Member since Apr '06

Working languages:
English to Hindi
Hindi to English

Dr. Rajesh Kumar
Quality & Commitment

Delhi, Delhi, India
Local time: 17:09 IST (GMT+5.5)

Native in: Hindi (Variants: Indian, Khariboli) Native in Hindi
  • PayPal accepted
  • Send message through ProZ.com Yahoo IM MSN IM
Feedback from
clients and colleagues

on Willingness to Work Again info
159 positive reviews
(14 unidentified)

5 ratings (5.00 avg. rating)

 Your feedback
This person is a top KudoZ point holder in English to Hindi, Hindi to English
Account type Freelance translator and/or interpreter
Data security Created by Evelio Clavel-Rosales This person has a SecurePRO™ card. View now.
Affiliations This person is not affiliated with any business or Blue Board record at ProZ.com.
Services Voiceover (dubbing), Interpreting, Translation, Editing/proofreading, Website localization, Software localization, Subtitling, Desktop publishing
Expertise
Specializes in:
Engineering (general)Environment & Ecology
Law (general)IT (Information Technology)
General / Conversation / Greetings / LettersAdvertising / Public Relations
Computers: SoftwareComputers: Hardware
Automotive / Cars & TrucksArt, Arts & Crafts, Painting

Rates
English to Hindi - Rates: 0.04 - 0.10 USD per word / 10 - 20 USD per hour
KudoZ activity (PRO) PRO-level points: 92, Questions answered: 92
Blue Board entries made by this user  15 entries

Payment methods accepted Send a payment via ProZ*Pay
Portfolio Sample translations submitted: 2
English to Hindi: Sample
Source text - English
Online Safety: The Internet has brought us the means to communicate and share, using pictures, words, applications, and more. Sadly, although the Internet expands our circle of friends and acquaintances, it also opens up opportunities for not so nice strangers to abuse and misuse the unprepared Internet user. Using features built into Internet Explorer and Outlook Express, you can help ensure a safe Internet experience for you and your children. Online Shopping: The convenience of armchair shopping can save time and money, if approached with common sense. If you are shopping online, be sure the site is secure and safely encrypts the data you transmit. Look for https:// in the Web address and the secure padlock and key icon in Internet Explorer. If the site is not secure, your data and privacy may be at risk. Information that you disclose to sites on the Internet is important to your safety and privacy. How, where, and what you supply can help protect you from identity theft, which is one of the new and growing pitfalls of our new electronic society. E-Mail Tips: It’s nearly impossible to avoid all unsolicited email offers that find their way into your mailbox. Anything that looks too good to be true is probably an attempt to part you from your hard-earned money. Don’t click the opt-out links in any SPAM you receive. In many cases, this does nothing except confirm to the sender that your address is valid and in most cases results in even more unwanted mail.
Translation - Hindi
ऑनलाइन सुरक्षाः इंटरनेट हमारे लिए संचार और परस्पर बाँटने के साधन लेकर आया है, जिसके लिए वह चित्रों, शब्दों, प्रोग्राम और अन्य चीज़ों का प्रयोग करता है। हालाँकि इंटरनेट हमारे मित्रों और पहचान के लोगों का दायरा बढ़ाता है, लेकिन दुर्भाग्य की बात है कि यह ऐसे अजनबियों द्वारा असावधान इंटरनेट प्रयोक्ता के साथ दुर्वव्यवहार और दुरुपयोग के अवसर भी खोल देता है, जो इतने अच्छे नहीं होते। इंटरनेट एक्सप्लोरर और आउटलुक एक्सप्रेस में शामिल विशेषताओं का प्रयोग करके आप अपने और अपने बच्चों के लिए सुरक्षित इंटरनेट का अनुभव सुनिश्चित कर सकते हैं। ऑनलाइन ख़रीदारीः यदि सहज बुद्धि से की जाए, तो अपनी आरामकुर्सी पर बैठकर की जाने वाली ख़रीदारी की सुविधा से समय और पैसा दोनों बचते हैं। यदि आप ऑनलाइन ख़रीदारी कर रहे हैं, तो सुनिश्चित कर लीजिए कि बेबसाइट सुरक्षित है और आपके द्वारा भेजे जाने वाले आँकड़ों को सुरक्षित रूप में कूट संकेतों में बदलती है। बेब के पते में https:// तथा इंटरनेट एक्सप्लोरर में सुरक्षित पैड-ताले और कुंजी आइकॉन देखिए। यदि बेबसाइट सुरक्षित नहीं है, तो आपके आँकड़े और गोपनीयता ख़तरे में पड़ जाएगी। आप इंटरनेट की बेबसाइटों पर जिस सूचना का खुलासा करते हैं, वह आपकी सुरक्षा और गोपनीयता के लिए महत्वपूर्ण है। आप कैसे, कहाँ और क्या भेज रहे हैं, यह बात आपको पहचान की चोरी से सुरक्षित कर सकती है, जो हमारे नए इलेक्ट्रोनिक समाज में नया और बढ़ता हुआ ख़तरा है। ई-पत्र के लिए सुझावः यह लगभग असंभव है कि आप उन सभी अवांछित ई-पत्र प्रस्तावों से बच जाएँ, जो किसी-न-किसी तरह से आपकी पत्र-पेटिका में स्थान पा ही लेते हैं। जो प्रस्ताव इतना अच्छा लगता है कि उसकी सच्चाई पर ही संदेह होने लगे, तो वह प्रायः आपकी मेहनत की कमाई लूटने का प्रयास होता है। आपको जो भी अवांछित ई-पत्र मिले, उसकी चयन की कड़ी पर क्लिक न करें। ज़्यादातर मामलों में इससे केवल प्रेषक को इस बात की पुष्टि हो जाती है कि आपका पता वैध है और परिणामस्वरूप आपको और अधिक अवांछित पत्र मिलते हैं।
English to Hindi: Sample
Source text - English
!DOCTYPE course PUBLIC "-//LRN//2A MODULE CONTENT//EN" "http://lrncontent.lrn.com/schema/course.dtd">



$File: //depot/lcec/content_source/DBA216/enIE/DBA216-a50enIE/DBA216-a50enIE.xml $
$Revision: #4 $
$DateTime: 2006/07/05 10:30:08 $
$Author: jsaathoff $
$Change: 160455 $


@[email protected]
@[email protected]
@[email protected]
@[email protected]

Understanding the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Understanding the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Understanding the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
This course provides an introduction to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), a law that makes it illegal to bribe a non-U.S. government official or political party to gain a business advantage. Bribery is not limited to cash payments, but can also include things like gifts and offers of employment. The FCPA applies not only to U.S. companies and citizens, but in some circumstances to non-U.S. companies and citizens as well. The FCPA also has accounting provisions that require companies to keep accurate books and records and not to hide improper payments. Because the penalties for violating the FCPA can be severe, it's important that all employees involved in international business have a basic understanding of its requirements.


Carl: Hey, honey, how's a trip to Tahiti sound?

Karen: We don't have much cash right now, Carl.

Carl: But we do. Guess which Global genius just got a big bonus for getting our new plant approved outside the U.S.?

Karen: Really!

Carl: Hey, I've got to put you on hold for a minute--someone is calling me on the other line.



A split-screen image of Carl and Karen talking on the phone



Carl: This is Carl.

Jim: Hey, Carl. Jim here. Listen, there's a slight problem.

Carl: What? You said it was final.

Jim: It is, but there's one more thing. You have to wire me $10,000 as soon as we hang up.



A split-screen image of Carl and Jim talking on the phone



Carl: $10,000! For what?

Jim: This stuff is standard.

Carl: I don't know, Jim.

Jim: Hey, no problem. I've got three other companies that would kill for the opportunity to make T-shirts over here.

Carl: Hold on. Let's talk about this.



Carl talking on the phone



Doing business outside the United States can be like navigating the ocean without a compass. It's difficult to chart your course, and one wrong turn can put you in dangerous waters. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, is a U.S. law designed to make sure that companies don't lose their course. It does this by making it illegal to bribe a non-U.S. government official or political party to gain a business advantage.

The FCPA is a law that affects you directly. Violations can result in millions of dollars in fines and, sometimes, prison terms. If you know the basics about the FCPA, you can avoid getting yourself and your company into trouble under that law in your business outside the United States.



Sailboats in the harbor



The term "non-U.S. government official" includes any officer or employee of a non-U.S. government, department, or agency; a government-owned entity; or a public international organization such as NATO. It also includes any other person acting on behalf of such an entity. Examples might include a procurement officer who works for a non-U.S. defense ministry or a doctor who evaluates medical equipment for a non-U.S. health ministry or government-owned hospital.

The FCPA also prohibits corrupt payments to non-U.S. political parties, non-U.S. political party officials, and candidates for non-U.S. political office. Thus, a payment for an improper purpose made to someone running for non-U.S. political office would violate the FCPA.


The FCPA is complicated, and it's easy to misinterpret its requirements even when you have the best of intentions. This course will introduce you only to the basics of the FCPA, so you shouldn't depend on it for practical advice on how to act in specific situations. Always consult your company's law department for that type of advice.



A man talking on the phone




The Scope of the FCPA

Overview

After completing this lesson, you will be able to

define an "improper business advantage"


distinguish common actions from routine governmental actions


define "reasonable expenditure"


specify to whom the FCPA rules apply



Carl: Jim, explain to me what the $10,000 would be for. This project's expenses are already too high.

Jim: Let's call it a permit fee.

Carl: A what?

Jim: Look, Carl. Whenever a foreign company wants to build over here, there's a fee.

Carl: So we just fill out some forms and pay the money, and we get the permit?

Jim: Well, not exactly.



A split-screen image of Carl and Jim on the phone



Jim: I give the application to the agency director myself. Then he either approves the application or throws it in the garbage can. It's completely up to him.

Carl: Well, who's to say that ours won't be thrown away?

Jim: Listen, the guy's a friend of mine.
Trust me--if I walk in with your application and $10,000 in cash, I'll walk out with a permit.

Carl: Jim, is this legal?

Jim: Relax. I've been a sales representative here for a long time. The fact is, you pay to play over here.



A split-screen image of Jim and Carl on the phone




What the FCPA does not allow

What do you think of when you hear the word "bribe"? A large amount of cash being handed over with a meaningful look and a smile? There's no doubt that making this kind of payment to get business is illegal. But the FCPA covers more than just secret bribes to put the finishing touches on a deal. It forbids people from making payments to a non-U.S. government official to gain an improper business advantage.



