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Chris Hughes
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Nov 18, 2020 (posted via ProZ.com):  Translating a number of Basque rating scales and patient questionnaires in support of several clinical trials ...more, + 46 other entries »
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Romanian to English: EU Energy Efficiency Action Plan (Romania)
Source text - Romanian
CAPITOLUL I
SINTEZA PLANULUI NAŢIONAL DE ACŢIUNE ÎN DOMENIUL EFICIENŢEI ENERGETICE

Sectorul energetic naţional trebuie să facă faţă principalelor provocări ce se manifestă la nivel intern şi global: securitatea alimentării cu energie, creşterea competitivităţii economice şi reducerea impactului asupra mediului. Aceste provocări sunt deosebit de importante, în condiţiile în care România trebuie să recupereze decalajul de performanţă economică faţă de ţările dezvoltate ale UE.
O contribuţie majoră la realizarea acestor obiective o are creşterea eficienţei energetice, unul dintre elementele prioritare ale politicii energetice româneşti.
În acest context, România a creat un cadru legislativ şi instituţional adecvat pentru promovarea eficienţei energetice aliniat la acquis-ul comunitar.

Cadrul legislativ
Principalele acte normative în domeniu sunt:
• Legea nr. 199/2000 privind utilizarea eficientă a energiei, modificată şi completată prin Legea 56/2006, al cărei scop este crearea cadrului legal necesar pentru elaborarea şi aplicarea unei politici naţionale de utilizare eficientă a energiei.
• Legea nr. 3/2001 pentru ratificarea Protocolului de la Kyoto la Convenţia-Cadru a Naţiunilor Unite asupra Schimbărilor Climatice. Potrivit Protocolului de la Kyoto, România are obligaţia de a reduce cu 8% emisiile de gaze cu efect de seră faţă de nivelul anului 1989, în perioada 2008-2012.
• OUG nr. 174/2002 privind instituirea unor măsuri speciale pentru reabilitarea termică a clădirilor de locuit multietajate, aprobată prin Legea nr. 211/2003.
• HG nr. 163/2004 privind aprobarea “Strategiei Naţionale privind Eficienţa Energetică” al cărei scop principal este identificarea posibilităţilor şi mijloacelor de creştere a eficienţei energetice pe întreg lanţul energetic, prin implementarea de programe adecvate.
• HG nr. 1535/2003 privind “Strategia de Valorificare a Surselor Regenerabile de Energie” şi HG nr. 443/10.04.2003 privind promovarea producţiei de energie electrică din surse regenerabile de energie amendată de HG nr. 958/2005 (care transpune Directiva 2001/77/CE), şi care asigură cadrul legal pentru promovarea surselor regenerabile de energie, cu efecte directe asupra reducerii consumului de energie finală.
Legislaţia anterior menţionată este completată cu legislaţia naţională care a preluat integral acquis-ul privind eficienţa energetică, în termenele prevazute de acesta.

Cadrul instituţional
Cadrul instituţional aferent promovării măsurilor de utilizare eficientă a energiei a fost creat prin înfiinţarea în 1990 a Agenţiei Române pentru Conservarea Energiei (ARCE), organism ale cărui responsabilităţi au fost întărite în 2000 prin adoptarea Legii 199/2000 privind utilizarea eficientă a energiei, modificată şi completată prin Legea 56/2006. Legea prevede că Agenţia Română pentru Conservarea Energiei este autoritatea specializată la nivel naţional în domeniul eficienţei energetice, cu personalitate juridică şi funcţionare în subordinea Ministerului Economiei şi Finanţelor.
Alte instituţii/ministere cu atribuţii în domeniul eficienţei energetice sunt:
- Ministerul Economiei şi Finanţelor (MEF) aplică politica Guvernului în sectorul energetic, inclusiv în domeniul eficienţei energetice şi resurselor regenerabile,
- Ministerul Dezvoltării, Lucrărilor Publice şi Locuinţelor (MDLPL), pentru locuinţe,
- Ministerul Mediului şi Dezvoltării Durabile (MMDD),
- Ministerul Internelor şi Reformei Administrative (MIRA), pentru administraţia locală,
- Ministerul Transporturilor (MT), pentru sectorul transporturilor.
De asemenea, în anul 2003 s-a înfiinţat Observatorul Energetic National (OEN), care realizează banca de date şi determină principalii indicatori de eficienţă energetică pentru România.
Din acelasi an, 2003, a început să opereze Fondul Român pentru Eficienţa Energiei (FREE) care finanţează, în condiţii comerciale, companiile din sectorul industral şi alţi consumatori de energie pentru a le facilita finanţarea proiectelor de utilizare eficientă a energiei.

Ţinta naţională de economisire a energiei
Directiva nr. 2006/32/CE privind eficienţa energetică la utilizatorii finali şi serviciile energetice, care va fi preluată în legislaţia naţională în anul 2008, prevede, în conformitate cu prevederile art. 14(2), că statele membre UE se angajează să realizeze reducerea consumului de energie finală cu cel putin 9% într-o perioadă de nouă ani (2008-2016) comparativ cu media consumului din ultimii cinci ani pentru care există date disponibile (2001-2005).
Ţinta intermediară stabilită pentru România pentru anul 2010 este de 940 mii tep, ceea ce corespunde unui procent de 4,5 % din media anilor 2001-2005.
La stabilirea ţintei s-a avut în vedere potenţialul de economii de energie din România, pe sectoarele economiei din sfera de acţiune a Directivei nr. 2006/32/CE respectiv industrie, alte ramuri decât cele incluse în Planul National de Alocare, rezidenţial, terţiar şi transporturi.

Potenţialul economic (eficient din punct de vedere al costurilor) de economii de energie, în anul 2001 a fost:
Sector Potenţialul mediu de economii de energie, estimat ca procent din consum Valori maximale pentru potenţialul de economii de energie
[ % ] [ ktep/an ]
Industrie 13.0 1590
Rezidenţial 41.5 3600
Transport şi comunicaţii 31.5 1390
Sector Terţiar (servicii) 14.0 243
TOTAL 100 6823
Sursa: Strategia Naţională în domeniul Eficienţei Energetice

Prin Planul Sectorial în domeniul Cercetării-Dezvoltarii din Industrie este în curs de elaborare un studiu care are drept scop actualizarea potenţialului de economii de energie în industrie, transporturi, rezidenţial, agricultură, terţiar (servicii), cogenerare.
Reducerea consumului de energie finală contrabalansează tendinţele de creştere a consumului de resurse primare şi a consumului final de energie în economia românească, consumul naţional de energie electrică fiind, în aceste condiţii, prognozat să crească constant cu 3% pe an, până în 2020.

Măsurile de îmbunătăţire a eficienţei energetice incluse în primul Plan Naţional de Acţiune în domeniul Eficienţei Energetice
Măsurile de îmbunătăţire a eficienţei energetice incluse în primul Plan Naţional de Acţiune în domeniul Eficienţei Energetice (PNAEE) se înscriu în următoarele categorii:
• Reglementări
• Informare şi măsuri legislative (Campanii de informare, Audit Energetic)
• Acorduri voluntare şi instrumente de cooperare (Companii industriale, Acorduri pe Termen Lung)
• Servicii energetice pentru economii de energie (Finanţare cu a treia parte, Contracte de performanţă energetică)
• Instrumente financiare (Subvenţii, Scutirea de taxe la eliberarea autorizaţiei de construire pentru efectuarea lucrărilor de reabilitare termică, Cofinanţarea lucrărilor)
• Mecanisme de eficienţă energetică şi alte combinaţii între celelalte sub-categorii (Fonduri de eficienţă energetică)
De asemenea, PNAEE cuprinde măsuri orizontale şi transectoriale, respectiv reglementări (transpunerea în legislaţia naţională a prevederilor Directivei 2006/32/CE şi a Directivei 2005/32/CE), campanii de informare, scheme de finanţare preconizate a se derula în parteneriat cu Banca Europeană de Reconstrucţie şi Dezvoltare.

Pentru aplicarea măsurilor, sunt necesare, printre altele, schimbări de mentalităţi şi comportament, context în care în PNAEE una din măsurile importante în toate sectoarele sunt campaniile de informare.
Pentru sectorul industrial, un sector cu un important potenţial de economisire, în cadrul unui studiu SAVE („Scheme şi măsuri pentru implementarea în România a unor Acorduri pe Termen Lung specifice pentru industrie”), desfăşurat în 2000-2001, au fost identificate acordurile voluntare ca unul dintre cele mai eficiente instrumente pentru a obţine angajarea industriei în creşterea eficienţei energetice.
Un impact important se poate obţine, de asemenea, prin activităţi de management energetic, însoţite de investiţii în echipamente de măsură şi control privind consumul de energie.
Pentru sectorul transporturilor măsurile de economisire a energiei se referă la promovarea utilizării biocarburanţilor, dar şi la modernizări ale trenurilor de călatori şi de marfă şi a metroului.
În sistemul rezidenţial, programul de reabilitare termică a clădirilor multi-etajate va continua şi va crea economii de energie şi reducerea costurilor către populaţie. De asemenea, se va emite certificatul de performanţă energetică pentru clădirile nou construite începând din anul 2007, precum şi, începând din anul 2010, certificatul de performanţă energetică pentru locuinţele unifamiliale şi apartamentele din blocurile de locuinţe existente care sunt vândute sau închiriate.
Odată cu creşterea eficienţei energetice şi reducerii pierderilor în clădiri, se va urmări promovarea utilizării surselor regenerabile locale pentru producerea energiei electrice şi termice la consumatorii finali printr-o iniţiativă legislativă care să stimuleze programe de investiţii destinate creşterii eficienţei energetice utilizând surse regenerabile.
Importante economii de energie se vor obţine şi prin activităţile societăţilor de servicii energetice de tip ESCO, context în care în PNAEE se prevede elaborarea legislaţiei necesare pentru dezvoltarea ESCO în România.
În vederea îmbunătăţirii iluminatului public, la nivel regional, se vor derula acţiuni ce constau în înlocuirea aparatelor de iluminat vechi cu altele noi, eficiente din punct de vedere energetic, înlocuirea echipamentelor neperformante, introducerea dipozitivelor de reducere a fluxului luminos pe arterele principale în perioadele cu trafic redus.
Până în prezent, facilităţile financiare şi fiscale pentru susţinerea proiectelor de eficienţă au fost aplicate numai pentru promovarea biocarburanţilor, resurselor regenerabile utilizate pentru producerea de energie electrică şi auditurile clădirilor, urmând ca în perioada acoperită de PNAEE să se extindă pentru susţinerea înlocuirii aparatelor frigorifice, maşinilor de spălat şi aparatelor de climatizare pentru consumatorii casnici, cofinanţarea realizării bilanţurilor energetice pentru operatorii din sectorul industrial, finanţarea programelor destinate creşterii eficienţei energetice în sectorul industrial, promovarea programelor de investiţii destinate utilizării surselor regenerabile de energie pentru producerea energiei electrice şi termice, în vederea creşterii eficienţei energetice.
În calitate de stat membru al UE, România va beneficia şi de cofinanţare prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial de Creşterea Competitivităţii Economice, care prin axele sale va stimula şi creşterea eficienţei energetice. Astfel, Axa 4 se referă în mod expres la creşterea eficienţei energetice şi siguranţa furnizării, în contextul combaterii schimbărilor climatice.
De asemenea, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial de Creşterea Competitivităţii Economice, Axa 1 (axa IMM-urilor) firmele vor putea obţine finanţare de până la 65% pe o perioada de 3 ani pentru obţinerea etichetei ecologice pentru aparatură electrocasnică şi de birou.


