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English to Chinese: Characterization of Precipitates in Vanadium and Titanium Micro-alloyed Steels
Source text - English Characterization of Precipitates in Vanadium and Titanium Micro-alloyed Steels
Transmission electron microscopic observations were carried out on carbon extraction replicas prepared from two commercial V-microalloyed steels and one commercial Ti-microalloyed steel hot rolled to 10mm diameter bars at different rolling conditions.
The presence of about 0.13% Cu in V- or Ti-microalloyed steels led to the formation of copper sulphides preferentially rather than manganesesulphides although the steels containing more than 1% Mn. In Ti-microalloyed steel, globular titanium carbosulphides of the type Ti4C2S2 are observed in addition to copper sulphide.
In V-steels, transmission electron microscopy revealed very fine precipitates in the pro-eutectoid ferrite(≌5nm) which are identified as carbides or carbonitrides of the type M(C, N) (M=V and Cr, where V/Cr≌5). Some relatively coarse particles (≌0.1µm) were also observed (with V/Cr>15) which are suggested to be V-nitrides or carbonitrides formed at relatively high temperatures in austenite.
In Ti-steel, coarse titanium nittide particles (>5µm) were observed together with precipitates of the type MC(M=Ti and Cr) in the form of very fine precipitates(≌5nm, Ti/Cr≌9) or relatively coarse carbide particles (≌0.1µm. Ti/Cr>30).
In recent years, successful improvement in the mechanical properties of low-carbon steels has been achieved by microadditions of strong carbide-forming elements such as niobium, vanadium or titanium. Such microalloyed steels have higher strength levels as a result of grain refinement of ferrite.The resulting fine-grained structure is often further strengthened by fine precipitates of particular alloy carbide. For strengthening ferrite the precipitate must be fine and for niobium steel, it has been estimated that formaximum strength the particle diameter should be about 3nm.1)
Precipitation strengthening has been examined in high Purity steels.2,3) However, no attention has been given to the effects of element present in the commercial steels such as copper and chromium on the precipitation behavior of V- or Ti-microalloyed steels. The present study presents the transmission electron microscopic observations carried out on commercial V- and Ti-microalloyed steels in the hot rolling condition.
In hot rolled V- and Ti-microalloyed steels, transmission electron microscopy revealed several types of non-metallic inclusions and precipitates:
(1) Globular (0.2-1.0µm diameter) and elongated (up to lOµtm long) copper sulphides identified as CuS and Cu2S in vanadium and titanium microalloyed steels, respectively.
(2) Globular titanium carbosulphide Ti4C2S2 (0.2-0.5µm of diameter) and coarse cuboidal titanium nitride particles (5-lO µm side length) in Ti-microalloyed steel.
(3) Very fine precipitates in the pro-eutectoid ferrite (≌5nm) identified as carbides or carbonitrides of the type M(C,N) (M=V and Cr, where V/Cr ≌ 5) in V-steels and carbides of the type MC (M=Ti and Cr, where Ti/Cr ≌ 9) in Ti-steel.
(4) Relatively coarse (≌O.1µm) particles of V- nitrides or carbonitrides (with V/Cr>15) in V- microalloyed steels, and Ti-carbides (with Ti/Cr>30) in Ti-microalloyed steel.
English to Chinese: Enhancement of Resistance against Oxidation with Carbon Dioxide for Formed Coke and Electrode-grade Graphite and Carbon by Infiltrating Carbon into Pores
Source text - English Enhancement of Resistance against Oxidation with Carbon Dioxide for Formed Coke and Electrode-grade Graphite and Carbon by Infiltrating Carbon into Pores
The degradation of coke in a blast furnace is considered to be mainly due to decrease in mechanical strength accompanying the oxidation: C C02=2CO.1•2) Therefore, if low-grade coke which is generally sensitive to oxidation is improved by having its resistance to oxidation increased up to that of regular coke, it can be used in a blast furnace.
From this view point, modifications of low-grade coke have been tried to enhance the resistance to oxidation. Ogawa et al. used liquid tar to impregnate pores in coke.3) They reported an improvement of the mechanical ambient tumbler strength and also the mechanical strength after oxidation. However, a vast amount of soot produced prevented the application to a commercial process.4) Vandezande also reported on the infiltration of coke by use of hydrocarbons. However, he coated the outer surface of coke by deposited carbon.5) He also reported an improvement of mechanical ambient tumbler strength and also the mechanical strength after oxidation. However the effect was not so large because coke was oxidized at nearly the same rate after the outer surface layer of carbon was removed by oxidation. Therefore, these trials have not succeeded in being applied to a commercial process.
The present authors reported that the reactivity of the metallurgical coke with C02 could be lowered by infiltrating carbon into the pores where major oxidation occurs6) and that the mechanical strength after oxidation of the infiltrated coke increased greatly.7,8) For infiltration, methane cracking: CH4= C 2H2 Was used. In this case, the macropores are not necessary to be impregnated because the major oxidation is considered to occur in the small pores owing to their relatively larger specific surface area than that of macro- pores. This is very important factor in applying the technique to a commercial process because a short time for infiltration is desirable for the economics ofproduction.8)
In the present paper, formed coke was infiltrated and then oxidized in the same way as described in the previous paper.6) Formed coke is currently not exploited in a blast furnace because it has high reactivity to C02 in general and this is considered to be the major problem for formed coke.
Electrode-grade graphite (E.G.) and electrode-grade carbon (E.C)* were also tested to consider the effect of the difference in pore structure. The changes of pore size and surface area were determined by use of a mercury porosimeter.
In order to modify the formed coke so as to have the higher oxidation resistance, carbon was infiltrated into pores using methane cracking. Impregnation of small pore or micropore is very important because oxidation occurs mainly in these pores where the specific surface area is far larger than that of macropores. In the previous paper,6) decrease in oxidation rate for the infiltrated metallurgical coke and an extreme increase in CSR(Coke Strength after C02 Reaction) of infiltrated metallurgicalcoke7,8) was shown.
As the formed coke has not been employed in a blast furnace and one of the reasons of it is the high reactivity to C02 for ordinary formed coke, we aimed at modifying it to have high resistance to oxidation by infiltrating carbon using methane cracking. In the present paper, as the main objective is to study how the enhancement of the resistance to oxidation is depending on the pore structures, carbonaceous materials having different pore structures: electrode-grade graphite (E.G.)and electrode-grade carbon (E.C.) were also used. The effect of infiltration was apparent for all these samples but the degree of decrease in oxidation was dependent on the pore structures. The results are summarized as follows:
(1)The oxidation rate of formed coke was lowered by infiltration and the rate decreased with increasing time. It became half of that of original formed coke 6ks after oxidation started. This reduction is considered to be caused as follows.
The infiltration occurred in both macropores (r=1-lOµm) and small pores (r
English to Chinese: Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium (Ti) Gas Metal Arc Welding
Source text - English Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium (Ti) Gas Metal Arc Welding
This is the final technical report for the Option Phase of a Phase I SBIR project that is being performed by Creare Inc. for the U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC. It covers the time period between August 1,2004 and December 1, 2004. The specific aim of this overall project is to develop a Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium (Ti) Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMA W) for current and future Army and commercial applications. GMA W is a particularly attractive welding process for Ti because of its potential for high deposition rate, deep penetration, and low cost. We are working to achieve our objective by developing an integrated system that will measure characteristics of the weld, the arc, and the metal transfer mechanism and use these data to adjust the weld current, voltage, and speed. Our system will make use of both existing weld hardware, new instrumentation, and computational algorithms to enable a significant improvement in the ability to weld Ti.
The Need. Joint Vision 2020 advocates for the development of flexible, effective, and efficient multi-dimensional forces capable of rapidly projecting overwhelming military combat power anywhere in the world. As part of this vision, the largest vehicles must be lighter than current mechanized systems with each system possessing common or multi-functional characteristics and capabilities. Thus, weight reduction is of primary importance to meet the operational objectives. Low-cost sources of titanium (Ti) are becoming available and, as a result, it is being employed in these and other systems to reduce weight significantly and enhance corrosion resistance. However, low-cost manufacturing technologies for Ti have not kept pace with the demand for high production rate and low cost. Most Ti alloys can be welded with typical arc welding processes. However, to consistently achieve high weld quality requires a proper gas mixture/shield, adjustment of the weld parameters, and, potentially, guidance for the weld arc that can wander substantially during the welding of titanium. Without substantial improvements to achieve a viable high-rate welding process, the benefits of titanium structures, components, and weapons will not be realized.
