Arabic to English: Technical Letter Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - Arabic بالإشارة إلى مكتب الإستشاري هالكرو رقم ؟؟؟؟؟؟ بتاريخ 20/11/2006 وبناءاً على رسالة شركة أي بي بي رقم ؟؟؟؟ بتاريخ 19/11/2006 بشأن طلب إعادة تصدير المحابس الموردة من شركة أي أف أم لمشروع محطات الضخ عقد (؟؟؟) نأمل الموافقة على إعادة المحابس إلى مصدرها لغرض المعالجة أو أستبدال هذه المحابس لتتطابق مع مواصفات المشروع حسب تقرير الإستشاري.
Translation - English I refer to the Consultant letter ؟؟؟dated on 20/11/2006 and based on ABB letter ABB-??? dated on 19/11/2006 regarding re-exportation of valves which were imported from AVM Company for Pumping Stations Project Contract (376). I kindly request for the approval to return these valves to their manufacturer for treatment in his factories or to be replaced to comply with the project specifications per the Consultant report .
English to Arabic: Dispute Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - English However, there have been some procedural difficulties with acceptance of some goods and equipment delivered to site which have been previously certified by the Third Party Inspection Agency, SGS. It has to be recognized that SGS are a party mentioned in the contract between GMRWUA and ABB as shown in the Contract. Halcrow are not party to the contract and operate with no defined responsibility particularly as the Project Authority Manual, which would clearly define our role within the contract, has never been issued.
Translation - Arabic على أية حال ، لقد واجهتنا بعض الصعوبات في إجراءات قبول بعض المواد والمعدات التي وردت الى الموقع والتي تم استخراج شهادات لها سابقاً من قبل وكالة الفحص الطرف الثالث. والجدير بالذكر أن وكالة الفحص الطرف الثالث هي طرف تم ذكره في العقد بين جهز استثمار مياه النهر الصناعي العظيم / المنطقة الوسطى وشركة أي بي بي في العقد. وهالكرو ليست طرفاً في العقد المذكور وليس هنالك مسؤولية محددة لعملها وبالأخص أنه لم يتم إصـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــدار كتيب توزيع مسؤوليات المشروع مطلقاً والذي كان سيعرف بصورة دقيقة دورنا فـــــــــــــــي العقد
English to Arabic: HIV VIRUS Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English HIV VIRUS AND IT SPREAD
HIV-positive individuals in the SMART study who were in the treatment conservation arm experienced a significant decline in quality of life as the study progressed, according to data presented to the Sixteenth International AIDS Conference in Toronto on August 17th. The SMART study was the largest HIV clinical trial ever, involving 5,472 patients in several countries. Patients were randomized to either a treatment conservation arm (discontinue antiretroviral therapy once their CD4 cell count reached 350 cells/mm3, and recommencing therapy when it fell to 250 cells/mm3), or to continue to take their anti-HIV therapy without interruption. The study was terminated early on safety grounds after it was established that patients in the treatment interruption arm were significantly more likely to experience disease progression or death. It had been theorized that interrupting anti-HIV therapy would improve the quality of life of individuals in the treatment conservation arm by reducing their exposure to potentially toxic antiretroviral drugs. To assess the effect of treatment interruption versus continuous treatment on self-reported quality of life, investigators conducted a sub-study involving 1,225 patients enrolled at the 64 US clinics participating in the SMART study. At baseline, and then at months four, eight and twelve and annually thereafter, patients completed quality-of-life assessments, designed to determine their perceived physical and mental health. Median CD4 cell count at baseline was 575 cells/mm3, three-quarters of the patients were taking potent HIV therapy, and 25% were women. At the start of the study, the mean current state of health score was 75 out of 100, and 50% of individuals rated their health as very good or excellent. Individuals were then followed up for a mean of 2.4 years. During this period, current health and general health perceptions declined significantly in the treatment conservation arm, but increased amongst patients randomized to take their HIV therapy all the time. (p = 0.02). Patients interrupting their treatment scored their physical health status significantly lower than that of patients taking continuous treatment (p = 0.005), and reported having lower levels of energy (p = 0.05). In addition, individuals in the drug conservation arm experienced greater levels of pain than patients randomized to take continuous therapy (p < 0.001), as well as having poorer mental health (p < 0.001) and lower social functioning (p < 0.001). The investigators therefore concluded that the episodic use of HIV therapy did not improve quality of life.
THE HISTORY SO FAR
Africa, where the first human beings stood up and walked. You know, they are rated as the world's second largest continent. Home to one in ten of the world's people, and five of the ten fastest-growing economies. Global source of oil and minerals, fifteen percent of America's oil comes from Africa and foods such as peanuts, rice, coffee and chocolate. Just as our past has been bound up with Africa, so are all our futures.