A close-up of a hand holding several hundred dollars in cash



An improper business advantage can be any benefit to a company--like a change in business regulations or a regulatory approval.

So you can't pay a government official to use his position to benefit your company--even if all you're trying to do is make something happen a little faster than it normally would. Except in limited circumstances, which we'll discuss, payments for this purpose are prohibited as well.






Global Aircraft Company, a U.S. company, has a one-year contract for aircraft spare parts with the procuring agency of a country outside the United States. The company pays money to one of the agency's procurement officials to violate the country's procurement regulations by not soliciting bids for the next year. If bids are not solicited on time, Global will receive orders beyond the period called for under its existing contract with the agency, resulting in increased earnings for Global.

Is this payment illegal?



This is a corrupt payment within the meaning of the FCPA because it is intended to direct business to the company wrongfully by influencing the official not to do something he should do.


This is a corrupt payment within the meaning of the FCPA because it is intended to direct business to the company wrongfully by influencing the official not to do something he should do.



In one case, a U.S. airplane manufacturer paid nearly $25 million in fines and damages after it was accused of bribing a non-U.S. government official with $600,000 for every plane it sold to the non-U.S. government.



A newspaper headline that reads "Plane Manufacturer Fined for Bribes"




What the FCPA allows

So is it true, then, that you can never make any payments to government officials? Not exactly.

Payments to government officials are allowed in order to obtain or speed up a routine governmental action. This exception is very narrow, however. "Routine governmental action" is a technical legal term and is limited to specific types of actions over which officials have very little control, or discretion. Common examples include helping to move through customs, providing phone service, or processing paperwork.

This exception doesn't apply if the government official has discretion to decide whether to take a particular action. In some cases, this could even include discretion over the timing of an action to which the company feels it is otherwise entitled.




"Routine" refers only to the government action you are trying to influence, not to how frequently payments are made.

Don't make the mistake of thinking that a payment is for a routine governmental action just because it's common. A payment may be common, but if the official is free to decide whether to do what you're asking, his action probably isn't routine, and a payment to influence his decision probably isn't permitted.



A close-up of a check being written



Remember Carl's phone conversation with Jim? Jim said that making a payment to get a building permit was common in that country. Maybe so. But that doesn't mean that the payment was for a routine government action. If there was anything discretionary about the permit--in particular, whether to issue it and on what terms--the routine-action exception probably wouldn't apply.

Determining whether a particular action is routine is often difficult. Therefore, you should consult your company's law department before making any payment to a government official--even if you think it's for a routine governmental action.






ABC Office Furniture, a U.S. company, wants to renew its agreement to supply a non-U.S. government with computer workstations. A government official tells ABC that it must pay an "extension fee" of $10,000 before the renewal will be considered. When ABC hesitates, the government official says reassuringly that the fee is routine, and that companies that don't understand how business is done in his country don't last long.

Does the fact that the payment of this fee is a common occurrence mean that it's permitted by the FCPA?



Just because a payment is common in a country doesn't mean that the FCPA allows it. The FCPA makes it illegal to pay a bribe to a non-U.S. government official or political party to gain any business advantage. Here, the government official is asking ABC to make a potentially corrupt payment to extend a contract. If the company makes the payment, it could violate the FCPA.


Just because a payment is common in a country doesn't mean that the FCPA allows it. The FCPA makes it illegal to pay a bribe to a non-U.S. government official or political party to gain any business advantage. Here, the government official is asking ABC to make a potentially corrupt payment to extend a contract. If the company makes the payment, it could violate the FCPA.



The FCPA also allows payments to non-U.S. government officials for reasonable expenditures, which include reasonable travel or lodging expenses related to promoting, demonstrating, or explaining a company's products or services.

But drawing the line between a reasonable expenditure and an unreasonable one isn't always easy. It's best to consult your company's law department before you make any payment to a government official, because what you think is proper could turn out to be a bribe.



A female lawyer listening to a man talk




Who must play by the FCPA's rules

The FCPA covers U.S. companies, citizens, nationals, and residents. It applies to these groups even if the conduct in question takes place outside the United States.

Some non-U.S. individuals and companies also have to play by the FCPA's rules. The FCPA covers non-U.S. individuals employed by a U.S. company, and non-U.S. companies that are required to file reports with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)--for example, companies that trade on a U.S. securities exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange, or NASDAQ.



The FCPA even applies to other non-U.S. individuals and companies if any stage of the payment process occurs in the United States--for example, wiring the money to or from a U.S. bank account, or making phone calls in the United States.



USA Company is an American company headquartered in the United States. It has a branch office in a European city. The office is run by Sam, an American living there. Sam bribes a local government official to complete a deal for USA.

Does Sam have problems under the FCPA, even though the bribe occurred outside the United States?



USA is a U.S. company, so it has to obey the FCPA. Sam, who is a U.S. citizen, also has to obey the FCPA. It doesn't matter that the bribe was paid in Europe, because the FCPA applies to activities of U.S. companies and their employees even outside the United States.


USA is a U.S. company, so it has to obey the FCPA. Sam, who is a U.S. citizen, also has to obey the FCPA. It doesn't matter that the bribe was paid in Europe, because the FCPA applies to activities of U.S. companies and their employees even outside the United States.




Conclusion

Don't make payments to non-U.S. government officials to benefit your company. While payments to a government official may be okay in limited situations, you should always consult your company's law department first. If you make an improper payment to a government official to gain any kind of business advantage, you may create serious trouble for yourself and your company.

And remember that the FCPA can apply to more than just U.S. companies and their employees--it can apply to non-U.S. companies and their employees as well.






Varieties of Bribes

Overview

In this lesson, you will learn that

a bribe is something of value


a payment doesn't have to be made by the company itself to be illegal


a job offer can be a bribe



Carl: Jim, I have to check with my boss to get this payment of $10,000 cleared.

Jim: Okay, but get back to me today. A lot of companies are looking to get into this market.

Carl hangs up and immediately dials his boss.



Carl talking on the phone



Carl: Stephanie? I just talked to Jim, who says it's going to take a payment of $10,000 to move ahead with the factory.

Stephanie: Are you joking?

Carl: I wish.

Stephanie: You know there's no money in the budget for that kind of expense.

Carl: He says we'll lose the project if we can't pay the money today.

Stephanie: Carl, it's just not there.



Stephanie talking on the phone



Carl hangs up and calls Jim.

Carl: Listen, Jim, I've checked. It's not going to happen.

Jim: Wait a second--I have an idea. You might not have to write a check after all.

Carl: Yeah?

Jim: I told you about my friend, the head of the agency. He might approve the application if you give him some Global stock.



A split-screen image of Carl and Jim talking on the phone




Something of value

As Carl's about to find out, bribes include more than cash payments. Bribes come in many shapes and sizes, and all of them can cause problems when it comes to the FCPA.






Besides cash, bribes can take the form of

A close-up of a stock certificate


stock in your company


gifts


entertainment beyond what you'd ordinarily provide for a customer


personal discounts on products or services that aren't available to the general public


job offers (which we'll talk about more later)


charitable contributions made at the request or on behalf of a government official



In one case, a vice president of a U.S. aerospace company was found guilty of bribery under the FCPA in part for buying plane tickets for a non-U.S. government official. The VP gave the tickets to the official to help make sure the company won a contract to perform maintenance on government airplanes.



A newspaper headline that reads "Free Plane Tickets Found to be Bribes"



Jason, a sales representative for a U.S. company, is competing against three other companies for a contract to sell computer chips to the government of a small country. He knows that the official awarding the contract likes fine cigars, so he buys him an entire box of them and a humidor.

If Jason gives these items to the official, has he offered a bribe?



Jason would be bribing the official if he gave him the humidor and cigars. According to the FCPA, a bribe doesn't just mean cash. It can also include, among other things, gifts.


Jason would be bribing the official if he gave him the humidor and cigars. According to the FCPA, a bribe doesn't just mean cash. It can also include, among other things, gifts.




Direct vs. indirect payments

What if your company has a broker pay a bribe and doesn't get directly involved? The company's still in trouble. It doesn't matter whether a company makes an improper payment itself--a direct payment--or has someone else make the payment for it--an indirect payment. Both are illegal.

The idea behind this rule is that a company can't avoid the FCPA just by having someone else pay a bribe.



A hand holding stacks of $100 bills



Indirect bribes can take many forms, including payments through a non-U.S. affiliate, a sales agent, or a joint-venture partner. Your company can be responsible for this kind of payment even if it doesn't know for sure that a bribe was paid. If you have reason to believe that a bribe might be taking place on your behalf, you must take steps to stop it.






Acme Company, a U.S. company, retains Leo, a non-U.S. sales representative, to market its products in a country known for its corrupt business climate. Although the company usually pays its sales representatives a 5% commission, it agrees to pay Leo 10%. Some employees suspect that Leo intends to pay half his commission to the government official responsible for making purchasing decisions. In fact, Leo does exactly that--and a week later, the company wins the contract.

Because the company didn't pay the official itself, it has nothing to worry about.



The company suspected that Leo might pay half his commission to the government official to win the contract, so it has plenty to worry about. Your company can be responsible under the FCPA for an indirect payment even if it doesn't know for sure that a bribe was paid. If you have reason to believe that a bribe might be taking place on your behalf, you must try to stop it.


The company suspected that Leo might pay half his commission to the government official to win the contract, so it has plenty to worry about. Your company can be responsible under the FCPA for an indirect payment even if it doesn't know for sure that a bribe was paid. If you have reason to believe that a bribe might be taking place on your behalf, you must try to stop it.




Offers of employment

Offers of employment can also be bribes. Generally, an offer of employment to a government official, or to the official's friend or family member, is something of value and therefore can be considered a bribe. This is true even if the person is qualified for the job.






It's risky to hire a non-U.S. government official to be a sales representative for your company. Doing so involves paying the official to gain business or other benefits for your company, and that's exactly what the FCPA targets.

There's no absolute rule against hiring a current government official as a sales representative. Generally, however, these arrangements are very risky and should be avoided. Your company would almost certainly be accountable if the official used his position to benefit your company.



In the end, hiring a non-U.S. government official or his friend or family member can be a big problem. Your safest choice is to be cautious and seek the advice of your company's law department first.