Creare's Innovation. The overall objective of this project is to develop a Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMA W) (also known as Metal Inert Gas, or MIG Welding), for current and future Army and commercial applications. Pulsed GMAW, in particular, is an attractive welding process for Ti because of its potential for high deposition rate, deep penetration, and better control of droplet formation, transfer, and deposition resulting in low fabrication cost. Pulsed GMA W welding of titanium is not currently a standard practice, but has been shown to have great promise by the Army. For example, ARDEC has successfully fabricated titanium prototype receivers in support of the M240 Machine Gun Lightweight Initiative, the upper hull for a Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) Integrated Hybrid Structure (IHS), and an all titanium mortar baseplate for the U.S. Marine Corps using robotic pulsed GMA W; however, before the process can be considered for production, real-time control of the process is mandatory.
We will achieve our objective by developing an integrated system that will continuously measure characteristics of the weld, the arc, and the metal transfer mechanism and use these data to adjust the weld current, voltage, speed, and arc concentration. Our system, shown schematically in Figure 1, will make use of both existing robotic weld hardware and new instrumentation and computational algorithms to enable a significant improvement in the ability to weld Ti. The Creare real-time weld control system will integrate: (1) feedback sensors such as weld width, weld temperature, droplet formation, detachment, and transfer; (2) adjustment of weld parameters such as current, arc length, and torch speed; and(3) real-time adaptive control algorithms that are used to make critical changes to the weld parameters during welding to achieve high-quality welds.
Phase I Results Prove Feasibility. During Phase I of this SBIR development project, Creare has clearly demonstrated the utility of our innovative Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium GMA W. During the Phase I base period, we: (1) determined the requirements for the system to be of use to both Army and commercial applications; (2) designed and fabricated a prototype of one of the sensors that will be used in the adaptive control system; (3) used the prototype sensor to measure the droplet formation and transfer during pulsed GMA W of steel and titanium; (4) determined the hardware necessary to adequately measure the weld temperature for control use; and 5) designed a prototype control system for Ti GMA W that can be fabricated and tested during the Phase II project. During the Phase I option period, we: (1) prepared to transition the conceptual design into a full-fledged design; (2) selected and ordered a weld pool temperature sensor; (3) performed the layout design of the overall system; (4) selected the welding power supply that would meet the needs of the Phase II system; and (5) determined the available high-speed cameras that would be appropriate for the droplet transfer measurement. During the Phase II effort, we expect to achieve all of the specifications to meet the Phase ill applications by optimizing the hardware design, implementing the optimized hardware design, performing open loop tests to verify accuracy and dynamic range of the sensors, and demonstrating the use of our Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium GMAW using a pulsed power supply to control droplet formation on applications of interest at ARDEC.
The Benefits. The primary benefits of Creare's Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium Gas Metal Arc Welding include: (1) high quality titanium welds for use in critical fabrication and manufacturing processes; (2) high-speed welding that will reduce recurring manufacturing costs for lightweight structures; and (3) lower fixed costs because of the minimal capital equipment investment required for GMA W systems. This combination of benefits will enable the fabrication of very lightweight, very capable systems for use in future army systems. Commercial applications are equally numerous in the aerospace, automotive, and construction industries. Our system for pulsed GMA W welding of titanium is an enabling technology that could substantially expand the demand for titanium leading to the proliferation of titanium welded structures, which will correspond with the advent of lower cost titanium.
Commercial Potential. Our Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium Gas Metal Arc Welding has tremendous commercial potential. While the cost of titanium is dropping and new low-cost production processes are poised to drop the price further, there is no viable high-rate joining process that will enable the cost-effective fabrication of titanium structures. Our system will fill that void allowing titanium to reach its marketplace potential. As such, the proposed work is critical and has substantial commercial upside.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROBLEM
Future Army Forces Need To Be Lightweight. A recent Defense Planning Guidance document states that the Army needs to develop an Objective Force that is capable of operational maneuvers from strategic distances; can penetrate and sustain operations in environments where access is denied; and be less dependent on traditional air and sea ports of entry and host nation support, reception, and infrastructure. The Army's responsibility to satisfy this requirement demands the development of a future full spectrum force that will be organized, manned, equipped, and trained to be strategically responsive, deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable, and sustainable across the entire spectrum of military operations.
Titanium Is an Important Enabling Structural Material. Titanium and its alloys have proven to be technically superior and cost-effective materials for a wide variety of aerospace, industrial, marine, and commercial applications. Titanium addresses the Army's need for high strength-to-weight characteristics and can meet the performance and transportability requirements of lightweight systems. The use of titanium has the potential to achieve significant reductions in the mass of systems as compared to steel analogs. For example, the XM777 Lightweight Howitzer weight was reduced from 17,0001bs to 9,000 lbs with a design that was based on using titanium structural components for approximately 80% of the vehicle. Furthermore, low-cost sources of bulk titanium are being developed to supply the material needed to employ Ti in future Army and commercial structures.
Welding Is a Critical Manufacturing Process. The need for higher quality, less expensive, and more robust products has helped to spur the development of welding processes. All manufactured products have joints that join different pieces of metal together. More often than not, the joints are the weakest part of the structure and the joint quality determines the quality of the end product. Welding and joining technologies enable improved manufactured components by reducing the weight, production time, and cost of fabricating quality joints. Improvements in welding have resulted in increased product lifetimes and enabled the fabrication of large structures.
Titanium Welding Is Particularly Difficult and Expensive. One of the factors limiting the use of titanium in military systems is the lack of an acceptable Gas Metal Arc Welding, GMAW (or MIG) welding process approved for military fabrications. Almost all titanium is welded using a laborious and time-consuming Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GT A W (or TIG) process. In comparison, both steel and aluminum are capable of employing GMA W systems with significant productivity improvements of ten times the GTAW systems.
GMAW systems have not been employed successfully for titanium due to several constraints, which mostly contribute to interstitial contamination. Interstitial increases of 0>500 ppm, N>50 ppm, and H>35 ppm are typical with GMA W systems currently available from equipment dealers. A large portion of this contamination is derived from the typical spatter generated during the process. This spatter or spitting of molten titanium to the outside of the protective gas coverage envelope leads to a potential re-ingestion of the contaminated material. Also, the turbulence of the protective gas stream from a turbulent arc leads to gas contamination. Some investigators have attempted to solve, with questionable success, these problems with extensive leading and trailing shields, which limit visibility and mobility of the weld torch, and thus limit the ability to weld structures of significance.
The factors controlling the spattering or spitting are well understood and have been largely addressed in the latest Gas Metal Arc Welding-Pulsed (pulsed GMAW) equipment produced from Lincoln Electric in their Power Wave 455 with computer wave control. This system, under the Army Titanium Manufacturing Technology Objective (MTO), has shown to have a dramatic reduction in spattering by incorporating a high-pulsed rate waveform, which also incorporates a pre-heat in each pulse. This micro-adjustment in wave shape or form is possible because the system is capable of being programmed (controlled) by a separate stand-alone computer.
Under the Titanium MTO, ARDEC is demonstrating the pulsed GMA W process on several applications of importance. One such example is the fabrication via pulsed GMA W process of an all titanium mortar baseplate for the U.S. Marine Corps (weight reduction from 135 lbs to 65 lbs). The baseplate demonstration illustrates the promise of pulsed GMAW. However, fabrication using pulsed GMA W still takes considerable operator intervention to adjust weld parameters due to the nature of titanium and arc interactions. Thus, before the process can be transitioned to the Army's production base, reliable real-time robotic control is needed to adjust the weld parameters dynamically during the fabrication process based on measured weld quantities.
PHASE I PROJECT RESULTS
The specific objective of the Phase I base project was to develop and demonstrate prototype instrumentation hardware for enhancing the quality and speed of performing titanium. gas metal arc welding. During the Phase I Option project, we prepared to transition the conceptual design into a full-fledged design. During Phase II, we will combine the instrumentation, adaptive control algorithms, and real-time hardware in a complete control system for pulsed titanium GMA W.
In addition, during the Phase I project under separate funding, we developed and demonstrated the ability to control a plasma using a low-power pulsed laser. This innovation was developed for a separate purpose, but has wide ranging application to Ti pulsed GMA W. As a result of this additional innovation, the Army Titanium MTO plans to support integration of the plasma control process with the real-time control system that we will develop under the Phase II SBIR.