Abrevieri

MEF – Ministerul Economiei şi Finanţelor
MMGA – Ministerul Mediului şi Dezvoltării Durabile
MDLPL – Ministerul Dezvoltării, Lucrărilor Publice şi Locuinţei
MIRA - Ministerul Internelor şi Reformei Administrative
MT - Ministerul Transporturilor
ARCE - Agenţia Română pentru Conservarea Energiei
PNAEE – Planul Naţional de Acţiune în domeniul Eficienţei Energetice
EE – Eficienţă Energetică
FREE - Fondul Român de Eficienţă Energetică
OEN - Observatorul Energetic National
Translation - English
CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW OF THE NATIONAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN

The national energy sector must face up to the principal challenges manifesting themselves at the internal and global level: the security of the energy supply, increased economic competitiveness and the reduction of the impact on the environment. These challenges are extremely important, in circumstances in which Romania must catch up in terms of economic performance with the developed Member States of the EU.
A key contribution to the meeting of these targets is increased energy efficiency, one of the priority areas of Romanian energy policy.
In this context, Romania has set up a legislative and institutional framework geared towards the promotion of energy efficiency in line with Community acquis.

The legislative framework

The principal legislative acts in this field are:

• Law nr. 199/2000 regarding the efficient use of energy, modified and extended in Law 56/2006, the aim of which is the establishment of the legal framework required to draw up and apply a national policy on efficient use of energy.
• Law nr. 3/2001, which ratifies the Kyoto Protocol on the United Nations Framework-Convention on Climate Change. According to the Kyoto Protocol, Romania is obliged to reduce her greenhouse gas emissions by 8% on the level in 1989, in the period 2008-2012.
• OUG nr. 174/2002 regarding the implementation of special measures for the thermal remodelling of multi-storey residential buildings, ratified in Law nr. 211/2003.
• HG nr. 163/2004 regarding the ratification of “The National Energy Efficiency Strategy”, the main objective of which is to identify options and resources for increasing energy efficiency across the entire energy network, through the implementation of targeted programmes.
• HG nr. 1535/2003 regarding “The Assessment of Renewable Sources of Energy Strategy” and HG nr. 443/10.04.2003 regarding the promotion of the production of electricity from renewable energy sources amended by HG nr. 958/2005 (which transposes Directive 2001/77/CE), and which provides the legal framework for the promotion of renewable energy sources, with direct effects on final energy consumption.
The aforementioned legislation is complemented by national legislation which has fully embraced the acquis regarding energy efficiency, in the terms that this stipulates.

The institutional framework

The institutional framework applying to the promotion of efficient use of energy measures was established through the foundation in 1990 of the Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation (ARCE), a body whose responsibilities were reinforced in 2000 through the adoption of Law 199/2000 regarding efficient use of energy, modified and extended in Law 56/2006. The law stipulates that the Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation is the specialised authority at national level in the field of energy efficiency, staffed by legal experts and civil servants subordinated to the Ministry of Economy and Finance.
Other institutions/ministries with roles in the energy efficiency field are:
-The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) applies the policy of the Government in the energy sector, including in the field of energy efficiency and renewable sources,
- The Ministry of Development, Public Works and Housing (MDLPL), for housing,
- The Ministry of the Environment and Lasting Development (MMDD),
- The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administrative Reform (MIRA), for local administration,
- The Ministry of Transport (MT), for the transport sector.

In addition, in the year 2003 the National Energy Watchdog (OEN) was established to carry out data capture and to determine the main energy efficiency indicators for Romania.
In this same year, 2003, the Romanian Fund for Energy Efficiency (FREE) began operating, financing, in commercial conditions, industrial sector companies and other energy consumers in order to enable them to finance efficient use of energy projects.

The national energy saving target

Directive nr. 2006/32/CE regarding the energy efficiency of end users and energy services, which will be adopted in national legislation in 2008, stipulates, in keeping with the provisions of art. 14(2), that EU member states commit to achieving a reduction in final energy consumption of at least 9% in a nine-year period (2008-2016) compared with the average consumption of the last five years for which available data exists (2001-2005).

The mid-term target set for Romania for the year 2010 is 940 thousand tep , which corresponds to a rate of 4.5% of the average over the years 2001-2005.
The potential for energy savings in Romania was taken into account in the setting of the target, specifically in terms of the sectors of the economy included in the remit of Directive nr. 2006/32/CE covering branches of industry not included in the National Allocation Plan, these being residential, tertiary and transport.

The economic potential (efficient from the costs perspective) of energy savings, in the year 2001 was:
Sector The mean potential of energy savings, estimated as a percentage of consumption
[%] Maximum values for the potential of energy savings


[ ktep/year]
Industry 13.0 1590
Residential 41.5 3600
Transport and communications 31.5 1390
Tertiary Sector (services) 14.0 243
TOTAL 100 6823
Source: The National Strategy in the field of Energy Efficiency
Through the Sectoral Plan in the Industry's Research and Development field, a study is underway, which aims to update the potential of energy savings in the transport, residential, agricultural, tertiary (services) and cogeneration industries.
The reduction of final energy consumption counterbalances the upward trends in the consumption of primary resources and final energy consumption in the Romanian economy, with national electricity consumption, under these conditions, being forecast to grow constantly by 3% per year up to 2020.

Measures aimed at improving energy efficiency included in the first National Energy Efficiency Action Plan

Measures aimed at improving energy efficiency included in the first National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (PNAEE) come into the following categories:

• Regulation
• Information and legislative measures (Information campaigns, Energy Audit)
• Voluntary agreements and tools for co-operation (Industrial companies, Long-Term Agreements)
• Energy services for energy savings (Third-party financing, Energy performance contracts)
• Financial incentives (Subsidies, Tax exemption on issuing authorisation to build for carrying out thermal remodelling projects, Joint financing of works)
• Energy efficiency mechanisms and other combinations of the other sub-categories (Energy efficiency funds)
In addition, the PNAEE includes horizontal and trans-sector measures, such as regulation (the transposition in national legislation of the provisions of Directive 2006/32/CE and of Directive 2005/32/CE), information campaigns, finance schemes intended to run in partnership with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In order to apply these measures, it is necessary, amongst other things, to change mentalities and behaviour, in which context one of the key measures in the PNAEE in all sectors is that of information campaigns.
For the industrial sector, a sector with significant potential for savings, in the framework of a SAVE study (“Schemes and measures for the implementation in Romania of specific Long-Term Agreements for industry”), carried out in 2000-2001, voluntary agreements were identified as one of the most efficient tools for obtaining industry commitment to increasing energy efficiency.
An important impact can also be achieved through energy management activities, accompanied by investment in measurement and control equipment relating to energy consumption.
For the transport sector energy-saving measures refer to the promotion of the use of bio-fuels, but also to the modernisation of passenger and goods trains and of underground trains.
In the residential sector, the programme of thermal remodelling of multi-storey buildings will continue and will create energy savings and the reduction of costs for the population. In addition, an energy performance certificate will be issued for newly-built buildings starting in the year 2007, as well as, starting in the year 2010, an energy performance certificate for one-family residences and apartments in existing apartment blocks which are sold or rented out.
Following in tandem with increasing energy efficiency and the reduction of energy loss in buildings, will be the promotion of the use of local renewable sources for the production of electricity and thermal energy for end consumers by means of a legislative initiative which should stimulate investment programmes aimed at increasing energy efficiency using renewable sources.
Significant energy savings will also be made through the activities of energy services societies such as ESCO, and in this context the PNAEE provides for the working-up of the legislation needed to develop ESCO in Romania.
With a view to improving public awareness, at the regional level, there will be a roll-out of action plans incorporating the replacement of old methods of public awareness- raising with other new, energy-efficient ones, the replacement of non-performing equipment, the introduction of devices to reduce light pollution on the main arterial routes in periods of reduced traffic.
Up until now, financial and fiscal facilities for sustaining efficiency projects have been applied only to the promotion of bio-fuels, renewable resources used for the production of electricity and audits of buildings, but in the period covered by the PNAEE these will now go on to cover sustaining the replacement of refrigerators, washing machines and air-conditioning equipment for domestic consumers, joint financing of the practice of energy balancing for operators in the industrial sector, the promotion of investment programmes aimed at the use of renewable energy sources for the production of electricity and thermal energy, with a view to increasing energy efficiency.
In her capacity as a member state of the EU, Romania will also benefit from joint financing through the Sectoral Operational Programme – Increase of Economic Competitiveness, which, through its axes, will also stimulate increased energy efficiency. Thus, Axis 4 expressly refers to increased energy efficiency and guarantee of supply, in the context of combating climate change.
In addition, through the Sectoral Operational Programme – Increase of Economic Competitiveness, Axis 1 (the axis of IMMs), firms will be able to obtain financing of up to 65% over a period of 3 years in order to obtain the ecological ticket for domestic and office electrical appliances.

