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Portfolio Sample translations submitted: 55
German to English: Anti-money laundering manual
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - German
Verdachtsmeldung an den/die Geldwäschebeauftragte(n)

Hat sich im Laufe des Identifizierungsprozesses oder der Geschäftsbeziehung der Verdacht oder berechtigte Grund zur Annahme ergeben, dass
 die Geschäftsbeziehung der Geldwäscherei oder Terrorismusfinanzierung dient, oder
 der Kunde zur Offenlegung von Treuhandbeziehungen zuwidergehandelt hat oder
 der Kunde einer terroristischen Vereinigung angehört, oder die Transaktion bzw. die Geschäftsbeziehung der Terrorismusfinanzierung dient,
ist jeder Mitarbeiter und jede Mitarbeiterin, welchen eine auffällige bzw. verdächtige Finanztransaktion bzw. Geschäftsverbindungseröffnung angetragen wird, verpflichtet, den Vorgang unverzüglich an den/die Geldwäschebeauftragte(n) zu melden. Dies auch dann, wenn die Geschäftsverbindung bzw. die Einzeltransaktion abgelehnt wird.
Auch nachträglich entstehender Geldwäscheverdacht ist umgehend dem/der Geldwäschebeauftragten zu melden.
Eine derartige Verdachtsmeldung kann mittels E-mail an den/die Geldwäschebeauftragte(n) erfolgen.
Benötigt wird hierbei eine kurze Sachverhaltsdarstellung.
44
Auf Basis dieser Meldung prüft der/die Geldwäschebeauftragte den Sachverhalt und legt das weitere Vorgehen fest.
Ist eine sofortige Beurteilung auf Basis der vorliegenden Informationen nicht möglich, kann dem Kundenbetreuer zur Klärung die Einholung ergänzender Informationen aufgetragen werden.
Im Einzelfall können folgende Unterlagen (Kopie) erforderlich sein:
 Kontoeröffnungsunterlagen
 Identitätsnachweise
 Rechnungen
 Verträge (Kauf-, Liefer-, Kreditverträge)
 Unterlagen zu Dokumentengeschäften (L/C-Eröffnung, Garantien)
 Schecks bzw. Wechsel
 Firmenbuchauszug
 Überweisungsaufträge
 Buchungsbelege
 bei auffälligen Zahlungseingängen SWIFT-Kopien
Auf Basis dieser Informationen und nach Rücksprache mit dem Kundenbetreuer beurteilt der/die Geldwäschebeauftragte das mit dieser Kundenbeziehung verbundene potenzielle Risiko und entscheidet über allfällige Auflagen zur laufenden Kontrolle bei Fortsetzung der Kundenbeziehung.
Nach Prüfung des Sachverhaltes entscheidet der/die Geldwäschebeauftragte über eine zu erfolgende Meldung an die zuständige Behörde.
Translation - English
Reporting suspicions to the money laundering officer

If, in the process of identification or the business relationship, suspicion or legitimate reason has been created for an employee to assume
• that the business relationship is conducive to money laundering or the financing of terrorism or
• that the client has not acted in good faith in disclosing trustee relationships or
• that the client is a member of a terrorist group or the transaction and/or the business relationship is conducive to terrorism financing,
that employee to whom a conspicuous or suspicious financial transaction or business connection is proposed is obligated to report the occurrence immediately to the money laundering officer. This must also be done even if the business connection or individual transaction is rejected.
In addition, suspicion of money laundering that arises at a later point must be immediately reported to the money laundering officer.
This suspicion can be reported to the money laundering official by email.
In doing so, a short statement of facts is needed.

