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Jiyoon Kim

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Portfolio Sample translations submitted: 1
Korean to English: Defense Industry Is the Lifeline...; Defense Industry’s Leading Role In...
Source text - Korean










Translation - English
Defense Industry Is the Lifeline
In the Construction of a Wealthy and Powerful State

Lee Young-Ae

Today our army and people flush with ambition and faith are robustly staging a maximum-effort march in the military-first revolution in order to build a wealthy and powerful socialist homeland and a strong and great nation on this land.

For our people to emerge as honorable victors in the construction of a wealthy and powerful socialist homeland and to prominently erect a powerful and great socialist state on this land we must advance clenching onto defense industry as the lifeline.

The Great Leader Comrade Kim Jong-Il has set forth the following.

“The military is national history of the highest priority and defense industry is the lifeline of the construction of a wealthy and powerful homeland.” (Kim Jong-Il Anthology, Volume 14, p. 457)

To say that the defense industry is the lifeline of the construction of a wealthy and powerful homeland is to say a wealthy and powerful homeland cannot be conceived divorced from defense industry reinforcement and growth. In other words, defense industry reinforcement and growth determines the success or failure and fate of the construction of a strong and powerful nation.

There are innumerable issues to be resolved in the struggle for the construction of a strong and powerful socialist nation. Among them undertaking reinforcement and growth in the defense industry as linked to the fate of the construction of a strong and powerful socialist nation emerges as an issue of life or death.

The foremost reason the defense industry emerges as lifeline of the construction of a strong and great nation is its furnishing a military guarantee of great victory at the front in the battle against imperialism.

Accomplishing victory at the front in the battle against imperialism is an issue of the highest priority in the construction of a wealthy and powerful homeland and an important issue linked to the fate of the construction of a strong and great nation.

In order to construct a strong and great nation, above all else, autonomy of the country and its people has to be protected and peace and safety has to be guaranteed. If autonomy of the country and its people are usurped by foreign forces and safety not guaranteed, a great socialist nation cannot be constructed heeding the requests and intentions of the people of one’s country and in line with independent ideas and the course.

The coalition of imperialist powers with America at the helm is maneuvering diverse tactics and means to dismantle our socialist system which is the stronghold of socialism.

In addition to intensifying its ideological and cultural offensive and the economic blockade it is imposing on us, America is leveling overt military maneuvers at us.

Induced by the merciless war maneuvers of the imperialists, our country constantly remains on alert with the possibility of war breaking out at any moment, and our anti-imperialist front confronting America has become the arena to determine whether we are able to uphold the fate of our model of socialism and the autonomy of the country and its people, and whether peace can be protected or not. The fate of our construction of a strong and great state ultimately hinges on whether we emerge victorious at the anti-imperialist front.

A firm military guarantee ensuring great victory at the anti-imperialist front is expressly furnished by the defense industry.

Today our revolutionary arms capability is built strong enough to destroy any aggressors on a single blow. Our People’s Army, by the great Party’s military-first rule, has developed into a powerful army of ideology and conviction possessing a clear ideological resolve and will, ready to sacrifice our lives for the revolutionary feat of our leader and the socialist feat of self-reliance and is solidly grounded on military technology.

Through the modern defense industry built on a foundation of a self-reliant national economy, our People’s Army is equipped with our type of powerful arms-technology equipment possessing offensive and defense capabilities compatible to our fundamental conditions and the constitution of our people.

But with American imperialists continuously intensifying armaments reinforcements hence spurring modern arms equipment development and under circumstances wherein they are threatening us with “technological superiority,” our military and people cannot be satisfied with the current defense industry results.

In order to deliver a merciless punishment at any time in dealing with the manic maneuvers of imperialists we must continuously imbue significant strength in the defense industry and incessantly reinforce it. In modern warfare, which is being transformed into battles of technology, stereoscopy and information, without cultivating a rapid reform in arms-equipment technology we are unable to retain our invincible and powerful military status and a firm victory in the anti-imperial front cannot be ensured.

Only by the undertaking of improvements and reinforcements in arms equipment standards in line with modern warfare via instilling significant strength in defense-industry development, along with elevating the political and ideological superiority of the People’s Army can we emerge victorious at the anti-imperialist front, and by protecting the peace and safety of our country can we robustly impel the construction of a strong and great nation. Herein lies the groundwork for the defense industry as lifeline of a wealthy and powerful homeland.

The defense industry becomes the lifeline of the construction of a strong and great nation because it in turn becomes a powerful driving force for furnishing a powerful national economic capacity.

An important issue surfacing in our people’s construction of a powerful and great socialist nation is building a strong national economic capacity befitting the prestige of a strong and great nation.