Abbreviations

MEF – the Ministry of Economy and Finance
MMGA – the Ministry of the Environment and Lasting Development
MDLPL – the Ministry of Development, Public Works and Housing
MIRA – the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administrative Reform
MT – the Ministry of Transport
ARCE – The Romanian Agency for Energy Conservation
PNAEE – the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan
EE – Energy Efficiency
FREE – the Romanian Energy Efficiency Fund
OEN – the National Energy Watchdog

Albanian to English: Overview of the property restitution and compensation process in Albania
Source text - Albanian
VESHTRIM KRONOLOGJIK MBI PROCESIN E KTHIMIT DHE KOMPENSIMIT TE PRONAVE NE SHQIPERI

1. Procesi i kthimit dhe kompensimit tё pronave i ka fillimet e veta menjehere pas renies se rregjimit komunist ne Shqiperi me vendosjen e regjimit pluralist qe i dha jete njohjes se te drejtes se prones dhe iniciatives se lire private. Shteti shqiptar mori përsipër detyrimin per njohjen, kthimin apo kompensimin e pronave ndaj të gjithë subjekteve të shpronësuar gjatë regjimit të mëparshëm.

2. Fillimisht, procesi eshte iniciuar mbi bazen e Ligjit nr.7698/1993 qe përbën perpjekjen e parë për t’i dhënë zgjidhje çështjes së pronave[1] te shtetëzuara, të shpronësuara apo të konfiskuara sipas akteve ligjore, nënligjore e vendimeve të gjykatës të dala pas datës 29 nëntor 1944, të cilat ishin marrё pa të drejtë nga shteti. Sipas këtij ligji funksiononte Komisioni i Kthimit dhe Kompensimit të Pronave në bashki dhe në rrethe (respektivisht për zonat urbane dhe për zonat jashtë vijave kufizuese urbane), të cilat njihnin, kthenin apo kompensonin ish pronarët. Komisionet drejtoheshin nga Komiteti Shtetëror i Kthimit dhe Kompensimt të Pronave, i cili funksiononte si organ monokratik që drejtohej nga Kryetari, pa kompetenca rishikimi ndaj vendimeve të nivelit administrativ vendor. Vendimet e Komisionit ishin subjekt rishikimi vetem nga gjykatat vendase brenda afatit ligjor. Keto vendime jane konsideruar tituj ekzekutive per sa kohe percaktonin perveç njohjen e prones, formen dhe masen e kthimit apo kompensimit te saj.

3. Pas ratifikimit te Konventes Evropiane per te drejtat e njeriut nga shteti shqiptar ne vitin 1996, si dhe miratimit te Kushtetutes se Republikes se Shqiperise ne vitin 1998, ligjvenesi shqiptar u angazhua per adoptimin e standarteve te reja per garantimin e te drejtes se prones që kanë të bëjnë me “interesin publik” dhe “shpërblimin e drejtë”, si dhe me respektimin e parimeve të drejtësisë (ndershmërisë dhe barazisë), të proporcionalitetit dhe të shtetit social duke hartuar Ligjin e ri te pronesise nr.9235, date 2004 qe shfuqizoi Ligjin e mëparshëm. Ligji i ri zgjeroi menyrat e kompensimit, rriti kufirin maksimal te siperfaqes se tokes bujqesore per njohje, kthim apo kompensim, si dhe vendosi detyrimin për krijimin e fondit të pronave të paluajtshme për kompensim fizik dhe të fondit për kompensim financiar. Komiteti Shtetëror i Kthimit dhe Kompensimit të Pronës tashme funksiononte si një organ kolegjial prej pesë anëtarësh të cilët zgjidheshin nga Kuvendi me kompetenca rishikimi ndaj vendimeve të dhëna nga komisionet vendore në secilin qark të vendit, duke ruajtur sistemin e decentralizuar te vendimmarrjes.

[1] Pronë kuptonte pasurine e paluajtshme në formën e tokës truall, ndërtesave dhe çdo gjë tjetër që është bashkuar në mënyrë të qëndrueshme me to, si godina banimi, fabrika, punishte, dyqane, magazina e çdo ngehinë tjetër. Masa e kthimit apo e kompensimit për trojet ishte e plotë deri 10000 m2. Per pronat nga 10000 m2 deri 100000 m2, masa e kthimit apo kompensimit ishte plus 10 për qind, ndërsa për prona mbi100000m2 plus 1 për qind. Për trojet e lira brenda vijave kufizuese të qyteteve dhe zonave turistike, në përputhje me planet rregulluese të miratuara në momentin e hyrjes në fuqi të këtij ligji, masa e kthimit për trojet, ishte 5000 m2 dhe pjesa tjetër do të kompensohej me mënyrat e parashikuara në këtë ligj; për tokat bujqësore, 5000 m2 dhe pjesa tjetër do të kompensohej sipas ligjit "Për tokën".
Translation - English
CHRONOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF THE PROPERTY RESTITUTION AND COMPENSATION PROCESS IN ALBANIA

1. The property restitution and compensation process has its origins in the immediate aftermath of the fall of the communist regime in Albania and the establishment of the multi-party regime which brought about recognition of the right to own property and free private enterprise. The Albanian authorities made a commitment to recognise, return or provide compensation for property in the case of all those who had been dispossessed during the time of the previous regime.

2. Initially, the process was started under the auspices of Law no.7698/1993 which constitutes the first attempt to provide a solution to the issue of property[1] nationalised, dispossessed or confiscated according to laws, bye-laws and court rulings issued after 29th November 1944, which had been taken unjustly by the state. Under this law, the Committee for the Restitution and Compensation of Property operated at the town and county council level (in the case of urban areas and areas outside city limits), to recognise, return property to, and compensate former owners. The committees were headed by the State Committee for the Restitution and Compensation of Property, which operated as a self-governing body under the direction of a Chairman, with no power to review rulings at the local administrative level. The Committee’s rulings were only subject to review by local courts within the statutory period. These rulings were deemed to be executive deeds for however long they were set, without recognising ownership, the method and measures to be taken to return property or compensation.

3. Following ratification of the European Convention on Human Rights by the Albanian Government in 1996, and that of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania in 1998, the Albanian legislature undertook to adopt new standards to safeguard the right of ownership which relate to “public interest” and “fair recompense”, as well as respect for the principles of justice (honesty and equality), proportionality and social welfare by drafting the new Law on ownership no.9235, dated 2004, which revoked the previous Law. The new law extended the range of compensation methods, raised the upper limit on the surface area of agricultural land to be recognised, provided for return or compensation, and also set out the obligation to create a real estate fund for physical compensation and a fund for financial compensation. The State Committee for the Restitution and Compensation of Property was now operating as a collegiate body made up of five members who were elected by Parliament with the power to re-examine decisions made by the local committees in each district of the country, maintaining the decentralised system of decision-making.

[1] Property was understood to mean real estate in the form of plots of land, buildings and anything else that is permanently associated with them, such as residential buildings, factories, workshops, shops, warehouses and any other inhabitable construction. The full surface area for return or compensation regarding plots of land was up to 10,000m2. For properties between 10,000m2 and 100,000m2, the surface area for return or compensation was plus 10 percent, and for properties over 100,000m2, plus 1 percent. For freehold land within city limits and tourist areas, in keeping with the regulatory plans approved at the time when this law came into force, the surface area for the return of land was 5,000m2 and the remainder would be compensated in the manner stipulated in this law; in the case of agricultural land, 5,000m2 and the remainder would be compensated in accordance with the law "On land".
Basque to English: Extract from "The evolution of the Basque revival process"
Source text - Basque
Euskararen bilakaera soziolinguistikoaren ezaugarri nagusiak

Munduan zehar hizkuntza biziberritzeko hainbat prozesutan gertatzen den moduan, euskararenean ere hiru dira uztartu ditugun faktoreak:
1) euskara babesteko eta sustatzeko legeria,
2) herri-aginteek garaturiko hizkuntza politika publiko eraginkorra giza- eta diru-baliabidez hornitua, eta
3) herritarren atxikimendua.
Oso garrantzitsuak dira lehen biak: ez alferrik neurri handi batean horiek esplikatzen dute EAEn, Nafarroan eta Iparraldean euskararen bilakaera oso desberdinak gertatu izana, eta euskararen bilakaerarik positiboena hain zuzen ere euskararentzako lege-marko babesleena onartu duen eta herri-aginteen hizkuntza politika eraginkorrena garatu den erkidegoan gertatu izana, Euskadiko Autonomia Erkidegoan alegia. Halere, hiruretan erabakigarriena herritarren atxikimendua da: horrenik gabe alferrik baitira lehenengo biak. Lehenengo bi faktore horienik gabe nekez eman daiteke aurrerapausorik, ezinezkoa da; baina herritarren atxikimendurik gabe ere guztiz ezinezkoa da, ezinezkoa lehen bi faktoreak edukiko balira ere. Biziraupen soila ere ezinezkoa da herritarren atxikimendurik gabe. Horrexegatik uste dut oso egokia dela David Crystalek esandakoa, ondorengoa:
“Komunitate batek hizkuntza salbatzeko erabakia hartzen duenean, bidearen erdia eginda dago (…) Jendearen buruak ez ezik, bihotzak ere irabazi behar dira arrakasta lortzeko.”
(David Crystal, 2007).
Aipatu berri ditugun hiru faktore horien gaineko argibide batzuk emango ditugu jarraian.

