1. A XXXX crystalline form, which is characterized by an x-ray powder diffraction pattern, recorded with Cu-Ka radiation, that shows characteristic peaks, expressed in terms of angle 2θ and interplanar distance (d), at approximately 9.4 (9.4), 16.5 (5.4), 18.2 (4.9), 19.0 (4.7), and 19.7 (4.5).
2. A pharmaceutical active substance used for formulating XXXX pharmaceutical preparations, composed of XXXX hat iand in which the proportion of the XXXX crystalline form of Claim 1 is >50%.
3. The pharmaceutical active substance according to Claim 2, wherein the proportion of XXXX crystalline form of Claim 1 is >85%.
4. A pharmaceutical composition containing the XXXX crystalline form of Claim 1, characterized by containing biological effective dose of the XXXX crystalline form of Claim 1 and an appropriate pharmaceutical excipient.
5. The pharmaceutical composition according to Claim 4, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is in a solid dosage form such as pills, powder, granules, or capsules.
6. The preparation process of the XXXX crystalline form of Claim 1, including following steps:
(1) Add XXXX to 1~100-fold alcohol-water mixed solvent and heat gently to dissolve;
(2) The volume ratio of alcohol:water in the alcohol-water mixed solvent is 0.1~100:1;
(3) Filter while hot, and cool the filtrate down to allow crystallization;
(4) Filter, and vacuum dry at 25~90۫C.
7. The preparation process as described in Claim 6, the characteristic of which is that the alcohol used in step (1) is selected from one or more of the following: ethanol, n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and butyl alcohol.
English to Chinese: Material safety data sheet- 化学物质安全性资料表 Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - English 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability: Stable under normal conditions.
Incompatibility: None with common materials and contaminants with which the material may reasonably come into contact.
Hazardous decomposition products: Carbon oxides, metal oxides.
Hazardous Polymerization: Hazardous polymerization does not occur.
11. Toxicological information
Effects of Exposure
Contains: Colorant. The toxicological properties of this material have not been fully evaluated. The pigment in this product is imbedded in a tough plastic matrix which minimizes the likelihood of exposure to the pigment.
Contains: Carbon black. In 1996 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reevaluated carbon black as a Group 2B carcinogen (possible human carcinogen), based upon the development of lung tumors in rats receiving chronic inhalation exposures to free carbon black. The effects were observed only in animals exposed to high concentrations of carbon black at levels that induce particle overload of the lung. Studies performed in animal models other than rats have not demonstrated an association between carbon black and lung tumors. Moreover, a two-year cancer bioassay using a typical toner preparation containing carbon black demonstrated no association between toner exposure and tumor development in rats. Epidemiology studies of workers in the carbon black producing industries of North America and Western Europe do not demonstrate an association between carbon black and cancer, even in high exposure occupational settings. In addition, in its reevaluation of carbon black, IARC concluded that "there is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of carbon black." Chronic overexposure to many dusts, including carbon black dust, may result in respiratory tract irritation and slight changes in lung function. Collectively, the available animal data and human epidemiology studies suggest that carbon black, as contained in this product, does not present a cancer risk to the end user if the handling and personal protective measures contained within this Material Safety Data Sheet are understood and followed.
Inhalation: Expected to be a low hazard for recommended handling.
Eyes: No specific hazard known. May cause transient irritation.
Skin: Expected to be a low hazard for recommended handling.
Translation - English 3.2 Pharmacokinetics Studies
A LCM/MS method was established to analyze the XXXX concentration in the specimens. This method was used to detect 6.86–5000 ng/mL XXXX in 50 μL plasma, and to examine the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of XXXX.
Pharmacokinetical studies in rats, mice and dogs showed that XXXX was relatively rapidly absorbed through gastrointestinal tract. The oral biological availability of XXXX varied in different species. The oral biological availability for rats was 40-54% (p.o. dose 30 mg/kg, i.v. dose 10 mg/kg), and 55-68% (p.o. dose 100 mg/kg, i.v. dose 30 mg/kg) for mice. The oral biological availability of XXXX in dogs differed with gender, at 44.1% (p.o. dose 10 mg/kg, i.v. dose 3 mg/kg) for male dogs and 4.40% (p.o. dose 10 mg/kg, i.v. dose 3 mg/kg) for female dogs.