Creare's solution, shown schematically in Figure 1, is based on combining state-of-the-art sensor instrumentation, adaptive control algorithms, pulsed laser plasma concentration, and real-time hardware to measure and monitor the weld characteristics and modify the weld parameters in real time. Our Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium GMA W will consist of sensors for measuring characteristics of the weld, the arc, and the droplet formation and transfer and use these data to adjust the weld current, voltage, and speed. We expect that by combining these components into a complete robotic welding system that we will achieve higher quality, lower cost, and more robust titanium welds than are currently possible today. Below is a description of the work performed during the Phase I option period related to the overall hardware design, selection of a weld pool temperature sensor, and selection of the power supply hardware.
OVERALL HARDWARE DESIGN
A schematic of the hardware design of our Ti GMAW system is shown in Figure 2. This figure shows that the hardware consists of the following:
1. Weld head
A commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) system that contains the wire feed mechanism, shield gas handling plumbing, and the high power supply electronics. The wire feed and power supply can be controlled by the control computer.
2. Weld motion system.
The motion system is used to move the work piece underneath the weld head. The motion system can be controlled by the control computer in order to set the proper weld speed.
3. Temperature sensor. The COTS temperature sensor is used to measure or estimate the weld temperature. Previous research has shown that this information can be used to estimate weld penetration which has been correlated with weld quality. This sensor signal will be input to the control computer and used to adjust the weld parameters.
4. Laser backlight system. The laser, optics, and high-speed camera are used to determine the metal transfer mechanism. This custom system can measure the drop formation and transfer and the data will be used to set the proper weld parameters.
During the Phase II project, we will generate the drawings required to fabricate our TI GMA W system, assemble the hardware, write the software required to interface the hardware to the control computer, and perform open- and closed-loop experiments to quantify the advantages of using our GMA W control system.
WELD POOL TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The sensors make up some of the most important components of the robotic titanium weld control system. The sensors are used to observe and measure characteristics of the weld. These measurements then serve as the signal that is used to adjust the welding parameters. Several measurement techniques have been developed in order to measure the penetration depth (e.g., ultrasonic sensors, X rays, weld pool oscillations, optical devices, acoustic emissions, and infrared sensors) and the droplet formation and transfer. We will employ a laser backlight system for monitoring the droplet formation and transfer mechanism (described in the Phase I Base period final report) and infrared sensing to monitor aspects of the weld formation. Below is a description of each of the weld pool temperature sensors.
Infrared sensing has been used to monitor various aspects of the welding process for many years. Infrared cameras, thermocouples, and various combinations of these devices have been used to measure the temperature distribution around the weld pool in order to automatically track seams, control the bead width, or regulate the weld penetration. The temperature distribution near the weld pool provides important information on the status of the welding process. The weld parameters (voltage, current, and speed) and other process variables (joint mismatch, root gap, thickness of parts, and part composition) effect the pool shape (determined from temperature distribution), the absolute temperature near the pool, and the temperature distribution symmetry around the pool. Thus, by measuring the temperature distribution, many of the weld parameters and variables can be determined indirectly from the temperature.
All materials emit infrared radiation which is related to their temperature (i.e., thermal energy). The infrared spectrum encompasses electromagnetic wavelengths from 0.7 to 1000 microns and the intensity of radiation emitted by an object is a function of the temperature of the body and the surface emissivity (a material dependent property). If the emissivity of the material is known and the infrared radiation of the object is measured, the temperature can be determined using the Stefan-Boltzman formula.
The use of infrared sensors makes monitoring the temperature very convenient. Infrared sensors are inexpensive and the fact that they do not require contact between the sensor and the object (which is at high temperature), makes them easy to use for monitoring temperatures during welding. The sensors can be used on moving targets, in a vacuum, and in hostile or inaccessible regions. The sensors themselves have fast response and are easy to adapt to the floor of a shop or fabrication facility. The sensors convert the infrared radiant energy into electrical energy which can be used to monitor the temperature and extrapolate other important weld quantities. In our application, absolute accuracy is less important than repeatability since we will be using the sensor in a feedback control system. As long as the sensor measures the same reading when exposed to the same conditions, it is not as important that the sensor read the exact temperature.
During the Option period, we purchased the infrared temperature sensor shown below in Figure 3. We selected and purchased a Raytek smart infrared thermometer (model MA2SCSF). This sensor allows remote calibration, troubleshooting, and upgrade for sensors in difficult to reach locations (e.g., near the welding head). The ability of the sensor to perform in situ calibration to process temperatures is particularly helpful for the control of Ti GMAW. The sensor has a focal distance of greater than 27 in (67.5 em) and a spot size of 0.04 in (1 mm) at the focal distance. This combination of optical characteristics will allow us to easily mount the temperature sensing hardware in a safe location and still allow sufficient flexibility in setting the location and size of the spot to be used for the temperature measurement.
In order to become familiar with the operation of the sensor, we connected the sensor to a computer and recorded data while the sensor was pointed at a standard desk lamp. These data are shown in Figure 4. The data were obtained with a sample rate of 10 Hz, which we anticipate being more than sufficient for controlling the weld parameters and is easily integrated into a computer-based weld control system. During the Phase IT project, we will integrate the temperature sensor with the positioning system shown above and use the sensor in both open- and closed- loop tests of the Ti GMA W control system.
WELD POWER SUPPLY
The Creare Real-Time Robotic Control System for Titanium GMA W will be based on hybrid analog/digital control electronics. To achieve sufficient bandwidth, high precision control with algorithm flexibility, and power, a hybrid design is necessary. The analog electronics are used to implement the high bandwidth actuator power driver and the proper signal conditioning for the instrumentation sensors. A digital microprocessor will likely be used to implement the control algorithm for all of the controlled welding parameters. We expect to use a microcomputer because of the image processing that will be required to determine the droplet formation and detachment and the fact that a physics-based model will be required to infer important weld characteristics from the infrared sensor measurements. A block diagram of the real-time electronics hardware is shown in Figure 5. The weld drive electronics are described in greater detail below.
In order to implement this control algorithm, we found that the Lincoln Electric Power Wave 455 with computer wave control (see Figure 6a) is an appropriate weld power supply. In the one drop per pulse mode, the droplet is formed when the current is pulsed and the background current is used to prevent the arc from extinguishing. In this mode, the melt rate of the wire is proportional to the pulse frequency, period, and level. The higher the frequency, the higher the average welding current and melting rate will be. Thus, the mass and heat transferred into the work piece can be controlled by regulating the background and pulsed welding current. As shown in Figure 6b, the pulse can be complicated for titanium GMAW. The first part of the pulse melts the end of the wire to form an attached droplet. Then the second multi-mode pulse first stretches the drop and then pinches it off to form the droplet that is transferred.
When the droplet has formed and is still attached, all of the weld current passes through the droplet. If the pulse current is held constant during this time, the droplet may overheat. If this happens, metallic vapor from the droplet will be generated and spatter may occur on the work piece. This results in the potential for significant loss of alloying elements in the weld. Thus, it is important to ensure that in this mode of operation the system will allow the average welding current and heat input to the work piece to be controlled while guaranteeing that the one drop per pulse mode of droplet transfer is sustained. Further, with the arc guidance and concentration provided by the pulsed laser, we expect to be able to guide the path of the droplet during transfer to the proper location in the weld (again, this laser guidance of the arc will be developed under separate funding). By combining these two effects, we can both control the drop transfer mode as well as the location of the drop in the weld.
Titanium addresses the Army's need for high strength-to-weight characteristics and can meet the performance and transportability requirements of current and future lightweight systems. There are initiatives to develop low-cost titanium materials supplies; however, low-cost and high-rate fabrication processes are sorely lacking.
Welding and joining technologies enable improved manufactured components by reducing the weight, production time, and cost of joining parts. Improved welding technology increases product lifetimes and makes possible the fabrication of large structures. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) has the potential to significantly improve the quality, speed, and penetration depth of titanium welds, while reducing the cost per part. However, this result can only be achieved if proper weld parameters are selected and dynamically maintained during the welding process due to the nature of titanium.
