) to have a d90 diameter of 100 m or smaller, and they were uniformly mixed in a mixer to obtain a powder consisting of a mixture of sodium acetate and sodium diacetate. To this powder was added a ground mixture of 119.129 kg of sodium chloride, 2.864 kg of potassium chloride, 4.236 kg of calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.953 kg of magnesium chloride hexahydrate, and 19.21 kg of glucose, and then the mixture was moistened and kneaded, and then extruded and granulated with a granulator. The obtained granulated product was subjected to ventilation drying at 73°C for 10~15 minutes in an acetic acid gas atmosphere to obtain a dry powdery composition (agent A).
[0029]
(Example 2)
2.5636 kg of glacial acetic acid was added to 12.608 kg of anhydrous sodium acetate which had been ground with a grinder (ball mill) to have a d90 diameter of 100 m or smaller, and they were uniformly mixed in a mixer to obtain a powder consisting of a mixture of sodium acetate and sodium diacetate. On the other hand, a ground mixture of 119.129 kg of sodium chloride, 2.864 kg of potassium chloride, 4.236 kg of calcium chloride dihydrate, 1.953 kg of magnesium chloride hexahydrate, and 19.21 kg of glucose was moistened and kneaded, and then extruded and granulated with a granulator. Then, while the obtained granulated product was being heated in the fluid bed at 80°C for 5~10 minutes, the powder consisting of the above-mentioned mixture of sodium acetate and sodium diacetate was added, and the mixture was further granulated to obtain a dry powdery composition (agent A).
[0030]
[Test example]
A part each of the powdery compositions (agent A) obtained in Examples 1 and 2 was dissolved in a predetermined amount of water, and the content of each component in the dry powders was determined. The amounts of the components are shown in Table 1 in wt%. The target value is a value assuming that the components are uniformly blended in the powders and there is no loss. The analysis method used for determining Na+ and K+ was the ion electrode method, that for determining Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl− was the titration method, and that for determining glucose and acetic acid was the high-performance liquid chromatography.
Japanese to English: GROWTH FACTOR NETWORK AND NEW LIVER REGENERATION FACTOR HB-EGF AFTER HEPATECTOMY
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Japanese
V. HB-EGFによるHGFおよびTGF-α遺伝子の発現誘導
部分肝切除後の再生肝内ではHB-EGF遺伝子がクッパー細胞および内皮細胞でまず発現し(ファースト・ウェーブ),その後クッパー細胞でHGF遺伝子が,肝細胞でTGF-α遺伝子の発現が続く(セカンド・ウェーブ)と考えている.そこでHB-EGFがHGFおよびTGF-α遺伝子の発現を誘導するかについて検討を加えた.肝非実質細胞培養系にHB-EGFを添加すると3時間後にHGF遺伝子の発現を認めた.同様に肝細胞培養系にHB-EGFを添加するとTGF-α遺伝子の発現を見いだした.いまだ初歩的な実験段階であるが,部分肝切除後の再生肝でHB-EGFがファースト・ウェーブとして産生・分泌され,さらにHGFやTGF-α遺伝子を誘導することにより,増殖因子産生のセカンド・ウェーブとしてのHGFやTGF-αが分泌されることが考えられる(図4).このように肝細胞増殖促進因子のカスケイドが形成されると推測される.
VI. HB-EGF遺伝子発現調節機構
それでは肝切除後にHB-EGF遺伝子が誘導されるシグナルはどのようなものであるのか?肝再生の制御機構における再生開始のシグナルに関しては現在のところほとんど明らかになっていない.肝切除後に肝内の血流量が増加することが知られているが,この血流増加がそのシグナルの一つとして作用する可能性が考えられる(図5).
肝類洞内の血流が増加すると,内皮細胞にかかるshear stress(いわゆる,ずれ応力)が増加すると予測される.このずれ応力の内皮細胞におけるシグナル伝達機構は十分に明らかになってはいないが,HB-EGF遺伝子はそのプロモーター領域にずれ応力応答エレメントを有していることが既に明らかになっている.また,内皮細胞にずれ応力が負荷されると細胞内で転写因子NF-κBが活性化される.ことが知られているが,HB-EGF遺伝子はそのプロモーター領域にNF-κB応答エレメントを有している.したがって,肝切除後の血流増加による内皮細胞へのずれ応力の負荷によりHB-EGF遺伝子発現が亢進すると考えられる.
