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English to Chinese: Medical translation sample General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - English Antibody-mediated immunotherapy
Exploration of immunotherapy for the treatment of malignancies using polyclonal Ab preparations began in the 1950s. Major advances in Ab-mediated immunotherapy emerged in 1975 when techniques for producing mAbs were developed, making it feasible to produce large quantities of identical Abs directed against specific antigens (Ags). The first cancer therapeutic Abs studied were of murine, rabbit, or rat origins obtained following immunization of the animal with an antigenic preparation. Patients often generated humoral immune response against these therapeutic Abs referred to as human anti-mouse Ab (HAMA) or human anti-rabbit/rat Ab (HARA), which blocked the efficacy of the therapeutic Ab by prematurely clearing the Ab, thus, limiting the possibilities for effective antitumor response. The host Ab responses were mainly immune complex-related adverse events such as serum sickness and anaphylaxis. For example, HAMA rates as high as 41% have been observed in previously untreated NHL patients receiving anti-B1 Ab. In addition to HARA and HAMA, murine, rabbit, and rat Abs are poorly able to recruit human effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), which facilitate the destruction of a tumor cell. To overcome obstacles inherent in the first generation Abs, hybrids composed of mouse or primate Ab regions linked with a human backbone were constructed. These are referred to as chimeric, humanized or primatized Abs, depending on the exact Ab structure. For instance, humanized Ab is a human Ab containing the complementarity- determining regions (CDR) of non-human origin and human constant regions. These genetically engineered Abs are potent inducers of ADCC and CDC and also have enhanced half-life which contributes to their efficacy. For instance, the half-life of the chimeric anti-CD20 Ab, rituximab, is 76 h after a single infusion and 206 h after four infusions, compared with 28 h for the murine counterpart, ibritumomab. The incidence of immune responses with secondgeneration Abs is also significantly lower than that seen with cross-species Abs. Examples of mAbs clinically used in the treatment of cancers are edrecolomab (Panorexs), which was approved in Europe in 1994 and trastuzumab (Herceptins) that was approved in the US in 1998. These mAbs, in combination with chemotherapy, are effectively used in the treatment of patients with colorectal and breast cancer, respectively. In February 2004, the food and drug administration (FDA) approved bevacizumab, antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mAb as a first-lime therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, which is the first therapeutic to target tumor angiogenesis.
Translation - Chinese 抗体介导的免疫治疗
使用多克隆抗体(Ab)制剂对恶性疾病免疫治疗的探索开始于20世纪50年代｡1975年开发了生产单克隆抗体(MAbs)的技术，使生产大量相同的针对特异性抗原(Ag)的抗体成为可能，抗体介导的免疫治疗出现了重大进展｡所研究的首批癌症治疗抗体为小鼠、兔、或大鼠源性的，是通过使用一种抗原制剂对动物免疫而制得｡患者往往对这些治疗性抗体产生体液免疫应答，称为人抗鼠抗体(HAMA)或人抗兔/鼠抗体(HARA)，由于抗体被过早清除而阻碍了疗效，因此限制了有效抗肿瘤反应的可能｡宿主抗体反应，主要是免疫复合物相关的不良事件，如血清病和过敏性反应｡例如，以前未经治疗的NHL患者接受抗- B1抗体的HAMA的发生率高达41 %｡除了HARA和HAMA，鼠、兔和大鼠抗体很难引起人效应功能——如抗体依赖的细胞毒性(ADCC)和补体依赖的细胞毒性(CDC)，这些功能都有利于摧毁肿瘤细胞｡为克服第一代抗体的固有缺陷，建立了鼠或灵长类抗体区与人的主干相连的杂交体｡根据确切的抗体结构，这些被称为嵌合体、人源化或灵长类源化抗体｡举例来说，人源化抗体是一种人类抗体，含有非人源性的互补决定区(CDR)和人恒定区｡这些基因工程抗体是ADCC和CDC的强力诱异剂，也增加了半衰期，这有助于其功效｡例如，嵌合抗CD20抗体利妥昔单抗的半衰期在一次输注后为76 h，四次输注后为206 h，与之相比，相对应的小鼠同等组分替伊莫单抗则为28h｡二代抗体的免疫反应的发生率也显著低于跨物种抗体｡临床上用于治疗癌症所使用的单克隆抗体的例子有：1994年欧洲批准的依决洛单抗(Panorexs)，和美国于1998年批准的曲妥珠单抗(Herceptins)｡这些单克隆抗体与化疗联合使用，分别有效地用于治疗结肠癌和乳腺癌｡2004年2月，美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)批准贝伐单抗——抗血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)的单克隆抗体作为转移性结直肠癌治疗的一线治疗方法，它是针对肿瘤血管生成的第一种治疗药物｡
English to Chinese: Clinical medicine: Infection
Source text - English Furunculosis
Furunculosis is an infection of a hair follicle in the lateral part of the external canal - usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
16 It causes unilateral pain that is worse on eating (due to the proximity of the temporomandibular joint) and on movement of the pinna.
Since it can obstruct the ear canal, patients can have hearing loss.
The furuncle may discharge pus.
Otoscopy reveals a red, localised pustule in the canal.
It is best treated with a course of oral flucloxacillin (or erythromycin in penicillin sensitive patients).
An ear wick can ease pain and reduce swelling.
If these measures fail the patient may need referral for further management, for example incision and drainage.
Master of Pharmacology,
Bachelor of Clinical Medicine
Proofreader of NCCN Guidelines – Chinese Edition
Since 2003, I have performed the following
tasks on a regular basis:
· Worked as a freelance English
to Chinese translator/proofreader.
· Translated a wide range of medically-related
o Clinical trial proposals
o Patient informed consent
o Pharmacology reports
o Pharmaceutical package inserts
o Medical instruments manuals
In 2010, I began assisting Chinese patients
travelling to the United States for medical treatment. Assisting patients
included the regular translation of English medical records, computed
tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography
(PET) scans and pathology reports. To date, over 600 patients have made use of
my translation skills
1. Final proofreader for the simplified
Chinese version of the annual National Comprehensive Cancer Network’s (NCCN) Clinical
Practice Guidelines in Oncology from 2014 up to now. The information contained
in each sentence, figure and chart was validated and verified. Any missing
information and/or errors were corrected.
2. Translator and editor of clinical
trial protocols for informed consents of clinical trials conducted in China
between U.S. pharmaceutical companies and Chinese hospitals.
3. Translator of medical records,
CT and MRI scans as well as immunohistochemistry (IHC) and pathology reports
from Chinese to English for Chinese patients seeking additional medical
treatment in the U.S. Translated reports and findings from U.S. experts to
4. Translator of medical
instrument manuals and pharmaceutical package inserts.
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