During this Phase I SBIR project, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of our innovation by determining the requirements for the system for both Army and commercial applications; designing, fabricating, and testing one of the key sensors used in the adaptive control system; determining the hardware necessary to adequately measure the weld temperature for control use; designing a prototype control system for Ti GMA W to be fabricated and tested during the Phase II project; and prepared to transition the conceptual design into a full-fledged design.
English to Chinese: Diet Causes Viral Mutation in Mice
Source text - English Diet Causes Viral Mutation in Mice
A benign coxsackievirus can mutate and become virulent if its host, a mouse in this case, lacks the trace mineral selenium, researchers have discovered. Moreover, the altered virus can cause disease when it enters well-fed animals.
“This interesting work is the first to show that a nutritional deficiency can accelerate evolution of a virus population from benign to virulent in an intact animal,” assert Charles J. Gauntt of the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio and Steven Tracy of the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha. Their comments appear in an editorial that accompanies the announcement in the May NATURE MEDICINE of the findings by Melinda A. Beck of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and her colleagues.
Coxsackieviruses infect more than 20 million people annually in the United States and can cause illnesses ranging from a cold to an inflammation of the heart. However, most of the viruses are benign, so only about 10,000 infected people become ill.
In previous studies, Beck and other researchers had linked coxsackievirus and heart disease to selenium intake in humans as well as mice. People deficient in the mineral tend to develop Keshan disease, an inflammatory heart disease. Scientists had found coxsackieviruses in Keshan patients, they note.
Last year, Beck and her colleagues reported their first inkling that the coxsackievirus mutates in nutritionally deprived hosts. The team found that a normally benign strain of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) damaged the hearts of selenium-deficient mice. Injecting virus from these animals into selenium-rich mice caused the healthy creatures to develop heart disease.
In their new study, Beck and her coworkers fed mice either a diet very low in selenium or a normal diet for 4 weeks, then injected benign CVB3 into both groups. After 7, 10, and 14 days, the scientists killed and examined 10 mice from each group. After only 7 days, the mice that lacked selenium showed signs of heart disease, including inflammation. The well-nourished mice stayed diseasefree.
The researchers compared the original virus, the virus taken from the hearts of the selenium- deficient mice, and strains of CVB3 known to cause heart disease. In the deprived mice, the original virus’ sequence of nucleotides, the building blocks of ribonucleic acid (RNA), underwent six changes. These same mutations appear in the CVB3 strain that causes heart disease, Beck and her colleagues report.
They speculate that the virus changes rapidly in selenium-deficient hosts because of the animals’ weakened immune systems. The mineral, an antioxidant, helps protect the immune system from the damaging by-products of normal metabolic functions. Also, coxsackieviruses and similar viruses mutate readily. Whether the virus requires all six or only one or two of the mutations to become virulent remains unclear, the authors note. They are now investigating why the changes occur at such specific sites on the genome and what happens to the virus in animals only slightly low on selenium.
If coxsackieviruses and other viruses become virulent when they infect nutritionally deprived people, that may “help explain the steady emergence of new strains of influenza virus in China, which has widespread selenium-deficient areas,” Beck’s team argues.
Our findings might even help to explain the crossing over of certain viruses [such as HIV] to a new host species through accelerated mutation rates,” the authors speculate. HIV apparently first infected monkeys and then moved to some humans living in selenium-poor regions of Africa, they note.
Translation - Chinese 饮食在小鼠中引起的病毒突变
驻San Antonio的Texas大学健康科学中心的Charles J. Gauntt和驻Omaha的Nebraska大学医疗中心的Steven Tracy声称“这项很有趣的工作首次表明健康的动物如果缺少营养，体内的良性病毒就可快速变成恶性病毒。”
English to Chinese: Antioxidants and Viral Infections: Host Immune Response and Viral Pathogenicity
Source text - English Antioxidants and Viral Infections: Host Immune Response and Viral Pathogenicity
Melinda A. Beck, PhD
Departments of Pediatrics and Nutrition, University of North Carolina
Malnutrition has long been associated with increased susceptibility to infectious disease. The increase in severity from and susceptibility to infectious disease in malnourished hosts is thought to be the result of an impaired immune response. For example, malnutrition could influence the immune response by inducing a less effective ability to manage the challenge of an infectious disease. Work in our laboratory has demonstrated that not only is the host affected by the nutritional deficiency, but the invading pathogen is as well. Using a deficiency in selenium (Se) as a model system, mice deficient in Se were more susceptible to infection with coxsackievirus, as well as with influenza virus. Se-deficient mice develop myocarditis when infected with a normally benign strain of coxsackievirus. They also develop severe pneumonitis when infected with a mild strain of influenza virus. The immune system was altered in the Se-deficient animals, as was the viral pathogen itself. Sequencing of viral isolates recovered from Se-deficient mice demonstrated mutations in the viral genome of both coxsackievirus and influenza virus. These changes in the viral genome are associated with the increased pathogenesis of the virus. The antioxidant selenoenzyme, glutathione peroxidase-1, was found to be critically important, as glutathione peroxidase knockout mice developed myocarditis, similar to the Se-deficient mice, when infected with the benign strain of myocarditis. This work points to the importance of host nutrition in not only optimizing the host immune response, but also in preventing viral mutations which could increase the viral pathogenicity.
Key words: influenza virus, coxsackievirus, selenium, glutathione peroxidase
Key teaching points:
• A deficiency in selenium and/or a deficiency in selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase leads to increased susceptibility to coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis.
• A deficiency in selenium leads to increased susceptibility to influenza virus-induced pneumonitis.
• Increased virulence of coxsackievirus and influenza virus in Se-deficient hosts is due to changes in the viral genome.
It has been known for many years that nutritional deficiencies can lead to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases [1,2]. Many viral infections, for example infections with rotavirus, measles, and parainfluenza virus, are much more severe in malnourished hosts as compared with well-nourished hosts. A well-known example is the association of vitamin A deficiency with the development of severe measles infections, leading to a high rate of mortality . Indeed, vitamin A supplementation is recommended as a treatment for severe measles infection and supplementation with vitamin A is suggested at the time of vaccination for measles infection.
The association of poor host nutritional status with increased susceptibility to infectious disease has long been thought to be related to the host immune response. Thus, a host nutritional deficiency would lead to an impaired immune response. This impairment in immune function would result in increased vulnerability to infectious disease. Both general malnutrition, as well as specific nutritional deficiencies, have been reported to be associated with immune dysfunction, including impaired antibody responses, decreased macrophage activity and T cell dysfunction [4,5].
Although the immune response has been demonstrated to be impaired in nutritionally deficient hosts, our laboratory has also shown that the viral pathogen itself may be affected by the nutritional deficiency. Several viruses have been shown to develop increased virulence due to changes in their genomes as a result of replicating in a nutritionally deficient host. The mechanism for the viral genomic changes is not well understood, although it appears to be related to increased oxidative stress in the deficient host. Thus, both the host as well as the pathogen can be influenced by the nutritional status of the host.
KESHAN DISEASE, SELENIUM DEFICIENCY AND COXSACKIEVIRUS
Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that is an essential component of a number of proteins, including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase . Se is believed to play an essential role in antioxidant protection due to its incorporation as selenocysteine into several antioxidant enzymes.
A deficiency of Se in China was found to lead to a cardiomyopathy known as Keshan disease . Specific regions in China have Se-deficient soils and thus grains grown in the deficient soil are also deficient in Se. Individuals living in areas with Se-deficient soils who consume locally grown food will develop a deficiency in Se. Keshan disease is a cardiomyopathy characterized by necrotic lesions throughout the myocardium with varying degrees of cellular infiltration and calcification . Supplying people living in Keshan disease endemic areas with selenium can prevent the disease.
However, the deficiency in Se did not appear to entirely explain the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Keshan disease had a seasonal and annual incidence, and not everyone who was Se deficient developed the disease. For these reasons, scientists in China suspected an infectious co-factor was required along with the deficiency in Se for the development of Keshan disease. Using both blood and tissue samples from Keshan disease victims, scientists in China were able to isolate enteroviruses from some of the samples . Coxsackie B viruses were the most commonly identified.
Coxsackieviruses, small RNA enteroviruses in the Picornaviridae, are known to infect the heart and can cause myocarditis, or inflammatory heart disease. Using the technique of RT-PCR, several groups have reported coxsackievirus B3 sequences from archived Keshan disease hearts . Thus, it appeared that a deficiency in Se together with a coxsackievirus infection resulted in Keshan disease.
