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English to Chinese: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)格林－巴利综合征
Source text - English What is Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)?
Guillain-Barré (Ghee-yan Bah-ray) Syndrome, also called acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and Landry's ascending paralysis, is an inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves those outside the brain and spinal cord. It is characterized by the rapid onset of weakness and, often, paralysis of the legs, arms, breathing muscles and face. Abnormal sensations often accompany the weakness.
Many patients require an intensive care unit during the early course of their illness, especially if support of breathing with a machine is required. Although most people recover, this can take months, and some may have long term disabilities of varying degrees. Less than 5 percent die. GBS can develop in any person at any age, regardless of gender or ethnic background.
How is GBS Diagnosed?
Quite often, the patient's symptoms and physical exam are sufficient to indicate the diagnosis. The rapid onset of (ascending) weakness, frequently accompanied by abnormal sensations that affect both sides of the body similarly, is a common presenting picture. Loss of reflexes, such as the knee jerk, are usually found. To confirm the diagnosis, a lumbar puncture to find elevated fluid protein and electrical test of nerve and muscle function may be performed.
How is GBS Treated?
Because progression of the disease in its early stages is unpredictable, most newly diagnosed patients are hospitalized and usually placed in an intensive care unit to monitor breathing and other body functions. Care involves use of general supportive measures for the paralyzed patient, and also methods specifically designed to speed recovery, especially for those patients with major problems, such as the inability to walk. Plasma exchange (a blood "cleansing" procedure) and high dose intravenous immune globulins are often helpful to shorten the course of GBS.
Most patients, after their early hospital stay and when medically stable, are candidates for a rehabilitation program to help learn optimal use of muscles as nerve supply returns.
What Causes GBS?
The cause is not known. Perhaps 50% of cases occur shortly after a microbial (viral or bacterial) infection such as a sore throat or diarrhea. Some theories suggest an autoimmune mechanism, in which the patient's defense system of antibodies and white blood cells are triggered into damaging the nerve covering or insulation, leading to weakness and abnormal sensation.
Translation - Chinese 什么是格林－巴利综合征(GBS)?
许多病人在疾病初期需要住进重症监护室，特别是当需要辅助呼吸仪的时候。 尽管大多数病人能够恢复，但是这需要几个月的时间，而且有的病人可能遗留长期的不同程度的残疾。病人死亡的不到百分之五。GBS 可能发生于任何年龄段，无论性别或种族。
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