Based on this report, the money laundering officer will examine the facts and determine the next steps in the process.
If immediate assessment based on the available information is not possible, the account manager may be instructed to obtain supplementary information for clarification.
Depending on the case, the following documents (copies) may be required:
• Account opening documents
• Proof of identity
• Invoices
• Contracts (purchase, supply or credit agreements)
• Documentary business documents (letter of credit opening, guarantees)
• Checks and/or bills of exchange
• Company register extract
• Transfer orders
• Booking documents
• SWIFT message copies in cases of conspicuous cash inflows
Based on this information and following consultation with the account manager, the money laundering officer will assess the potential risk associated with this client relationship and will make a decision regarding possible requirements for continuous monitoring of the ongoing client relationship.
After an assessment of the facts, the money laundering officer will determine whether to report the situation to the appropriate authorities.
German to English: Excerpt from book-length history of World War II
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: History
Source text - German
LÜTTICH
Hitlers linke Flanke in der Normandie war im Begriff sich aufzulösen – operativ eine eindeutige Warnung, die Defensive im Westen auf anderem Boden zu organisieren. Des Führers gewohnt unabänderlicher Wille aber sah Offensiveres vor. Die inzwischen weit auseinanderliegenden US-Verbände in der Normandie und der Bretagne waren nur durch einen schmalen Korridor zwischen Avranches und Mortain, an der Grenze von Normandie und Bretagne, verbunden. Bradley war sich der Gefahr bewusst, dass die Third Army an dieser Stelle abgeschnitten werden konnte. Auch Hitler im fernen Rastenburg erkannte die theoretische Möglichkeit und übermittelte von Kluge Befehle, den Avranches–Mortain-Korridor in einem Gegenangriff zu schließen und die Third Army zu isolieren. Die taktischen Symbole auf Hitlers Karten in Ostpreußen vermittelten aber ein trügerisches Bild der in Wirklichkeit erschöpften und ausgebluteten deutschen Verbände in der Normandie. Panzerdivisionen bestanden aus 20 Panzern, wo 150 sein sollten, Infanteriedivisionen waren gleichermaßen auf 10 bis 20 % ihrer Stärke reduziert. Von Kluge war sich der Tatsache bewusst, dass mit diesen Kräften kein erfolgreicher Gegenangriff zu führen war. Von Kluge, ein (passiv) Beteiligter des 20. Juli , war sich aber ebenfalls der Tatsache bewusst, dass Rückzug vorzuschlagen nach dem versuchten Tyrannenmord keine Option mehr war. Nach Stauffenbergs Anschlag war das gesamte deutsche Offizierskorps in Hitlers Augen entehrt und unter Generalverdacht. Seine Kommandeure konnten ihre Loyalität nur durch unbedingte Befehlsausführung unter Beweis stellen. Von Kluge musste aus Gründen des Selbstschutzes den Super-Loyalen spielen und startete in der Nacht des 6. August Operation LÜTTICH , den Gegenangriff auf den Avranche–Mortain-Korridor.
Am 9. August, zwei Tage nach dem Beginn von LÜTTICH, besuchte Henry Morgenthau Bradleys 12th US Army Group im Zuge einer Tour durch das European Theater of Operations. Im Gespräch überraschte der General den Minister mit seiner Meinung, der Gegenangriff wäre …an opportunity that comes to a commander not more than once in a century. We’re about to destroy an entire hostile Army. Von seinen Kommandeuren vor Ort überzeugt, dass sie den Avranches–Mortaine-Korridor offen halten konnten, entschied er sich für ein gewagtes und gleichzeitig vielversprechendes Manöver. Anstatt Teile der Third Army aus der Bretagne zurückzubeordern, um ihre Verbindungslinien im Korridor zu stützen, befahl er Patton einen All-out-Schwenk nach Osten, um seinerseits den deutschen Gegenangriff abzuschneiden und einzukreisen. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt war auf deutscher Seite schon absehbar, dass Operation LÜTTICH gescheitert war. Wenige Tage später begannen sich auf den Lagekarten beider Seiten die Umrisse dessen abzuzeichnen, was später unter dem Namen Falaise Pocket den Untergang der Heeresgruppe B in Nordfrankreich symbolisieren sollte.
Bislang bestand für die deutschen Verbände in Nordfrankreich die Möglichkeit, sich in einem geordneten Rückzug hinter die Seine zurückzuziehen und dort neue Defensivpositionen zu beziehen. Als sich der Ring um Falaise zu schließen begann, blieb nur noch, so viele Truppen wie möglich aus der Umfassung zu befreien und die Flucht an die Grenzen des Reichs anzutreten. Aufgrund von Abstimmungsschwierigkeiten wurde das alliierte Umfassungsmanöver nicht vollendet und Tausende deutsche Soldaten konnten entkommen. Nichtsdestotrotz war die Wehrmacht westlich der Seine geschlagen und dem Circulus vitiosus eines übereilten Rückzugs und zerstörter Kommunikationsverbindungen ausgesetzt. Wenige Kommandeure wussten, wo sich ihre Verbände befanden. Fragmentierte Divisionen blockierten in ihrer Stampede ostwärts Verkehrsverbindungen. Brennstoff- und Munitionsnachschub kam nicht bei den Verbrauchern an und Fahrzeuge mussten liegen gelassen werden. Ende August erreichten die versprengten Überreste der Heeresgruppe B vorbereitete Defensivpositionen entlang der Flüsse Marne und Somme. Sie waren aber inzwischen zu erschöpft, desorganisiert und demoralisiert, um diese Stellungen zu halten. Kurz darauf nahm die First Army in einem erneuten Umfassungsmanöver bei Mons 25.000 Gefangene und neutralisierte so, was von der Heeresgruppe B noch übrig war. During 1943 his direction of the war had lost him Armies, schreibt John Keegan über Hitler, in 1944 it had begun to lose him whole Army Groups. Die Heeresgruppe B, mit 56 Infanterie- und elf Panzerdivisionen einst die machtvollste Formation im Register der deutschen Wehrmacht, war nach Falaise de facto zerstört. 50.000 deutsche Soldaten waren in den zehn Wochen seit D-Day gefallen, mindestens 200.000 warteten in Kriegsgefangenenkäfigen darauf, nach Großbritannien oder in die USA ausgeschifft zu werden. Die kümmerlichen Reste der Wehrmacht versuchten, alliierte Verbände ihnen dicht auf den Fersen, einen Weg über die Seine und zurück ins Reich zu finden.
Translation - English
LÜTTICH
Hitler᾽s left flank in Normandy was at the point of disintegration – operationally, a clear warning that it was time to fall back and reorganize western defenses in another location. The Führer᾽s typically immutable position was to call instead for greater offense. The American armies, which had in the meantime become widely separated from one another in Normandy and Brittany, respectively, were only linked by a narrow corridor between Avranches and Mortain along the Normandy-Brittany divide. Bradley was conscious of the danger that the Third Army could be cut off at this point. From his own location in far-off Rastenburg, Hitler too recognized the theoretical possibility, sending orders to Kluge to counterattack through the Avranches–Mortain corridor in order to isolate Third Army. However, the tactical symbols on Hitler᾽s maps in East Prussia painted a false picture of the German forces in Normandy who, in reality, were exhausted and bled dry. Armored divisions that should have been equipped with 150 tanks now had only 20; infantry divisions, similarly, were reduced to between 10 and 20 percent of their full strength. Kluge was aware of the fact that a successful counterattack could not be mounted with forces like these. Nonetheless, Kluge, a (passive) participant in the July 20 plot , was equally mindful that to propose retreat after the failed tyrannicide was no longer an option. Following Stauffenberg᾽s attempt, the entire German officer corps was without honor in Hitler’s eyes and under general suspicion. His commanders could prove their loyalty only through unconditional execution of his orders. For his own self-protection, Kluge was forced to appear loyal in the extreme, and for this reason he launched Operation LÜTTICH , the counterattack on the Avranche-Mortain corridor, during the night of August 6.
On August 9, two days before the launch of LÜTTICH, Henry Morgenthau visited Bradley᾽s 12th U.S. Army Group during the course of a tour of the European Theater of Operations. In his conversations, the Secretary surprised the General with his view that the German counterattack would be an opportunity that comes to a commander not more than once in a century. We’re about to destroy an entire hostile Army. Convinced by his field commanders that they could keep the Avranches-Mortaine corridor open, he decided on a daring yet promising maneuver. Instead of redeploying part of the Third Army out of Brittany in order to support its connections in the corridor, he ordered Patton to make an all-out swing to the east in order to cut off the counterattack and encircle the German forces. The Germans could already foresee by this point that Operation LÜTTICH had failed. A few days later, the situation maps of both sides began to feature the outlines of what would soon, under the name ῾Falaise pocket᾽, signify the downfall of Army Group B in northern France.
Up until then, German forces in northern France still retained the possibility of staging an orderly withdrawal across the Seine and establishing new defensive positions there. As the ring around Falaise began to close, however, all that was left to them was to save as many troops as possible from encirclement and make a run for the borders of the Reich. Difficulties in coordination kept the Allies from completing their encircling maneuver, and thousands of German soldiers were able to escape the enclosure. Nevertheless, the Wehrmacht was beaten west of the Seine and exposed to the vicious circle of a hasty retreat and disrupted communications links. Few commanders knew where their formations were. In their stampede, fragmented divisions hampered eastward traffic connections. Supplies of fuel and ammunition failed to reach units that needed them, and vehicles had to be abandoned. At the end of August, the scattered remnants of Army Group B reached the prepared defensive emplacements along the Marne and Somme Rivers. By this time, however, they had become too exhausted, disorganized and demoralized to hold these fortifications. Shortly thereafter, in a new encircling maneuver near Mons, the First Army captured 25,000 prisoners and thus neutralized what was left of Army Group B. During 1943 his direction of the war had lost him Armies, writes John Keegan of Hitler; in 1944 it had begun to lose him whole Army Groups. Following Falaise, Germany’s Army Group B, which, with its 56 infantry and 11 tank divisions, had once been the Wehrmacht᾽s most powerful formation, was effectively destroyed. Fifty thousand German soldiers had fallen in the 10 weeks since D-Day, and at least 200,000 were behind bars as prisoners of war, awaiting embarkation for Great Britain or the United States. The feeble remains of the Wehrmacht, with Allied forces close at their heels, tried to find some way across the Seine and back to the Reich.
German to English: Excerpt from book-length text on Reichstag renovation
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Architecture
Source text - German
Die weitere detaillierte Ausgestaltung soll vom Architekten im Rahmen der Entwurfsplanung erarbeitet werden. Dies gilt insbesondere für ein Konzept der natürlichen Belichtung und Belüftung des Plenarsaals. Bei der Baukommissionssitzung am 10. Februar 1995 war Sir Norman Foster persönlich anwesend und erinnerte an den Planungsstand vom 16. Juni 1994. Dieser war der Ausgangspunkt des neuen Entwurfes deren Zielsetzung es war unter anderem eine natürliche Belichtung und Belüftung des Gebäudes und dem Besucher eine Aussichtsplattform zu bieten. Der Forderung nach einer Kuppel sei man nachgekommen, die im Grundriss grösser geworden sei und sich den historischen Umrissen - aber rund bleibend - weit annähere. SNFP entwickelte die Kuppel weiter und präsentierte sie jetzt in einer oben abgeschnittenen Form. Abg. Conradi erklärte, dass ihm die frühere Leuchtturmvariante - weil entschiedener und kräftiger - eher zugesagt habe, er weiß jedoch, dass die Mehrheit sich für eine Kuppel ausgesprochen hat und glaube, dass der jetzt vorgestellte Ansatz die Zustimmung der SPD Fraktion finden könnte. Es handelt sich um eine moderne Kuppel, die dem aktuellen Architekturgeist entspreche.
Translation - English
The remaining details of the design were to be worked out by the architect in the context of his conceptual planning. This specifically applied to the concept of natural lighting and ventilation of the Plenary Chamber. Sir Norman Foster was personally present at the Building Committee session of February 10, 1995 to remind the group of the June 16, 1994 plan. This was the starting point for the new design, the goals of which included furnishing the building with natural light and ventilation and providing visitors with a viewing platform. He recalled that this design fulfilled the requirement of a dome that, while remaining round, would become some what larger in its layout and would broadly approximate the original dome contour. Foster and Partners developed the cupola further and now presented it in a form that cropped the top. Bundestag Member Conradi stated that, while he had been in favor of the earlier lighthouse version for being stronger and more resolute, he was aware that the majority had spoken in favor of a cupola, and he believed that the approach being presented would gain the support of the SPD. It was a modern cupola capturing the architectural spirit of today.
German to English: Excerpt from book-length architectural text
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Architecture
Source text - German
Bei einem Großteil unserer Projekte bearbeiten wir neben der Architektur die Außenanlagenplanung. Für meine gesamtheitlichen Gedankengänge sind die Außenräume von großer Bedeutung. Außenraumplanungen, die keinen Bezug zu den jeweiligen Gebäuden haben, empfinde ich als störend und missachten die Gedanken der Architekten. Meine Gebäude besitzen großflächige Öffnungen, die den Innen- und Außenraum verschmelzen lassen. Im Sommer können die Fensterelemente großformatig geöffnet werden. Deswegen ist der nach außen angrenzende Raum außerordentlich wichtig. Meine Architekturen beruhen auf Bezügen und Blickachsen. Aus diesem Grund ist es für mich entscheidend, welches außenliegende Ziel den Blick fängt. Bei der Auswahl der Pflanzen orientiere ich mich, neben den standortbedingten Möglichkeiten, an der für mich richtigen Wirkung. Dies kann eine filigrane oder kräftige Aussage sein, abhängig von der jeweiligen räumlichen Situation. Ein filigraner Spitzahorn kann seine Strahlkraft vor einer rauhen massiven Wand als Hintergrund unheimlich gut entfalten. Auch die Farbgebung der Blüten und die Herbstfärbung spielen für mich bei der Auswahl eine entscheidende Rolle. Bäume begeistern mich bereits seit meiner Kindheit. Die vielfältigen Wirkungen und Farbgebungen sind unglaublich beeindruckend. Die rosafarbene Kirschblüte oder die intensiv rote Herbstfärbung eines Ahorns können akzentuierende Blickfänge zu den Gebäuden sein. Die Pflanzen kombiniere ich häufig mit architektonischen Elementen wie Sichtbetonbänke oder -wände. Der Kontrast von Natürlichem und Künstlichem befruchtet sich gegenseitig. Wenn der notwendige Platz vorhanden ist, verwende ich gerne Wasserflächen für ein angenehmes Mikroklima. Mit den spiegelnden Wasserflächen können interessante raumgreifende Bilder erzeugt werden. Für einen Sichtschutz benutze ich immergrüne Hecken, die bei Wohnbauten die Privatheit gegen unerwünschte Blicke schützen. In neuen Wohngebieten wird die Privatheit der Bewohner in den Planungen der Außenanlagen vielfach nicht genügend berücksichtigt. Aus meiner Sicht wird die Wichtigkeit von Außenräumen für Gebäude häufig unterschätzt. Anders ist die Vernachlässigung vielerorts nicht zu erklären. Gestaltete Außenanlagen müssen für mich entsprechend ablesbar sein. Sie sollen nicht natürlich gewachsen erscheinen. Dies ist für mich Bestandteil einer ehrlichen Haltung.
Translation - English
In most of our projects, we not only manage the architecture but also implement the plan for outdoor facilities. Open-air spaces are highly significant in my overall thought processes. I am disturbed by plans for outdoor facilities that have no relationship to their respective buildings and that disregard the architect’s thinking. My buildings feature large-scale openings that merge interior and exterior spaces. In the summer, large-format window elements can be opened. For this reason, the space adjoining the outdoor areas is of extraordinary importance. My architects base themselves on relationships and sightlines. Because of this, it is crucial to me to consider what exterior objects will attract the eye. In landscaping, my orientation in selecting plants is to consider not only the site-related possibilities but also what I see as the right effect. This can be a delicate or powerful statement, depending on the respective spatial situation. A slender Norway maple can display its radiance exceptionally well when positioned against the backdrop of a rough and massive wall. In my choices, even the colors of blossoms and the autumnal foliage play a decisive role. Trees have fascinated me since childhood days. Their manifold effects and colorings are unbelievably impressive. The striking pink blossoms of a cherry tree or the intensive red fall colors of a maple can accentuate the buildings. I frequently combine the plantings with architectural elements like exposed concrete benches or walls. A cross-fertilization is achieved by the contrast between the natural and the artificial. Where there is sufficient space, I readily employ water motifs for a pleasant micro-climate. Reflections emanating from water surfaces can produce images that fill spaces in interesting ways. In residential constructions, I use evergreen hedges as a privacy screen to guarantee seclusion and guard against unwanted viewing. In new residential developments, the privacy of the residents is in many cases not sufficiently taken into consideration in the planning of outdoor facilities. In my view, the importance of open-air installations to buildings is frequently underestimated. There is no other way to explain the negligence that occurs in so many places. For me, structured outdoor facilities must be correspondingly recognizable. They should not appear to be natural outgrowths. I consider this to be a component of an honest approach to design.
German to English: Excerpt from psychological self-help book
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Psychology
Source text - German
Alle negativen körperlichen und psychischen Begleitfolgen eines Krankenhaus- oder Heimaufenthalts nennt man Hospitalismus. Dazu gehören auch das mangelnde Umsorgen und die lieblose Behandlung von Säuglingen und Kindern. Berühmt sind in dieser Hinsicht die bahnbrechenden Untersuchungen des Psychoanalytikers René A. Spitz. Die eindringlichen Bilder seiner filmischen Dokumentation seelischen Leides von verlassenen Babys lösten selbst in Fachkreisen tiefe Bestürzung aus. Spitz und seine Mitarbeiter beobachteten Kleinkinder, die im dritten Lebensmonat von ihren Müttern getrennt wurden. Die Säuglinge verblieben in einem Waisenhaus, in dem sie hygienisch und medizinisch in jeder Hinsicht angemessen versorgt wurden. Da aber nur eine Säuglingsschwester für durchschnittlich acht bis zwölf Kinder zur Verfügung stand, mussten die Kinder allmählich »psychisch verhungern«: »Sie bekamen etwa ein Zehntel der normalen affektiven Zufuhr, die sie in der üblichen Mutter-Kind-Beziehung bekommen hätten.« Nach der Trennung von ihren Müttern zeigten die Kinder zunächst Symptome des fortschreitenden Verfalls. Nach drei Monaten wiesen sie gravierende Verzögerungen in der Entwicklung auf: »Die Verlangsamung der Motorik kam voll zum Ausdruck; die Kinder wurden völlig passiv; sie lagen in ihren Bettchen auf dem Rücken. Sie erreichten nicht das Stadium motorischer Beherrschung, das notwendig ist, um sich in die Bauchlage zu drehen. Der Gesichtsausdruck wurde leer und oft schwachsinnig, die Koordination der Augen ließ nach. In den Testleistungen zeigten diese Kinder ein fortschreitendes Zurückbleiben. Der durchschnittliche Entwicklungsquotient betrug am Ende des zweiten Lebensjahres im Durchschnitt nur mehr 45 Prozent der Altersnorm. Von den 91 anfänglich im Findelhaus beobachteten Kindern waren bis zum Ende des zweiten Lebensjahres 34 gestorben, 57 lebten noch.«