It can be stated that our country has already been clearly propelled to the status of a politically, ideologically and militarily powerful state. What is left now is the construction of a powerful national economic capacity ensuring a material and cultural life for the people no less content than that of others.

A powerful national economic capacity has to be constructed in order to materially and firmly ensure status as a politically, ideologically and militarily powerful state and to erect a wealthy and powerful, strong and great socialist state with all sectors of social life including politics, military, economy, and culture having reached the highest level.

The construction of a powerful national economic capacity will be vigorously driven by priority growth of the defense industry. Defense industry is the nucleus of heavy industry, and heavy industry is the solid foundation of general industrial growth. If various mechanical facilities and methods are produced and guaranteed by heavy industry development, major industries such as light and agricultural industries will be erected and the nation’s general economic capability will be further reinforced.

Defense and heavy industries are intricately linked unable to be severed from each other.

In the perspective of material-technological traits, defense and heavy industries share common denominators.

Consequently heavy industry is alternatively referred to as defense industry and vice versa, and accordingly growth in defense industry will essentially prompt growth in heavy industry.

If defense industry develops, this sector’s state-of-the-art science-technology will spread to various sectors of the people’s economy including heavy industries, and demand for heavy-industry products will rapidly rise which in turn will trigger heavy industry growth.

Growth of heavy industry, which occupies a leading status in national economic capacity, and the growth of other industries in the people’s economy on that basis lays a solid foundation for national economic capacity.

The defense industry can be said to be the essence of modern industry where state-of-the-art results of not only the heavy industry but also various other industries are concentrated.

Accordingly priority growth of the defense industry furnishes a solid science-technology potential based on the latest results firmly ensuring a leap of growth in sectors of the people’s economy.

This indicates that the defense industry is a powerful driving force in economic development.

Today in our country, by developing the defense industry with priority as suggested by the Party, upholding the military-first age economic course of simultaneously developing heavy and light industries, and instilling priority strength in reinforcement and development of the defense industry we are able to shape our revolutionary military powers into an invincibly powerful military and robustly driving the construction of a strong and great state.

The arms-equipment standards of the People’s Army being incessantly improved and reinforced with a powerful defense-industry basis, and national fortification and universal armament vigorously being spurred, our country is eminently and widely regarded as a nation of invincible military power no powerful imperialist state dare target, and a powerful foundation is being forged with state-of-the-art science-technology potential and experience induced by the defense industry’s priority growth providing solid resources and potential in building a powerful foundation for national economic capacity.

Our people are able to vigorously stage a revolutionary maximum-effort march unfazed by the aggressive maneuvers of American imperialists due to our Party’s clenching onto the defense industry as lifeline of the construction of a wealthy and powerful nation imbuing priority strength in defense industry development.

As long as imperialism remains on earth we take a firmer grasp of our rifles and everyone alike will partake in the reinforcement and growth of the defense industry erecting a strong and great socialist state on this land at all cost.


Defense Industry’s Leading Role
In Economic Growth of the Military-First Age

Lee Ki-Sung, Professor, Ph.D.