One in two Africans is under age 20, but their futures are under threat. Africa is struggling under a triple crisis that keeps its people poor and its nations weak, the burden of unplayable their debt, this taken up money that should go to health and education. Africa has been hit harder by the HIV/AIDS virus than any other region of the world. More than 17 million Africans have died from AIDS and another 25 million are infected with the HIV virus, approximately 1.9 million of whom are children
People with AIDS don't suffer alone—the disease attacks their families and communities as well. AIDS has stripped out an entire generation of parents, farmers, doctors and leaders. 12 million African children have already lost one or both parents to AIDS, and unless we take serious action now, there will be more than 18 million AIDS orphans by the end of the decade. Millions of children will have lost their parents, but their teachers, nurses and friends too. Businesses are losing their workers, governments are losing their civil servants and families are losing their breadwinners. As a result, entire communities are devastated and economies that are already crippled by poverty, debts and unfair trade policies are further compromised. While the moral case stands alone as a reason to act, richer countries also have economic and security reasons to fight this emergency. Seeing Africa as our neighbor, we need to act now, you and me to stop the spread of AIDS, is not just the moral thing to do—it's the practical thing.
UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, has estimated that at least $12 billion is needed in 2005 to fight AIDS around the world. Over the next few years, as the epidemic spreads further. Although donors such as the U.S. and the U.K. have recently increased their bilateral commitments to funding for HIV/AIDS. All countries must move toward meeting their share of the immediate funds, and increase funding for AIDS prevention, education and treatment, as well as health care infrastructure, in countries across Africa. That is what we hope and taught of happening in future.
EFFECTS OF HIV VIRUS
The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth during sex. Risky behavior. HIV can infect anyone who practices risky behaviors such as Sharing drug, needles or syringes, Having sexual contact, including oral, with an infected person without using a condom, Having sexual contact with someone whose HIV status is unknown, Infected blood. . HIV also is spread through contact with infected blood. Before donated blood was screened for evidence of HIV infection and before heat-treating techniques to destroy HIV in blood products were introduced, HIV was transmitted through transfusions of contaminated blood or blood components. Today, because of blood screening and heat treatment, the risk of getting HIV from such transfusions is extremely small. Presently, there is a campaign in Africa and i am one of the campaign team here in Africa because rate of HIV/AIDS is too high here But we are really Trying to Reduce the rate here it spread frequently among injection drug users here the sharing of needles or syringes contaminated with very small quantities of blood from someone infected with the virus. There was a study sponsored by (UNAID) in Africa and World as a whole found a highly effective and safe drug for preventing transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her newborn. Independent studies have also confirmed this finding. This regimen is more affordable and practical than any other examined to date. Results from the study show that a single oral dose of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine (NVP) given to an HIV-infected woman in labor and another to her baby within 3 days of birth reduces the transmission rate of HIV by half compared
The demand for health services is expanding, so more health care professionals are being affected by HIV/AIDS. For example, Nigeria and Zambia are experiencing a 5-6-fold increase in health worker illness and death rates. Increased workloads and stress might also spur emigration by health professionals. Africa's antiretroviral programmes have faced an acute shortage of trained staff. There are not enough clinicians to carry out the health checks required for enrolment on the programme, and this has contributed to the enrolment and treatment rates being lower than what it expected. On HIV/AIDS dramatically affects labour, setting back economic activity and social progress. The vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa are between the ages of 15 and 49 - in the prime of their working lives.
AIDS weakens economic activity by squeezing productivity, adding costs, diverting productive resources, and depleting skills. Also, as the impact of HIV/AIDS on households grows more severe, market demand for products and services can fall. The epidemic hits productivity through increased absenteeism. Comparative studies of East African businesses have shown that absenteeism can account for as much as 25-54% of company costs.
The human toll and suffering due to HIV & AIDS is already enormous. AIDS is now the leading cause of death in Africa. Since the beginning of the epidemic more than 20 million Africans have died from AIDS. During 2005 an estimated 2 million adults and children died as a result of AIDS in Africa. Many countries in Africa have failed to bring the epidemic under control. Nearly two-thirds of the world's HIV-positive people live in Africa, although this region contains little more than of the world's population. There is a significant risk that some countries will be locked in a vicious cycle, as the number of people falling ill and subsequently dying from AIDS has a tremendous impact on many parts of African society, including demographic, household, health sector, educational, workplace and economic aspects. In all affected countries the HIV/AIDS epidemic is bringing additional pressure to bear on the health sector. As the epidemic matures, the demand for care for those living with HIV/AIDS rises, as does the toll among health workers. In Africa, the annual direct medical costs of AIDS (excluding antiretroviral therapy) have been estimated at about US$30 per capita, at a time when overall public health spending is less that US$10 for most African countries. Health-care services face different levels of strain, depending on the number of people who seek services, the nature of their need, and the capacity to deliver that care. As HIV infection progresses to AIDS, there is an increase in total hospitalizations. The 2001 African Union (AU) with bodies of Human Development Report estimated that people living with HIV/AIDS occupied half of the beds in some health care centres in Africa. HIV prevalence among hospitalized patients was almost 33% in one Africa hospital, making HIV infection the major cause of illness leading to hospitalization. Without major interventions, the problem will worsen. The World Bank estimates that the number of hospital beds needed for AIDS patients could exceed the total number of beds available in Africa by 2004 and in Namibia by 2005.