Pay Here Tollbooths, a U.S. company, bids on a contract to install tollbooths on a highway in a country outside the United States. A Pay Here sales representative learns from an employee of the country's highway administration that the company has made the lowest bid, but there's one problem: the administrator's son wants an internship with Pay Here.

If the company arranges the internship, could it find itself in trouble under the FCPA?



If Pay Here arranges the internship, it would have offered something of value--a job for the official's son--to a government official to gain business, which would bring the FCPA into play. But it's not always easy to determine when employment for a government official or his friends or family actually violates the FCPA. Therefore, you should always discuss it with your company's law department first.


If Pay Here arranges the internship, it would have offered something of value--a job for the official's son--to a government official to gain business, which would bring the FCPA into play. But it's not always easy to determine when employment for a government official or his friends or family actually violates the FCPA. Therefore, you should always discuss it with your company's law department first.




Conclusion

Under the FCPA, bribes are bribes whether they're in cash or another form. A payment doesn't even have to be made by the company itself to be improper. If someone pays a government official on the company's behalf, the company has made an indirect payment, which could be illegal.

Job offers can even be considered bribes. You should always consult your company's law department before offering a job to a government official, or to his friends or family.






Playing by the Rules

Overview

In this lesson, you will learn

why it's important to play by the FCPA's rules


that certain warning signs may indicate potential FCPA violations


that it's important to keep accurate records of all payments made to government officials



Carl: Give the guy Global stock, Jim? I don't know.

Jim: What's the problem? You don't even have to write a check.

Carl: It makes me uncomfortable. Maybe it's not a check, but it still feels like a bribe.

Jim: Listen, Carl. Remember why you decided to use me instead of some other foreign representative?

Carl: Yeah, a friend of mine at Worldwide got a big project approved when she used you before. She said you were the best.



Jim talking on the phone



Jim: Exactly. You have to trust me to do my job.

Carl: I do, but your stock idea really worries me.

Jim: Listen: forget the stock. I'll get the approval without it.

Carl: How?

Jim: Let me worry about it. Just trust me.

Carl: If you say so.



Carl talking on the phone




Be on the lookout

Carl doesn't know it, but he may have just committed a serious mistake. The FCPA does not allow you to ignore conduct that might be improper.

If a company ignores information that suggests a bribe might be made on its behalf, it can run into trouble with the FCPA--even if it isn't sure a bribe has been paid.






As soon as Jim gets off the phone with Carl, he calls the head of the agency responsible for issuing building permits, who also happens to be an old friend, and agrees to split his commission if the permit application is approved.

If the head of the agency approves the permit application, could Global--Carl's company--be in trouble under the FCPA?



Yes, because Jim's behavior was suspicious.
Jim's behavior should have made Carl suspicious. First, Jim asked for a lot of money to be paid directly to the government official. Then he asked for a payment of stock directly to the same official. Finally, he told Carl not to worry about the details because he was going to "make the deal happen." If a company ignores information that suggests a bribe might be made on its behalf, it can run into trouble with the FCPA.


No, because it didn't know that Jim would make a payment like this.
Jim's behavior should have made Carl suspicious. First, Jim asked for a lot of money to be paid directly to the government official. Then he asked for a payment of stock directly to the same official. Finally, he told Carl not to worry about the details because he was going to "make the deal happen." If a company ignores information that suggests a bribe might be made on its behalf, it can run into trouble with the FCPA.




Warning signs

How do you know when you should be worried about a possible FCPA violation? By being alert to warning signs that may signal an improper payment.

Some of these warning signs are general--for example, selling to a country known for widespread corruption or being involved in an industry where corruption is widespread.

Other warning signs are more specific signals of possible problems, such as when a sales representative

A sign showing a bright yellow triangle with a large exclamation point in the middle


refuses to sign a written agreement to comply with the FCPA


has family or business ties with government officials


has a reputation for corruption



Other warning signs are when



the sales representative asks for an unusually high commission or success fee


the sales representative makes unusual requests, like payments to banks in other countries, alteration of invoices, cash payments, or large advances


the potential customer recommends someone for the job of sales representative



Knowing when conduct is a warning sign isn't always easy. It's sometimes difficult to know when conduct may suggest problems under the FCPA.

Consult the handbook for a more detailed discussion of warning signs. And always consult your company's law department if you think particular conduct might indicate problems under the FCPA.



A man talking on the phone



Automatic Autos, a U.S. company, wants to manufacture cars in a country where bribery is common. It contacts Nick, a sales representative who claims to have close contacts in the government. When Automatic informs Nick that he has to agree in writing to comply with the FCPA, he refuses. After some negotiating, Nick finally does sign the agreement. When he makes his first sale, Nick demands that his commissions be paid to a bank account in Switzerland, and Automatic makes the payment.

Has Automatic possibly caused itself problems under the FCPA?



Automatic ignored several warning signs that should have alerted it to a potential problem under the FCPA. First, the country had a history of corruption. Second, Nick initially wouldn't agree in writing to comply with the FCPA. Then Nick requested payment to a bank in a different country. If it turns out that Nick paid a bribe, Automatic could be held responsible.


Automatic ignored several warning signs that should have alerted it to a potential problem under the FCPA. First, the country had a history of corruption. Second, Nick initially wouldn't agree in writing to comply with the FCPA. Then Nick requested payment to a bank in a different country. If it turns out that Nick paid a bribe, Automatic could be held responsible.




The importance of accurate records

How do companies that pay bribes hide them on their books? Many times, as business expenses. If a company does this, it will have serious problems under the FCPA.

The FCPA has accounting rules for all public companies that require them to keep books and records that accurately reflect transactions. And even if your company isn't public, preparing false accounting documents can lead to claims of bribery or other violations.



A man's hand holding a credit card above pages of accounting reports



In one case, a consultant for a major U.S. oil company paid several bribes to influence the government of a country outside the United States to provide the company with favorable tax treatment and other benefits. The company eventually agreed to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars in fines because it referred to the bribes as "equipment repairs" in its records.



A newspaper headline that reads "Oil Company to Pay for Faking Its Accounts"



You don't have to be an accountant to comply with the FCPA, though. You just have to tell the truth when it comes to accounting for payments made to government officials, such as facilitating payments. This includes documents that you prepare, such as invoices that accountants might use.

Consult the handbook for a more detailed discussion of accounting requirements, and consult your company's law or accounting department if you're not sure how to record a payment properly.






Cosmic Computer Corporation, a U.S. public company, retains Ahmed to sell software to a non-U.S. government. After a huge sale, Cosmic learns that Ahmed paid part of his commission to bribe a government official to get the deal. Cosmic records Ahmed's fee as a commission with no reference to the improper payment.

Does Cosmic have a problem under the FCPA's accounting rules?



Yes, because it recorded a bribe as a commission.
Cosmic does have a problem. Under the FCPA, all public companies must keep books and records that accurately reflect transactions, including those made to government officials. It doesn't matter that Cosmic didn't pay the bribe itself.


No, because it didn't pay the bribe itself.
Cosmic does have a problem. Under the FCPA, all public companies must keep books and records that accurately reflect transactions, including those made to government officials. It doesn't matter that Cosmic didn't pay the bribe itself.




Conclusion

You must play by the FCPA's rules, which include not ignoring warning signs that a bribe may be paid on your company's behalf. Be alert to the warning signs that may indicate potential problems under the FCPA--both the general ones and the more specific ones. And record all payments to government officials accurately.







Manucorp, a U.S. company, wants to establish a manufacturing plant in a country outside the United States and has been waiting several months for regulatory approval from that country's government. Jim, the salesperson leading the effort, has been told that if Manucorp pays a $10,000 fee to the appropriate department, the approval process will be expedited. Jim later learns that the fee request is not based on any official rule or regulatory requirement.

Should Jim make the requested payment?



Yes, because it's simply a way to get the government's approval a little faster than normal.
While it's possible that the fee is legitimate and therefore can be paid under the FCPA, the lack of any legal requirement for the fee is suspicious and would first have to be investigated. The FCPA prohibits people from making payments to, or for the benefit of, a non-U.S. official to gain any improper business advantage, such as regulatory approval from a non-U.S. government official or political party. Such payments can be illegal whether they're paid directly to an individual or through an apparent government account, and regardless of how long a company has been waiting for approval. The fact that there's no legal requirement for the payment suggests that it may not be legitimate and could end up directly or indirectly benefiting a non-U.S. official. Regardless of how long the company has waited, Jim should investigate further and consult his company's law department.


Yes, as long as it's paid to a government account and not to an individual.
While it's possible that the fee is legitimate and therefore can be paid under the FCPA, the lack of any legal requirement for the fee is suspicious and would first have to be investigated. The FCPA prohibits people from making payments to, or for the benefit of, a non-U.S. official to gain any improper business advantage, such as regulatory approval from a non-U.S. government official or political party. Such payments can be illegal whether they're paid directly to an individual or through an apparent government account, and regardless of how long a company has been waiting for approval. The fact that there's no legal requirement for the payment suggests that it may not be legitimate and could end up directly or indirectly benefiting a non-U.S. official. Regardless of how long the company has waited, Jim should investigate further and consult his company's law department.


No, because further investigation is needed to determine whether the payment would be legitimate or a bribe.
While it's possible that the fee is legitimate and therefore can be paid under the FCPA, the lack of any legal requirement for the fee is suspicious and would first have to be investigated. The FCPA prohibits people from making payments to, or for the benefit of, a non-U.S. official to gain any improper business advantage, such as regulatory approval from a non-U.S. government official or political party. Such payments can be illegal whether they're paid directly to an individual or through an apparent government account, and regardless of how long a company has been waiting for approval. The fact that there's no legal requirement for the payment suggests that it may not be legitimate and could end up directly or indirectly benefiting a non-U.S. official. Regardless of how long the company has waited, Jim should investigate further and consult his company's law department.


No, because Manucorp has not waited long enough to justify expediting the process.
While it's possible that the fee is legitimate and therefore can be paid under the FCPA, the lack of any legal requirement for the fee is suspicious and would first have to be investigated. The FCPA prohibits people from making payments to, or for the benefit of, a non-U.S. official to gain any improper business advantage, such as regulatory approval from a non-U.S. government official or political party. Such payments can be illegal whether they're paid directly to an individual or through an apparent government account, and regardless of how long a company has been waiting for approval. The fact that there's no legal requirement for the payment suggests that it may not be legitimate and could end up directly or indirectly benefiting a non-U.S. official. Regardless of how long the company has waited, Jim should investigate further and consult his company's law department.