Today in our country keeping thoroughly in line with the economic construction trajectory of the military-first age as suggested by the Party, a military-first revolution maximum-effort march poised to take the leap of a generation in the construction of a powerful and great socialist state is robustly under way.
In the military-first age a new change is taking shape in the reciprocal relations among economic sectors and in the roles assumed by individual sectors in general economic growth. The roles assumed by individual sectors in general economic growth in the military-first age is prescribed by how they participate in and contribute to the material-economic conditions for realizing the requirements of the military-first age.
The Great Comrade Kim Jong-Il has scientifically established economic growth in the socialism of the military-first age and elucidated that in the military-first age, the defense industry will assume a leading role in general economic growth as well.
The Great Leader Comrade Kim Jong-Il has set forth the following.
“Our defense industry must take the initiative and assume an exemplary role in manufacturing, science-technology development, and in all other fronts. That way, the defense industry can lead general development of the people’s economy and become a robust driving force.”
The economic sector which plays a leading role in socialist economic growth in a military-first age is the defense industry.
The defense industry assuming a leading role in socialist economy growth in a military-first age can be defined as the defense industry taking the lead in and robustly driving general development of the people’s economy.
The issue of defense industry’s leading role was originally revealed grounded on new perspectives and opinions vis-à-vis the reciprocal relationship between production of goods for military and non-military use.
An important issue which emerges across-the-board in relations among economic sectors in the military-first age is bestowing priority to and instilling maximum strength in economic-sector development for meeting material requirements for reinforcement of military capacity. In the previous era problems arising among economic sectors were primarily deemed as problems arising between the means-of-production sector and the consumer-goods sector, i.e., suggested as problems related to heavy, light and agricultural industries and acknowledging heavy industry as the economic foundation of the country hence bestowing priority to large-industry development. And with defense industry seen as ensuring manufacturing goods for military use driven by mechanical equipment, resources, and raw materials in multiple economic sectors, only the aspect of reliance on economic sectors was underscored without providing any explanation for the defense industry’s positive effects on or the definition of its role in the general development of the people’s economy.
The status and role assumed by the defense industry in the general growth of the people’s economy is completely transformed in the military-first age. Fundamental gains reaped from the revolution protecting autonomy of the country and the people and socialism in the intense confrontation with imperialism will emerge on all fronts as the nation’s greatest gain and reinforcement and development of the defense industry providing the material-economic conditions for realizing the requirements of the military-first age will emerge as the primary strategic task in the construction of the socialist economy.
The defense industry is an economic sector which directly furnishes material-economic conditions for materializing the military-emphasis and military-priority principles of the military-first age. Of course heavy, light and agricultural industries materially contribute to realizing the requirements of the military-first age, but not as an economic sector which directly ensures production of basic components of military power such as weaponry and mechanical equipment in warfare technology. The economic sector which should be set forth as priority in realizing the requirements of the military-first age is the defense-industry sector.
As a principle, the economic sector imbued with priority strength and having undergone priority growth will assume the leading role in developing the general people’s economy. In the military-first age, unlike in previous eras, it is scientifically sound to view the economic foundation of the country with the defense industry perched at the helm. The defense industry is the kernel of the general people’s economy and the priority development of the defense industry will serve as the foundation in the construction of the socialist economy in the military-first age. The leading role of the defense industry in the construction of the socialist economy in the military-first age is inevitably prescribed by the status of the defense industry having assumed a priority role in the socialist economy.
The theory of construction of the socialist economy embodying the military-first ideology of the rule of self-reliance scientifically elucidates defense industry’s leading role in the general development of the people’s economy.
The defense industry’s leading role in the growth in the socialist economy comprises wide-ranging content encompassing production and management, science-technology and all aspects of economic growth.
The most important element of defense industry’s leading role is spreading state-of-the-art technology to multiple sectors of the people’s economy.
The high-level development in science-technology and the integration of science-technology and manufacturing is an important attribute of modern economy. However, the rate and extent of growth in science-technology, and the extent of the close adhesion between science-technology and production harbor a constant trait depending on the economic sector. In the modern era those economic sectors equipped with state-of-the-art facilities and technology will assume the leading role in general economic growth.
The defense industry, in order to manufacture detailed and highly efficient military goods, requires a science-technology surpassing that of other economic sectors. By relying on a superior science-technology acumen to fulfill the duty to contribute to military reinforcement via ensuring production of modern arms equipment, state-of-the-art science-technology, including information technology, is developed with priority and the general manufacture process is incessantly equipped with state-of-the-art facility and technology. This is an important economic-technological superiority compared to other economic sectors. In many cases the growth in modern production ability can be seen as resting on a dual axis: development and modernization of state-of-the-art science-technology and production of goods for military use leading the spread of information.
The rate of creation of state-of-the-art science-technology including information technology and renewal of technology equipment of the military goods manufacturing sector is incomparably faster than those of other social manufacturing sectors. The results of state-of-the-art science-technology developed in the defense industry has the potential of being widely accepted in other industries. The defense industry, by spreading technologically revolutionary proposals and technologically advanced products developed with modern mechanical facilities, manufacturing technology processes, and new high-quality content grounded on defense science and military-goods manufacturing of general civil-economic sectors modifies the science-technology foundation of the entire people’s economy to meet the requirements of the information-industry age and spurs modernization and the information revolution, and performs a critical role in the building of a powerful national economic capacity.
Another critical element in the leading role of the defense industry is presenting the rapidly increasing demand of manufactured goods as a result of defense industry growth and prompting growths in general economic sectors.