1). Legeriari dagokionez, Espainiako Konstituziotik abiatu eta Euskadiko Autonomia Estatutuan dago gure lege-oinarri nagusia, hor ezartzen baita euskararen ofizialtasuna eta, ondorioz, euskara ikasi eta erabiltzeko eskubidea. Hori oinarritzat hartuta, lege-garapen handia izan dugu 25 urteotan. Honako hauek dira, gure ustez, hamarkada hauetan garrantzi handiena izan dutenak: lehenik, Euskararen erabilera normalizatzeko Legea, hori izan baita, eta da, legeria osoaren zutoin eta bizkarrezurra. Ondoren etorri dira Euskal Funtzio Publikoaren Legea, Euskal Eskola Publikoaren Legea, HABE sortzeko Legea eta Herri Administrazioetako hizkuntza-normalizazioko dekretua. Horiek guztiek askotarikoen arteko adostasun politikoa izan dute, gobernu eta oposizioko partiduena, zehazki EAJ-PNV, PSE-EE, EA eta orduko EErena. Berriki onartu da Kontsumitzaileen hizkuntza eskubideei buruzko dekretua (Europako Kontseiluak berak ere arlo hau arautu beharra azpimarratu izan du).

2). Herri-aginteek, Eusko Jaurlaritzaren gidaritzapean eta hizkuntza-legeria garatuz azken urteotan burutu duten hizkuntza politikak ondorengo ezaugarriok izan ditu:

2.1. Elebitasuna, ahalik eta orekatuena eta harmonikoena, dugu helburu. Euskarak bizirautea ez ezik, euskararen erabilera normalizatzea du gure hizkuntza politikak helburu, esparru formaletan bezala ez-formaletan ere normaltasunez erabilia den hizkuntza izatea, alegia. Gizarte elebidunak herritar elebidunak eskatzen ditu, nahiz eta ez izan neurri berean elebidun. Hori oso aintzakotzat hartzen du gure hizkuntza politikak.

2.2. Horrek guztiorrek ahulenaren aldeko ekintza positiboa eskatzen du. Horrexegatik ez da neutrala gure hizkuntza politika: barea, malgua eta urte luzetako perspektiban definitua da, bai, baina tinkoa da ahulenaren alde, euskararen alde.

2.3. Herritarrei errespetu osoa bermatzen dien hizkuntza politika. Horrexegatik, herritarrei hizkuntza eskubideak aitortzen zaizkie, ez zaie obligaziorik inposatzen: obligazioak herri-erakundeei ezartzen zaizkie, herritarrei aitorturiko eskubideak berma ditzaten.

2.4. Gure hizkuntza politikaren oinarri dira, beste zenbaiten artean: progresibotasuna, malgutasuna eta anizkoiztasun soziolinguistikoa kontuan hartzea. Izan ere, guztia ezin baita goizetik gauera egin; presarik eza edo laissez faire politika bezain txarra izan daiteke presa gehiegia, hizkuntza politikaren kontuetan nahi izate hutsa ez baita berez eta beti ahal izatea. Egoera soziolinguistiko ezberdinek soluziobide ezberdinak behar dituzte. Herritarren borondatea behartzea desegokia ez ezik alferrikakoa delako praktikatzen dugu malgutasuna, baina malgutasunaren izenean utzikerian erori gabe eta euskara sustatzeko politika aktiboei bizkarra erakutsi gabe. Darwinismo linguistikoa hizkuntza dibertsitatearen etsaia da. Darwinismo linguistikoaren aurrean demokrazia linguistikoa aldarrikatzen dugu, hizkuntza aukera berdintasuna, alegia. Horixe da herri-aginteoi dagokiguna hizkuntza kontuetan ere: aukera-berdintasuna bermatzea, hizkuntza askatasuna erretorika hutsa ez baizik eta egiazko aukera izan dadin.

3). Euskararen erabilera dugu helburu (erabiltzen den neurrian bakarrik existitzen baitu hizkuntzak, eta horrexegatik baitira gure politikaren subjektuak hizkuntza bera ez baizik eta hiztunak), herritarren atxikimendua dugu erabileraren giltzarri, eta ahalik eta girorik bareena eta adostasun sozial eta politikorik handiena dira ezinbestekoak herritarren atxikimendua elikatzeko.




4. Etorkizun hurbileko erronka nagusiak

Abiapuntu moduan esan dezagun, eztabaida ezina dela hizkuntza politika positiboaren beharra. Zenbaitek norbanakoaren askatasunaren izenean aldarrikatzen duen hizkuntza politikarik eza ere hizkuntza politika da, baina hizkuntza-bizikidetzaren aurkako hizkuntza politika litzateke hori, hizkuntzen arteko berdintasun soziala eragozten duen eta hizkuntza hegemonikoaren nagusitasuna areagotzen duen hizkuntza politika. Gaur egungo testuingurua, zorionez, eleaniztasunaren testuingurua da. Hor aurkitu behar du bere tokia euskarak ere. Testuinguru horretan, hizkuntza aukera-berdintasunaren eta hizkuntzen bizikidetzaren aldeko hizkuntza politika behar da, beste hizkuntzarik ukatuko ez duen eta guztiak errespetatuko dituen hizkuntza politika, ahulenaren alde –euskararen alde- zentzuz eta zuhurtasunez, baina beldurrik eta konplexurik gabe egingo duen hizkuntza politika, hori baita hizkuntza dibertsitatearen alde jarduteko modu bakarra.

Adostasun sozial eta politikoa indartu eta berritu behar dugu, etengabe. Malgutasuna eta jarrera aktiboa uztartuko dituen adostasuna. Aurrera egiteko balioko duen adostasuna. Ezinbestekoa da adostasuna etengabe berritzea aurrera egiteko.

Euskararen ezagutza ziurtatu behar dugu (herritar elebidunik gabe ez baitago gizarte elebidunik) familiaren, irakaskuntzaren eta euskaltegien bidez, eta erabilera gehitu, batez ere esparru ez formaletan. Hori, ordea, beste ezer baino gehiago dago herritarren esku, herritarren hizkuntza-portaera eta jarreraren esku. Esparru ez formaletako erabilera bultzatu daiteke, eta bultzatu egin behar da, baina guztiz errespetatu behar dira herritar bakoitzaren hizkuntza aukera eta askatasuna.

Gaur egungo elebidunek ez dute duela 15 urteko elebidunek baino gehiago erabiltzen euskara. Erabilerak gora egin du hiztunak gehitu direlako, ez, ordea, gaurko hiztunek atzokoek baino gehiago erabiltzen dutelako. Bestalde, gaur euskaldun berri diren gazteek bihar, hemendik 15 urtera, guraso izatera iristen direnean beren familiako hizkuntza euskara izatea nahi eta lortzen badute, jauzi ikaragarria emango du euskarak etorkizunean. Familia transmisioa orokortzea guztiz erabakigarria izango da hemendik 20 urtera.

Euskararen munduek erakargarri izan beharko dute. Euskarak eta euskararen munduak liluratu/seduzitu/ase egin behar dute gure eguneroko bizitzan modu naturalean errotuko bada. Inork ezeri uko egin beharrik gabe eta gogoko ez duen ezer irentsi beharrik gabe hurbildu ahal izan behar du euskarara. Hori lortu behar dugu nahitaez.

Informazioaren eta komunikazioaren teknologietan indartsu izan behar du euskarak. Gazteak ez dira “internetera konektatzen”, hori 45 urtetik gorakook egiten dugun zerbait da: jada daude interneten gazteak, hor bizi dira, hori da bere mundua. Horregatik egon behar du hor, eta hor erakargarri izan behar du, nahitaez, euskarak. Hala izan ezean, saretik ez ezik mundutik ere desagertu egingo bailitzateke.

Hizkuntza dibertsitatearen aldeko pedagogia soziala egitea beharrezkoa dugu. Badira diskurtso zaharkitu eta kontserbadoreak eleaniztasuna arazotzat hartzen dutenak, aberastasun eta kohesio iturri hartu ordez. Espainiako Estatuko gizartean herritar gehienak eta indar mediatiko, politiko, sozial, ekonomiko, kultural eta instituzionalak Konstituzioan aitortu eta Autonomi Estatutuetan arauturiko eleaniztasunaz harro egotetik urruti gaude oraindik. Poztekoa da, eta esan egin behar da, Espainiako Estatua Hizkuntzen Euroitunaren betetze-maila altuenetarikoa duen herrialdea dela. Izan ere, euskara, katalana eta galegoa normalizatzeko helburuarekin hizkuntza horiek dituzten erkidego autonomoetako herri-aginteek onartu eta garaturiko hizkuntza politikei esker eta gizarte horietako herritarren atxikimenduari esker azken bi hamarkadetan aurrerapen handiak gertatu baitira gaztelania ez beste hizkuntzak indarberritzeko prozesuetan. Oraindik ere badira defizitak, erkidego autonomoetako herri-aginteek gainditu beharko dituztenak batzuk, eta Estatuko Administrazio zentralak beste batzuk, gehienak. Hizkuntzen Euroituna betetzerakoan Estatuko administrazioaren ardurapeko erakunde eta guneetan gertatzen dira defizit ugarien eta handienak: hedabide publikoetan, Justizian, Espainiako administrazio periferikoetan eta hainbat zerbitzu publikotan (posta, garraioak, eta abar). Ondorengo urteetan zeregin handia dute arlo horietan Estatuko administrazioek.