In order to further characterize the relationship between infection with coxsackievirus and a deficiency in Se, a mouse model was used. Mice are well-established models for coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis and develop a pattern of heart inflammation similar to that found in humans. In addition, well-characterized strains of coxsackievirus, both myocarditic and amyocarditic in mice, are available.
Mice were fed a diet deficient in Se beginning at the time of weaning. After a period of 4 weeks, glutathione peroxidase activity, a marker of Se status, was 1/5 of the activity of glutathione peroxidase from Se-adequate mice. Thus, short term feeding of a Se-deficient diet led to a moderate deficiency in Se.
Se-deficient and Se-adequate mice were infected with a normally amyocarditic strain of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3/0). At various times post infection, the mice were killed and tissues were removed for study. As expected, the Se-adequate mice did not develop myocarditis when infected with the amyocarditic strain of virus. However, the Se-deficient animals did develop a moderate level of myocarditis . The myocarditis was characterized by inflammatory foci scattered throughout the myocardium.
Heart virus titers revealed that the Se-deficient mice had 10 to 100-fold higher levels of virus in the heart post infection compared with the Se-adequate mice. This result suggested that there was impairment in the immune response, such that the virus was not as controlled in the Se-deficient mice as in the Se-adequate mice. Interestingly, the deficiency in Se did not affect the timing of clearance, as both Se-adequate and Se-deficient mice cleared the virus from the heart by day 14 post infection.
The immune response of the Se-deficient mice was found to be altered. Although the production of neutralizing antibody responses was not affected, the proliferative response of T cells to both mitogen and antigen were decreased. Because inflammation is the hallmark of coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis, expression of mRNA for several inflammatory chemokines was examined . Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was highly expressed at day 10 in the Se-deficient animals as compared with the Se-adequate animals. This increase in MCP-1 mRNA expression may be responsible for the inflammation found in the infected Se-deficient mice.
In addition to alterations in the expression of MCP-1 for MCP-1, expression of mRNA for -interferon (IFN) was greatly decreased in the Se-deficient mice . -IFN is important in protecting cells from viral infection, and a decrease in -IFN may have been related to the increase in viral titers in the Se-deficient animals.
Thus, it appeared that an altered immune response might have been responsible for the myocarditis that developed in the Se-deficient mice infected with an amyocarditic strain of CVB3. Alternatively, the viral pathogen was also exposed to a Se-deficient environment and might also be affected.
COXSACKIEVIRUS GENOME CHANGES IN SE-DEFICIENT MICE
To determine if host factors alone were responsible for the development of myocarditis in the Se-deficient CVB3/0 infected mice, a passage experiment was performed. Se-adequate and Se-deficient mice were infected with CVB3/0. Seven days later, their hearts were removed and the virus isolated. The virus was renamed to reflect the tissue from which it had been isolated (CVB3/0Se isolated from Se-adequate animals and CVB3/0Se- isolated from Se-deficient animals). CVB3/0Se and CVB3/0Se- were passed back into Se-adequate mice. If the induction of myocarditis was due solely to host conditions, then the Se-adequate mice should not develop myocarditis from infection with either CVB3/0Se or CVB3/0Se-. However, Se-adequate mice infected with CVB3/0Se- developed myocarditis, whereas Se-adequate mice infected with CVB3/0Se did not. These results strongly suggested that the virus that replicated in the Se-deficient mice underwent a genomic change.
To confirm that a change in viral genome had occurred, viruses recovered from Se-adequate and Se-deficient mice were sequenced . The sequence of CVB3/0Se (recovered from Se-adequate mice) was identical to the original stock virus used to inoculate the mice. However, the sequence of CVB3/0Se- (recovered from Se-deficient mice) had 6 point mutations. Each of the 6 mutations was also found in myocarditic strains of CVB3 virus. Thus, replication of CVB3/0 in a Se-deficient host leads to an alteration in viral genotype, changing a normally avirulent virus into a virulent one due to point mutations in the viral genome.
GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE AND COXSACKIEVIRUS
Why would a deficiency in Se lead to a change in viral genotype? One possibility is the association of Se with antioxidant enzymes. In particular, glutathione peroxidase, of which there are 4 isozymes, is a major component of the cellular antioxidant system. A deficiency in Se leads to a decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity. To determine if the decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity was associated with the increase in susceptibility to CVB3/0 induced myocarditis of Se-deficient mice, glutathione peroxidase-1 knockout mice were utilized.
Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) knockout mice develop normally and do not have compensatory increases in other antioxidant enzymes under normal conditions . However, GPX-1 knockout mice are at a higher risk for mortality when exposed to the pro-oxidant compound paraquat . When infected with CVB3/0, a little over half of the GPX-1 knockout mice develop myocarditis, whereas CVB3/0 infection of wildtype mice does not induced myocarditis . These results suggested that the increased susceptibility of Se-deficient mice to develop myocarditis when infected with CVB3/0 was associated with a decrease in the activity of GPX-1.
The immune response of the GPX-1 KO mice was also altered in response to infection with CVB3/0. Neutralizing antibody levels were greatly decreased in the GPX-1 KO mice as compared with wildtype mice, although T cell proliferative responses to both mitogen and antigen were not affected. These results are in contrast to the results from the CVB3/0 infected Se-deficient mice, in which T cell proliferative responses were greatly inhibited and no changes in the production of neutralizing antibody were noted.
Cardiac viral titers were equivalent between CVB3/0 infected GPX-1 KO mice and wildtype mice. This was in contrast to Se-deficient mice, which developed higher cardiac titers when compared with Se-adequate mice. As was found for Se-adequate and Se-deficient mice, both wildtype and GPX-1 KO mice cleared virus from the heart at an identical rate.
Sequencing of virus recovered from CVB3/0 infected GPX-1 KO that developed myocarditis revealed seven nucleotide changes when compared with the stock virus . Virus recovered from the infected wildtype mice had no genome changes when compared with stock virus. Six of the seven nucleotide changes found in virus recovered from GPX-1 KO mice were identical to the changes found in Se-deficient mice. Of particular importance, genomic changes were found only in virus recovered from CVB3/0 infected GPX-1 KO mice that developed pathology. The sequence of the CVB3/0 virus isolated from infected GPX-1 KO mice that did not develop cardiac pathology was identical to the stock virus. Thus, changes in the viral genome were responsible for the development of myocarditis in the GPX-1 KO mice.
INFLUENZA VIRUS AND SE-DEFICIENCY
Clearly, replication of coxsackievirus in a Se-deficient host leads to changes in the viral genome. Once these genomic changes occur, even mice with normal nutriture are susceptible to the newly pathogenic strain of virus. To determine if viruses other than coxsackievirus were also susceptible to changes in the viral genome due to replication in a Se-deficient host, infection with influenza virus was studied.
Influenza virus is a segmented RNA virus in the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses are responsible for a great deal of morbidity and mortality each year. Older adults and those with chronic diseases of the lung and/or heart are at the highest risk of dying from an influenza virus infection. Influenza viruses have a propensity to alter their surface proteins in order to escape early detection by the immune system of an infected host . One such process is known as antigenic drift and is responsible for new strains of influenza that arise each year and infect their newly susceptible hosts due to small changes in the hemagluttinin (HA) and neurominidase (NA) proteins, both of which are exposed on the viral surface. The HA and NA are recognized by the host antibody response, and changes in these two proteins can lead to the ability of the virus to escape immune detection. In addition, large-scale changes in the influenza virus surface proteins due to reassortment of viral RNA segments between influenza strains are also possible. Known as genetic shift, these large changes in the viral genome are responsible for worldwide pandemics that have occurred several times throughout history.
To determine if a deficiency in Se would affect the pathogenicity of an influenza virus, Se-deficient and Se-adequate mice were infected with a mild strain of influenza, influenza A/Bangkok/1/29. At various times post infection, the mice were killed and the tissues harvested. Se-deficient mice developed much more severe lung inflammation post influenza infection when compared with the infected Se-adequate mice . The infiltrate in the lungs of the infected mice consisted predominantly of macrophages, CD4 and CD8 T cells. Se-deficient mice had decreased percentages of CD8 cells infiltrating the lungs, compared with Se-adequate mice.
Examination of draining lymph nodes for mRNA for a variety of cytokines and chemokines revealed that infected Se-deficient mice had an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, the type of cytokine production was TH2-like (pro-inflammatory) as opposed to the more TH1-like pattern found in infected Se-adequate animals.