Translation - English
V. Induction of HGF and TGF-α gene expression by HB-EGF
It was believed that, in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy, the HB-EGF gene is first expressed in Kupffer cells and endothelial cells (first wave), followed by expression of the HGF gene in Kupffer cells and the expression of the TGF-α gene in hepatocytes (second wave). Therefore, we examined whether HB-EGF induces the expression of the HGF and TGF-α genes. When HB-EGF was added to a hepatic non-parenchymal cell culture system, HGF gene expression was observed 3 hours later. Similarly, the expression of the TGF-α gene was found when HB-EGF was added to a hepatocyte culture system. Although it was still at the rudimentary experimental stage, it was believed that HB-EGF was produced and secreted in the regenerating liver as a first wave after partial hepatectomy, and it further induced the HGF and TGF-α genes, resulting in secretion of HGF and TGF-α as the second wave of growth factor production (Fig. 4). Therefore, it is speculated that a cascade of hepatocyte growth-promoting factors is formed.
VI. HB-EGF gene expression regulation mechanism
Now, what is the signal that induces the HB-EGF gene after hepatectomy? At present, little is known about the regeneration initiating signal in the liver regeneration control mechanism. It is known that blood flow in the liver increases after hepatectomy, and we were thinking that this increase in blood flow might act as one of the signals (Fig. 5).
As blood flow in the liver sinusoids increases, the shear stress (so-called shear stress) acting on the endothelial cells is expected to increase. The signal transduction mechanism of this shear stress in endothelial cells has not been fully understood, but it has already been known that the HB-EGF gene has a shear stress response element in its promoter region. Moreover, it is known that, when shear stress is applied to endothelial cells, the transcription factor NF-κB in the cells is activated, and the HB-EGF gene has an NF-κB response element in its promoter region. Therefore, it is considered that the HB-EGF gene expression is enhanced by the shear stress applied to the endothelial cells due to increased blood flow after hepatectomy.
Japanese to English: SUBSTRATE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THEREOF
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese
[特許請求の範囲]
[請求項1]
ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの両面にフッ素樹脂からなるフィルムがそれぞれ積層された絶縁層の外表面の少なくとも一面に導体層が設けられており、絶縁層の全体の厚みは25~500μmであるとともにポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの厚さがフッ素樹脂からなるフィルム厚み合計の0.05~1.0倍であって、絶縁層同士の接着強度は、5.0N/cm以上であることを特徴とする基板。
[請求項2]
請求項1の基板を製造するに際し、ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムであってその両面にフッ素樹脂からなる接着層が形成された第1の絶縁層と、フッ素樹脂フィルムからなる第2の絶縁層とを、第1の絶縁層の両側に第2の絶縁層が配置されるように積層し、さらに第2の絶縁層の少なくとも一方の外側に導体層を積層し、加熱雰囲気下で圧着することを特徴とする基板の製造方法。
[発明の詳細な説明]
[技術分野]
[0001]
本発明は、基板及びその製造方法に関し、特に、回路を形成した後にカールやねじれや反り等を生ずることがなく、しかも耐熱性、寸法安定性、電気的特性等に優れた基板及びその製造方法に関するものである。この基板は誘電率が低いので高周波帯域用のプリント回路やアンテナ基板等に用いられるものである。
[背景技術]
[0002]
従来、高周波帯域用のプリント回路やアンテナ等に用いられる基板としては、ガラス繊維やアラミド繊維からなる織物/不織物/紙などの補強材とフッ素樹脂からなる複合シー卜が知られている(例えば、特許文献1)。これらの基板は補強材とフッ素樹脂との密着性を確保することが難しいため界面に気泡などが出来やすくなり信頼性に欠けるという問題があった。さらにこれらの問題を解決する方法として、特許文献2に開示されているように、フッ素樹脂のみから形成された基板も知られているがこの基板は良好な寸法安定性を得にくいとういう問題があった。
[0003]
[特許文献1]特開2003-171480号公報
[特許文献2]特開平7—38215号公報
[発明の開示]
[発明が解決しようとする課題]
[0004]