XYZ Gear, a U.S. clothing company, has been granted a license to open a store in a South American country. However, it needs an official copy of the license to display in the shop window before it can start selling products there. Although XYZ is automatically entitled to a copy of the license, actually getting one from the government agency can take several weeks or longer. An official offers to expedite the process for a small "processing fee" of $50.

Would this payment be permitted under the FCPA?



Probably, because issuing the formal license document is a routine governmental action in which the agency official has little or no discretion.
This is probably a permissible payment because XYZ has already been granted the license and just needs a copy of it, so the agency official appears to have little or no discretion in the matter. The FCPA allows modest payments to foreign government officials to obtain or expedite the processing of "routine governmental actions," such as securing a nondiscretionary business license. This is a very narrow exemption, however, limited to certain kinds of ministerial actions identified in the FCPA. It wouldn't apply if the government official were free to decide how to act. In some cases, this could even include discretion over the timing of actions to which a company believes it is otherwise entitled. And just because they're a common occurrence doesn't mean that payments qualify for the exemption. Because the application of this exemption is not always clear, consult your law department before depending on it.


Probably, because companies typically pay this fee.
This is probably a permissible payment because XYZ has already been granted the license and just needs a copy of it, so the agency official appears to have little or no discretion in the matter. The FCPA allows modest payments to foreign government officials to obtain or expedite the processing of "routine governmental actions," such as securing a nondiscretionary business license. This is a very narrow exemption, however, limited to certain kinds of ministerial actions identified in the FCPA. It wouldn't apply if the government official were free to decide how to act. In some cases, this could even include discretion over the timing of actions to which a company believes it is otherwise entitled. And just because they're a common occurrence doesn't mean that payments qualify for the exemption. Because the application of this exemption is not always clear, consult your law department before depending on it.


Probably not, because the governmental agency can't charge a fee for a copy that XYZ is automatically entitled to.
This is probably a permissible payment because XYZ has already been granted the license and just needs a copy of it, so the agency official appears to have little or no discretion in the matter. The FCPA allows modest payments to foreign government officials to obtain or expedite the processing of "routine governmental actions," such as securing a nondiscretionary business license. This is a very narrow exemption, however, limited to certain kinds of ministerial actions identified in the FCPA. It wouldn't apply if the government official were free to decide how to act. In some cases, this could even include discretion over the timing of actions to which a company believes it is otherwise entitled. And just because they're a common occurrence doesn't mean that payments qualify for the exemption. Because the application of this exemption is not always clear, consult your law department before depending on it.


Probably not, because companies can never make any payments to non-U.S. government agencies or officials.
This is probably a permissible payment because XYZ has already been granted the license and just needs a copy of it, so the agency official appears to have little or no discretion in the matter. The FCPA allows modest payments to foreign government officials to obtain or expedite the processing of "routine governmental actions," such as securing a nondiscretionary business license. This is a very narrow exemption, however, limited to certain kinds of ministerial actions identified in the FCPA. It wouldn't apply if the government official were free to decide how to act. In some cases, this could even include discretion over the timing of actions to which a company believes it is otherwise entitled. And just because they're a common occurrence doesn't mean that payments qualify for the exemption. Because the application of this exemption is not always clear, consult your law department before depending on it.



Joe is a marketing manager for Detroit Autos in Michigan. After Detroit Autos submits a bid to a local government agency in an Asian country, Joe travels to the country and meets with one of its government officials. The official tells him that if Detroit Autos pays her $500 for each vehicle it sells to the agency, it can have the contract.

If Joe pays the official, will he and Detroit Autos be in trouble under the FCPA?



Yes, because the per-vehicle fee requested is obviously too high.
If Joe makes the payment, he and Detroit Autos will be violating the FCPA, even though Joe would be making the payment in Asia. The FCPA applies to U.S. companies, citizens, nationals, and residents, even when the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. It would violate the FCPA to make this type of payment regardless of the amount.


Yes, because even when a company representative is in another country, paying officials to benefit your company is prohibited.
If Joe makes the payment, he and Detroit Autos will be violating the FCPA, even though Joe would be making the payment in Asia. The FCPA applies to U.S. companies, citizens, nationals, and residents, even when the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. It would violate the FCPA to make this type of payment regardless of the amount.


No, because the deal was done outside the United States.
If Joe makes the payment, he and Detroit Autos will be violating the FCPA, even though Joe would be making the payment in Asia. The FCPA applies to U.S. companies, citizens, nationals, and residents, even when the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. It would violate the FCPA to make this type of payment regardless of the amount.


No--there's nothing wrong with making these types of payments to officials.
If Joe makes the payment, he and Detroit Autos will be violating the FCPA, even though Joe would be making the payment in Asia. The FCPA applies to U.S. companies, citizens, nationals, and residents, even when the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. It would violate the FCPA to make this type of payment regardless of the amount.



Juan, a Spanish citizen, works in the United States as the head of marketing for SpainCorp, a large Spanish company traded on Nasdaq. He learns that SpainCorp will win a large contract in North Africa if he approves a $200,000 payment to the responsible government official.

What can Juan do under the FCPA?



Nothing--Juan and SpainCorp must refuse to send the payment
Juan and SpainCorp must refuse to make the payment because they are bound by the FCPA, and the payment would be considered a bribe. The FCPA covers non-U.S. companies that are traded on Nasdaq as well as their employees. It applies even if the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. Pretending the payment is legitimate by preparing documentation of it as such doesn't change the fact that it's a bribe.


Approve the payment, because the FCPA does not cover non-U.S. individuals or companies
Juan and SpainCorp must refuse to make the payment because they are bound by the FCPA, and the payment would be considered a bribe. The FCPA covers non-U.S. companies that are traded on Nasdaq as well as their employees. It applies even if the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. Pretending the payment is legitimate by preparing documentation of it as such doesn't change the fact that it's a bribe.


Tell a SpainCorp representative in North Africa to handle the deal, because the FCPA doesn't apply outside the United States
Juan and SpainCorp must refuse to make the payment because they are bound by the FCPA, and the payment would be considered a bribe. The FCPA covers non-U.S. companies that are traded on Nasdaq as well as their employees. It applies even if the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. Pretending the payment is legitimate by preparing documentation of it as such doesn't change the fact that it's a bribe.


Prepare documentation of the fact that he believes the payment is not a bribe before approving the deal
Juan and SpainCorp must refuse to make the payment because they are bound by the FCPA, and the payment would be considered a bribe. The FCPA covers non-U.S. companies that are traded on Nasdaq as well as their employees. It applies even if the conduct in question takes place outside the United States. Pretending the payment is legitimate by preparing documentation of it as such doesn't change the fact that it's a bribe.



Which of the following would probably not be considered a bribe under the FCPA?



Gifts
Entertainment that you'd ordinarily provide for a customer, such as a meal, wouldn't generally be considered a bribe. In addition to cash, anything of value--including gifts, company stock, and discounts unavailable to the general public--can be considered bribes. Before offering any benefit to a potential customer, it's wise to consult your company's law department to make sure doing so wouldn't violate the FCPA.


Company stock
Entertainment that you'd ordinarily provide for a customer, such as a meal, wouldn't generally be considered a bribe. In addition to cash, anything of value--including gifts, company stock, and discounts unavailable to the general public--can be considered bribes. Before offering any benefit to a potential customer, it's wise to consult your company's law department to make sure doing so wouldn't violate the FCPA.


A typical business dinner
Entertainment that you'd ordinarily provide for a customer, such as a meal, wouldn't generally be considered a bribe. In addition to cash, anything of value--including gifts, company stock, and discounts unavailable to the general public--can be considered bribes. Before offering any benefit to a potential customer, it's wise to consult your company's law department to make sure doing so wouldn't violate the FCPA.


A personal discount unavailable to the public
Entertainment that you'd ordinarily provide for a customer, such as a meal, wouldn't generally be considered a bribe. In addition to cash, anything of value--including gifts, company stock, and discounts unavailable to the general public--can be considered bribes. Before offering any benefit to a potential customer, it's wise to consult your company's law department to make sure doing so wouldn't violate the FCPA.



You work for U.S. Electronics and have heard from a reliable source that one of your sales representatives in a Middle Eastern country gets some of his customers by paying bribes. You don't look into it further because the representative's sales are so high, and the country has a reputation for being corrupt.

Can you and U.S. Electronics be penalized for violating the FCPA if it turns out that the sales representative has paid bribes?



Yes, because your company should not be doing business in a corrupt country.
You and U.S. Electronics could very well be held responsible for the bribes, because you ignored information indicating that the sales representative might be paying them. The FCPA doesn't prohibit companies from working in corrupt countries, but it does carefully examine their dealings in those countries. Even though you and your company didn't authorize the bribes or have hard evidence that they were paid, ignoring the information that the representative might have been paying them would violate the FCPA.


Yes, because you and your company had reason to believe that a bribe might have been paid on the company's behalf.
You and U.S. Electronics could very well be held responsible for the bribes, because you ignored information indicating that the sales representative might be paying them. The FCPA doesn't prohibit companies from working in corrupt countries, but it does carefully examine their dealings in those countries. Even though you and your company didn't authorize the bribes or have hard evidence that they were paid, ignoring the information that the representative might have been paying them would violate the FCPA.


No, because the company didn't authorize the sales representative to pay bribes.
You and U.S. Electronics could very well be held responsible for the bribes, because you ignored information indicating that the sales representative might be paying them. The FCPA doesn't prohibit companies from working in corrupt countries, but it does carefully examine their dealings in those countries. Even though you and your company didn't authorize the bribes or have hard evidence that they were paid, ignoring the information that the representative might have been paying them would violate the FCPA.


No, because the company didn't have any hard evidence that a bribe had been paid.
You and U.S. Electronics could very well be held responsible for the bribes, because you ignored information indicating that the sales representative might be paying them. The FCPA doesn't prohibit companies from working in corrupt countries, but it does carefully examine their dealings in those countries. Even though you and your company didn't authorize the bribes or have hard evidence that they were paid, ignoring the information that the representative might have been paying them would violate the FCPA.



Your U.S. company has just won a substantial government contract in a country outside the United States. As part of the deal, your sales representative hires Mara, the daughter of a government official from that country. Mara has no real experience in this area and no legitimate marketing role.