Im Grunde genommen haben wir es im übertragenen Sinne aber auch mit einem weit verbreiteten »Erwachsenen-Hospitalismus« zu tun. Wodurch entsteht diese »Krankheit«? Wie kann so etwas sein, wenn man weder als Kind noch später als Erwachsener im Hospital war? Die Gründe können mannigfaltig sein und liegen verborgen in der individuellen Geschichte unserer Kindheit: Die Mutter strafte das Kind mit Zärtlichkeitsentzug, wenn es nicht artig war oder wenn es sich nicht ihrer Vorstellung gemäß verhielt. Ein neues Geschwisterchen erhielt alle Aufmerksamkeit oder die Eltern hatten die Einstellung, wenn ein Kind über sechs Jahre alt, ist braucht es keine Zärtlichkeit und Zuwendung mehr.

In Wirklichkeit braucht jedoch jeder Mensch bis zu seinem Tod immer wieder Umarmungen und Streicheleinheiten – zuerst von seinen Eltern, dann von der Peergroup und schließlich von seinen Liebespartnern. Das ist das äußere Geschehen. Es gilt jedoch auch die innere Situation zu beachten. In der Psyche eines jeden Menschen bleibt die Eltern-Kind-Beziehung ein Leben lang bestehen.
Translation - English
All the negative physical and psychological side effects of a stay in a hospital or clinic are called “hospitalism”. This definition also includes the deficient care and unloving treatment of infants and children. The pioneering research of the psychoanalyst René A. Spitz in this area is well known. The vivid images documented in his films on the psychological suffering of abandoned infants triggered deep consternation even among professionals. Spitz and his colleagues observed small children who had been separated from their mothers by the age of three months. The infants remained in a foundling house, where they were provided with hygienic conditions and medical care in every respect. Since there was only one nurse for between eight and twelve infants, however, they gradually developed “psychological starvation.” “They received approximately one tenth the amount of emotional attention they would have enjoyed in a normal mother-child relationship.” Following separation from their mothers, the children initially displayed symptoms of advanced decline. After three months, they exhibited serious developmental lags: “The retardation of motor skills was fully in evidence; the children were completely passive; they lay on their backs in their cribs. They did not achieve the level of motor development necessary to turn onto their stomachs. Their facial expressions were blank and often vacuous, their eye coordination declined. The children’s test performance revealed progressive shortfall. The average developmental quotient by the end of their second year of life was just 45 percent of their age norm. Of 91 children we initially observed in the foundling house, 34 had died by the end of the second year, while 57 were still living.”

In a figurative sense, however, we are basically dealing with a widespread “adult hospitalism”. What is the origin of this “illness”? How can this be if a person has never been hospitalized as either a child or an adult? The reasons can be manifold, and they lie concealed in the personal history of our childhood: the mother withholds tenderness as punishment for the child who misbehaves or failes to live up to her expectations. A new baby in the family draws all the attention, or the parents decide that a child over six years old no longer needs tenderness and affection.

In fact, we all need to be hugged and caressed for all our life – initially by parents, then by a peer group, and finally by our partner. That is what happens on the outside. It is also important to consider what takes place internally, however. The parent-child relationship remains in the psyche of every individual for a lifetime.
German to English: Journal article on theater in 1920s Berlin
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Cinema, Film, TV, Drama
Source text - German
Grillparzer und Heine, die Werke der deutschen Klassik und schlieβlich die russischen Dramatiker hätten im jiddischen Drama ihren Einfluβ hinterlassen. Die Entwicklung der jiddischen Dramatik von Abraham Goldfaden über Jacob Gordin und David Pinski habe jedoch zu nichts anderem auf der Bühne geführt alz zu "entartetem Naturalismus, triefender Sentimentalität und hanebüchener Possenreiβerei".
Translation - English
Grillparzer and Heine, the works of German Classicism and lastly the Russian playwrights had, he maintains, all left their imprint on Yiddish drama; but the development of Yiddish dramatists from Abraham Goldfaden to Jacob Gordin and David Pinski had - he claimed - brought nothing to the stage but “degenerate naturalism, dripping sentimentality and scandalous, lurid buffoonery.”
German to English: Visiting Berlin after the wall had fallen
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: History
Source text - German
1989 bekam ich im Fernsehen mit, dass die
Wiedervereinigung der zwei geteilten Hälften Deutschlands stattfand. Als geborener Berliner war das eines der größten Ereignisse meines Lebens. Ich hätte nie daran gedacht, diese Wiedervereinigung jemals zu erleben. Doch nun endlich war sie geschehen. Die Bilder der fröhlichen Leute, die von Ost nach West kamen, sind mir immer noch in starker Erinnerung. Damals war mir klar, dass ich zurück nach Deutschland gehen musste.

Ich wollte unbedingt einen großen Teil der Mauer besichtigen, deshalb gingen wir zum Märkischen Viertel auf der West-Berliner Seite. Natürlich wollte ich damals auch ein Stück dieser Mauer als Mitbringsel mit nach Amerika nehmen. Deshalb hatte ich mir zuvor einen Flachmeißel gekauft und versuchte, damit Teile aus der Mauer zu klopfen.