Sequencing of the mRNA segments that code for viral surface proteins (HA-hemagluttinin and NA-neurominidase) revealed little difference between virus recovered from Se-deficient vs. Se-adequate animals. However, the mRNA that codes for the matrix protein revealed 29 nucleotide changes, of which six led to amino acid changes. Virus recovered from Se-adequate animals had two nucleotide changes, of which one led to an amino acid change .
This finding was unexpected, as the matrix protein is relatively stable and exhibits little change among influenza virus strains. One possible explanation is that the matrix protein is internal, and thus not subjected to immune pressure from the host antibody response. In contrast, changes in the HA and NA proteins are responsible for the ability of the virus to escape detection by a previously exposed host. The HA and NA are exposed on the surface of the virion and are therefore exposed to immune pressure.
To date, we have sequenced only three of the eight RNA segments of the influenza virus. Although we found many more changes in the matrix protein of the virus recovered from Se-deficient mice as compared with virus recovered from Se-adequate mice, we do not know if other changes are present in the influenza virus genome. Further investigation is currently underway.
Studies utilizing both Se-deficient mice as well as GPX-1 knockout mice demonstrate both Se and GPX-1 activity as providing a unique role in preventing enhanced virulence of both coxsackievirus as well as influenza virus. As diagramed in Fig. 1, in addition to having an effect on the immune system of the host, a deficiency in Se and/or a deficiency in glutathione peroxidase activity can lead to enhanced virulence of a viral pathogen due to genetic changes in the viral pathogen itself. Once these changes have occurred, even hosts with normal Se status and glutathione peroxidase activity are susceptible to its newly virulent properties.
Fig.1. Diagram depicting the influence of a lack of selenium or glutathione peroxidase activity on the development of pathogenesis post viral infection.
This work suggests a new way of examining the effect of host nutritional deficiencies on increased susceptibility to viral infection. Although it is clear that nutritional deficiencies can have a profound effect on host immunity, as shown by us as well as many others, it is also clear that the viral pathogen itself is susceptible to the deficiency.
What is the mechanism that allows the viral pathogen to mutate in the deficient host? One possibility is a selection mechanism. Both coxsackievirus and influenza virus are RNA viruses which have a high mutation rate due to a lack of proofreading enzymes during replication. Thus, mutant viruses will be generated each time the virus replicates and sequencing of the virus reveals only the consensus or dominant sequence. A host deficiency in Se leads to alterations in the immune response of the infected host, which in turn could allow the selection of a new viral variant with more pathogenic properties. A second possibility may involve increased oxidative stress that occurs in the Se-deficient mice due to a lack of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase. The increased oxidative stress status of the host may cause direct damage to the viral RNA itself, resulting in new mutations that lead to enhanced pathogenesis. Both of these possibilities are currently under investigation.
In summary, the nutritional status of the host is an important variable when considering viral pathogenesis. With the current interest in emerging infectious diseases, it would be important to consider the host nutritional status as a driving force for viral mutations.
Source text - English INSTRUCTION MANUAL
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF INJURY, BEFORE USING OR SERVICING TOOL, READ AND UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION AS WELL AS SEPARATELY PROVIDED SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS (ITEM NUMBER: 8940165960)
This product is designed for installing and removing threaded fasteners in wood, metal and plastic. No other use permitted. For professional use only.
Torque range 300-900 Nm
Free speed 100 r/mn (tr/mn)
Working pressure 3-7 bar
Air consumption 19 l/s (40CFM)
Noise and vibration emission
Noise according to PN8NTC dB(A)
Measured sound pressure level 79
Determined sound power level
Vibration according to ISO 8662-7 m/s2
Measured vibration value
Translation - Chinese 说用手册
无载荷速度100 r/mn (tr/mn)
空气消耗19 l/s (40CFM)
震动按 ISO 8662-7 m/s2
English to Chinese: ENGINEERING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
Source text - English ENGINEERING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
These specifications define the performance requirements for all xxx Motor Company vehicle labels. The base materials and adhesive types that make up the particular label are selected by the supplier to meet the intended application. The information is documented in Supplement A, of this specification.
These specifications were released originally for labeling requirements of various automotive components. Applications include (but are not limited to) warning labels, bar code labels, instructional labels, and “patches” having no printing.
2.1 Definitions of Label Application Types
No Adhesive: Informational or instructional labels, located interior, exterior or underhood, which are hung on the vehicle. The label must remain legible until it reaches the consumer.
Sewn In: Informational or instructional labels, located interior and sewn into a vehicle component such as a seat, seatbelt webbing, or head rest. These labels must remain intact for the life of the vehicle.
Removable: Informational or instructional labels or protective films located interior, exterior or underhood. Removable labels are not intended to remain intact for the life of the vehicle. Removable labels are considered to be temporary for convenience inventory or process management. Protective films containing no printed information are considered removable labels Removable labels are intended to be easily removed by hand and non-staining to the substrate they are applied to. The labels are hand applied at room temperature and must remain legible and in place until they are removed by the consumer or manufacturing facility.
Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA): Informational or instructional labels located interior, exterior or underhood. PSA labels are intended to remain legible and in position for the life of the vehicle. PSA labels are NOT approved for seatbelt webbing. Maximum bond strength is reached after 72 hours but within 20 minutes, initial strength makes them difficult to remove. The labels are hand applied in the assembly plant or at the Tier One supplier facility.
PSA High Abrasion: Same as PSA but for labels located in a high abrasion environment such as the seat or carpet.
PSA Tamper-evident: PSA labels described above but with unique characteristics designed with a destruct mechanism to show evidence that a part on a vehicle or its information has been tampered with or labels include an anti-counterfeit feature.
Heat Applied: Informational or instructional labels that are located anywhere in the vehicle. They are intended to remain legible for the life of the vehicle. There are two types of heat applied labels:
1. Heat transfer which is an ink base with a protective coating and adhesive.
2. Heat seal which is a multi-layer film consisting of a heat - activated adhesive.
The labels are applied at the Tier One supplier facility per the label supplier process instructions.
Heat Applied High Abrasion: Same as heat applied but with a different construction that resists abrasion.
Heat applied Very High Abrasion: Heat applied labels to seatbelt webbing.
In Mold/Post Mold: Instructional or informational labels that are applied at the Tier One supplier facility. For in mold, the label is placed into the injection molding tool prior to molding the part. In Post mold or pad print, silkscreen paint is applied to the part. They are intended to remain legible for the life of the vehicle.
2.2 Application Testing
Label test requirements depend on their type, location and unique properties. Table 2.2 outlines the test requirements necessary for approval.
All label types listed in Table 2.2 must also meet the requirements per paragraphs 3.1 - 3.9, 3.10.1, and 3.10.2.
Note: All labels located in a protected exterior location do not require exterior weathering outlined in paragraph 3.28. All other exterior test requirements apply.
Material specification requirements are to be used for initial qualification of materials.
3.1 STANDARD REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCTION MATERIALS
Material suppliers and part producers must conform to the Company's Standard Requirements For Production Materials (WSS-M99P1111-A).
3.2 LABEL SUBSTRATE COMPATIBILITY MANAGEMENT
All labels meeting these performance specifications must have Supplement A completely filled out and signed by XXX Materials Engineering, the label supplier, and the Tier One supplier. Compatibility of the label adhesive with substrate material is the responsibility of the Tier One supplier. The Tier One shall have the label tested to the new substrate material against the applicable performance specification requirements. If the requirements are met, a new Supplement A shall be signed and documented with the addition/change in substrate material.
3.3 CONDITIONING AND TEST CONDITIONS
Unless otherwise noted, the test specimen consists of a label affixed to the production substrate material. The labels must be applied to the production representative substrate using a production representative process. The substrate material may be taken from the actual part or may be a production-representative plaque (having grain if appropriate.)
3.4 REPORTING REQUIREMENTS ON SUPPLEMENT A – All Labels
Requirements apply for all Specifications
Report label thickness on Supplement A.
Report release liner type and thickness on Supplement A.
3.4.2 Base film/Adhesive/Release Liner/Print Method
Report basic material type for each layer of the label on Supplement A.
3.4.3 Label Print Color
Report ink color(s) used on the label on Supplement A.