Under the FCPA, Mara's hiring is probably



legal, because your sales representative can hire anyone he chooses outside the United States.
If the contract depends on hiring Mara, your company will be offering something of value--the job--to a family member of a foreign official to gain business, which could violate the FCPA. Your sales representative is acting on behalf of your company, so whom he hires, especially in relationship to a foreign contract, is your responsibility. While there is no absolute ban on hiring family members, they must provide a legitimate service and have relevant expertise. Even then, hiring a family member at the request or for the benefit of an official is likely to be a problem. Hiring family members is a significant warning sign and should always be discussed with your law department first.


legal, because she is not a government official.
If the contract depends on hiring Mara, your company will be offering something of value--the job--to a family member of a foreign official to gain business, which could violate the FCPA. Your sales representative is acting on behalf of your company, so whom he hires, especially in relationship to a foreign contract, is your responsibility. While there is no absolute ban on hiring family members, they must provide a legitimate service and have relevant expertise. Even then, hiring a family member at the request or for the benefit of an official is likely to be a problem. Hiring family members is a significant warning sign and should always be discussed with your law department first.


illegal, because relatives of a government official can never be hired.
If the contract depends on hiring Mara, your company will be offering something of value--the job--to a family member of a foreign official to gain business, which could violate the FCPA. Your sales representative is acting on behalf of your company, so whom he hires, especially in relationship to a foreign contract, is your responsibility. While there is no absolute ban on hiring family members, they must provide a legitimate service and have relevant expertise. Even then, hiring a family member at the request or for the benefit of an official is likely to be a problem. Hiring family members is a significant warning sign and should always be discussed with your law department first.


illegal, because Mara probably isn't qualified and her employment would appear to be a bribe.
If the contract depends on hiring Mara, your company will be offering something of value--the job--to a family member of a foreign official to gain business, which could violate the FCPA. Your sales representative is acting on beha
Translation - Hindi
!DOCTYPE course PUBLIC "-//LRN//2A MODULE CONTENT//EN" "http://lrncontent.lrn.com/schema/course.dtd">



$File: //depot/lcec/content_source/DBA216/enIE/DBA216-a50enIE/DBA216-a50enIE.xml $
$Revision: #4 $
$DateTime: 2006/07/05 10:30:08 $
$Author: jsaathoff $
$Change: 160455 $


@[email protected]
@[email protected]
@[email protected]
@[email protected]

विदेशी भ्रष्टाचार अधिनियम को समझना
विदेशी भ्रष्टाचार अधिनियम को समझना
विदेशी भ्रष्टाचार अधिनियम को समझना
यह पाठ्यक्रम विदेशी भ्रष्टाचार अधिनियम (एफ़सीपीए) का परिचय देता है, जो ऐसा क़ानून है जो व्यावसायिक लाभ प्राप्त करने के लिए गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी या राजनीतिक दल को रिश्वत देना ग़ैर-कानूनी बनाता है। रिश्वत नगद भुगतान तक ही सीमित नहीं है, अपितु इसमें उपहार और रोज़गार के प्रस्ताव जैसी चीज़ें भी शामिल हो सकती हैं। एफ़सीपीए न केवल अमेरिकी कंपनियों और नागरिकों पर लागू होता है, अपितु कुछ स्थितियों में यह गैर-अमेरिकी कंपनियों और नागरिकों पर भी लागू होता है। एफ़सीपीए में लेखा प्रावधान भी हैं, जिसमें कंपनियों को सही-सही बहियाँ और रिकार्ड रखने होते हैं और अनुपयुक्त भुगतान को छिपाना नहीं होता। क्योंकि एफ़सीपीए के उल्लंघन के दंड सख्त हो सकते हैं, अतः यह ज़रूरी है कि अंतर्राष्ट्रीय व्यवसाय में शामिल सभी कर्मचारियों को इसकी अपेक्षाओं की आधारभूत समझ हो।


कार्ल: हे, प्रिये, टाहिटि की यात्रा के बारे में क्या खयाल है?

करेन: कार्ल, हमारे पास अभी काफ़ी पैसा नहीं है।

कार्ल: है ना। अंदाजा लगाओ, दुनिया के किस जीनियस को अभी-अभी अमेरिका से बाहर हमारे नए संयंत्र को स्वीकृत करवाने के लिए बड़ा बोनस मिला है?

करेन: सचमुच!

कार्ल: हे, तुम्हें एक मिनट के लिए होल्ड करना होगा, कोई दूसरी लाइन पर कॉल कर रहा है।



कार्ल और करेन की फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए स्क्रीन के एक हिस्से में आकृति



कार्ल: मैं कार्ल हूँ।

जिम: हे, कार्ल। मैं जिम हूँ। देखो, थोड़ी समस्या है।

कार्ल: क्या? आपने कहा था कि यह अंतिम है।

जिम: हाँ है, अपितु इसमें एक बात और है। जैसे ही हमारी बात ख़त्म हो, आपको मुझे तार से $10,000 भेजने होंगे।



कार्ल और जिम की फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए स्क्रीन के एक हिस्से में आकृति



कार्ल: $10,000! किसलिए?

जिम: यह तो सामान्य बात है।

कार्ल: मैं नहीं जानता, जिम।

जिम: हे, कोई बात नहीं। मेरे पास तीन और कंपनियाँ हैं, जो यहाँ टी-शर्ट बनाने के मौके के लिए जान लड़ा देंगी।

कार्ल: रुको। आओ हम इस बारे में बात कर लें।



कार्ल फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए



अमेरिका के बाहर व्यापार करना ऐसा हो सकता है, जैसे बिना दिशासूचक के महासागर में यात्रा करना। अपना रास्ता तय करना मुश्किल होता है, और एक ग़लत मोड़ आपको ख़तरनाक पानी में ले जा सकता है। विदेशी भ्रष्टाचार अधिनियम, या एफ़सीपीए एक अमेरिकी क़ानून है, जो यह सुनिश्चित करने के लिए डिज़ाइन किया गया है कि कंपनियाँ अपने रास्ते से भटक न जाएँ। यह व्यावसायिक लाभ प्राप्त करने के लिए गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी या राजनीतिक दल को रिश्वत देना ग़ैर-कानूनी बनाकर ऐसा करता है।

एफ़सीपीए ऐसा क़ानून है, जो आपको सीधे-सीधे प्रभावित करता है। इसके उल्लंघन के परिणाम स्वरूप लाखों डॉलर का ज़ुर्माना हो सकता है और, कभी-कभी, जेल भी हो सकती है। यदि आपको एफ़सीपीए की आधारभूत बातें मालूम हैं, तो आप खुद को और अपनी कंपनी को अमेरिका के बाहर अपने व्यापार में इस क़ानून के अंतर्गत समस्या से बचा सकते हैं।



बंदरगाह पर नौकाएँ



"गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी" शब्द में गैर-अमेरिकी सरकार, विभाग, या एजेंसी का कोई अधिकारी या कर्मचारी; सरकारी स्वामित्व की इकाई; या नाटो जैसा सार्वजनिक अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संगठन शामिल है। इसमें ऐसी इकाई की ओर से काम करने वाला कोई अन्य व्यक्ति भी शामिल है। उदाहरणों में गैर-अमेरिकी रक्षा मंत्रालय के लिए काम करने वाला प्राप्ति अधिकारी या गैर-अमेरिकी स्वास्थ्य मंत्रालय या सरकारी स्वामित्व के अस्पताल के लिए चिकित्सा उपकरणों का मूल्यांकन करने वाला डॉक्टर शामिल हो सकते हैं।

एफ़सीपीए गैर-अमेरिकी राजनीतिक दलों, गैर-अमेरिकी राजनीतिक दलों के कर्मचारियों, और गैर-अमेरिकी राजनीतिक पदों के उम्मीदवारों को भी भ्रष्ट भुगतान करने पर प्रतिबंध लगाता है। अतः, गैर-अमेरिकी राजनीतिक पद के लिए लड़ रहे किसी व्यक्ति को अनुपयुक्त उद्देश्य के लिए भुगतान एफ़सीपीए का उल्लंघन होगा।


एफ़सीपीए जटिल है, और इसकी अपेक्षाओं की ग़लत व्याख्या करना आसान है, चाहे आपके इरादे सर्वोत्तम ही क्यों न हों। यह पाठ्यक्रम आपको केवल एफ़सीपीए की आधारभूत बातों का परिचय देगा, इसलिए आपको विशिष्ट स्थितियों में व्यवहार करने के लिए व्यवहारिक सलाह के लिए इस पर निर्भर नहीं करना चाहिए। उस तरह की सलाह के लिए हमेशा अपनी कंपनी के क़ानून विभाग से परामर्श लें।



एक व्यक्ति फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए




एफ़सीपीए का क्षेत्र

सिंहावलोकन

यह पाठ पूरा करने के बाद, आप

"अनुपयुक्त व्यापारिक लाभ" की परिभाषा कर सकेंगे


नेमी सरकारी क्रियाओं से सामान्य क्रियाओं में अंतर कर सकेंगे


"मुनासिब खर्च" की परिभाषा कर सकेंगे


उल्लेख कर सकेंगे कि एफ़सीपीए नियम किस पर लागू होंगे



कार्ल: जिम, मुझे स्पष्ट करें कि $10,000 किस काम के लिए होंगे। इस परियोजना का ख़र्च पहले से ही बहुत ज़्यादा है।

जिम: हम इसे अनुमति फ़ीस कह सकते हैं।

कार्ल: क्या कह सकते हैं?

जिम: देखो, कार्ल। जब भी कोई विदेशी कंपनी यहाँ काम करना चाहती है, तो एक फ़ीस होती है।

कार्ल: तो हम बस कुछ फ़ॉर्म भरेंगे और पैसा दे देंगे, और हमें अनुमति मिल जाएगी?

जिम: नहीं, एकदम ऐसा नहीं है।



कार्ल और जिम की फ़ोन पर स्क्रीन के एक हिस्से में आकृति



जिम: मैं खुद एजेंसी के निदेशक को आवेदन-पत्र देता हूँ। फिर वह या तो आवेदन-पत्र को स्वीकृत करता है या कूड़ेदान में फेंक देता है। सब उसी की मर्जी पर है।

कार्ल: फिर, कौन बताएगा कि हमारा फेंका नहीं जाएगा?

जिम: सुनो, वह मेरा दोस्त है।
मेरा भरोसा करो – अगर मैं आपके आवेदन-पत्र और $10,000 नगद के साथ अंदर जाऊँगा, तो अनुमति लेकर बाहर आऊँगा।

कार्ल: जिम, क्या यह कानूनी है?