Halere, egiteko horien ondoan, nahiz eta eginkizun horiek oso garrantzitsuak izan, bada beste erronka bat -erronka nagusia, nire iritzian behinik behin- Espainiako erakundeek, Espainiako gobernuaren ekimenez eta Erkidego autonomoetako herri-aginteekin elkarlanean, aurre egin beharko lioketena berandurako utzi gabe: Espainiako Estatuaren eleaniztasunaren aldeko pedagogia soziala egitea Espainiako Estatu osoan.

Eleanitza da Espainiako Estatua, baina elebakarra balitz bezala jarduten dute oraindik ere bertako erakunde zentralek. Espainiako Estatuko herritarren ia erdia gaztelania ez den beste hizkuntza bat ere ofiziala duten lurraldeetan bizi da. Hizkuntza bizikidetzaren eta Espainiako Estatua osatzen duten herrialde ezberdinen arteko bizikidetzaren mesedetan, beharrezkoa da hizkuntza horiek Espainiako estatuko herritar gehienek eta indar mediatiko, politiko eta sozialek oro har etxekotzat hartzea, gaur oraindik gertatzen den bezala arrotzak eta arazo-iturri baliran hartu ordez. Bide hori urratzeak onura baino ez lekarkieke bizikidetzari, aurrerapenari eta modernitateari. Aldiz, guztiz anakronikoa eta bizikidetzarako traba litzateke Espainiako Estatuak berezkoa duen eleaniztasunari neurri handi batean bizkarra erakusten jarraitzea. Arlo honek eskatzen duen pedagogia soziala egitea litzateke, gure iritzian, Espainiako gobernuak etorkizunean gainditu beharko lukeen erronka nagusia Hizkuntzen Euroitunaren izpiritua indartzeari dagokionez.

Espero dut, beraz, Estatuko erakundeek berandu baino lehen bere egingo dutela eleaniztasuna, praktikan “egin bere”, eta euskara, galegoa eta katalana, gaztelaniaren ondoan, ondare propiotzat hartu eta gogotsu sustatuko dituztela. Aurretik esan bezala, Hizkuntzen Euroituna bera da horretarako bide-erakusle bikaina. Hala bedi. Eskerrik asko.

Bilbon, 2009ko apirilaren 21ean

Translation - English
The main characteristics of the socio-linguistic evolution of Basque

As is the case in a number of processes for reviving a language throughout the world, in the case of Basque there are also three factors which we can draw together:
1) legislation to support and promote Basque,
2) an effective public linguistic policy promoted - and financially-backed - by public authorities, and
3) public engagement.
The first two are very important: it is no coincidence that these explain to a great extent why Basque has evolved very differently in the Basque Autonomous Community, Navarre and the North, and why the most positive evolution of Basque has taken place specifically in the community which has promoted the most effective public authority linguistic policy and which has approved the most supportive legal framework for the Basque language – in the Basque Autonomous Community, in other words. However, the most decisive of the three factors is public engagement: as the first two would be pointless without that. In the absence of those first two factors one may struggle to make any progress – it is impossible; but without public engagement it is also utterly impossible, even if it were impossible for the first two factors to exist. Mere survival is also impossible without public engagement. That is precisely why I think that the following words of David Crystal are extremely appropriate:
“Once a community has decided to save a language, the journey is half over (…) In order to succeed, we need not only to win the people’s minds, but also their hearts.”
(David Crystal, 2007).
We shall go on to give some additional indications of these three factors .

1). As regards legislation, starting from the Spanish Constitution, and it is the principal basis for our laws in the Basque Autonomous Community, the official status of Basque is set out there, as is, consequently, the right to learn and use Basque. Taking that as a foundation, we have seen enormous developments in law over these past 25 years. In our view, the following are those that have had the greatest significance in these decades: firstly, the Law on the normalisation of the use of the Basque language, as this has been, and is, the central pillar and backbone of the legislation as a whole. Then came the Basque Public Service Law, the Basque Public School Law, the Law to establish HABE and the linguistic normalisation in Public Administration decree. As diverse as all these were, they had political consensus - that of the governing and opposition parties, specifically EAJ-PNV [Basque Nationalist Party], PSE-EE [Spanish Socialist Party], EA [Basque Social-Democratic Party] and subsequently that of EE [former left-wing party]. The decree regarding Consumers’ linguistic rights has recently been approved (the Council of Europe has also emphasised the need to regulate this area).

2). The linguistic policy pursued in recent years by the public authorities, under the guidance of the Basque Autonomous Government and promoting linguistic legislation has been characterised by the following:

2.1. Our aim is bilingualism, in the most balanced and harmonious way possible. Apart from keeping the Basque language alive, our linguistic policy aims to normalise the use of Basque. In other words, it should be a language which is used normally in both formal and informal settings. A bilingual society demands a bilingual public, even if it is not bilingual to the same extent. Our linguistic policy very much takes this into account.

2.2. All of this demands positive action to support the weakest. That is precisely why our linguistic policy is not neutral: yes, it is defined in a steady, flexible and long-term context, but it is firmly in support of the weakest, in support of Basque.

2.3. A linguistic policy which warrants the complete respect of the public. That is precisely why it makes reference to the linguistic rights of citizens, and does not impose obligations on them: obligations are levied on public organisations, in order to guarantee the stated rights of citizens.

2.4. Amongst other things, the cornerstones of our linguistic policy are: progressiveness, flexibility and taking account of socio-linguistic diversity. The fact is that you cannot do everything overnight; too much haste can be just as bad as no haste at all or a laissez faire policy; in matters of linguistic policy it is not inherently wrong to want to do something and always be able to do it. Different socio-linguistic circumstances require different solutions. Because it is not only inappropriate, but pointless, to force the will of the people, we practise flexibility, but without falling into complacency in the name of flexibility and without turning our backs on active policies to promote Basque. Linguistic Darwinism is the enemy of diversity in language. We proclaim linguistic democracy in the face of linguistic Darwinism, equality of choice of language, in other words. That also falls to us as public authorities in matters of language: to guarantee equality of choice, so that there is a genuine choice and not just empty rhetoric about linguistic freedom.

3). Our aim is for Basque to be used (as a language exists only insofar as it is used, and that is precisely why the subjects of our policy are the speakers and not just the language itself), for us, public engagement is the key to that use, and the most stable environment possible and the greatest degree of social and political consensus are essential to nurture public engagement.




4. The main problems in the near future

Let us say by way of a starting point, that it is impossible to argue with the need for a positive linguistic policy. Rejecting a linguistic policy announced by some people in the name of universal freedom is also a linguistic policy, but that could be a linguistic policy to counter the co-existence of languages, a linguistic policy which reinforces the dominance of the majority language and acts as a hindrance to social equality between languages. Today’s setting is fortunately a multilingual setting. Basque needs to find its place there too. In that setting, a linguistic policy in support of equality of choice of language and the co-existence of languages is needed, a linguistic policy which will respect all, and will not deny, other languages, a linguistic policy which will support the weakest –support Basque- sensibly and judiciously, but fearlessly and confidently, as that is the only way to support linguistic diversity.

We need to keep strengthening and renewing the social and political consensus. The consensus which will draw together flexibility and the active stance. The consensus which is used to make progress. It is essential to keep renewing consensus in order to make progress.

We need to ensure familiarity with Basque (because there is no bilingual society without bilingual citizens) through the family, education and the euskaltegis, and increase its use, especially in informal settings. That, however, more than anything else, is down to the public, down to the linguistic attitudes and behaviours of the public. It is possible to encourage use in informal settings, and it does need to be encouraged, but the linguistic choice and freedom of each citizen need to be fully respected.

Today’s bilinguals do not use Basque more than the bilinguals of 15 years ago. The use of the language has gone up because the the number of speakers has increased, and not because today’s speakers use it more than those of yesterday. In addition, in terms of the young people who are new Basque speakers today, if they want to have and are successful in having Basque as their family language in the future, 15 years from now when they become parents, then that will give a tremendous boost to Basque in the future. Universalising family language transmission will be utterly decisive in 20 years’ time.

The Basque worlds will need to be attractive. Basque and the Basque world must fascinate/seduce/fill up the senses if it is to be embedded naturally in our daily lives. Those who refuse something without having to and those who accept something that they don’t want without having to must be able to come to Basque. We absolutely must achieve that.

Basque needs to be strong in information and communications technology. Young people do not “connect to the internet”; that is something that those of us who are 45 and over do: young people are already on the internet, they live there, that is their world. That is why Basque has to be there, and it absolutely has to be attractive there. Because if that does not happen, it could vanish not only from the internet, but from the world.

We convey a much-needed social message which is pro-linguistic diversity. There are antiquated and conservative voices which consider multilingualism to be a problem, instead of considering it to be a source of richness and cohesion. Most of society in the Spanish State and media, political, social, economic, cultural and institutional authorities are still a long way away from being proud of the multilingualism set out in the Statutes of Autonomy and stated in the Constitution. It is to be celebrated, and it should be said, that the Spanish State is the country with the highest level of compliance with the European Language Charter. In fact, with the aim of normalising Basque, Catalan and Galician, thanks to the linguistic policies approved and promoted by the public authorities of the autonomous communities in which those languages are spoken, and thanks to public engagement in those societies, huge progress has been made over the past two decades in the reinvigoration processes for languages other than Castilian. Although there are still shortcomings, the public authorities in the autonomous communities will have to overcome some of them, and the central State Administration will have to overcome others – most of them. In terms of complying with the European Language Charter the biggest and most widespread shortcomings are found in the organisations and areas responsible in the State administration: in the public media, in Justice, in the areas on the periphery of the Spanish administration and in a number of public services (post, transport, etcetera). The State administration has a huge job to do in these areas in the coming years.