3.4.4 Application Substrate
Report the material the label was affixed to for testing. Unless prior authorization is obtained from Materials Engineering, the label must be tested on the substrate(s) it will be adhered to in production. The substrate and substrate color(s) must be recorded on Supplement A. Management of the substrate changes is the responsibility of the Tier One supplier, per para 3.2.
3.4.5 Application Process
Any label application parameters that must be set during production must be documented on Supplement A. (e.g. heat applied labels must have a record of process temperature, time, recommendations, etc.)
3.4.6 Tamper-Evident, Scanned and Safety labels
Report on Supplement A. See Para 3.10
3.4.7 Retain Supplement A Requirement Information
Supplement A is maintained by Materials Engineering and is required at PPAP. Contact the Materials Engineering Department for information.
3.5 RELEASE LINER
The release liner must be easily removed without soaking in water or any other solvent. It shall not be detrimental to the paint system when transferred to a painted surface.
3.6 PRINT ADHESION
Place a strip of 25 mm wide 3M #898 or current equivalent tape on the printed side of the label. Apply the tape with moderate thumb pressure to the label and substrate. Remove the tape by pulling one end at a 90° angle with a quick snap. There shall be no effect on legibility and no graphic delamination from the substrate
3.7 SETTING TIME FOR NORMAL HANDLING, STORAGE STABILITY
The label shall set sufficiently to permit normal handling immediately after application and shall not be adversely affected by storage up to 30 days at temperatures up to 40 °C.
3.8 LABEL STRENGTH
The label must not break, tear, or deface when removed from the release backing.
3.9 GENERAL ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Initial
The labels shall be free of streaks, blisters, wrinkles, ragged edges, and any other surface imperfections that will make them unsuitable for the intended usage. The design, color, and gloss shall be as specified on the engineering drawing.
After each of the exposure conditions described for all label types the film or label must not show visual evidence of peeling, loss of printing or legibility, loss of adhesion, curling of edges, staining, blistering, checking, cracking, excessive shrinkage, or any other effect which would detract from its proper function or appearance. If the label is tamper-evident (A41-A43), the label features must retain the same quality after exposure. Labels containing barcodes must remain scannable after each exposure.
3.10 SAFETY LABELS, SCANNED LABELS AND TAMPER-EVIDENT LABELS
These labels must be noted on engineering drawings
3.10.1 SAFETY LABELS - Child Seats, Airbag warning, etc. must be noted on the engineering drawing. This label classification may convey safety information or governmentally mandated information that is considered permanent. Where applicable, the C/FMVSS regulation shall be noted on the engineering drawing
3.10.2 Scanned Labels - Only applicable to labels that are intended to be scanned with a barcode reader. The scannability performance level must be documented on the Engineering drawing and Supplement A. The barcode pattern must be scannable by the type of scanner that will be used in production.
The barcode pattern must be scannable by the type of scanner that will be used in production.
After Conditioning If the label must be scannable for the life of the vehicle and/or service, scan the label after conditioning per the correct label type. The barcode pattern must be scannable after the conditioning periods.
3.10.3 Tamper-Evident - Where required, the designed destruct mechanism, tell-tale, or UV footprint must be evaluated by general visual examination and after each test condition using the 180° peel test (per ASTM D 1000, Para 3.10.3, 304.8 mm/min, 25.4 mm width). Labels shall exhibit the required characteristics as received and after being subjected to ALL test conditions. "Tamper-evident" and/or "destruct" must be noted on the engineering drawing, the XXX Approved Source List, and Supplement A. The description of the Tamper-Evident Type is documented on Supplement A.
3.11 INITIAL LABEL ADHESION
(ASTM D 1000, 180° peel, conditioned per Para 3.3 and minimum of 24 hours at room temperature)
3.12 ADHESION AND APPEARANCE AFTER ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONING TEST
3.12.1 Acceptance criteria for paras 3.12.2 - 3.12.5
188.8.131.52 Appearance – All Label Types
Must meet para 3.9 general acceptance criteria after exposure and a Rating 4 minimum per AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1. For removable labels, there must not be any adverse affect on the substrate upon removal. (e.g. evidence of staining, discoloration, gloss change, transfer of adhesive residue on the substrate)
184.108.40.206 Adhesion (Removable and PSA only)
Perform 180° peel adhesion per para 3.11, 1 - 4 hours after removal from each condition listed in para 3.12.2- 3.12.5. The result must be equal or greater to the label adhesion listed in para 3.11.
Test Method for 3.12.2 - 3.12.5:
Apply a 25 mm width strip of the label material to be tested to the substrate and allow the finished sample to dwell for a minimum of 24 hours.
3.12.2 Heat Age Must Meet 3.12.1
220.127.116.11 Removable and No adhesive
Place the test specimen in an oven for 168 h at 80 /-2 °C
(AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1, JLR, Jaguar Car and Land Rover labels refer to TPJLR 52.353 for relevant test temperature)
Place the test specimen in an oven as follows:
At or Above Beltline: 168 hours, 100 /- 2 °C Below Beltline: 168 hours, 90 /- 2 °C Scuff Plate / Floor Area: 168 hours, 80 /- 2 °C
Special Area: 168 hours, (Review with Materials Engineering.)
The standard requirement will be assumed to be "At or Above Beltline" unless otherwise noted on Supplement A, and the Engineering Drawing.
If the label will be affixed to various color substrates in production, repeat this test using one substrate color from each of the following color categories: Red, Blue, Black, Brown or Tan.
18.104.22.168 Exterior and Underhood Labels
Place the test specimen in an oven for 336 h at 80 /- 2 °C (exterior); 100 /- 2 ﾰ C (underhood).
3.12.3 Heat Resistance Must meet 3.12.1
22.214.171.124 Interior and Exterior Labels
Place the test specimen in an oven for 1 h at 121 /- 2 °C
126.96.36.199 Underhood Labels
Place the test specimen in an oven for 72 h at 121 /- 2 °C
3.12.4 Humidity must meet 3.12.1
(AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1)
Test specimens placed in a humidity chamber for 168 hours at 38 /- 2 °C, 95-100% R.H.
3.12.5 Environmental Cycle must meet 3.12.1
(JLR (Jaguar cars and Land Rover) labels refer to TPJLR 52.353)
188.8.131.52 Interior Labels
(AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1)
The following general conditioning is a standardized label requirement. Conditioning requirements may be altered to be consistent with the part requirement. Prior approval must be obtained from Materials Engineering.
Condition the test specimen as follows:
10 cycles, each cycle shall consist of the following:
-4 h at 100 /- 2 °C
-4 h at 38 /- 2 °C and 95 - 100% R.H.
-16 h at -40 /- 2 °C
184.108.40.206 Exterior labels
Condition the test specimen as follows:
10 cycles, each cycle shall consist of the following:
-4 h at 80 /- 2 °C
-4 h at 38 /- 2 °C and 95 - 100% R.H.
-16 h at -40 /- 2 °C
220.127.116.11 Underhood Labels
Hold the panel for 1 h at -40 /- 2 °C and then expose to heat for 1 h at 121
/- 2 °C. Repeat for 4 cycles.
(FLTM BO 131-01, label folded in half adhesive to adhesive)
Max rating 2
Note: Test to be run on the label alone, not affixed to the substrate.
(SAE J1756, 3 h at 100 °C heating, 21 °C cooling plate, post test conditioning 1 h and 16 h,
label folded in half, adhesive to adhesive)
Fog Number, min 70
Formation of clear film, droplets or crystals is cause for rejection.
Note: Test to be run on the label alone, not affixed to the substrate. Formation of clear film, droplets or crystals is cause for rejection unless it can be determined by FTIR analysis and concurred upon by XXX Materials Engineering that the deposits do not contribute
to windshield fog (e.g. water droplets.)
(ISO 3795, SAE J369)
Burn Rate, max 100 mm/minute
Test shall be conducted with the label 100% bonded to the substrate to form a material composite.
3.16 RESISTANCE TO FADE, Filtered Xenon
(FLTM BO 116-01 ISO 105-A02/AATCC, Evaluation Procedure1, for JLR labels SAE J 1885, 488 kJ/m2)
977.6 kJ/m2 Rating 4
This is a standardized label requirement. The exposure level may be increased or decreased to be consistent with the part requirement. Prior approval must be obtained from Materials Engineering. Exposure level other than 977.6 kJ/m2 must be recorded on Supplement A and the Engineering Drawing.