जिम: चिंता मत करो। मैं यहाँ लंबे समय से विक्रय प्रतिनिधि हूँ। सच बात यह है कि यहाँ काम करने के लिए आपको पैसा देना पड़ता है।



फ़ोन पर कार्ल और जिम की स्क्रीन के एक हिस्से में आकृति




एफ़सीपीए किसकी अनुमति नहीं देता

जब आप "रिश्वत" शब्द सुनते हैं, तो आप क्या सोचते हैं? भारी नगद राशि अर्थपूर्ण नज़र और मुस्कान के साथ दी जा रही है? इसमें कोई संदेह नहीं है कि व्यापार हासिल करने के लिए इस तरह का भुगतान करना ग़ैर-कानूनी है। लेकिन एफ़सीपीए सौदे को अंतिम रूप देने के लिए गुप्त रिश्वत देने के अलावा भी बहुत सी बातों को शामिल करता है। यह लोगों पर कोई अनुपयुक्त व्यापारिक लाभ हासिल करने के लिए गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी को भुगतान करने पर रोक लगाता है।



एक हाथ का क्लोज़-अप जिसमें सैंकड़ों नगद डॉलर हैं।



अनुपयुक्त व्यापारिक लाभ कंपनी को दिया गया कोई भी लाभ हो सकता है – जैसे व्यापारिक विनियमों में बदलाव या नियामक स्वीकृति।

इसलिए आप किसी सरकारी कर्मचारी को अपनी कंपनी के लिए अपनी स्थिति का प्रयोग करने के लिए भुगतान नहीं कर सकते – चाहे आप किसी काम को सामान्य की तुलना में थोड़ा सा तेज़ करवाने की कोशिश ही क्यों न कर रहे हों। सीमित स्थितियों के अलावा, जिनके बारे में हम चर्चा करेंगे, इस उद्देश्य के लिए भी भुगतान निषिद्ध है।






अमेरिका की ग्लोबल एयरक्राफ़्ट कंपनी का अमेरिका के बाहर एक देश की प्राप्तकर्ता एजेंसी के साथ विमान के हिस्से-पुर्ज़ों के लिए एक साल का अनुबंध था। कंपनी ने एजेंसी के एक प्राप्ति कर्मचारी को अगले साल के लिए बोली आमंत्रित न करके प्राप्ति विनियमों के उल्लंघन के लिए पैसा दिया। यदि बोलियाँ समय पर आमंत्रित न की जाएँ, तो ग्लोबल अपने मौजूदा अनुबंध के बाद भी एजेंसी से आदेश प्राप्त करती रहेगी, जिससे ग्लोबल की आमदनी बढ़ जाएगी।

क्या यह भुगतान ग़ैर-कानूनी है?



This is a corrupt payment within the meaning of the FCPA because it is intended to direct business to the company wrongfully by influencing the official not to do something he should do.


यह एफ़सीपीए की परिभाषा के भीतर भ्रष्ट भुगतान है क्योंकि इसका ध्येय कर्मचारी को ऐसा काम करने के लिए प्रभावित करके व्यापार को ग़लत तरीके से कंपनी की ओर लाना है, जो उसे नहीं करना चाहिए।



एक मामले में, एक अमेरिकी विमान निर्माता को इस आरोप के बाद लगभग $2.5 करोड़ ज़ुर्माना और क्षतिपूर्ति का भुगतान करना पडा कि उसने एक गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी को उस गैर-अमेरिकी सरकार को बेचे गए हर विमान के लिए $600,000 रिश्वत दी।



समाचार-पत्र का मुख्य समाचार "विमान निर्माता पर रिश्वत के लिए ज़ुर्माना"




एफ़सीपीए किसकी अनुमति देता है

तो क्या इसका यह अर्थ है कि आप सरकारी कर्मचारियों को कभी भी कोई भुगतान नहीं सकते हैं? नहीं, एकदम ऐसा नहीं है।

किसी नेमी सरकारी कार्रवाई करवाने या उसकी गति बढ़ाने के लिए सरकारी कर्मचारियों को भुगतान किए जाने की अनुमति है। तथापि, यह अपवाद बहुत संकीर्ण है। "नेमी सरकारी कार्रवाई" एक तकनीकी कानूनी शब्द है और विशिष्ट प्रकार की कार्रवाइयों तक सीमित है, जिन पर कर्मचारियों का बहुत कम नियंत्रण, या विवेकाधिकार होता है। आम उदाहरणों में शामिल हैं, सीमा शुल्क से निकलने में मदद करना, फ़ोन सेवा प्रदान करना, या काग़ज़ी कार्रवाई पूरी करना।

यदि सरकारी कर्मचारी के पास यह निर्णय करने का विवेकाधिकार हो कि वह ख़ास कार्रवाई करनी है या नहीं, तो यह अपवाद लागू नहीं होगा। कुछ मामलों में, इसमें किसी कार्रवाई की समय-बद्धता पर विवेकाधिकार भी शामिल होता है, जिसके लिए कंपनी समझती है कि वह अन्यथा योग्य है।




"नेमी" का संबंध केवल उस सरकारी कार्रवाई से है, जिसे आप प्रभावित करने की कोशिश कर रहे है, न कि यह कि कितनी जल्दी-जल्दी भुगतान किया गया है।

यह सोचने की ग़लती न करें कि भुगतान केवल इसीलिए नेमी सरकारी कार्रवाई के लिए है, क्योंकि यह आम है। भुगतान आम हो सकता है, लेकिन यदि कर्मचारी आपकी माँग पर निर्णय करने के लिए स्वतंत्र है, तो शायद कार्रवाई नेमी नहीं होगी, और उसके निर्णय को प्रभावित करने के लिए भुगतान नेमी नहीं हो सकता।



चेक लिखे जाने का क्लोज़-अप



कार्ल की जिम के साथ फ़ोन पर बातचीत याद है? जिम ने कहा था कि निर्माण की अनुमति प्राप्त करने के लिए भुगतान करना उसके देश में आम बात है। शायद ऐसा हो। लेकिन इसका अर्थ यह नहीं है कि भुगतान नेमी सरकारी कार्रवाई के लिए है। यदि इसमें अनुमति के बारे में कुछ विवेकाधीन है – ख़ास तौर से, इसे जारी किया जाए या नहीं और किन शर्तों पर – तो नेमी कार्रवाई का अपवाद शायद लागू नहीं होगा।

यह तय करना अकसर कठिन होता है कि कार्रवाई विशेष नेमी है या नहीं। इसलिए, किसी सरकारी कर्मचारी कोई भुगतान करने से पहले आपको अपनी कंपनी के क़ानून विभाग से सलाह लेनी चाहिए – चाहे आप यह सोचते हों कि यह नेमी सरकारी कार्रवाई के लिए है।






एक अमेरिकी कंपनी, एबीसी ऑफ़िस फ़र्नीचर, एक गैर-अमेरिकी सरकार को कंप्यूटर वर्क-स्टेशनों की आपूर्ति के लिए अपना अनुबंध नवीनकृत करवाना चाहती है। एक सरकारी कर्मचारी एबीसी को बताता है कि नवीनीकरण पर विचार किए जाने से पहले उसे $10,000 "विस्तार फ़ीस" का भुगतान करना होगा। जब एबीसी हिचकिचाती है, तो सरकारी कर्मचारी विश्वास दिलाते हुए कहता है कि यह फ़ीस नेमी है, और कि जो कंपनियाँ यह नहीं समझतीं कि उसके देश में व्यापार कैसे किया जाता है, वे ज़्यादा दिन नहीं टिकतीं।

क्या इस तथ्य का कि फ़ीस का भुगतान आम बात है, यह अर्थ हो है कि इसे एफ़सीपीए की अनुमति है?



Just because a payment is common in a country doesn't mean that the FCPA allows it. The FCPA makes it illegal to pay a bribe to a non-U.S. government official or political party to gain any business advantage. Here, the government official is asking ABC to make a potentially corrupt payment to extend a contract. If the company makes the payment, it could violate the FCPA.


किसी देश में कोई भुगतान आम है, इसका यह अर्थ नहीं है कि एफ़सीपीए इसकी अनुमति देता है। कोई व्यावसायिक लाभ प्राप्त करने के लिए गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी या राजनीतिक दल को रिश्वत देना एफ़सीपीए ग़ैर-कानूनी मानता है। यहाँ, सरकारी कर्मचारी एबीसी को अनुबंध बढ़ाने के लिए संभावित भ्रष्ट भुगतान करने के लिए कह रहा है। यदि कंपनी भुगतान करती है, तो यह एफ़सीपीए का उल्लंघन हो सकता है।



एफ़सीपीए गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारियों को मुनासिब व्यय के भुगतान की अनुमति भी देती है, जिसमें कंपनी के उत्पादों या सेवाओं के प्रवर्धन, प्रदर्शन, या स्पष्टीकरण से संबंधित मुनासिब यात्रा या आवास के ख़र्च शामिल हैं।

लेकिन मुनासिब ख़र्च और गैर-मुनासिब ख़र्च के बीच अंतर करना हमेशा आसान नहीं होता। इसलिए किसी सरकारी कर्मचारी को कोई भुगतान करने से पहले अपनी कंपनी के क़ानून विभाग से सलाह लेना सर्वोत्तम है, क्योंकि जिसे आप उचित समझ रहे हैं, वह रिश्वत हो सकती है।



एक महिला वकील एक आदमी की बात सुन रही है




एफ़सीपीए के नियमों का किसे पालन करना चाहिए

एफ़सीपीए अमेरिकी कंपनियों, नागरिकों, राष्ट्रीय लोगों और निवासियों पर लागू होता है। यह इन समूहों पर लागू होता है चाहे विचाराधीन व्यवहार अमेरिका से बाहर होता हो।

कुछ गैर-अमेरिकी व्यक्तियों और कंपनियों को भी एफ़सीपीए नियमों का पालन करना होता है। एफ़सीपीए अमेरिकी कंपनी द्वारा काम पर रखे गए व्यक्तियों, और उन गैर-अमेरिकी कंपनियों पर लागू होता है, जिन्हें अमेरिका में रिपोर्ट दाखिल करनी होती हैं। प्रतिभूति और एक्सचेंज आयोग (एसईसी) – उदाहरण के लिए, वे कंपनियाँ जो अमेरिकी प्रतिभूति एक्सचेंज पर व्यापार करती हैं, जैसे न्यू यॉर्क स्टॉक एक्सचेंज, या नास्डाक।



एफ़सीपीए अन्य गैर-अमेरिकी व्यक्तियों और कंपनियों पर भी लागू होता है, यदि किसी चरण में भुगतान की प्रक्रिया अमेरिका में होती है – उदाहरण के लिए अमेरिकी बैंक खाते से या खाते में तार से धन निकालना या डालना, या अमेरिका में फ़ोन करना।



यूएसए कंपनी एक अमेरिकी कंपनी है, जिसका मुख्यालय अमेरिका में है। इसका यूरोपीय शहर में शाखा कार्यालय है। कार्यालय का संचालन सैम करता है, जो वहाँ रहने वाला अमेरिकी है। यूएसए के लिए सौदा पूरा करने के लिए सैम एक स्थानीय सरकारी कर्मचारी को रिश्वत देता है।

क्या सैम को एफ़सीपीए के अंतर्गत समस्या हो सकती है, हालाँकि रिश्वत अमेरिका से बाहर दी गई है?