Neben mir meißelte ein kleiner Junge, ungefähr zwölf Jahre alt, dem es wesentlich besser gelang als mir. Ich fragte ihn, wie er das mache. Er erklärte, dass sein Meißel einen spitzen Kopf habe, aufgrund dessen er mit wenigen Schlägen Stücke herausbrechen könne.

Translation - English
In 1989, I witnessed on television the reunification of the two divided halves of Germany. As a Berlin native, I considered this one of the greatest events of my life. Though I would never have expected to experience this reunification, it had finally occurred. The images of happy people coming over from East to West are still fresh in my memory. It was clear to me at that time that I needed to return to Germany.

I absolutely had to visit a larger section of the Berlin Wall, so we went to the Märkisches Viertel section on the West Berlin side of the wall. Of course, I wanted to bring a souvenir piece of the wall back to the U.S. I had purchased a flat chisel for this purpose, and I tried to use it to chip pieces from the wall.

Standing next to me, a boy of around 12 was having much better success with his chiseling than I was. I asked him how he managed do this. He explained that his chisel had a pointed head that allowed him to break off pieces with just a few strokes.


German to English: Hamburg's major tourist attractions
General field: Other
Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - German
Bei der Roten Flora handelt es sich um ein alternatives Stadtteilzentrum, das weit über die Stadtgrenzen bekannt ist. Ursprünglich war die Flora, erbaut im Jahr 1886, ein Konzerthaus. Von 1953 bis 1964 diente es als Kino, bis im Jahr 1964 ein Haushaltswarenladen einzog. 1987 sollte es dann durch ein neues Musicalhaus ersetzt werden, was zu heftigen Protestaktionen führte. Infolge dieser Proteste kam es 1989 zur Besetzung und neuen Namensgebung des Hauses.
Auch wenn auf den ersten Blick nichts zu erkennen ist, birgt dieser Ort viel Historie in sich. Hier, am schrägen Verlauf einer Mauer, lässt sich noch heute die ehemalige Staatsgrenze, die Hamburg von der noch bis 1938 eigenständigen Stadt Altona trennte, erkennen.
Hamburgs höchstes Bauwerk und Wahrzeichen der Stadt wurde 1968 fertiggestellt. Der Fernmeldeturm, auch „Telemichel“ genannt, misst stolze 279,8 Meter und wiegt 43.000 Tonnen.
Egal ob Sonne oder Regen, Sommer oder Winter: die Flohschanze, der Trödelmarkt in der Schanze, ist bei Hamburgern Kult und lädt jeden Samstag von 08:00 bis 16:00 Uhr zur Entdeckungstour ein.
Das Heiligengeistfeld beherbergt nicht nur ein Fußballstadion und einen großen Bunker, hier finden auch die größten Veranstaltungen der Stadt statt. Wie beispielsweise dreimal im Jahr: der Hamburger Dom – das größte Volksfest des Nordens.
Wer up to date sein möchte, kommt an Messebesuchen nicht vorbei, und hat in Hamburg immer die Möglichkeit dazu. Unter den regelmäßig stattfindenden Messen und Ausstellungen der Hamburg Messe ist mit Sicherheit auch für Sie was dabei.
Planten un Blomen , plattdeutsch für „Pflanzen und Blumen“, gilt als einer der schönsten Parks Deutschlands. Die etwa 47 ha große Grünanlage lockt mit vielfältigen Themenschwerpunkten und diversen Veranstaltungen, wie z.B. den abendlichen Wasserlichtkonzerten, zahlreiche Besucher an.

Das Stage Theater Neue Flora zählt zu den wichtigsten und größten Musicaltheater in Deutschland. Es wurde extra für das Musical „Das Phantom der Oper“ erbaut, und glänzte und glänzt seither als Spielstätte diverser namhafter Musicals wie „Tanz der Vampire“, „Tarzan“ oder eben „Das Phantom der Oper“.
Die Landungsbrücken im Hamburger Hafen gehören zu den großen Wahrzeichen der Stadt. Von hier aus kann man nicht nur eine Hafenrundfahrt mit traditioneller Barkasse starten, sondern auch das historische Museumsschiff Rickmer Rickmers besichtigen.
Der alte Elbtunnel, auch "St. Pauli Elbtunnel" genannt, wurde 1911 eröffnet, misst 426,5 m und gilt als erste Flussuntertunnelung Europas. Als öffentlicher Verkehrsweg kann er von Fußgängern und Radfahrern – eingeschränkt auch von Autofahrern – genutzt werden und ist allemal einen Ausflug wert.
Wer von Geschichte im Museum für Völkerkunde nichts hält, ist hier genau richtig. Das Hamburg Dungeon bietet Ihnen eine faszinierende und zugleich gruselige Reise durch über 600 Jahre dunkelster Hamburger Geschichte. Überraschende Effekte, filmreife Kulissen und echte Darsteller versprechen ein unvergessliches Erlebnis.
Das Stage Theater im Hafen liegt direkt im Hamburger Freihafen, und ist somit nur per Boot zu erreichen. Das 1994 erbaute Gebäude wurde ursprünglich für das Musical „Buddy“ errichtet. Nach dem Ende der Spielzeit wurde es dann für das Musical „König der Löwen“, das dort seit 2001 aufgeführt wird, vollkommen neu umgebaut.
Das Miniatur Wunderland ist die größte Modelleisenbahnanlage der Welt und befindet sich in der Hamburger Speicherstadt. Hier kann man auf über 1.300 qm die Welt entdecken und von Tessin bis nach Vegas reisen.
Der Jungfernstieg, die erste asphaltierte Straße Deutschlands, ist eine der beliebtesten Flaniermeilen der Stadt. Von hier aus kann man einen gemütlichen Spaziergang rund um die Binnenalster starten oder sich einfach auf eine historische Alsterrundfahrt auf dem Alsterdampfer begeben.
Die HafenCity, Hamburgs jüngster Stadtteil, ist das größte Städteentwicklungsprojekt der Stadt. Das Viertel, entlang der Elbe auf dem Gebiet der alten Speicherstadt, ist komplett mit Fluss- und Kanalläufen umgeben und beherbergt, neben der Elbphilharmonie, dem neuen Wahrzeichen der Stadt, zahlreiche weitere architektonische Highlights.
Das Hamburger Rathaus, Sitz der Bürgerschaft und des Senates der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg, wurde 1897 fertiggestellt und verfügt über 647 Zimmer. Erbaut wurde es mit italienischen und norddeutschen Elementen der Renaissance und ist 111 m lang und (mit Turm) 112 m hoch.
Tierpark Hagenbeck, ehemals Hagenbecks Tierpark, der weltweit erste Tierpark ohne Gitter, eröffnete seine Pforten 1907. In der teils denkmalgeschützten Anlage des Tierparks erwarten den Besucher über 210 Tierarten. Und im Tropen-Aquarium gleich nebenan: über 300 Arten.
Der Hamburger Stadtpark wurde 1914 als Volkspark eröffnet und zählt seither zu den beliebtesten Grünanlagen der Stadt. Auf dem 149 ha großen Areal befindet sich, neben einem großen Spielplatz, Liegewiesen, Stadtparksee und zahlreichen Sportflächen, auch Hamburgs einziges Planetarium.
Translation - English
Rote Flora has become an alternative neighborhood center whose fame has spread far beyond the city. Built in 1886, “Flora” was originally a concert hall. From 1953 to 1964 it served as a cinema, and after that, a hardware store. In 1987 it was to become a music hall again, but this plan sparked fierce protest activities. As a result, the building was occupied by the protesters and its name was changed.
It may not appear so at first glance, but this place holds a great deal of history. Here, along the diagonal path of a wall, it is still possible to make out the border that once separated Hamburg from Altona, which was an independent city until 1938.
Hamburg’s tallest building and city landmark was completed in 1968. The Telecommunications Tower, also called “Telemichel,” stands 279.8 meters high and weighs 43,000 tons.
In sunny or rainy weather, summer or winter, the Schanze neighborhood’s cult-favorite Flohschanze flea market welcomes shoppers every Saturday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
The grounds at Heiligengeistfeld not only feature a soccer stadium and an enormous World War II air raid shelter -- this is also where the city’s largest events take place. One such example, occurring three times a year, is northern Germany’s most popular public festival, the Hamburger Dom.
It is impossible to stay up to date on the latest product developments without going to a trade show, and in Hamburg the possibilities are never-ending. Without doubt you will find something of interest in the steady stream of trade fairs and exhibitions at the Hamburg Messe.
Planten un Blomen , or “Plants and Flowers” in the local dialect, is one of Germany’s most beautiful parks. The green space of close to 47 hectares attracts large numbers of visitors with a range of attractions, including various specific themes and events such as musical water-and-light evenings.