However, alongside that to-do list, even though those are very important tasks, there is another problem -the main problem, in my opinion at least- one which Spain’s institutions, in collaboration with the public authorities in the autonomous communities and instigated by the Spanish government, would have to address without delay: spreading the Spanish State’s pro-multilingualism social message throughout the whole Spanish State.

The Spanish State is multilingual, but its own central institutions still carry on as if it were monolingual. Nearly half of the population of the Spanish State lives in areas which also have an official language other than Castilian. In the interests of the co-existence of languages and co-existence between the different communities which make up the Spanish State, it is essential that those languages are seen as domestic across the board by the majority of the population of the Spanish State and the key players in media, politics and society, instead of being looked on as if they were foreign and had foreign roots, as is still the case today. Only by treading that path would we bring benefits to co-existence, progress and modernity. Otherwise, continuing, to a great extent, to turn a blind eye to the multilingualism which is characteristic of the Spanish State, would be wholly anachronistic and an obstacle to co-existence. The spreading of the social message which this issue demands would, in our view, be the main problem which the Spanish government would have to overcome in the future in terms of reinforcing the spirit of the European Language Charter.

I hope, therefore, that the institutions of the State will before long embrace multilingualism as their own, “embrace it as their own” in practice, and look on Basque, Galician and Catalan as their own heritage, alongside Castilian, and promote them fervently. As has been said before, the European Language Charter itself is an excellent guide. May it be so. Thank you very much.

Bilbao, 21st April 2009

Catalan to English: To the Court of First Instance of Andorra
Source text - Catalan
A L’HONORABLE BATLLIA


[NAME REMOVED], major d’edat, casada, de nacionalitat andorrana i veïna d’Andorra la Vella, actuant en la meva qualitat de Procuradora dels [NAME REMOVED] i [NAME REMOVED], segons tinc acreditat en aquesta causa, comparec per davant de l’Honorable Batllia i, com millor en Dret escaigui,


D I C : Que, en la qualitat en què actuo i mitjançant el present escrit, formulo l’escrit de DÚPLICA, en el marc d’aquesta causa, ordenant-la en els següents apartats,


Primer.- En relació a l’escrit de rèplica formulat per la representació de la part agent, s’ha de manifestar que aquest no conté cap mena de fet o argument de dret nou, que faci modificar el contingut de l’escrit d’aquesta part de contesta a la demanda, i que manté la vigència i eficàcia de la totalitat d’al•legacions relatius a la manca de responsabilitat dels meus mandants.

En efecte, és clar que de la lectura del referit escrit de rèplica, se n’extreu que l’adversa pretén que es demostrin les eventuals responsabilitats de totes les parts en litigi, tal com efectivament s’ha de procedir, de forma que finalment s’acrediti la responsabilitat real dels danys provocats a l’agent, així com que aquests en cap cas haurien estat provocats per l’acció directa, ni indirecta dels meus mandants, ni de la direcció d’obra en general.

En conseqüència, es donen en aquest tràmit processal per reproduïdes la totalitat d’al•legacions contingudes a l’escrit de contesta a la demanda, fent únicament incís en el fet de que els meus mandants, [NAME REMOVED] i [NAME REMOVED] compareixen com a cridats en garantia i, com a tal, no podran ésser condemnats en el marc d’aquesta causa de forma directa, sinó que, en tot cas, únicament es podria determinar la seva responsabilitat, cas d’existir, perquè després, en un procediment posterior, la demandada, propietària de l’obra en qüestió, pogués depurar i exigir tot el que li correspongués.


Segon.- En aquest sentit s’ha de manifestar que, per molt que aquesta part hagi estat cridada en garantia pel promotor de l’obra, amb qui de forma evident l’uneix una relació de caire contractual, el cert és que l’acció que es discuteix i es ventila en el marc d’aquesta causa és únicament la de responsabilitat extracontractual, que és l’exercida veritablement per l’agent.

Per tant, havent transcorregut els terminis legalment previstos per l’exercici d’aquesta acció contra la meva mandant, cas de considerar que sí que pot operar una condemna contra ell, el cert és que aquesta acció estaria prescrita, i així s’ha de constatar.


Tercer.- Aquesta part comprova que cap de les parts involucrades en aquesta causa res te a afegir o a objectar a l’excepció interposada per aquesta part per l’excepció de manca de legitimació passiva de la [NAME REMOVED].

Per tant, és clar que essent evident la seva total manca de participació en els fets enjudiciats, així com el total assentiment de la resta de parts implicades, amb inclusió de l’agent principal i del demandat originari, és evident que procedirà la seva total estimació i la imposició de les costes corresponents a la part que ha procedit a cridar en garantia a la [NAME REMOVED].


Quart.- Pel que respecta a les al•legacions de [NAME REMOVED] en què s’oposen a la crida successiva en garantia, aquesta part considera que aquestes al•legacions no tenen raó d’ésser i que carèixen del més mínim fonament.

En efecte, la seva participació en el present procediment no causa cap mena de perjudici a cap de les parts implicades, ni tan sols a la pròpia [NAME REMOVED], tota vegada que el fet de participar en aquesta causa, fins i tot sense tràmit d’audiència prèvia, no li provoca cap mena d’indefensió. Ans al contrari, li confereix totes les garanties tant processals, com de defensa al fons, per tal de poder al•legar els fets a la seva conveniència i emprar tots els mitjans de defensa que consideri oportuns.

En el cas en què es determinés a la fi de la present causa, que aquesta crida era innecessària o ha estat improcedent, per la manca de responsabilitat de qualsevol dels cridats, operarà el mecanisme de la condemna en costes per tal de veure protegida la intervenció d’una part, que no es revelava necessària i/o convenient.

A més, la part agent i la resta de parts en litigi, han pogut manifestar-se al respecte –una vegada ja havien estat declarades part en el procés formalment i no abans- i cap d’elles ha procedit a formular oposició, justament per quant és una intervenció processal que convé definitivament a la depuració de responsabilitats dels fets enjudiciats, i al manteniment de les garanties d’execució i de compliment d’obligacions i exercici de drets, de tots els possibles implicats.

Procedirà doncs l’estimació de la procedència de la crida en garantia de totes les parts en judici, amb el benentès que la seva intervenció –amb inclusió de la d’aquesta part- únicament ho és a efectes de “garantia” i que no pot operar una condemna contra cap d’elles, si be si procedeix la determinació de les responsabilitats corresponents, a exigir, si resulta oportú, en un procediment judicial posterior.


Cinquè.- En relació a les al•legacions efectuades per la demandada, [NAME REMOVED], s’ha de manifestar que la seva legitimació passiva és clara, puix el cert és que enfront de terceres persones, i mentre no es pugui acreditar una responsabilitat evident, clara i individualitzada d’algun dels intervinents a l’obra, el responsable és el promotor.

Per tant, per tal que operi una condemna en contra dels meus mandants, serà evidentment necessari, que s’acrediti la seva responsabilitat evident, no essent suficient, com pretén la promotora, que ella hagués signat un contracte de direcció d’obra o projecte, amb el [NAME REMOVED].

En tot cas, el que sí resulta evident és que, en relació a l’eventual responsabilitat que pogués exigir l’agent per la col•locació dels ancoratges sense les autoritzacions oportunes, el cert és que la responsabilitat d’aquest fet, serà únicament exigible a la promotora, puix la meva mandant únicament va proposar solucions tècniques, juntament amb l’enginyer, [NAME REMOVED], duent a terme finalment únicament allò que la propietat deia que es podia fer, ja fos perquè havia tramitat els permisos corresponents amb les entitats públiques, o perquè disposava de les autoritzacions necessàries.

Així, el fet de que manqui alguna mena d’autorització –que pel demés es considera que no existeix puix existeix clarament autorització almenys tàcita-, no podrà en cap cas, ésser imputable als tècnics, ni al meu mandant, [NAME REMOVED], ni al [NAME REMOVED], i per tant, tampoc li podran ésser exigides les indemnitzacions que es declaressin procedents per aquests fets.


Sisè.- En relació a l’al•legació de [NAME REMOVED], relativa a la possible feblesa estructural de l’edifici propietat dels agents, prèvia a l’actuació del promotor o resta d’implicats a la causa, procedirà tenir-ho en compte, als efectes de determinar, en període probatori, si aquest fet pot o no haver incidit en el resultat danyós, als efectes de determinar la part de responsabilitat que correspongui a aital fet, i declarar doncs que existeix almenys part de culpa de la víctima, reduint i modulant les indemnitzacions que resultessin finalment procedents.


Setè.- En relació a l’al•legació de [NAME REMOVED] relativa a l’excepció de manca de litisconsorci passiu necessari, amb altra persona copropietària del negoci, s’ha de manifestar l’oposició d’aquesta part a la mateixa, tota vegada que és evident que si existeix un negoci en copropietat, o qualsevol altra situació que generi una mancomunitat, la solidaritat entre els comuners o condòminos, és legalment aplicable, de forma que qualsevol acte d’un d’ells vincularà a la comunitat i qualsevol acció adreçada contra qualsevol dels comuners, serà també aprofitada per la comunitat general.

Existint doncs solidaritat des de l’òptica substantiva, és evident que no pot prosperar mai un litisconsorci passiu necessari, des de l’òptica processal, puix són inherentment oposades de tal forma que l’existència d’una figura, exclou necessàriament l’altra.

Per tant, aquesta excepció haurà d’ésser totalment desestimada, havent-se de considerar, des d’aquesta perspectiva, degudament constituïda la litis.


Vuitè.- Per altra part, únicament cal constatar que cap de les parts implicades formula una acusació directa, clara i evident de responsabilitat contra els meus mandants, limitant-se a al•legar la responsabilitat superior de la direcció d’obra, però sense imputar cap fet en concret.

Per contra, i tal com es va explicar extensament a l’escrit de contesta, la responsabilitat dels fets és clarament exigible a l’empresa constructora, tota vegada que ella directament, o les empreses per ella subcontractades van contravenir les instruccions de la direcció d’obra i/o van executar incorrectament les seves instruccions.