USA is a U.S. company, so it has to obey the FCPA. Sam, who is a U.S. citizen, also has to obey the FCPA. It doesn't matter that the bribe was paid in Europe, because the FCPA applies to activities of U.S. companies and their employees even outside the United States.


यूएसए अमेरिकी कंपनी है, इसलिए इसे एफ़सीपीए का पालन करना होगा। सैम अमेरिकी नागरिक है, इसलिए उसे भी एफ़सीपीए का पालन करना होगा। इससे कोई फ़र्क नहीं पड़ता कि रिश्वत यूरोप में दी गई है, क्योंकि एफ़सीपीए अमेरिकी कंपनियों और उनके कर्मचारियों की अमेरिका से बाहर की गतिविधियों पर भी लागू होता है।




निष्कर्ष

अपनी कंपनी के लाभ के लिए गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारियों को भुगतान न करें। हालाँकि किसी सरकारी कर्मचारी को भुगतान सीमित स्थितियों में सही हो सकता है, लेकिन आपको हमेशा पहले अपनी कंपनी के क़ानून विभाग से सलाह लेनी चाहिए। यदि आप किसी प्रकार का व्यापारिक लाभ हासिल करने के लिए सरकारी कर्मचारी को अनुपयुक्त भुगतान करते हैं, तो आप अपने खुद के और अपनी कंपनी के लिए गंभीर समस्या पैदा कर सकते हैं।

और याद रखें कि एफ़सीपीए केवल अमेरिकी कंपनियों और उनके कर्मचारियों पर ही लागू नहीं होता, यह गैर-अमेरिकी कंपनियों और उनके कर्मचारियों पर ही लागू हो सकता है।






रिश्वत के प्रकार

सिंहावलोकन

इस पाठ में, आप सीखेंगे कि

कुछ भी मूल्यमान रिश्वत होती है


यह ज़रूरी नहीं है कि ग़ैर-कानूनी भुगतान खुद कंपनी द्वारा ही किया जाए


नौकरी का प्रस्ताव भी रिश्वत हो सकता है



कार्ल: जिम, $10,000 के इस भुगतान की अनुमति के लिए मुझे अपने बॉस से बात करनी होगी।

जिम: ठीक है, लेकिन मुझे आज ही बता देना। इस बाज़ार में आने के लिए अनेक कंपनियाँ कोशिश कर रही हैं।

कार्ल फ़ोन बंद कर देता है और तत्काल अपने बॉस को फ़ोन करता है।



कार्ल फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए



कार्ल: स्टेफ़नी? मैंने अभी जिम से बात की है, जो यह कह रहा है कि फ़ैक्टरी के काम को आगे बढ़ाने में $10,000 के भुगतान की ज़रूरत होगी।

स्टेफ़नी: क्या आप मज़ाक कर रहे हैं?

कार्ल: काश ऐसा होता।

स्टेफ़नी: आप जानते हैं कि बजट में इस तरह के ख़र्चे के लिए कोई पैसा नहीं है।

कार्ल: वह कह रहा है कि यदि हम आज पैसा नहीं देंगे, तो हम परियोजना खो देंगे।

स्टेफ़नी: कार्ल, यह नहीं हो सकता।



स्टेफ़नी फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए



कार्ल फ़ोन बंद कर देता है और जिम को फ़ोन करता है।

कार्ल: सुनो, जिम, मैंने पूछ लिया है। ऐसा नहीं हो सकता।

जिम: एक सेकंड – मुझे एक बात सूझी है। आपको कोई चेक लिखने की ज़रूरत नहीं होगी।

कार्ल: हाँ?

जिम: मैंने आपको अपने दोस्त के बारे में बताया था, एजेंसी का प्रमुख। यदि आप उसे कोई वैश्विक स्टॉक दे दें, तो वह शायद आवेदन-पत्र स्वीकृत कर लेगा।



कार्ल और जिम की फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए स्क्रीन के एक हिस्से में आकृति




कुछ मूल्यवान

जैसा कि कार्ल को पता चलेगा, रिश्वत में नगद भुगतान के अलावा बहुत सी चीज़ें शामिल हैं। रिश्वत अनेक रूपों और आकारों की होती है, और एफ़सीपीए के मामले में उन सभी में समस्या हो सकती है।






नगद राशि के अलावा, रिश्वत के निम्नलिखित रूप हो सकते हैं

एक स्टॉक प्रमाण-पत्र का क्लोज़-अप


आपकी कंपनी के स्टॉक


उपहार


मनोरंजन, जो उससे ज़्यादा हो जो आप सामान्य रूप से ग्राहक को देते हैं


उत्पादों या सेवाओं पर निजी छूट, जो आम जनता को उपलब्ध नहीं हैं


नौकरी के प्रस्ताव (जिनके बारे में हम बाद में और बात करेंगे)


सरकारी कर्मचारी के अनुरोध या उसकी ओर से किए गए परोपकारी योगदान



एक मामले में, अमेरिकी एयरोस्पेस कंपनी के एक उपाध्यक्ष को एक गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी के लिए विमान के टिकट ख़रीदने पर एफ़सीपीए के अंतर्गत रिश्वत का अंशतः अपराधी पाया गया। उपाध्यक्ष ने कर्मचारी को यह सुनिश्चित करने के लिए टिकटें दीं कि कंपनी को सरकारी विमान के रखरखाव करने का अनुबंध मिल जाए।



समाचार-पत्र का मुख्य समाचार "मुफ़्त विमान टिकट रिश्वत पाया गया"



अमेरिकी कंपनी का विक्रय प्रतिनिधि जैसन एक छोटे देश की सरकार को कंप्यूटर चिप बेचने के अनुबंध के लिए तीन अन्य कंपनियों से प्रतियोगिता कर रहा है। वह जानता है कि अनुबंध देने वाले कर्मचारी को अच्छे सिगार पसंद हैं, इसलिए वह सिगार का एक पूरा डिब्बा और ह्युमिडर ख़रीदकर उसे दे देता है।

यदि जैसन ने ये चीज़ें कर्मचारी को दीं, तो क्या उसने रिश्वत दी है?



Jason would be bribing the official if he gave him the humidor and cigars. According to the FCPA, a bribe doesn't just mean cash. It can also include, among other things, gifts.


यदि जैसन कर्मचारी को ह्युमिडर और सिगार देता है, तो वह कर्मचारी को रिश्वत दे रहा है। एफ़सीपीए के अनुसार, रिश्वत का अर्थ केवल नगद राशि ही नहीं होता। इसमें अन्य चीज़ों के अलावा, उपहार भी शामिल हो सकते हैं।




प्रत्यक्ष बनाम अप्रत्यक्ष भुगतान

यदि आपकी कंपनी दलाल के द्वारा रिश्वत देती है और प्रत्यक्ष रूप से इसमें शामिल नहीं होती, तो क्या होगा? कंपनी को अभी भी समस्या होगी। इससे कोई फ़र्क नहीं पड़ता कि कंपनी कोई अनुपयुक्त भुगतान खुद करती है – प्रत्यक्ष भुगतान – या किसी और के द्वारा भुगतान करवाती है – अप्रत्यक्ष भुगतान। दोनों ग़ैर-कानूनी हैं।

इस नियम के पीछे यह विचार है कि कोई कंपनी केवल किसी और के द्वारा रिश्वत दिलवाकर एफ़सीपीए को नज़रअंदाज़ नहीं कर सकती।



एक हाथ, जिसमें $100 नोटों की गड्डियाँ हैं।



अप्रत्यक्ष रिश्वत अनेक रूप ले सकती है, जिसमें गैर-अमेरिकी सहयोगी, विक्रय एजेंट, या संयुक्त उद्यम साझेदार के द्वारा भुगतान शामिल हैं। आपकी कंपनी इस तरह के भुगतान के लिए ज़िम्मेदार ठहराई जा सकती है, चाहे उसे यह निश्चित रूप से पता न हो कि रिश्वत दी गई है। यदि आपको लगता है कि संभवतः आपकी ओर से कोई रिश्वत दी जा रही है, तो आपको उसे रोकने के लिए कार्रवाई करनी अवश्य चाहिए।






अमेरिका की एक्मे कंपनी गैर-अमेरिकी विक्रय प्रतिनिधि लियो को एक ऐसे देश में अपने उत्पादों का विपणन करने के लिए रखती है, जो अपने भ्रष्ट व्यापार वातावरण के लिए कुख्यात है। हालाँकि कंपनी आम तौर से अपने विक्रय प्रतिनिधियों को 5% कमीशन देती थी, लेकिन वह लियो को 10% कमीशन देने पर सहमत हो गई। कुछ कर्मचारियों को संदेह हुआ कि लियो का इरादा अपना आधा कमीशन उस सरकारी कर्मचारी को देने का है, जो ख़रीद के निर्णय लेने के लिए ज़िम्मेदार था। वस्तुतः, लियो एकदम यही करता है – और एक हफ़्ते बाद, कंपनी को अनुबंध मिल जाता है।

क्योंकि कंपनी ने कर्मचारी को खुद भुगतान नहीं किया, इसलिए उसे इसके बारे में कोई चिंता करने की ज़रूरत नहीं थी।



The company suspected that Leo might pay half his commission to the government official to win the contract, so it has plenty to worry about. Your company can be responsible under the FCPA for an indirect payment even if it doesn't know for sure that a bribe was paid. If you have reason to believe that a bribe might be taking place on your behalf, you must try to stop it.