3.17 ABRASION RESISTANCE
(FLTM BN 108-02, CS-10 wheel, 500 g load)
The following general conditioning is a standardized label requirement. Conditioning requirements may be altered to be consistent with the part requirement. Prior approval must be obtained from Materials Engineering.
3.17.1 Abrasion, All Labels, 100 cycles Must Meet 3.9
(Average or Minimal abrasion expected, e.g. window glass label)
3.17.2 High Abrasion Area, 600 cycles: Must Meet 3.9
(Regular customer vehicle usage provides an opportunity for abrasion, e.g. seating label, sunvisor label, etc.)
3.17.3 Very High Abrasion – Seat Belt Applications ONLY (A 56) Must Meet 3.9
Hex Bar Test on Seatbelt Labels ONLY
(FMVSS571.209, S5.1 (d), except no breaking strength)
3.18 RESISTANCE TO SCUFFING Must Meet 3.9
(SAE J365, 100 cycles)
This is a standardized label requirement. Requirements may be altered to be consistent with the part requirement. Prior approval must be obtained from Materials Engineering.
3.19 CROCKING, WET, DRY, AND CLEANERS, min Rating 4
(FLTM BN 107-01, ISO 105-A02/ AATCC Evaluation Procedure 2)
In addition to wet and dry crocking per the test method, evaluate the following Motorcraft or the commercially available fluid cleaner using the procedure for wet crocking:
Glass Cleaner with Ammonia Motorcraft Ultra ZC-23
Leather and Vinyl Cleaner Motorcraft ZC-11-A Carpet and Upholstery Cleaner Motorcraft ZC-54
IPA 50% v/v IPA and deionized water
3.20 MIGRATION STAINING, min Rating 5
(FLTM BN 103-01, I-SO 105-A02/ AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1 and 2)
There shall be no evidence of injurious exudation, adhesion (tackiness), separation or color transfer when placed face to face with itself and the standard vinyl test material. The specimens and the accessory test materials must not show any surface deterioration, change in color tone
(hue), or any other defects.
3.21 SOILING AND CLEANABILITY
(FLTM BN 112-08, ISO 105-A02/ AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1)
After Cleaning, min Rating 4
3.22 LOW TEMPERATURE RESISTANCE
Test panels prepared per Para. 3.3 should be conditioned for 4 h at -35 /- 2 °C.
3.22.1 Cold Flexibility
(FLTM BN 102-01, Flexible substrates only)
Original (as received) -35 /- 1 °C After 168 hours at 80 /- 2 °C -35 /- 1 °C
In addition to the general requirements, the label shall remain flexible and exhibit no cracking when bent around a 6.4 mm mandrel (label side up) immediately after exposure.
3.23 RESISTANCE TO “W” FLEX
(FLTM BN 102-02)
ONLY for labels affixed to flexible materials which may experience flexing with the part, e.g. luggage shade, seat, cargo net. This excludes labels affixed to fabric-covered visors and seatbelt labels.
3.24 RESISTANCE TO FLEX FOLD Must Meet 3.9
(FLTM BN 102-04 Method A)
ONLY for labels affixed to flexible materials which may experience flexing with the part, e.g. luggage shade, seat, cargo net. This excludes labels affixed to fabric-covered visors and seatbelt labels.
3.24.1 Original Flex Fold, 100,000 cycles
3.24.2 Aged 168 hours at 100 /- 2 °C, 50,000 cycles mechanical convection oven,
plus flex fold
Note: The label must be centered on the 250 x 300 mm material substrate.
3.25 RESISTANCE TO LAUNDERING, 30 cycles Must Meet 3.9
(ASTM D 2724-11)
ONLY applicable for labels applied to interior trim pieces which are designed to be removed and laundered, such as child seat fabric or removable tote bags.
3.26 WATER IMMERSION, 24 h at 32 /- 2 °C. Must Meet 3.9
Test panels prepared per Para. 3.3 are completely immersed in a water bath.
3.27 CYCLIC CORROSION, 20 Cycles Must Meet 3.9
(FLTM BI 123-01)
3.28 EXTERIOR WEATHERING
(AATCC Evaluation Procedure 1)
Excludes labels not exposed to direct sunlight.
3.28.1 Xenon Arc Weatherometer, 2500 kJ/m2 , min Rating 4
(SAE J1960, 0.55 W/m2 Irradiance, Borosilicate inner and outer filters)
3.28.2 12 Months Florida, min Rating 4
(SAE J1976, under glass)
For routine approval of existing technologies, the accelerated weathering results (Para.
3.28.1 will be used for approval until natural weathering results (Para. 3.28.2) are available. When differences arise in the test results of Para. 3.28.1 and Para. 3.28.2, the natural weathering results shall prevail.
3.29 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE FOR EXTERIOR
(FLTM BO 101-05)
Acceptance criteria: Printed text must remain legible when wiped with cloth after exposure. There shall be no significant adhesion loss based on visual examination.
Test Fluids: Current production factory fill materials, or Motorcraft products .
Isopropyl Alcohol 1: 1 with Water Must Meet 3.9
Glass cleaner with Ammonia
ASTM Fuel C w/15% ethanol
Engine Oil which meets latest API-ILSAC regulation
Windshield Solution – methyl alcohol based
Coolant Solution (50% Deionized water)
3.30 STEAM RESISTANCE, min 80% Retention
JLR Labels to be tested to FLTM BO 160-04
Using a 50 X 100 mm sample, direct a steam jet with the equipment described in FLTM BI 107-05
to the 50 mm edge at a distance of approximately 200 mm for one minute at a right angle to the surface then one minute at a 10 angle to the surface. Failure occurs if more than 20% of the sample is lifted off.
3.31 AIR PRESSURE RESISTANCE, min North America Only 80% Retention
Using a 50 x 100 mm sample, direct a stream of air at a pressure of 414 to 522 kPa using a 2.4
mm diameter orifice to the 50 mm edge at a distance of approximately 75 mm for three minutes at
a right angle to the surface and then for 3 minutes at a 10 angle to the surface. Failure occurs if more than 20% of the sample is lifted off.
3.32 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE FOR UNDERHOOD
(FLTM BO 101-05, Except Test Temperature 100 °C)
Acceptance Criteria: There shall be no blistering and only slight softening or dulling. Printed text must remain legible when wiped with cloth after exposure. There shall be no significant adhesion loss based on visual examination.
Test Fluids: Current production factory fill materials, or Motorcraft products. Fuel composition per, FLTM AZ 105-01, 23 °C /- 2 °C, one hour.
3.33 HEAT AGING FOR UNDERHOOD LABELS Must Meet 3.9
For labels placed directly on the engine: 1000 h at 125 /- 2 °C For all other underhood labels: 1000 h at 110 /- 2 °C
3.34 BATTERY ACID RESISTANCE Must Meet 3.9
FOR LABELS AFFIXED ON BATTERY TRAYS AND BATTERY SHIELDS ONLY
Apply label onto appropriate substrate and allow to cure for 24 hours at 23 °C before starting test. Evenly distribute ten drops (approximately every 1 ½") of 10% by weight of sulfuric acid (Sp. Gravity 1.260 /- 0.005) around the outside edge of the label with half of each drop on the label, the other half on the substrate. Five isolated drops are to be placed on the printed area of the label away from the cut edges. One drop is equal to 0.06 mL. The test conditions are as follows:
3.34.1 Place the acid prepared label/panel into an air circulating oven in a horizontal plane at 80 /- 2 °C for 16 hours.
3.34.2 Place a separate set of prepared test label/panels on a flat surface at ambient laboratory temperature for four weeks.
The label must display no lack of adhesion due to acid attack. The pressure sensitive adhesive must have good acid resistance. Acid discoloration at the die cut edges must not exceed more than 1/16" from the edge into the label area.
3.35 THERMAL SHEAR ADHESION (For labels on vertical surface only.)
Test Method: Cut a 51 mm x 75 mm specimen from the label sample. Apply the specimen to the test panel so 25 mm of the 75 mm side is hanging over the edge. Adhere a piece of tape to the part of the label which is hanging over the edge to reinforce it. Attach a 100 g weight to this edge and suspend the test panel in a vertical position in an oven set at 121 °C for 24 hours. Failure occurs if printing is distorted and if the label slips more than 5 mm.
3.36 LOT CERTIFICATION
Lot certification requirements shall be included in supplier's process control plan and defined in the XXX Purchasing Agreement and engineering drawing.
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