Tal com es va dir, [NAME REMOVED] va procedir a excavar el terreny en tota la seva llargada, contravenint així les instruccions del [NAME REMOVED], que figuraven escrites a llibre d’obra, rebent les queixes escrites del mateix, que igualment es van fer constar al llibre d’obra.

[NAME REMOVED], directament o a través de l’empresa que feia l’excavació, també va procedir a trencar els bolos que sortien de l’excavació, malgrat el [NAME REMOVED], havia ordenat expressament que per evitar vibracions i sorolls, que produïssin més esquerdes, s’havia de procedir amb molta prudència

També es va fer constar la possible responsabilitat de [NAME REMOVED], i d’[NAME REMOVED], dues empreses subcontractades per [NAME REMOVED], les quals van procedir a col•locar els ancoratges la primera, i els micropilots la segona, tota vegada que no van executar la feina tal com se’ls hi deia de fer, ni posteriorment facilitaven les lectures corresponents i necessàries pel control de l’excavació i de la seguretat del terreny.

Per tant existeixen motius clars i evidents tant per no emetre una condemna solidària, com per no imputar cap mena de responsabilitat als meus mandants, tota vegada que existeixen persones amb negligències que podran ésser clarament provades i acreditades.


Per tot el qual, a aquesta Honorable Batllia, respectuosament,


S O L •L I C I T O : Que, havent per presentat aquest escrit, es digni admetre’l i, en mèrits del que en ell s’exposa, vulgui tenir per formulada DÚPLICA d’aquesta part en el marc del present procediment, seguir-lo pels seus tràmits i, en el seu dia, dictar sentència en el sentit exposat a l’escrit de constesta a la demanda, amb estimació íntegra i consegüent imposició de costes per l’excepció de manca de legitimació passiva de la [NAME REMOVED], imposant així mateix, la totalitat de les costes processals de tota la tramitació de la present causa a aquell que finalment resulti responsable dels fets d’autes, amb inclusió expressa dels honoraris d’advocat i procurador d’aquesta part.

Translation - English
TO THE HONOURABLE COURT OF FIRST INSTANCE


I, [NAME REMOVED], being over 18 years of age, married, of Andorran nationality and resident of Andorra la Vella, acting in my capacity as solicitor to [NAME REMOVED] and [NAME REMOVED], in accordance with my accreditation in this case, appear before The Honourable Court of First Instance and, as best befits in law


S A Y : That, in the capacity in which I am acting and by means of this document, I move to file the text of the REJOINDER, in the context of this case, setting it out in the following paragraphs,


First.- With regard to the text of the response filed by the complainants’ legal representation, it has to be stated that this does not contain any new legal fact or argument whatsoever, which would lead to my clients’ modifying the text of their contest to the lawsuit, and which upholds the validity and effectiveness of the entirety of the claims relating to my clients’ lack of liability.

In fact, one can clearly deduce from reading the aforementioned text of response that the opposing party is claiming that the ultimate liabilities of all those parties to the lawsuit are proven, as indeed proceedings should take their course, in order that ultimately the actual liability for the losses caused to the complainants can be proven, as well as the fact that these would in no way have been caused by the direct or indirect action of my clients, nor by that of the works management team in general.

As a consequence, in these proceedings the totality of the claims contained in the text of contest to the lawsuit are deemed to be countered, solely highlighting the fact that my clients, [NAME REMOVED] and [NAME REMOVED] are appearing under a warning notice, and, as such, will not be able to be charged directly in the context of this case, but rather, in any event, it would only be possible to determine their liability, should it exist, so that subsequently, at a later hearing, the bringers of the lawsuit, the owners of the works in question, could define and demand everything to which they are entitled .


Second.- It should be stated in this regard that, despite this party having been in receipt of a warning notice from the works developers, with whom it is clearly linked in a contractual relationship, what is certain is that the action which is being raised and discussed in the context of this case solely relates to extracontractual liability, which is that actually exercised by the complainant.

Therefore, the prescribed statutory time limits having passed for the bringing of this action against my client, in the event that it is judged that a charge against him can be brought, what is certainly the case is that this action would be statute barred, and it should be recorded as such.


Third.- I note that none of the parties involved in this case has anything to add or to object to the exemption introduced by this party for exemption of lack of passive legitimacy on the part of [NAME REMOVED].

Therefore, it is clear that, as it is evident that she did not participate at all in the events under litigation, and that this is fully accepted by the remaining parties involved, including the principal complainant and the primary defendant, it stands to reason that this should be admitted in its entirety and the associated costs should be awarded against the party which brought the proceedings to issue the warning notice against [NAME REMOVED].


Fourth.- With regard to the claims made by [NAME REMOVED] in which they contest the repeated warning notices, I consider that these claims have no raison d’être and lack even the slightest of grounds.

In fact, her involvement in these proceedings causes no detriment whatsoever to any of the parties involved, not only to [NAME REMOVED], since the fact of her involvement in this case, albeit in the absence of a prior hearing, does not lead to any lack of defence whatsoever. Quite on the contrary, it provides her with all the guarantees, both procedural and in terms of defence against the essence of the case, in order for her to be able to put forward the facts at her convenience and using all the lines of defence which she may consider appropriate.

In the event that it is determined at the end of these proceedings, that this notice was unnecessary or had not complied with procedure, through the lack of liability on the part of any of those issued therewith, the mechanism for awarding of costs will come into effect in order to ensure that there is protection for the involvement of any party, which was not shown to be necessary and/or appropriate.

In addition, the complainants and the remaining parties to the lawsuit, have been able to make their statements in this regard –once they had been formally declared to be a party to the proceedings and not beforehand- and not one of them moved to contest this, precisely in as much as it is a procedural intervention which is intrinsically compatible with the definition of liabilities for the facts under litigation, and with the preservation of the guarantees of conduct and the full gamut of obligations and rights to be exercised, on the part of all those potentially involved.

I move therefore to admit the procedure for the issuing of warning notices to all the parties to the proceedings, on the understanding that their involvement –including that of my clients- is solely for the purposes of a “guarantee” and that no charges can be brought against any one of them, but if associated liabilities are then determined, if it is deemed appropriate, subsequent judicial proceedings are to be sought.


Fifth.- With regard to the claims made by the co-defendant, [NAME REMOVED], it should be stated that her passive legitimacy is clear, as what is certain is that in the case of third parties, and whilst no apparent, clear and individual liability can be proven against any one of those involved in the works, liability lies with the developer.

Therefore, in order for a charge to be brought against my clients, it will plainly be necessary for their clear liability to be proven, and the mere fact, as the developer claims, that she had signed a contract for works or project management, with [NAME REMOVED], is not sufficient.

In any event, what is clear is that, in terms of the ultimate liability which the complainant could attribute for the installation of the shoring points in the absence of the appropriate authorisations, what is certain is that the liability for this, will be solely attributable to the developer, as my client only proposed technical solutions, together with the engineer, [NAME REMOVED], ultimately carrying out solely that which the owners had said could be done, either because the appropriate licences had been processed by the public authorities or because they were in possession of the necessary authorisations.

Thus, the fact of there not existing any kind of authorisation –which incidentally is only judged not to have existed, as at least tacit authorisation clearly did exist-, cannot in any event be attributable to the technical experts, or to my client, [NAME REMOVED], or to [NAME REMOVED], and therefore, the damages declared to be resulting from these events cannot be demanded either.


Sixth.- With regard to the claim made by [NAME REMOVED], relating to the possible structural weakness of the building owned by the complainants, prior to the actions of the developer or the remaining parties involved in the case, it is to be taken into account, for the purposes of establishing proof, in a probatory period, whether this fact may or may not have had an effect on the damaging outcome, with a view to determining the degree of liability associated with that fact, and thus declaring that at least part of the blame lies with the victim, reducing and modifying the damages which may ultimately be judged to result.


Seventh.- With regard to the claim made by [NAME REMOVED] relating to the exemption of lack of necessary passive joint litigation, with another person as co-owner of the business, I have to state my opposition to this, as it is evident that there did exist a business in joint ownership, or any other status which creates communal dominion, the joint status between those in the communal dominion or those in joint ownership is applicable in law, in such a way that any act undertaken by one of them will be intrinsic to the communal dominion and any action brought against any of those in the communal dominion, will also apply to the communal dominion in general.

Joint status thus existing from the substantive perspective, it is clear that a necessary passive litigation claim can never succeed, from the procedural point of view, as they are inherently opposed to each other in such a way that the existence of one figure, necessarily excludes the other.

Therefore, this exemption is to be dismissed in its entirety, the legal case being deemed, from this perspective, to have been properly constructed.


Eighth.- Furthermore, it should solely be recorded that none of the parties involved is filing a direct, clear and evident charge of liability against my clients, restricting themselves to claiming the higher liability of the works management team, but without attributing thereunto any specific fact.

On the contrary, and as has been explained extensively in the text of the contest to the lawsuit, liability for the events is clearly attributable to the building firm, as it directly, or the companies subcontracted by it, went against the instructions from the works management team and/or incorrectly acted on their instructions.

As has been stated, [NAME REMOVED] went on to excavate the entire length of the land, thus going against the instructions from [NAME REMOVED], which are written down in the works schedule, drawing his written complaints, which were also recorded in the works schedule.

[NAME REMOVED], directly or through the company which was carrying out the excavation work, also went on to break up the clumps resulting from the excavation, despite [NAME REMOVED] having given express instructions that, in order to avoid noise and vibrations, which may cause more cracks, work should proceed with great care.

Record should also be made of the possible liability of [NAME REMOVED], and [NAME REMOVED], two companies subcontracted by [NAME REMOVED], the first one going on to install the shoring points, and the second the micropiles, as they did not carry out the work as they had been told to do, and neither did they subsequently provide the relevant and required read-outs of the oversight of the excavation work and the safety of the ground.