कंपनी को संदेह था कि लियो शायद अनुबंध हासिल करने के लिए अपना आधा कमीशन सरकारी कर्मचारी को देगा, इसलिए उसे इसके बारे में बहुत चिंता करने की ज़रूरत है। आपकी कंपनी को एफ़सीपीए के अंतर्गत किसी अप्रत्यक्ष भुगतान के लिए ज़िम्मेदार ठहराया जा सकता है, चाहे उसे यह निश्चित रूप से पता न हो कि रिश्वत दी गई है। यदि आपको लगता है कि संभवतः आपकी ओर से कोई रिश्वत दी जा रही है, तो आपको उसे रोकने के लिए कार्रवाई करनी अवश्य चाहिए।




रोज़गार के प्रस्ताव

रोज़गार के प्रस्ताव भी रिश्वत हो सकते हैं। आम तौर से, सरकारी कर्मचारी, या कर्मचारी के दोस्त या परिवार के सदस्य को रोज़गार का प्रस्ताव कुछ मूल्य रखता है और इसलिए इसे रिश्वत माना जा सकता है। यह तब भी सही है, जब व्यक्ति नौकरी के लिए योग्य हो।






किसी गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी की सेवाएँ अपनी कंपनी के लिए विक्रय प्रतिनिधि के रूप में लेना जोखिम भरा है। ऐसा करने में कर्मचारी को अपनी कंपनी के लिए व्यापार या अन्य लाभ हासिल करना शामिल है, और एफ़सीपीए ठीक इसी पर लक्ष्य करता है।

मौजूदा सरकारी कर्मचारी की सेवाएँ विक्रय प्रतिनिधि के रूप में लेने के ख़िलाफ़ कोई अंतिम नियम नहीं हैं। तथापि, आम तौर से, ये व्यवस्थाएँ बहुत जोखिम भरी होती हैं और इनसे बचना चाहिए। यदि कर्मचारी ने आपकी कंपनी को लाभ पहुँचाने के लिए अपनी स्थिति का प्रयोग किया है, तो आपकी कंपनी लगभग निश्चित रूप से ज़िम्मेदार होगी।



अंततः, गैर-अमेरिकी सरकारी कर्मचारी या उसके दोस्त या परिवार के सदस्य की सेवाएँ लेने से बड़ी समस्या हो सकती है। आपके लिए सबसे सुरक्षित रास्ता यह है कि सावधान रहें और पहले अपनी कंपनी के क़ानून विभाग की सलाह लें।



अमेरिकी कंपनी पे हेयर टोलबूथ्स अमेरिका के बाहर एक देश में राजमार्ग पर टोलबूथ स्थापित करने अनुबंध के लिए बोली लगाती है। पे हेयर के विक्रय प्रतिनिधि को देश के राजमार्ग प्रशासन के एक कर्मचारी से पता चला कि उसकी कंपनी की बोली सबसे छोटी थी, लेकिन उसमें एक समस्या थी: व्यवस्थापक के बेटे को यहाँ वेतन के साथ प्रशिक्षु-वृत्ति चाहिए थी।

यदि कंपनी प्रशिक्षु-वृत्ति की व्यवस्था करती है, तो क्या उसे एफ़सीपीए के अंतर्गत समस्या होगी?



If Pay Here arranges the internship, it would have offered something of value--a job for the official's son--to a government official to gain business, which would bring the FCPA into play. But it's not always easy to determine when employment for a government official or his friends or family actually violates the FCPA. Therefore, you should always discuss it with your company's law department first.


यदि पे हेयर प्रशिक्षु-वृत्ति की व्यवस्था करती है, तो वह व्यापार हासिल करने के लिए सरकारी कर्मचारी को कुछ मूल्यवान – कर्मचारी के बेटे के लिए नौकरी – पेश करती है, जिसके कारण एफ़सीपीए सक्रिय हो जाएगा। लेकिन यह तय करना हमेशा आसान नहीं होता कि सरकारी कर्मचारी या उसके दोस्तों या परिवार के लिए रोज़गार वास्तव में कब एफ़सीपीए का उल्लंघन करता है। इसलिए, आपको इस बारे में पहले हमेशा अपनी कंपनी के क़ानून विभाग से चर्चा करनी चाहिए।




निष्कर्ष

एफ़सीपीए के अंतर्गत, रिश्वत रिश्वत होती है, चाहे वह नगद राशि हो या किसी अन्य रूप में। यह ज़रूरी नहीं है कि ग़ैर-कानूनी भुगतान खुद कंपनी द्वारा ही किया जाए। यदि कोई कंपनी की ओर से सरकारी कर्मचारी को भुगतान करता है, तो कंपनी ने अप्रत्यक्ष भुगतान किया है, जो ग़ैर-कानूनी हो सकता है।

यहाँ तक कि नौकरी के प्रस्ताव भी रिश्वत माने जा सकते हैं। किसी सरकारी कर्मचारी, या अपने दोस्तों या परिवार को नौकरी का प्रस्ताव करने से पहले आपको हमेशा अपनी कंपनी के क़ानून विभाग से सलाह लेनी चाहिए।






नियमों का पालन करना

सिंहावलोकन

इस पाठ में, आप सीखेंगे कि

एफ़सीपीए के नियमों का पालन करना क्यों महत्वपूर्ण है


चेतावनी के कुछ लक्षण एफ़सीपीए के संभावित उल्लंघन का संकेत कर सकते हैं


सरकारी कर्मचारियों को किए गए सभी भुगतानों का सही-सही रिकार्ड रखना ज़रूरी है



कार्ल: जिम, इस आदमी को वैश्विक स्टॉक दे दें? मैं नहीं जानता।

जिम: समस्या क्या है? आपको चेक तक लिखने की ज़रूरत नहीं है।

कार्ल: इससे मुझे असुविधा होती है। शायद यह चेक नहीं है, लेकिन यह अभी भी रिश्वत जैसा ही लगता है।

जिम: सुनो, कार्ल। याद है, किसी अन्य विदेशी प्रतिनिधि के बजाय आपने मुझसे काम लेने का फ़ैसला क्यों किया?

कार्ल: हाँ, जब वर्ल्डवाइड में मेरी एक दोस्त ने पहले आपसे काम लिया था, तो उसने बड़ी परियोजना स्वीकृत करवा ली थी। उसने कहा था कि आप सर्वोत्तम हैं।



जिम फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए



जिम: बिल्कुल। आपको अपना काम करने के लिए मुझ पर भरोसा करना होगा।

कार्ल: मुझे भरोसा है, लेकिन आपकी स्टॉक की सलाह मुझे सचमुच परेशान कर रही है।

जिम: सुनिए: स्टॉक भूल जाएँ। मैं इसके बिना स्वीकृति हासिल कर लूँगा।

कार्ल: कैसे?

जिम: इसकी चिंता मुझे करने दें। बस, मुझ पर भरोसा करें।

कार्ल: ठीक है, यदि आपकी यही राय है।



कार्ल फ़ोन पर बात करते हुए




देखते रहें

कार्ल नहीं जानता, लेकिन उसने अभी-अभी एक गंभीर ग़लती कर दी होगी। एफ़सीपीए आपको ऐसे व्यवहार को नज़रअंदाज़ करने की अनुमति नहीं देता, जो अनुपयुक्त हो सकता हो।

यदि कंपनी ऐसी सूचना को नज़रअंदाज़ करती है, जो यह संकेत करती है कि उसकी ओर से रिश्वत दी गई होगी, तो वह एफ़सीपीए की समस्या में पड़ सकती है – चाहे वह सुनिश्चित न हो कि रिश्वत दी गई है।






जैसे ही जिम कार्ल से फ़ोन पर बात ख़त्म करता है, वह निर्माण अनुमति जारी करने के लिए ज़िम्मेदार एजेंसी के प्रमुख को कॉल करता है, जो उसका पुराना दोस्त भी था, और इस बात पर सहमत हो जाता है कि यदि अनुमति का आवेदन-पत्र स्वीकृत हो जाता है, तो वह अपना कमीशन बाँट लेगा।

यदि एजेंसी का प्रमुख अनुमति का आवेदन-पत्र स्वीकृत करता है, तो क्या ग्लोबल – कार्ल की कंपनी – एफ़सीपीए के अंतर्गत समस्या में पड़ सकती है?



हाँ, क्योंकि जिम का व्यवहार संदेहास्पद था।
Jim's behavior should have mad

Glossaries RajDict
Translation education PhD - University of Delhi, India
Experience Years of experience: 41. Registered at ProZ.com: Feb 2000. Became a member: Apr 2006.
ProZ.com Certified PRO certificate(s)
Credentials English to Hindi (Central Hindi Institute, India)
Memberships N/A
Software Adobe Acrobat, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, Powerpoint, SDL TRADOS, SDLX, Wordfast
CV/Resume English (PDF)
Professional practices Dr. Rajesh Kumar endorses ProZ.com's Professional Guidelines (v1.0).
Bio
I am a native Hindi speaker.

I have experience in working with international companies e.g. Microsoft, Google, MAPI, NOKIA.

My normal rates are US$ 0.07/source word for translation and US$ 0.07/source word for editing.

I work on full time basis.
This user has earned KudoZ points by helping other translators with PRO-level terms. Click point total(s) to see term translations provided.

Total pts earned: 138
PRO-level pts: 92


Top languages (PRO)
English to Hindi72
Hindi to English20
Top general fields (PRO)
Other51
Tech/Engineering16
Science7
Marketing6
Art/Literary4
Pts in 2 more flds >
Top specific fields (PRO)
Other19
General / Conversation / Greetings / Letters8
Marketing / Market Research4
Petroleum Eng/Sci4
Computers (general)4
Religion4
Retail4
Pts in 5 more flds >

See all points earned >

This user has reported completing projects in the following job categories, language pairs, and fields.

Project History Summary
Total projects1
With client feedback0
Corroborated0
0 positive (0 entries)
positive0
neutral0
negative0

Job type
Translation1
Language pairs
English to Hindi1
Specialty fields
Computers: Systems, Networks1
Other fields
Keywords: Hindi, India, bharat, hindustan, translation, anuvad, Indic


Profile last updated
Jan 4



More translators and interpreters: English to Hindi - Hindi to English   More language pairs



Your current localization setting

English

Select a language

All of ProZ.com
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search