本発明は上記課題を解決し、回路形成や熱処理によるカール、ねじれ、反り等の発生を抑制でき、しかも、耐熱性、難燃性、寸法安定性、電気的特性等に優れた基板およびその製造方法を提供することを目的とする。
[課題を解決するための手段]
[0005]
本発明者等は上記課題を解決するために鋭意研究を行った結果、ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの両面にフッ素樹脂からなるフィルムがそれぞれ積層された絶縁層の外表面に導体層を形成するとともに、該ポリイミド樹脂フィルムとフッ素樹脂フィルムの厚み構成を特定した上で絶縁層同士の接着強度を特定の範囲とすることで上記課題が解決できることを見出し、本発明に至ったものである。
[0006]
すなわち本発明は、ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの両面にフッ素樹脂からなるフィルムがそれぞれ積層された絶縁層の外表面に導体層が設けられており、絶縁層の全体の厚みは25~500μmであるとともにポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの厚さがフッ素樹脂からなるフィルム厚み合計の0.05~1.0倍であって、絶縁層同士の接着強度は、5.0N/cm以上であることを特徴とする基板を要旨とするものである。

[0007]
また、本発明の基板を製造するに際し、ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムであってその両面にフッ素樹脂からなる接着層が形成された第1の絶縁層と、フッ素樹脂フィルムからなる第2の絶縁層とを、第1の絶縁層の両側に第2の絶縁層が配置されるように積層し、さらに第2の絶縁層の少なくとも一方の外側に導体層を積層し、加熱雰囲気下で圧着することを特徴とする基板の製造方法を要旨とするものである。
[発明の効果]
[0008]
本発明によれば、ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの両面にフッ素樹脂からなるフィルムがそれぞれ積層された絶縁層の外表面に導体層を形成し、絶縁層を構成するポリイミドフィルムとフッ素樹脂フィルムの厚み構成を規定することで、耐熱性、難燃性、電気的特性に優れ、寸法安定性が良い、低誘電率の基板が得られる。また、絶縁層同士の接着性が良いので、寸法安定性やカール特性や繰り返しの屈曲耐性などの機械的特性がさらに向上し、回路形成のためのエッチング処理やその他の加熱処理を施してもカールやねじれや反りなどのない良好な基板が実現できる。
また、本発明の基板の製造方法によると、本発明の基板を容易に実現できる。
[発明を実施するための最良の形態]
[0009]
以下、本発明を詳細に説明する。
本発明の基板は、ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの両面にフッ素樹脂からなるフィルムがそれぞれ積層された絶縁層の外表面に導体層が設けられている必要がある。このように接着剤層を介在させることなく導体層に直接に絶縁層を形成することで、耐熱性、難燃性、電気的特性に優れ、高温雰囲気下においても寸法安定性の良い基板が得られ、この基板にエッチングやその他の加熱処理を施しても、カールやねじれや反りの発生を抑制できる。また、ポリイミド樹脂フィルム層とフッ素樹脂フィルム層とを特定の接着層により一体化することで、基板として好適な絶縁層同士の接着強度が得られる。具体的には、絶縁層同士の接着強度は、5.0N/cm以上であることが好ましく、10N/cm以上であることがより好ましい。絶縁層同士の接着強度が5.0N/cm未満であると、基板としての実用性を欠くものとなる。
[0010]
また、本発明の基板は、絶縁層の全体の厚みが25~500μmである必要があり、50~300μmの範囲であることがより好ましい。絶縁層の全体の厚みが25μm未満であると、電気絶縁性などが不十分となり、基板としての信頼性が損なわれる。また、絶縁層の全体の厚みが500μmを超えると、繰り返しの屈曲耐性を含む基板としての機械的特性が損なわれる。
[0011]
また、絶縁層を構成するポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの厚さがフッ素樹脂からなるフィルム厚み合計の0.05~1.0倍であることが好ましい。ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの厚さがフッ素樹脂からなるフィルム厚み合計の0.05倍未満であると、絶縁層の剛性が低下し、また、絶縁層の線膨張係数(CTE)が増加する傾向となり、基板としての剛性および寸法安定性が低下する。ポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムの厚さがフッ素樹脂からなるフィルム厚み合計の1.0倍を超えると、基板としての剛性や寸法安定性は向上するものの、誘電率が増加するため好ましくない。
[0012]
なお、ポリイミド樹脂フィルムの両面に設けられるフッ素樹脂フィルムの厚みは、全体として上記の範囲であれば特に限定されるものではないが、同じ厚みであることがカールやねじれや反りなどをより低減するために好ましい。
[0013]

このように、絶縁層を形成するポリイミド樹脂フィルムとフッ素樹脂フィルムの厚みが特定の厚み構成を有することで、電気特性や、繰り返しの屈曲耐性を含む機械的特性がより一層高まるだけでなく、寸法安定性が優れるため、導体層に回路形成のためのエッチング処理を施したり、回路形成後の後工程における各種の加熱処理を施しても、カールやねじれや反りなどの発生をより一層抑制することができる。
[0014]
絶縁層を構成するポリイミド樹脂からなるフィルムは、特に限定されるものではないが熱機械特性分析装置(TMA)で測定したガラス転移温度が300℃以上の非熱可塑性芳香族ポリイミドからなるフィルムが好ましく用いられる。このような熱特性を有する芳香族ポリイミドとしては、下記構造式(1)で示す構造を有するものがあげられる。
Translation - English
Claims
[Claim 1]
A substrate, characterized in that a conductive layer is provided on at least one external surface of an insulating layer which has a film made of a fluorine resin laminated respectively on two sides of a film made of a polyimide resin, wherein the thickness of the entire insulating layer is 25~500 m, the thickness of the film made of the polyimide resin is 0.05~1.0 times the total thickness of the films made of the fluorine resin, and the bonding strength between the insulating layers is 5.0 N/cm or more.
[Claim 2]