Therefore there are clear and evident grounds both for not issuing a ruling of joint liability, and not attributing any liability whatsoever to my clients, as individuals whose negligent actions can be clearly proven and validated, do exist.


Because of all of which, before this Honourable Court I do respectfully,


R E Q U E S T : That, having this document before you, you see fit to admit it and, based on the merits of its content, you consider this party’s REJOINDER to be made in the context of these proceedings, the proceedings take their course and, at the due time you give your ruling in accordance with that set out in the text of the contest to the lawsuit, admitting it in its entirety and consequently awarding costs in line with the exemption of lack of passive legitimacy on the part of [NAME REMOVED], and thus awarding all legal costs resulting from the proceedings in this case to the person who is ultimately found liable for the events under litigation, expressly including my clients’ legal and solicitor’s fees.

Romany to English: O Gilavno/The Songbird
General field: Other
Detailed field: Poetry & Literature
Source text - Romany
O GILAVNO

Kana avel o milaj thaj e shkolako chinipen, o Pepito zhal gaveste, k-e peske phure dada. I mami thaj o papus si duj butikerne manusha. Len si len duj grasta, jekh guruvni, thaj but papina thaj khajnja.
Kodoleske o Pepito na beshel nisar, chajljol les te phirel e grastesa, te grastarjarel les, te del e guruvnja te xal car, vi te dushel la thaj but aver.
- Pepito, de nishte kukina le khajnjan, ke, dikh, so bokhale si von! - phenel leske i mami.
- Mishto!
Texarinjatar o Pepito si xanci xoljariko, thaj... na del le khajnan te xan.
- Dikh so bokhale si mirre khajnjorra! - phenel palem i mami, kana agordel i buti and-i bar. Si musaj te maj des len nishte kukina!
- Mishto, mishto! - phenel o Pepito tha’... palem na del len te xan.
Maj palal i phuri akharel e chavorres:
- Haj te xas. Dikh, kerdem tuke bokola thaj nishte anre maj kovle, kadja sar chajljon tut!
- Chi xav, na si mange bokh, amboldel o chavorro.
I mami, dikhel ka-o chavorro, godisarel pes xanci, pashasal thaj puchel:
- Sar dikhav, san but xoljariko p-e mirre khajnjorra. So kerde von tuke?
- Na le khajnja, maj but le duj bashne! amboldel o chavorro. Sa i rat na ashtilem te sovav lendar!
- Xatjarav akana, phenel i phuri. Kadja si, von bashen sa i texarin. Tha’, shaj, palal so phenava tuke e bashnesqi paramichi, na maj doshaljaresa len kadja but... Miensa thaj miensa bershensa maj anglal, o Bashno, o Kham thaj o Chonut zhivenas and-e cherosko thagaripen sar trin phrala. O maj loshalo mashkar lende sas o Bashno. Gilabelas sa o vaxt le maj shukar dilja so ashtin te anen i losh and-e manushengo ilo. Nich o kham na sas sar jekh xoljariko. Vov anelas o tatipen p-i phuv thaj and-o di e manushenqo. Ama, varekana, xoljariko sas o Chonut. Xatjardjasas ke, butvar, le manusha, kana avelas e ratjako achipen, sasas but loshale te shunen e bashnesko bashavipen.
And-jekh dives, o Chonut xoljol p-o chorro Bashno “soske na bashavelas sar kamelas vov”, thaj nich jekh nich duj, del les dab, kadja zorales, ke chudel les andar o devel zhi p-i phuv.
Kana avilas o Kham te dikhel so kerdjas o Bashno, sostar na maj shunel pes lesko bashavipen thaj shundjas so thaj sar sas, godisardjas pes te kerel kris.
- Chonuteja, tu kaj san varekana kadja zhungalo, thaj vi krisarno, te zhanes ke nich mansa na maj zhivesa pashutnes, avdivesestar angle! - akhardjas o Kham.
- Mishto, me sem kadja sar phenes tu, tha’ tu kaj san sa vaxt dudalo thaj tatjares e ile savorrenge trujal tutar, soske kames te doshaljares man?
- Mishto! Na maj kerav tuke kris. Ama, avdivesestar, tu avesa e ratjako sherutno thaj me p-o dives. Amare droma rigjarena pen sa vaxt. Thaj o Bashno zhanela kadaja thaj ushtela pes kana avava me texarinatar, bashela loshatar thaj marela le phaka, tha’ kana avesa tu nashela te garavel pes.
Thaj kadja achiljas zhi adjes.
Kana xatjarel o Bashno ke avel o Kham, marel e phaka thaj ito, nashel te bashel i texarin zhi kana ushtin pen sa e manusha ; thaj kana xatjarel ke avel o Chonut, nashel te sovel, te na maj dikhel kodoles, savo chudjas les andar o devel.
I purani paramichi maj phenel ke kana sas chudino o Bashno andar o devel, leske shukar dilja achile and-e cherosko thagaripen. Von si le strafinale cerxaja so dudjaren e ratjako kalipen.
Numaj le manusha but lache ilesa ashtin te shunen len. Kadaja si e cerxajenqi muzika...
- Akana na maj inkerav xoli p-e chorre bashne! - phenel o Pepito. Zhav te maj dav len kukina!
Translation - English
THE SONGBIRD

When summer comes and school breaks up for the holidays, Pepito goes to the village, to his grandparents’ house. His grandmother and grandfather are both hardworking people. They have two horses, a cow, and lots of geese and chickens.
Because Pepito never sits still, he likes to roam around with the horses, ride them, put the cow out to pasture, and even milk her, as well as lots of other things.
“Pepito, give the chickens some grain, because they’re hungry, as you can see”, his grandmother tells him.
“Okay!”
In the morning, Pepito is a bit angry, and... he doesn’t feed the chickens.
“See how hungry my little hens are!”, his grandmother says again when she finishes her work in the garden. “You must give them some more grain!”
“Okay, okay!”, says Pepito and... once again, he doesn’t feed them.
Later on, the old woman calls to the boy:
“Come and eat. Look. I’ve made you some bread and soft-boiled eggs, just how you like them!”
“I won’t eat. I’m not hungry”, replies the boy.
The grandmother looks at her grandson, thinks for a moment, smiles and asks:
“I can see that you’re very angry with my little hens. What did they do to you?”
“It’s not the hens. It’s the two cockerels!”, replies the boy. Thanks to them, I couldn’t sleep all night!”
“Now I understand”, the old woman says. “That’s how it is. They crow all morning. And, maybe, once I’ve told you the story of the cockerel, you won’t blame them quite so much... Thousands and thousands of years ago, the Cockerel, the Sun and the Moon lived in the Kingdom of Heaven like three brothers. The most joyful of all of them was the Cockerel. All the time he would sing the most beautiful songs, so as to bring joy to men’s hearts. The Sun was never angry either. He brought warmth to the Earth and to men’s souls. But, sometimes, the Moon was angry. He had realised that, often, in the stillness of the night, people were not very happy when they heard the Cockerel’s song.
One day, the Moon got angry with the poor Cockerel. “Why did you sing when they didn’t want you to?” And in a flash, he hit him, so hard that he pushed him out of the heavens and down to the earth.
When the Sun came to see what had happened to the Cockerel and to find out why his song could no longer be heard and he discovered what had gone on, he resolved to hold a trial.
“Moon, as you are sometimes so nasty and so judgmental too, you should know that you will no longer live alongside me, as of today!”, the Sun called out.
“Fine. I am exactly as you say, and as you are always so bright and you warm the hearts of everyone around you, why do you want to accuse me?”
“Fine. I will judge you no longer. But, as of today, you will rule the night and I, the day. Our paths will never cross again. And the Cockerel will know this, and he will rise when I come out in the morning. He will sing with joy and flap his wings, and when you come out, he will run and hide.
And that is how it has remained to this very day.
When the Cockerel realises that the Sun is coming out, he flaps his wings and hurries to welcome the morning with his song until everyone gets out of bed; and when he realises that the Moon is coming out, he falls asleep fast, so that his gaze will never again fall upon the one who pushed him out of the heavens.
It also says in the old story that when the Cockerel was pushed out of the sky, his beautiful songs were left behind in the Kingdom of Heaven. They are the twinkling stars that light up the blackness of the night.
Only those with good hearts can hear them. This is the music of the stars...
“Now I shall not be angry with the poor cockerels ever again!”, says Pepito. I’ll go and feed them more grain.

Experience Years of experience: 31. Registered at ProZ.com: May 2007.
ProZ.com Certified PRO certificate(s) N/A
Credentials Albanian to English (Chartered Institute of Linguists, verified)
Romanian to English (Chartered Institute of Linguists, verified)
Basque to English (Chartered Institute of Linguists, verified)
Catalan to English (Cambridge University (Lang. Degrees))
Romany to English (Heritage speaker)


Memberships CIOL
Software Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, OmegaT, Powerpoint
Website http://www.albarolanguages.com
CV/Resume Please contact me direct to request my current language services brochure.
Professional practices Chris Hughes endorses ProZ.com's Professional Guidelines.
Bio
I am a linguist of 28 years' standing, specialising in translation and transcription of Afrikaans, Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Dutch, Galician, Portuguese, Balkan & Vlach Romani, Romanian, Romansh (Grischun) and Spanish. I also teach Albanian, Basque and Romanian and interpret from and into Albanian and Romanian. I was awarded the MBE in 2006 for services to language in the British Government and am an examiner for the Chartered Institute of Linguists Diploma in Translation in the Romanian to English, English to Albanian and Albanian to English combinations.

For further details, please visit my website: http://www.albarolanguages.com.
Keywords: Advertising, commercial, legal, drug trials, government, education, translation, consecutive interpreting, language tuition


Profile last updated
Dec 29, 2020






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