Manufacturing progressing and adapting in line with demand is a regular requirement and trend of economic growth. In a socialist society social demand formation and growth in corresponding social manufacturing occurs harmoniously according to plan and in the military-first age this legitimate process progresses with priority growth of the defense industry as its basis.
Development in other sectors of the economy, especially growth in heavy industry, serves as the basis and premise for priority growth of the defense industry in the military-first age. However the basic element and fundamental direction of regulations imposed on the development of general economic sectors is the production demand suggested by the defense industry undergoing priority growth. The requirement for basic arms equipment, which is the basic element of military power, prescribes the production and development direction, quantitative and qualitative standards, and volume of goods produced in initial and mid-production. A fast-improving defense industry incessantly suggests demand for high-volume, high-quality and assorted manufactured goods. Particularly the speedy growth of the defense industry actively impels growth in heavy industries by suggesting substantial demand arising from the attendant state-of-the-art mechanical facilities, raw materials, resources and power.
People’s economy sectors including heavy industries, while providing material conditions to meet the estimated demand suggested by priority growth in the defense industry, will accomplish a rapid growth in social manufacturing in the direction of satisfying the desperate demand for military goods with which it is periodically confronted and in the direction of uniting with priority all content and structure of the demand for military goods.
Another critical element in the leading role of the defense industry is that in corporate management as well factories producing military goods assume an exemplary role in general economic management.
In socialist economic management in the military-first age producing real gains for the country and the people by implementing the most practical and cost-effective corporate management while firmly adhering to socialist principles in line with requirements of the construction of a powerful and great socialist nation is set forth as a fundamental principle.
In the defense-industry sector, emerging as the lifeline of the construction of a wealthy and powerful state, the requirement for guarantee of actual profit in the corporate management of military goods plants is actualized in the highest standard.
In the corporate management of military goods plants political activities grounded in revolutionary militant philosophy are waged commensurate with the labor rank particular to military goods plants not unlike that of the military, and as such the laborers in this sector harbor the lofty self-awareness that they are the owners of manufacturing and management and reach maximum production results in quality, quantity and all fronts by aggressively unleashing their creativity.
And in corporate management of military goods manufacturing plants based on ironlike rules akin to those in the military effort management, facility management, technology management, raw materials management, finance management and all related economic organization business is strictly regulated and normalized to realize the most practical and cost-effective use of effort, facility, raw materials and funds.
Also, in line with special attributes of modern military-goods production, which adheres to science-technology and manufacturing more so than any other sector, strict regulations should be imposed for manufacturing in order to thoroughly address science-technology demands and also to spearhead the transformation of management activities such as statistics into a science and elevate its standards.
Furthermore, the leading role of the defense industry is exhibited in its role as the most substantial exemplary economic sector in guaranteeing the high quality of products in line with the demands of the times by actively spurring development in other economic sectors.
The socialist economy of our country is actually equipped with the material-economic conditions required for the defense industry to assume the leading role in general growth of the people’s economy.
The leading role of the defense industry will not only bring the requirement of the times to maturation, but will have as a premise its own high development standards with the potential for leading general economic sectors.
In realizing the Great Commander and Revered General’s military-emphasis ideology an autonomous and modern defense industry has already been established in our country, and in the new century it has entered an advanced development stage in line with conditions of the construction of a powerful and great socialist state in the military-first age.
When he resolved the anti-Japanese arms struggle autonomously, the Great Commander hoisted the Daehan flag and initiated an autonomous defense industry. Under the sound post-liberation leadership the Great Commander, we autonomously built the first arms industry of a new Chosun on empty land and made automatic rifles, and at the time of the war for national liberation the autonomous arms industry underwent further expansion. With the advent of the 1960’s a robust struggle was waged in order to modernize the arms equipment of the People’s Army with autonomous power and technology, and by thoroughly realizing the Party’s revolutionary trajectory for undergoing military progress, particularly in economic construction and defense construction, a fundamental advancement in shaping an autonomous and modern defense industry was accomplished. In the 1970’s with reliance on a strong defense industry foundation equipped with an autonomous system the domestic production of arms equipment was realized and the defense industry continued to incessantly improve into one firmly guaranteeing the principle of autonomous defense in technical or structural means via manufacturing and protection of modern high-level weaponry and warfare technology materials. Thus, our autonomous defense industry has come to occupy the most important position in our model of socialist economic structure.
Waging a battle to protect socialism in the wake of intense confrontation with the imperialist coalition powers in dealing with the rigorous conditions of the 1990’s, the Revered Comrade Kim Jong-Il set forth the defense industry as the lifeline of constructing a wealthy and powerful state and imbued it with priority power and further developed it. Particularly with reliance on our model of special economic structure and solid foundation of an autonomous defense industry, and in line with the military-first age defense-industry growth was afforded priority hence establishing an economic construction trajectory for simultaneous growth in light and agricultural industries by way of which he set forth the leading role of the defense industry as an issue on all aspects of general economic growth. The foundation of our country’s socialist economy, seen in light of historical growth or material-economic basis, is in fact the defense industry, and this is the fundamental condition in guaranteeing the leading role of the defense industry in general economic growth.
Our defense industry, having accomplished a military suppression capability able to oppress and pulverize any aggression by America, has entered a new advanced stage in its development into a powerful defense industry of the 21st Century.
By continuing to imbue defense-industry growth with strength of the highest priority transforming the defense industry into a prototype in all aspects of manufacturing, management and science-technology, and by heightening its leading role, only then will we be able to firmly ensure the Party’s Military-First policy and vigorously spur the country’s general economic growth furnishing an even more solid foundation for the construction of a wealthy and powerful nation and a material-economic basis for enhancement in the lives of the people.

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