A method for producing the substrate according to Claim 1, characterized in that the substrate is manufactured by laminating a 1st insulating layer, which has a bonding layer made of the fluorine resin formed on two sides of the film made of the polyimide resin, and a 2nd insulating layers made of the fluorine resin, with the 2nd insulating layer being disposed on two sides of the 1st insulating layer, and further laminating the conductive layer on at least one external surface of the 2nd insulating layer, and bonding them by compression under heating atmosphere.
[Detailed description of the invention]
[Technical field]
[0001]
The present invention relates to a substrate and a manufacturing method thereof, and more particularly to a substrate which, after circuits are formed in it, does not curl, twist, or warp and has excellent thermal resistance, dimensional stability and electrical properties, and a manufacturing method of the substrate. This substrate has a low dielectric constant, so it can be used in a printed circuit board or antenna substrate used for a high frequency band.
[Background art]
[0002]
Conventionally, known substrates used in printed circuit boards or antennas for high frequency bands are composite sheets comprising a fluorine resin and a reinforcement material such as woven fabric/non-woven fabric/paper made of glass fiber or aramid fiber (for example, the one disclosed in Patent Literature 1). Since it is difficult to ensure adequate bonding performance between the reinforcement material and the fluorine resin, these substrates have the problems of easily formation of air bubbles at the interface and unsatisfactory reliability. In addition, as a method to solve these problems, a substrate consisting of a fluorine resin is also known as is disclosed in Patent Literature 2, but this substrate also has the problem of unsatisfactory dimensional stability.
[0003]
Patent Literature 1: Japanese laid-open patent publication No. 2003-171480
Patent Literature 2: Japanese laid-open patent publication No. H7-38215
[Disclosure of the invention]
[Problem to be solved by the invention]
[0004]
To solve the aforesaid problems, the present invention provides a substrate, which can inhibit curling, twisting and warping during circuit board formation and thermal treatment and exhibits excellent thermal resistance, flame resistance, dimensional stability and electrical properties, and a method for manufacturing such a substrate.
[Means to solve the problem]
[0005]
To solve the aforesaid problems, the inventors of the present invention have conducted extensive researches and found that the aforesaid problems can be solved by forming a conductive layer on at least one external surface of insulating layers which have a fluorine resin film laminated respectively on two sides of a polyimide resin film, and limiting the thickness structure of the polyimide resin film and the fluorine resin films, and further limiting the bonding strength between the insulating layers to a certain range, and achieved the present invention thereby.
[0006]
In one aspect, the present invention relates to a substrate, characterized in that, a conductive layer is provided on at least one external surface of an insulating layer which has a film made of a fluorine resin laminated respectively on two sides of a film made of a polyimide resin, wherein the thickness of the entire insulating layer is 25~500 m, the thickness of the film made of the polyimide resin is 0.05~1.0 times the total thickness of the films made of the fluorine resin, and the bonding strength between the insulating layers is 5.0 N/cm or more.