The Neue Flora Theater is among Germany’s largest and most important musical theaters. Constructed specifically for the musical “The Phantom of the Opera,” since its opening it has sparkled as the stage venue of notable musicals including “Dance of the Vampires,” “Tarzan” and of course “The Phantom of the Opera.”
The jetties at the Port of Hamburg are significant city landmarks. Your options here include booking a harbor cruise aboard a traditional launch and touring the historic museum ship Rickmer Rickmers.
The Old Elbe Tunnel, also known as the “St. Pauli Elbe Tunnel,” was inaugurated in 1911, measures 426.5 meters in length, and holds the distinction of being Europe’s first subterranean river crossing. It is a public thoroughfare that can be used by pedestrians and cyclists, as well as by motorized vehicles on a limited basis. It is well worth a visit at any time.
Those who find history museums tedious need to visit the Hamburg Dungeon. This living history spectacle takes you on a fascinating and scary journey through over 600 years of Hamburg’s darkest times. Startling effects, scenes straight from the movies and real actors promise an unforgettable experience.
The Port Stage Theater is located at the Hamburg Free Port and is only accessible by boat. The building, constructed in 1994, was originally designed for the musical “Buddy.” After the end of the show’s run it was completely remodeled and taken over in 2001 by the musical “The Lion King,” which still plays there today.
The Miniature Wonderland, located in Speicherstadt, Hamburg’s warehouse district, houses the world’s largest model train layout. You can discover the world in this 1300-square-meter space, traveling from Ticino, Switzerland to Las Vegas.
The Jungfernstieg, Germany’s first asphalt street, is one of the city’s most popular urban promenades. Starting here, you can enjoy a pleasant stroll through the Binnenalster neighborhood or take a historic Alster River tour on the Alster Steamboat.
HafenCity, Hamburg’s newest district, is the city’s largest urban development project. The neighborhood, situated along the Elbe in the area of the old warehouse district, is completely surrounded by river and canal waterways. It is the home of Elbe Philharmonic Hall, the new city landmark, in addition to numerous other architectural highlights.
Hamburg City Hall, seat of the legislature and administration of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, was built in 1897 and contains over 647 rooms. Its design features Italian and northern German elements of the Renaissance, and it is 111 meters in length and 112 meters in height (counting the tower).
Hagenbeck Zoo, the world’s first zoo without bars, opened its doors in 1907. Over 210 animal species await visitors to the zoo’s facilities, which are partially under historic preservation protection. And just next door in the Tropical Aquarium are another 300 species.
Hamburg City Park was opened to the public in 1914 and has become one of the city’s most popular green spaces. In addition to a large playground, sunbathing lawn, lake and many sports facilities, the 149-hectare grounds feature Hamburg’s only Planetarium.
German to English: Whiskey merchant general terms and conditions extract
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - German
Tasting
§ 3 – Tasting-Angebot
(1) Wir bieten auf unserer Webseite verschiedene Veranstaltungen zu Tastings an.
Der Inhalt der jeweiligen Veranstaltung ergibt sich aus den Beschreibungen der einzelnen Veranstaltungstermine auf der Webseite.
(2) Das jeweils gebuchte Tasting findet in den Räumen des Kunden vor Ort oder einem alternativ vereinbarten vom Kunden gestellten Ort zum vereinbarten Zeitpunkt statt.
Es obliegt dem Kunden zu gewährleisten, dass der von ihm gewählte Ort für die Durchführung des Tastings geeignet ist.
(3) Das Angebot der Tastings auf unserer Webseite stellt kein verbindliches Buchungsangebot dar.
Der Kunde übermittelt uns über das Buchungsformular auf unserer Webseite seinen Namen, Adresse, Telefonnummer und E-Mailadresse sowie Ort und Datum der gewünschten Veranstaltung.
Wir lassen dem Kunden daraufhin ein verbindliches Angebot zur Teilnahme an dem vom Kunden gewünschten Tasting per Post oder E-Mail zukommen.
(4) Die verbindliche Buchung eines Tastings erfolgt durch Übermittlung der Angebotsannahme des Kunden an uns per Post oder per E-Mail.
Der Kunde hat bis zur Absendung seiner Angebotsannahme jederzeit die Möglichkeit, die bis dahin eingegebenen Daten zu ändern oder die Buchung ganz abzubrechen.
(5) Wir bestätigen den Vertragsschluss per E-Mail (Vertragsbestätigung).
Die Vertragsbestätigung enthält den Vertragstext, wie wir ihn auch in unserer EDV speichern.
Bitte speichern Sie die Vertragsbestätigung auf Ihrem Rechner oder drucken Sie sie für Ihre Unterlagen aus, da Sie ansonsten keinen Zugang zum Vertragstext haben werden.
(6) Der Kunde hat den Teilnahmepreis unverzüglich, spätestens aber vor Beginn des Tastings, per Überweisung oder per PayPal zu zahlen.
Wir behalten uns vor, auch weitere Zahlungsmethoden anzubieten.
Zur Zahlung des Teilnahmepreises bleiben der Kunde auch dann verpflichtet, wenn er die Teilnahme absagt oder im Verlauf des Tastings abbricht, es sei denn, dass ein gesetzlicher Kündigungs- oder Rücktrittsgrund vorliegt.
III.

Individueller Whisky
§ 4 – Leistungsinhalt
(1) Wir bieten dem Kunden nach Durchführung eines Tastings (II.) die Herstellung eines nach den Vorgaben des Kunden individuell hergestellten Whiskys in einem 30-Liter-Holzfass an.
Wir gehen davon aus, dass das Tasting in der Regel notwendig ist, um geschmackliche Vorgaben für die Herstellung des individualisierten Whiskys machen zu können.
(2) Zur Herstellung des Whiskys gehört die Beschaffung des notwendigen Destillats und des 30-Liter-Holzfasses, die fachmännische Verarbeitung des Destillats nach den geschmacklichen Vorgaben des Kunden im geeigneten Holzfass, die Lagerung des mit dem Destillat befüllten Holzfasses sowie die Abfüllung des fertigen Whiskys nach einer dreijährigen Mindestlagerung des Destillats im Holzfass beim Anbieter.
Es wird darauf hingewiesen, dass die Größe der Holzfässer nicht genormt ist, so dass Abweichungen in der maximalen Füllmenge im Einzelfall eintreten können.
Wir gewährleisten, dass am Ende des individuellen Herstellungsprozesses mindestens 25 Liter aus diesem abfüllbereit für den Versand an den Kunden zur Verfügung stehen.
§ 5 – Vertragsschluss
(1) Die auf unserer Webseite enthaltenen Produktbeschreibungen stellen keine verbindlichen Angebote unsererseits dar, sondern dienen zur Abgabe eines verbindlichen Angebots durch den Kunden.
(2) Der Kunde kann das Angebot über das auf unserer Webseite integrierte Online-Bestellformular abgeben.
Dabei gibt der Kunde, nachdem er das nach seinen Wünschen konfigurierte Whisky-Fass in den virtuellen Warenkorb gelegt und den elektronischen Bestellprozess durchlaufen hat, durch Klicken des Buttons „zahlungspflichtig bestellen“ ein rechtlich verbindliches Vertragsangebot in Bezug auf die im Warenkorb enthaltenen Waren ab.
Vor Abgabe des Kaufangebots wird dem Kunden eine Übersicht der für seine Bestellung erfassten Daten einschließlich der wesentlichen Merkmale der Waren angezeigt.
Der Kunde hat an dieser Stelle Gelegenheit, die Daten auf mögliche Eingabefehler zu prüfen und, wenn nötig, einen oder mehrere Schritte im Bestellablauf zurückzugehen, um die Daten und Einstellungen zu ändern oder die Bestellung insgesamt abzubrechen.
Ferner kann der Kunde das Angebot auch per E-Mail oder postalisch gegenüber dem Verkäufer über ein entsprechendes Bestellformular abgeben.
(3) Wir können das Angebot des Kunden innerhalb von sechs Tagen annehmen, indem wir dem Kunden eine schriftliche Vertragsbestätigung oder eine Vertragsbestätigung in Textform (E-Mail) übermitteln, wobei insoweit der Zugang der Vertragsbestätigung beim Kunden maßgeblich ist, oder indem wir den Kunden nach Abgabe von dessen Bestellung zur Zahlung auffordern.
Liegen mehrere der vorgenannten Alternativen vor, kommt der Vertrag in dem Zeitpunkt zustande, an dem eine der vorgenannten Alternativen zuerst eintritt.
Haben wir das Angebot bis dahin nicht angenommen, so gilt es als abgelehnt.
(4) Wir übersenden dem Kunden nach Vertragsschluss den Inhalt des abgeschlossenen Vertrags (Vertragstext) per E-Mail.
Gleichzeitig speichern wir den Vertragstext in unserer elektronischen Datenverarbeitung.
Da der Kunde hierzu keinen Zugang hat, obliegt es ihm, die E-Mail mit dem Vertragstext im eigenen Interesse aufzubewahren.
§ 6 – Preise und Bezahlung
(1) Die im Warenkorb angegebenen Preise enthalten neben den Kosten des ausgewählten Destillats die Bereitstellungskosten für das 30-Liter-Holzfass, die Lagerung des Holzfasses bei uns für 3 bis 6 Jahre.
Für jedes angebrochene weitere Jahr entsteht eine zusätzliche Lagergebühr von 200,- Euro.
Zusätzliche Leistungen (z.B.
Versand, Abfüllung, etc.) sind hinzuzubuchen.
Die Einzelpreise ergeben sich jeweils aus der Preisliste und werden dem Kunden im Warenkorb angezeigt.
(2) Zur Bezahlung seines Einkaufs kann der Kunde die Zahlungsmethode Vorkasse per Banküberweisung nutzen.
Wir behalten uns vor, auch weitere Zahlungsmethoden anzubieten.
(3) Für Vorkasse-Bestellungen gilt eine Zahlungsfrist von einer Woche ab Zugang der Vertragsbestätigung.
Wir behalten uns das Recht vor, vom Vertrag zurückzutreten, wenn die Zahlung nicht fristgerecht bewirkt worden ist.
§ 7 – Herstellung und Abfüllung
(1) Spätestens 14 Tage nach Zahlungseingang befüllen wir nach den in der Bestellung vom Kunden gemachten Geschmacksvorgaben das 30-Liter-Holzfass mit dem Destillat.
(2) Das befüllte Holzfass wird anschließend für mindestens drei Jahre bei uns eingelagert.
(3) Jährlich führen wir eine Prüfung des Fassinhaltes durch.
Zudem erhält der Kunde von uns jährlich einmalig die Möglichkeit, über ein gesondertes Buchungsformular auf unser Webseite einen Termin zu vereinbaren, zu dem er bei einer Prüfung anwesend sein kann.
Ein Anspruch des Kunden auf eine Teilnahme am Prüftermin besteht nicht.
(4) Mit Ablauf des dritten Jahres der Lagerung ist der hergestellte Whisky abfüllbereit.
Wir sprechen gegenüber dem Kunden in regelmäßigen Zeitabständen, mindestens aber alle 6 Monate per E-Mail eine Empfehlung dazu aus, ob der Whisky den geschmacklichen Vorgaben des Kunden entspricht und nunmehr abgefüllt werden sollte.
Der Kunde kann mit Ablauf des dritten Jahres jederzeit von uns durch Erklärung in Textform die Abfüllung innerhalb von 14 Tagen ab Zugang der Erklärung bei uns verlangen.
Translation - English
Tasting
Section 3 – Tasting offer
(1) On our website, we offer various tasting events. The content of each event can be found in the descriptions of individual event dates on the website.
(2) Each tasting session booked will be held on site at the customer's premises or another agreed-upon location designated by the customer at the arranged time.
The customer must guarantee that the location selected is suitable for holding the tasting session.
(3) The tasting offer on our website is not a binding booking offer.
Via the booking form, customers send us their name, address and phone number as well as the location and date of the desired event. We subsequently send a binding offer via mail or email to participate in the customer's desired tasting session.