The HIV/AIDS epidemic is also having a negative impact on the overall quality of care provided in hospitals. A shortage of beds, for example, means that people tend to be admitted only at the later stages of illness, reducing their chances of recovery, as some Kenyan hospitals have discovered.
Translation - Arabic
فيروس فقدان المناعة البشري ((HIV وانتشاره
أظهر الأشخاص المصابين بفيروس فقدان المناعة البشري في دراسة سمارت - استراتجيات إدارة المعالجة بمضادات الفيروسات العكسية - Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapies "SMART"- في قسم المراقبة العلاجية –المعالجة المتقطعة- انخفاضا ملحوظاً في القابلية الحياتية مع تقدم الدراسة وفقاً للبيانات المقدمة لمؤتمر الإيدز السادس عشر في مدينة تورونتو في السابع عشر من شهر أغسطس. دراسة سمارت(SMART) هي التجربة السريريّه الأكبر حتى الآن، تضمنت 5,472 فرداً في عدة بلدان. تم إدخال المصابين بصورة عشوائية أما إلى قسم المراقبة العلاجية –المعالجة المتقطعة- ( يتم وقف استمرار المعالجة بمضادات الفيروسات العكسية حال وصول عدد خلايا سي دي 4 - قياس عدد خلايا تي المساعدة في مليمتر المربع من الدم لتحليل تشخيص المصابين بفيروس فقدان المناعة البشري - إلى 350 خلية /ملم3 واستئناف المعالجة عندما تهبط إلى 250 خلية /ملم3) أو استمرار إعطاءهم المعالجة بمضادات فيروس فقدان المناعة البشري بدون توقف – المعالجة المستمرة- . تم إنهاء الدراسة في وقت مبكّر بسبب دواعي السلامة بعد أن أتضح أن المصابين في قسم المعالجة المستمرة عرضة باحتمالية عالية إلى شدة المرض أو الموت. أشارت دراسات نظرية سابقاً بأن قطع ووصل استمرار المعالجة بمضادات فيروس فقدان المناعة البشري قد يساعد على تحسن القابلية الحياتية للأفراد في قسم المراقبة العلاجية –المعالجة المتقطعة- وذلك بانخفاض تعرضهم لأدوية المضادات العكسية محتملة السمّية. لتقييم أثر المعالجة المتقطعة مقارنةً بالمعالجة المستمرة حول القابلية الحياتية والتي تم الإخبار عنها ذاتياً فقد أجرى الباحثون دراسة فرعية تتضمن 1,225 مصاب تمّ توزيعهم على 64 عيادة في الولايات المتحدة مشتركة في دراسة سمارت (SMART) . عند البدء وفي الشهر الرابع والشهر الثامن والشهر الثاني عشر ومن ثم فصلياً بعد ذلك أتمّ المصابون تقييمات القابلية الحياتية والمعدّّة لتحديد الصحة البدنيّة والذهنيّة لهم التي تمت ملاحظتها. كان المتوسط العددي لعدد خلايا سي دي 4 في البدء 575 خلية/ملم3، كان ثلاثة أرباع المصابين يتعاطون معالجة فعّالة لفيروس فقدان المناعة البشري ، و 25% كانوا من النساء. في بدأ الدراسة كان حال الاتجاه الوسطي للنقاط المسجلة صحيّاً 75 - 100، و 50% من المصابين تم تقدير صحتهم بأنه درجة جيد جداً أو ممتاز. وتمت مراقبة المصابين لمدة 2.4 سنة. خلال هذه الفترة فان علامات الصحة الحالية والصحة العامة انخفضت بصورة ملحوظة في قسم مراقبة المعالجة - المعالجة المتقطعة- بينما ازدادت بين المصابين الذين تم اختيارهم عشوائياً لتعاطي المعالجة من فيروس فقدان المناعة طوال الوقت – المعالجة المستمرة- .(P=0.02). سجّل المصابون الذين تمت معالجتهم بصورة متقطعة قيماً صحية أقل بصورة ملحوظة من تلك القيم الخاصة بالمصابين الذين تمت معالجتهم بصورة مستمرة (P=0.005) وسجّل حصولهم على معدلات طاقة أقل (P=0.05). بالإضافة إلى ذلك تعرض أفراد في قسم المعالجة المتقطعة إلى معدلات ألم أكثر شدة من المصابين الذين تم اختيارهم عشوائياً لتعاطي المعالجة المستمرة (p
Other - Halcrow and Bilfinger Berger
Years of translation experience: 32. Registered at ProZ.com: Dec 2006.
English to Arabic (BCs Mechanical at Engineering University of Techn) Arabic to English (BCs Mechanical at Engineering University of Techn) English to Arabic (Halcrow/Group Libya Pumping Station) Arabic to English (Halcrow/Group Libya Pumping Station)
Adobe Acrobat, AutoCAD, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Office Access, Microsoft Visual Basic express , Powerpoint
CV available upon request
Mechanical Engineer and English-Arabic Translator. Graduated from University of Technology Baghdad-1986. With a practical experience as mechanical engineer for years, reviewed or translated many technical documents. Skilled in all MS applications including visual basic programming.
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