/3
[0007]
In another aspect, the present invention provides a method for manufacturing the substrate, characterized in that the substrate is manufactured by laminating a 1st insulating layer, which has a bonding layer made of the fluorine resin formed on two sides of the film made of the polyimide resin, and a 2nd insulating layers made of the fluorine resin, with the 2nd insulating layer being disposed on two sides of the 1st insulating layer, and further laminating the conductive layer on at least one external surface of the 2nd insulating layer, and bonding them by compression under heating atmosphere.
[Effects of the invention]
[0008]
According to the present invention, a substrate having excellent thermal resistance, flame resistance, and electrical properties, outstanding dimensional stability and low dielectric constant can be obtained by forming an insulating layer by laminating a film made of a fluorine resin respectively on two sides of a film made of a polyimide resin, forming a conductive layer on an external surface of the insulating layer, and defining the thickness structure of the polyimide resin film and the fluorine resin film that constitute the insulating layer. Further, the excellent bonding between the insulating layers leads to improved mechanical properties, such as dimensional stability, curling property, resistance to repeated bending, which make the substrate of the present invention a superior substrate that is free of curling, twisting or warping even after etching treatment or other thermal treatment for forming circuits.
Further, the substrate of the present invention can be easily obtained according to the method for producing the substrate of the present invention.
[Best mode to implement the invention]
[0009]
The present invention is described in detail below.
As a substrate of the present invention, it is necessary to provide a conductive layer on an external surface of the insulating layer, which has a film made of a fluorine resin laminated respectively on two sides of a film made of a polyimide resin. By directly forming the insulating layer on the conductive layer without a bonding layer between them results in a substrate which has excellent thermal resistance, flame resistance, electrical properties and outstanding dimensional stability even under a high-temperature atmosphere, and inhibits curling, twisting, or warping even during etching or other thermal treatment. In addition, a bonding strength between the insulating layers that is suitable for the substrate can be obtained by integrating the polyimide resin film and the fluorine resin film with a specific bonding layer. Specifically, the bonding strength between the insulating layers is preferably 5.0 N/cm or more, more preferably 10 N/cm or more. When the bonding strength between the insulating layers is less than 5.0 N/cm, the substrate may not be used.
[0010]
Moreover, as the substrate of the present invention, the thickness of the entire insulating layer needs to be in the range of 25~500 m, preferably 50~300 m. When the thickness of the entire insulating layer is less than 25 m, the electrical insulation is inadequate, leading to compromised substrate reliability. Further, when the thickness of the entire insulating layer exceeds 500 m, the mechanical properties including resistance to repeated bending of the substrate are compromised.
[0011]
In addition, the thickness of the film of the polyimide resin that constitutes the insulating layer is preferably 0.05~1.0 times the total thickness of the films made of the fluorine resin. When the thickness of the film made of the polyimide resin is less than 0.05 times the total thickness of the films made of the fluorine resin, the rigidity of the insulating layer is reduced. In addition, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the insulating layer tends to increase, leading to reduced rigidity and dimensional stability of the substrate. When the thickness of the film made of the polyimide resin exceeds 1.0 time the total thickness of the films made of the fluorine resin, the rigidity or dimensional stability of the substrate are improved, but its dielectric constant is increased, so such a thickness structure is not preferable.
[0012]
It should be noted that the thickness of each fluorine resin film disposed on two sides of the polyimide resin film is not particularly restricted, as long as the total thickness of them falls within the aforesaid range, but preferably they have the same thickness as this will reduce curling, twisting or warping.
[0013]
/4
In this way, when the thicknesses of the polyimide resin film and the fluorine resin films that constitute the insulating layer have a certain thickness structure, it will improve the electrical properties, and mechanical properties including resistance to repeated bending and excellent dimensional stability. Therefore, curling, twisting or warping are inhibited even if the conductive layer undergoes etching treatment to form circuits, and various thermal treatments subsequent to the formation of the circuits.
[0014]
The film made of the polyimide resin that constitutes the insulating layer is not particularly restricted but is preferably a film made of a non-thermoplastic aromatic polyimide having a glass transition temperature of 300°C or above as determined using a thermo-mechanical analyzer (TMA). Examples of the aromatic polyimide having such thermal properties include the aromatic polyimide represented by the following structural formula (1).
Chinese to English: 一种南美白对虾的沉性膨化颗粒饲料及其制备方法
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Agriculture