(4) A binding booking for a tasting session occurs when the customer sends us an offer acceptance via mail or email. Until the offer acceptance is submitted, the customer has the option at any time to modify previously submitted data or cancel the entire booking.
(5) We will confirm contract conclusion via email (contract confirmation). The contract confirmation includes the contract text, which will also be saved in our electronic data processing system. Please save the contract confirmation on your computer or print it out for your documents, since you will otherwise have no access to the contract text.
(6) The customer is required to pay the participation price in a timely fashion via bank transfer or PayPal no later than the start of the tasting session. We reserve the right to offer other payment methods as well. The customer remains obligated to pay the participation price even if the customer declines to participate or withdraws from participation during the event unless legal grounds for termination or withdrawal are involved.
III.
Custom-produced whiskey
Section 4 – Content of services
(1) After participating in a tasting session (II.), we offer the customer custom whiskeys produced in a 30-liter wooden cask according to the customer's requests. We assume that a tasting will generally be required in order to determine the flavor profile for producing the custom whiskey.
(2) The production of the whiskey involves acquiring the necessary distillate and the 30-liter wooden cask, specialist processing of the distillate in a suitable wooden cask according to the customer's flavor specifications, storage of the wooden cask filled with the distillate and bottling of the finished whiskey after the the provider ages the distillate for a minimum period of three years.
Please note that since the size of the wooden casks is not standardized, there may be variations in the maximum filling quantity depending on the individual cask. We guarantee that at least 25 liters of whiskey will be available for bottling and shipment to the customer at the end of the individual production process.
Section 5 - Contract conclusion
(1) The product descriptions contained on our website do not constitute binding offers on our part; rather, their purpose is to assist the customer in submitting a binding offer.
(2) The customer can submit this order through the online order form found on our website. To order, the customer submits a binding contract offer for the products contained in the shopping cart by clicking the "Place order now" button after configuring the whiskey cask based on customer preferences, adding it to the virtual shopping cart and completing the electronic order process. Before submitting the purchase offer, the customer will be shown a summary of the data collected for the order, including the significant characteristics of the products. At this time, the customer has the opportunity to check the data for potential input errors and, if necessary, to go back one or more steps in the order process to change the data and settings or cancel the entire order. Alternatively, the customer can submit the offer to the buyer via email or mail using the appropriate order form.
(3) We may accept the customer's offer within six days by sending the customer a contract confirmation in writing or text form (email). In this process, the customer's receipt of the contract confirmation or our request for payment following receipt of the order will be considered conclusive. If more than one of the above alternative forms of offer is present, the contract will occur at the earliest point in time when one of the alternatives has been received. If we have not accepted the offer by that point, it will be deemed rejected.
(4) Following contract conclusion, we will send the customer an email with the contents of the concluded contract (contract text). At the same time, we will store the contract text in our electronic data processing system. Since the customer has no access to this system, it is the responsibility and in the interest of the customer to retain the email with the contract text.
Section 6 – Prices and payment
(1) The prices indicated in the shopping cart include the costs of the selected distillate as well as the costs of procuring the 30-liter wooden cask and storing it on our premises for 3 to 6 years.
For each additional partial year begun, an additional storage fee of 200 euros will be charged.
Additional services (e.g. shipping, bottling, etc.) must also be booked. The individual prices can be found in the price list and will be displayed to the customer in the shopping cart.
(2) The customer can pay for the purchase by means of advance payment via bank transfer. We reserve the right to offer additional payment methods.
(3) For advance payment orders, the payment deadline is one week following receipt of the contract confirmation. We reserve the right to withdraw from the contract if payment is not made by the deadline.
Section 7 – Production and bottling
(1) No later than 14 days after receipt of payment, we will fill the 30-liter wooden cask with the distillate according to the flavor requirements provided by the customer in the order.
(2) The filled wooden cask will subsequently be stored for a minimum of three years on our premises.
(3) We will check the cask contents each year. We will also give the customer the opportunity each year to be present at a check by arranging an appointment via a separate booking form on our website. The customer has no entitlement to take part in the check.
(4) After the third year of storage has elapsed, the aged whiskey will be ready for bottling.
We will provide the customer with an email recommendation at regular intervals, at least once every 6 months, concerning whether the whiskey meets the customer's flavor requirements and should now be bottled. After the third year has elapsed, the customer may submit a statement in text form requesting us to proceed with bottling within 14 days after we have received this statement.
German to English: Dismissal for operational reasons
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - German
Betriebsbedingte Kündigung: Lohnt sich eine Kündigungsschutzklage?

Rechtsgebiet: Arbeitsrecht
Rechtstipp vom 01.12.2010

Das Kündigungsschutzgesetz unterscheidet personen-, verhaltens- und betriebsbedingte Kündigungen. In der Praxis ist die betriebsbedingte Kündigung mittlerweile die häufigste Art der Kündigung. Aktuell sind ungefähr 2 von 3 Kündigungen betriebsbedingte Kündigungen.

Gegen betriebsbedingte Kündigungen wird aber sehr viel seltener geklagt als gegen verhaltens- oder personenbedingte Kündigungen. Das liegt wohl vor allem daran, dass der für die Wirksamkeit einer jeden Kündigung erforderliche Kündigungsgrund bei der betriebsbedingten Kündigung allein in einer vom Arbeitgeber getroffenen Entscheidung liegt (z.B. Schließung einer Abteilung, Fremdvergabe von Tätigkeiten). Während der Arbeitgeber z. B. bei einer verhaltensbedingten Kündigung ein ausreichend gewichtiges (wiederholtes) Fehlverhalten des gekündigten Arbeitnehmers beweisen muss, muss er im Falle einer betriebsbedingten Kündigung lediglich eine eigene unternehmerische Entscheidung nachweisen, die dazu geführt hat, dass der Arbeitsplatz des gekündigten Arbeitnehmers weggefallen ist. Letzteres scheint auf den ersten Blick sehr viel einfacher zu sein, weshalb viele Arbeitnehmer der Meinung sind, bei einer betriebsbedingten Kündigung nicht viel machen zu können.

Chance auf Abfindung auch bei betriebsbedingter Kündigung

Diese Meinung ist allerdings in der Mehrzahl der Fälle betriebsbedingter Kündigungen unzutreffend. Denn auch bei betriebsbedingten Kündigungen besteht für den Arbeitnehmer grundsätzlich die Chance, in einem Kündigungsschutzprozess zumindest noch eine Abfindung als Entschädigung für den Verlust des Arbeitsplatzes zu „erkämpfen".

Der Grund dafür ist, dass sich ein Arbeitgeber auch bei einer betriebsbedingten Kündigung prinzipiell nie zu 100% sicher sein kann, dass seine Kündigung einer Überprüfung durch das Arbeitsgericht standhalten wird. Diese Unsicherheit birgt für den Arbeitgeber eine große wirtschaftliche Gefahr: Denn wenn das Arbeitsgericht die Kündigung am Ende des mehrere Monate dauernden Kündigungsschutzprozesses für unwirksam erklären sollte, müsste der Arbeitgeber dem Arbeitnehmer grundsätzlich den kompletten Lohn für die Zeit zwischen dem Ablauf der Kündigungsfrist und der Entscheidung des Gerichts nachzahlen, obwohl der Arbeitnehmer in dieser Zeit gar nicht gearbeitet hat. Je größer dieses Risiko aus der Sicht des Arbeitgebers ist, desto eher wird er bereit sein, dem Arbeitnehmer eine Abfindung zu zahlen, um den Rechtsstreit zu beenden.