The oral dose of XXXX positively correlated with the peak XXXX concentration (Cmax) in vivo (r[male]=0.999, r[female]=0.912) as well as the total exposure level (AUC) (r[male]=0.988, r[female]=0.977) of XXXX in male and female rats; The oral dose of XXXX positively correlated with the peak XXXX concentration (Cmax) in vivo (r[male]=0.962, r[female]=0.946) as well as the total exposure level (AUC) (r[male]=0.997, r[female]=0.998) of XXXX in male and female mice; The oral dose of XXXX positively correlated with the peak XXXX concentration (Cmax) in vivo (r[male]=0.988, r[female]=0.990) as well as the total exposure level (AUC) (r[male]=0.988, r[female]=0.991) of XXXX in male and female dogs. The peak XXXX concentration (Cmax) in most tissues was slightly lower than that in the plasma, and the time to peak in the tissues (around 20 min) was longer than that in plasma (5 min). The hepatic exposure of female rats (AUC[liver]=75.1 L/h/kg) was slightly higher than that of male rats (AUC[liver]=32.2 L/h/kg) following oral administration of XXXX (100 mg/kg). The concentration of XXXX was very high in the stomach and the intestine following oral administration of XXXX.
After intravenous (i.v.) administration, the apparent volumes of distribution at steady state (Vss) were 2.22-2.61 L/kg, 1.46-1.55 L/kg, and 0.90-4.22 L/kg for rats, mice, and dogs respectively; On the other hand, the systemic clearance rates (CL) were 2.34-4.11, 1.74-2.16, and 0.91-1.81 L/h/kg for rats, mice, and dogs respectively. The elimination half-times were 0.5-2.9 h in rats, mice and dogs following i.v. administration of XXXX.
The parent compound and its metabolites were detected using the LC/MS assay following gavage administration of 100 mg/kg XXXX. The results showed that: Following oral administration of XXXX, only limited amount of the parent compound was excreted from urine (0-72 h), feces (0-72 h) and bile (0-48h). The drug was primarily excreted as metabolites. Metabolites M, M2, M3, and M4 were detected in the specimens. Meanwhile XXXX was rarely excreted through feces. These metabolites appeared with the administration of XXXX and cleared with time. Conjectured from the chemical structures of these metabolites, the main metabolites of XXXX should include CYP-catalyzed hydroxylated metabolite M1 and its further oxylated (carboxylation) metabolite M2, and dimorphic enzyme (SULT and UGT)-catalyzed sulfo-esterification metabolite M3 and glucuronidized metabolite M4. No dimorphic (sulfo-esterification and glucuronidization) metabolite of M1 and M2 was found in the biological specimens above from rats.
Ultrafiltration technique was used to test the binding rate of XXXX to rat and dog plasma proteins. Results: The non-specific binding of XXXX to the ultrafilter used in this study was very weak (
Chinese to English: 病历－medical chart Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - Chinese Handwritten Chinese.
Translation - English PRIMARY COMPLAINT: Discomfort in bilateral hips and knees for 6 months.
HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: Started from September 2004, the patient felt pain in bilateral hips, which was aggravated when he was tired. The patient went to $$$$ Hospital for an X-Ray test, and no abnormity was discovered. Due to the gradual aggravation of the symptoms, he went to $$$$ Hospital for MRI test on 2/7/2005, and was diagnosed with bilateral femoral head necrosis. He was given oral pain-relieve medication (no detail on names and doses) for around half a year. No other treatment was implemented. The patient came to our hospital through referral on 8/8/2005. Following interrogation, he was admitted with bilateral femoral head necrosis. The patient was discharged on 8/18/2005 after his symptoms had alleviated. Between 12/21/2005 and 5/8/2006, the patient returned to our hospital three times for follow-up evaluations. During the past two weeks, the patient suffered pain in left hip which aggravated when he got tired, and was admitted today, for the 4th time, for further treatments from the outpatient department with bilateral femoral head necrosis and osteonecrosis of knees. Throughout the disease course there was no hectic fever or night sweat, nor formation of skin fistula. Presently there is discomfort in bilateral hips and knees, while the functions of which are normal. Sleeping, appetite, and excrements are normal.
PAST MEDICAL HISTORY: The patient has been suffering from asthma since he was 9 years old, and has been given intermittent treatments. He had been taking steroid medications until September 2005. Now his condition is stable. He denied any infectious disease history of hepatitis or TB.
TEMP(T): 36.0۫C PULSE(P): 64/min RESP(R): 18/min BP: 120/75 mmHg
CONSCIOUSNESS: clear COMPLEXION: healthy reddish
DEVELOPMENT: normal NUTRITION: average BODY BUILD: moderate
WALKING: lame SPEECH: fluent TONGUE: moderate
TONGUE CHARACTERISTICS: dark TONGUE COATING: thin
PULSE CONDITION: slow and damp
SKIN AND MUCOSA: No petechia or jaundice
SUPERFICIAL LYMPH NODES: No swelling
HEAD AND FACE: Skull is of normal size, no malformation. Pupils are of same size and roundness, and reflex to light exists.
NECK: Neck is flexible. Trachea lies in the middle. Thyroid gland is not swollen.