Bei vielen Arbeitgebern besteht beim Ausspruch von betriebsbedingten Kündigungen von vornherein eine gewisse Unsicherheit. Denn betriebsbedingte Kündigungen gelten als schwierig, wenn es darum geht, die vor Gericht auch durchzusetzen. In einer statistischen Erhebung des Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Institut (WSI) der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung gaben 76% der befragten Arbeitgeber an, bereits einmal Probleme mit der Durchführung betriebsbedingter Kündigungen gehabt zu haben.

Ein wesentlicher Grund dafür ist, dass die Arbeitsgerichte sehr hohe Anforderungen an den Arbeitgeber stellen, was die Darlegung des betriebsbedingten Kündigungsgrundes im Kündigungsschutzprozess anbelangt. Der Arbeitgeber muss dem Gericht die betrieblichen Gründe für den Arbeitsplatzabbau sehr genau und detailliert darlegen, und ggf. auch beweisen. Gelingt dem Arbeitgeber kein hinreichend genauer und detaillierter Vortrag, verliert er den Kündigungsschutzprozess, auch wenn die betriebsbedingte Kündigung „an sich" gerechtfertigt gewesen ist. In der Praxis scheitern viele betriebsbedingte Kündigungen bereits daran, dass der Arbeitgeber seiner Darlegungslast nicht in ausreichendem Umfang nachgekommen ist.

Ein weiteres Problem für den Arbeitgeber bei der betriebsbedingten Kündigung ist die korrekte Sozialauswahl unter den für eine Kündigung in Frage kommenden Beschäftigten. Auch eine fehlerhafte Sozialauswahl kann zur Unwirksamkeit der betriebsbedingten Kündigung führen.
Translation - English
Dismissal for operational reasons: Is the dismissal protection process an option worth pursuing?

Practice area: Labor law
Legal pointer dated December 1, 2010

The law against wrongful dismissal makes distinctions among poor performance, misconduct, and operational reasons as grounds for dismissal. Operations has become the most common reason given for dismissal. Currently around two out of three dismissals are related to operational issues.

There are, however, far fewer cases of litigation involving operational reasons than those involving misconduct or poor performance. That is primarily because only in the operations category are the necessary grounds for any effective dismissal within the decision-making power of the employer (for example, shutting down a division or outsourcing work). For example, while in the case of dismissal for misconduct the employer must establish the serious and repeated nature of the employee’s unacceptable behavior, with dismissal due to business operations the employer need simply evidence a company decision that led to the elimination of the position of the dismissed employee. The latter option appears at first glance to be far simpler, for which reason many employees believe there is little they can do against an operationally determined dismissal.

Settlement possible even in cases of dismissal for business reasons

Nevertheless, such a belief is not borne out in most cases of dismissal on operational grounds. Even with dismissal for operational reasons, the employee as a matter of principle (but good luck) has an opportunity to access the dismissal protection process to try for a settlement involving compensation for the loss of the job.

The reason is that even in a dismissal for operational reasons, the employer as a matter of principle can never be 100% sure that the dismissal will withstand examination by a labor court. This uncertainty poses a great financial risk for the employer since, if the labor court finds the dismissal invalid following a lengthy dismissal protection process of several months, the employer would be required in principle to pay the employee’s full salary for the time elapsed between the expiration of the termination notice period and the court’s decision, even though the employee had performed no work at all during this period. The greater this risk from the employer’s point of view, the more likely the employer’s willingness to pay the employee a settlement in order to bring an end to the legal dispute.
In the first place, many employers experience a certain uncertainty about dismissal for operational reasons, since such dismissals are considered to be difficult when it comes to prevailing in a court of law. In a statistical survey conducted by the Hans Böckler Foundation’s Economics and Social Science Institute (Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Institut - WSI), 76% of the employers surveyed acknowledged having had at least one problematic instance of carrying out a dismissal for operational reasons.

A major reason for this is because labor courts place very high demands on employers concerning the statement of reasons for dismissal on operational grounds. The employer must provide an exact and detailed explanation of the operational reasons for the elimination of the position, and where necessary also provide proof of such reasons. Employers who do not succeed in giving a sufficiently exact and detailed account will lose the termination protection case, even if the dismissal for operational reasons in itself was justified. In practice, many such dismissals fail due to the employer’s failure to meet the burden of explanation to a sufficient extent.

A further problem for the employer in a case of dismissal for operational reasons is the correct social selection regarding the number of employees subject to dismissal. Erroneous social criteria can also lead to the invalidity of a dismissal for operational reasons.
German to English: Changes in hospital invoicing
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - German
Im kommenden Jahr müssen deutsche Krankenhäuser statt pauschaler Tagessätze nach diagnosebezogenen Fallpauschalen abrechnen, den DRGs. Dies geschieht in 2004 noch budgetneutral, bis 2007 wird dann aber schrittweise die Abrechnung nach diesem neuen System erfolgen. Lange Liegezeiten verlieren dann für Kliniken ihre wirtschaftliche Attraktivität. Es wird die Befürchtung laut, Patienten könnten aus finanziellen Gründen zu früh entlassen werden.

"Blutige Entlassungen" einerseits und wirtschaftliche Schwierigkeiten der Krankenhäuser andererseits lassen sich nur durch eine lückenlose Diagnose der Haupt- und aller Nebenerkrankungen vermeiden - darauf hat der Verband der Diagnostica-Industrie (VDGH) in Berlin auf dem diesjährigen VDGH-Diagnostica-Forum hingewiesen, zu dem Fachleute von Krankenkassen, Ärzteschaft und Industrie gekommen waren.

Der Labordiagnostik, bisher oft nur als Kostenfaktor gesehen, wachse durch die DRGs eine neue Aufgabe zu: nämlich dem Krankenhaus eine angemessene Vergütung zu sichern. Denn die schnelle und treffsichere Diagnose, nicht nur der Haupterkrankung, sondern auch der die Behandlung erschwerenden Begleitumstände – etwa eine Wundinfektion - zahle sich künftig für eine Klinik aus.

Eine vom VDGH in Auftrag gegebene Studie unterstreicht, dass durch labordiagnostische Leistungen gut 130 solcher erschwerenden Diagnosen nachgewiesen werden können. In Tausenden von Kombinationen mit einer Haupterkrankung führten diese Ergebnisse zu Erlössteigerungen fürs Krankenhaus, die pro Fall bis zu mehreren Tausend Euro ausmachen könnten, betonte DRG-Experte Professor Dr. med. G. Hoffmann.

Für die Hersteller von Diagnostica und Laborsystemen böte die Einführung der Fallpauschalen einen der wenigen Lichtblicke für das Jahr 2004. Die wachsende Nachfrage im Krankenhaus reiche jedoch vermutlich nicht aus, die negative Entwicklung im Geschäft mit den gesetzlichen Krankenkassen auszugleichen, die durch die Gesundheitsreform vermutlich noch verstärkt werde. Der Umsatz mit Reagenzien, die ausschließlich im ärztlichen Labor benötigt werden, werde voraussichtlich um 0,5 Prozent auf 1,153 Milliarden Euro sinken und damit erneut unter den Wert von 1998 fallen – dem Jahr vor Einführung der Laborbudgets für den einzelnen Arzt. Positiv entwickele sich lediglich das Geschäft mit Tests, die die Patienten selbst in der Apotheke kaufen könnten.
Translation - English
By next year, Germany's hospitals will have to invoice according to diagnosis-related group (DRG) compensation rather than flat per diem rates. This new system was introduced in 2004 in a budget-neutral fashion, and hospital billing will gradually move towards its full incorporation by 2007. At that time, lengthy in-patient stays will lose their economic appeal for hospitals. There is a distinct fear that patients could be released from the hospital too soon due to financial reasons.

The way to avoid "bloody discharge" on one hand and economic difficulty for hospitals on the other should involve thorough, comprehensive diagnosis of the primary disease and all secondary diseases, the Alliance of Diagnostics Industries (Verband der Diagnostica-Industrie, or VDGH) pointed out to medical, hospital, and health industry professionals attending this year's VDGH Diagnosis Forum in Berlin.

Laboratory diagnosis, viewed until now merely as a cost factor, will gain new importance with DRGs: the role of assuring hospitals a reasonable, adequate compensation. In the future, rapid and accurate diagnoses not only of the primary illness but also of the accompanying conditions that make treatment difficult – such as the infection of a wound – can result in payoff for hospitals.

A study commissioned by VDGH emphasizes that laboratory diagnostic results can identify at least 130 factors that complicate treatment. In thousands of combinations with a primary disease, these results led to increased revenues for the hospital, which could net several thousand euros per case, explained DRG expert G. Hoffmann, M.D.