CHEST: Symmetric. No malformation. No abnormity of heart and lungs. Heart rate 64/min. No murmur heard from valves.
ABDOMEN: Flat, soft. Liver and spleen not palpable. Bowel sounds normal. No pain in kidney area upon pressure or percussion.
English to Chinese: Equipment manual- 设备说明书 Detailed field: Engineering: Industrial
Source text - English Preparatory treatment
The subsurface must be dry (wood moisture max. 14 %) and free from greasy impurities. Final smoothness 120 grain.
Fabrication Rollers: Typical rollers are supplied by companies such as Bürkle, Hymen, Superficci and Ceflar.
The rubber coating must be made from polyurethane with a shore hardness of 25. Resistant to alkali (light), acids (light) and various solvents such as aromatic free solvent naphtha, alcohols, plant based oils, etc. (see manufacturer’s instructions).
The wood is pre-warmed to 40 5 °C using IR lamps (pore opening).
Order quantity is to be calculated. Experimental value: depending on absorbency of the wood 20-30 g/m².
Please see the enclosed diagram of a rolling mill train for parquet flooring (oil treated).
The drying process is dependent upon the surrounding environment (20-23 °C, 55-65 % rel. air humidity). A nozzle dryer is ideal for the temperatures indicated here. The drying time for the above guidelines is 5-7 min. depending on the amount of oil applied.
The parquet flooring can then be stacked back to front side.
Wet clean with Floorservice parquet cleaner. (please follow care instructions!)
Should the surface show signs of wear, the floor should be thoroughly cleaned and then treated with Floorservice care oil. It is important that the surface is retreated before it has been worn down to the wood otherwise it will need to be sanded and built up again.
Usage 20-30 ml/m²,
Cleaning the tools
Before drying out, use commercially available white spirit.
Store in cool and dry conditions. Close container properly.
10 l / 30 l sheet metal container
Soak or dry cloths impregnated with Profiline hardwax oil on non-flammable surfaces (danger of spontaneous ignition!). Then dispose of with household waste. Natural products also do not belong in the hands of children.
Due to the natural raw materials that are used, a distinctly typical odour may occur!
Containers should be swept clean and then disposed of at a recycling centre. Dried-on product remnants can be disposed of with household waste.
Translation - Chinese 预备处理
Translation - English Receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE) treatment of serum samples
The objective is to eliminate non-specific hemagglutination inhibitors. Serum samples used for HI tests have to be treated with RDE first, because there are non-specific hemagglutination inhibitors in humane and animal serum. Non-specific hemagglutinators exist as free virus receptor-like sialic acid group and can bind to receptors on virus hemagglutinin, thus competing with binding of red blood cells to the virus and producing false positive results. The procedure is as following:
1. Mix 3 volume of RDE with 1 volume of serum (0.3ml RDE : 0.1ml serum).
2. Incubate at 37'C water bath overnight.
3. Heat-inactivate by incubating at 56'C for 30min.
4. Add 6 volumes of PBS or saline and mix-- thus dilute the serum 1:10 for use in the test. Or the serum can be treated at 4:1 ratio, and then serial dilute to 1:10 for use in the test.
II. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test protocol
1. Load 25µl/well PBS to wells in row B to row H of a 96-well-plate.
2. Add 50µl/well 1:10 diluted receptor-destroying enzyme treated standard serum to wells in row A.
3. Take 25µl/well of serum from row A and transfer to next row using multichannel pipette. Serial dilute by transfering 25µl to next row until row H. Discard the final 25µl from row H.
4. Add 4 HA unit of Ag for the testing virus in 25µl to each well. Mix well. Incubate at room temperature for 15-30 min.
5. Add 50µl red blood cells (0.5% chicken red blood cells or 0.75% guinea pig red blood cells).
6. Incubate at room temperature for 30-60min (30min for chicken red blood cells; 60min for guinea pig red blood cells), then read plate for results.
The reciprocal of highest serum dilution with which the hemagglutination is totally inhibited is the end point of the HI test. The dilution factor of that well is the titer of the HI test.
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Speak standard Mandarin. Read both simplified and traditional Chinese. Write simplified Chinese. Can input traditional Chinese characters too.
Medical science major
Educated in China and in United States. Extensive scientific writing experience in both Chinese and English.
Trained in medical science yet having an unsurpassed passion for languages and literature, I am proud to combine professional knowledge and language skills into high quality translations.
I specialize in general medicine, pharmaceutics, infectious disease, cardiology, virology, immunology, pathology, pediatrics, medical research, drug development and life science, et. al. My translations are precise and faithful to the source texts and versatile in style. They stand up to the scrutiny of medical experts in both languages I work with.
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