For manufacturers of diagnostics and laboratory systems, the introduction of diagnosis-related group compensation offers one of the few rays of hope for 2004. Increasing hospital demand may not make up, however, for a downturn in revenues from the statutory health insurers. Income from reagents used exclusively in medical laboratories will drop by 0.5 percent to 1.153 billion euros, falling back under the level for 1998, the year before laboratory budgeting was introduced for individual physicians. A positive development, however, was the revenue from test kits that can be purchased by patients directly in the pharmacy.
German to English: Article on science and knowledge translated into UK English
General field: Science
Detailed field: Philosophy
Source text - German
Wissenschaft kann als der Inbegriff menschlichen Wissens verstanden werden. In diesem Sinne meint Wissenschaft ein nach Prinzipien geordnetes Wissen, ein sachlich geordneter Zusammenhang von wahren bzw. objektiven Urteilen, plausiblen Hypothesen und möglichen Folgen mit Blick auf die Wirklichkeit oder Teilgebiete oder Aspekte von ihr. Wissenschaft bzw. wissenschaftliches Wissen wird i.d.R. von anderen Wissensformen – etwa vom Erfahrungswissen – insofern abgegrenzt, als es nicht nur auf ein „Was“, sondern auch auf die Fragen nach dem „Warum“, „Wozu“ und „Wie“ zielt. Wissenschaft gibt es in diesem Sinne nicht zu allen Zeiten, und an allen Orten der Welt. Im sog. Abendland gilt das antike Griechenland als die Zeit der Entdeckung der Wissenschaft als eigenständiges Kultursystem – das sich von anderen Kultursystemen wie der Politik, der Ökonomie, des Rechts, der Ästhetik oder der Pädagogik unterscheidet. Knüpft man den klassischen Wissenskanon der Antike an, der das sog. (sprachliche) Trivium von Grammatik, Rhetorik, Dialektik und das sog. (mathematische) Quadrivium von Arithmetik, Geometrie, Astronomie und Musiktheorie umfasst, so lässt sich festhalten, dass die Wissenschaft im Abendland ihre Ursprünge in einen mathematisch-quantitativen und einem sprachlich-qualitativen Denken hat.
Unter dem Begriff der Lebenskunst lässt sich im Kern eine philosophische Denkrichtung verstehen, die die Fragen nach dem Entwurf und der Gestaltung eines geglückten Lebens aufwirft. Das Wort „Lebenskunst“, das wohl von Friedrich Schlegel 1798 zum ersten Mal verwendet wurde, greift in seinen neueren Varianten auf Modelle der griechischen und römischen Antike zurück und zentriert diese um die Frage, inwiefern der Mensch auf der Basis seiner eigenen klugen Wahl ein gutes, gelingendes und schönes Leben verwirklichen kann. Die Lebenskunst ist dabei zentriert um die Fragen der Selbsterkenntnis, Selbstbeherrschung und Selbstgestaltung – kurz um die Frage der Selbstsorge der Individuen. Wie können und sollen Menschen sich so um sich sorgen, dass sie ihre Idee eines gelungenen Lebens nicht nur konzipieren, sondern auch umsetzen können? Damit ist natürlich mehr gemeint als der triviale Umstand, dass man immer in irgendeiner Form auf sich achtet oder sich um sich selbst kümmert. Die Lebenskunst ist insofern ein anspruchsvolles Programm, weil sie neben einer sehr weitgehenden Hermeneutik seiner selbst, die außer dem Verstehen auch die Auslegungen seiner selbst umfasst, und einer handlungsbezogenen, an spezifischen ethischen Kategorien orientierten Praxis, die durchaus mit Geduld, Konzentration, Einübung und Disziplin verbunden ist, auch mit einem ästhetischen Stil einhergeht, der wiederum ästhetischen Kriterien entsprechen soll (vgl. Brenner/Zirfas 2002). Die alten Griechen hatten dafür die Begriffe theoria, praxis und poiesis.
Der folgende Beitrag versucht nun erstens zu zeigen, dass die Lebenskunst im Abendland eine Wissensform darstellt, die sowohl alltägliches als auch wissenschaftliches – und das meint in der Regel – philosophisches (aber auch das Wissen anderer Wissenschaften, z.B. medizinisches oder therapeutisches) Wissen aufgreift. Er versucht zweitens zu verdeutlichen, dass sich in der Lebenskunst sowohl die quantitative als ökonomische Betrachtungsweise als auch die qualitative als evaluative Zustandsbeschreibung ihre Relevanz bis heute erhalten haben. Die Kunst der Lebenskunst besteht dementsprechend genau darin, eine Verbindung zwischen den zum Teil sehr anspruchsvollen philosophischen Programmen der Lebenskunst und der zum Teil sehr banalen Alltagsrealität sowie zwischen einer berechenbaren Summe des Glücks und einer gelingenden „ästhetischen Existenz“ (Foucault) herzustellen.
Translation - English
Science can be understood as the embodiment of human knowledge. In this sense, science refers to knowledge that is organized according to principles, an ordered association of true or objective conclusions, plausible hypotheses, and possible consequences regarding reality or subsections of it. Science and scientific knowledge are generally distinguished from other types of knowledge – such as experiential knowledge – by seeking not only to reveal the “what” but also to pose questions concerning the “why”, “what for”, and “how”. Science defined in this sense is not found in all ages and in all places on Earth. In the Occident, ancient Greece is considered the site of the discovery of science as an independent cultural framework distinguished from other cultural frameworks such as politics, economy, law, aesthetics, or education. If the classical canons of knowledge from ancient times are brought together – the (linguistic) trivium of grammar, rhetoric, logic and the (mathematical) quadrivium of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music theory – it is apparent that Western science has its origins in mathematical-quantitative and linguistic-qualitative ways of thinking.
At its core, the concept of the art of living can be understood as a philosophical school of thought that raises issues surrounding the design and construction of a successful life. More recent variations on this term, which was first employed by Friedrich Schlegel in 1798 (in German: Lebenskunst), recall ancient Greek and Roman models and focus on the extent to which human beings can realise a good, successful, and beautiful life. The art of life is thus centred on questions of self-knowledge, self-control, and self-formation – in short, on care for oneself as an individual. How can and should humans care for themselves in such a way as to be able not only to conceptualise their idea of a successful life but also to convert that idea into reality? This of course signifies more than the mere fact of always looking out for oneself or caring about one’s own interests. In this respect, the art of living is an ambitious undertaking because, in addition to being both a rather extensive hermeneutic of oneself – one that encompasses not only self-understanding but also self-interpretation – and an action-based praxis oriented toward specific aesthetic categories that is thoroughly bound up in patience, concentration, practice, and discipline, it also goes hand in hand with an aesthetic style that corresponds in turn to aesthetic criteria (cf. Brenner/Zirfas 2002). The ancient Greeks employed the terms theoria, praxis, and poiesis to characterise these spheres.
This essay seeks in the first place to demonstrate that in Western thought the art of living represents a form of knowledge that is both every-day and scientific – which generally means embracing philosophical knowledge (but also knowledge from other sciences, such as medicine or therapeutic knowledge). In the second place, it attempts to make clear that both quantitative and economic perspectives on the art of living as well as both qualitative and evaluative descriptions of its specific condition continue to be relevant today. Accordingly, the “art” in the art of living consists precisely of forming a connection between its sometimes quite sophisticated philosophical programs and the often rather banal reality of daily life as well as between a calculable amount of happiness and a successful “aesthetic existence” (Foucault).
German to English: Journal article on interpretations of Karl Marx
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: Philosophy
Source text - German
Die der Neuen Marx-Lektüre gemachten Vorwürfe verweisen i.d.R. auf eine Vernachlässigung der emanzipatorischen Elemente von Marx, der eben nicht bloß der bessere Ökonom, sondern auch ein Philosoph der Befreiung gewesen sei (vgl. dazu Reitter 2009). Eine daran anschließende Kritische Pädagogik müsste daher nicht mehr die leidige Frage nach dem Allgemeinen in der Pädagogik stellen, sondern vielmehr die Pädagogik im gesellschaftlichen Allgemeinen reflektieren.
Danach ist das Bildungssystem erstens eine zentrale regulatorische Instanz für die Produktion und Reproduktion der Ware Arbeitskraft. Die Pädagogik zieht ihre gesellschaftliche Legitimation zu großen Teilen daraus, dass sie das Bildungs-, Qualifikations- und Kompetenzniveau der Ware Arbeitskraft für die jeweiligen Produktionsverhältnisse herstellt und damit ein wesentlicher Faktor für die erweiterte Akkumulation endogener Wachstumsbedingungen ist. Zweitens hat die Pädagogik eine ideologische Reproduktionsfunktion inne wenn es um die Durchsetzung der Herrschaft des Kapitals gegen den Widerstand der lebendigen Arbeit und die Folgen der arbeitsteiligen Produktionsverhältnisse geht. Um den Zusammenhang dieser Reproduktion der Reproduktion zu durchschauen sei einmal mehr auf die Kritik an Modellen der natürlichen Begabung und der pädagogischen Legitimierung sozialer Ungleichheit hingewiesen. Und drittens müsste der Modus der Gesellschaftskritik, die immer auch Kapitalismuskritik wäre, geschärft werden.
Auch wenn sich die Neue Marx-Lektüre und eine daraus resultierende Pädagogik die Probleme des Strukturalismus einhandeln, muss das Insistieren auf eine Kritik an der Sachlogik kapitalistischer Vergesellschaftung zugleich als zentrales Verdienst hervorgehoben werden – denn darüber werden moralisierenden und personifizierenden Kapitalismuskritiken die Basis entzogen.
Zwar sind die Folgen verkürzter Kritiken nicht kausal abzuleiten, jedoch gehen Theorien zum modernen Antisemitismus zurecht davon aus, dass in der Figur des raffenden und zersetzenden »Juden« der unbegriffene Geldfetisch personalisiert ist. Theorien zum strukturellen Antisemitismus weisen darüber hinaus darauf hin, dass antisemitisch argumentierende »Kapitalismuskritik« auch ohne die »Juden« auskommt, insofern die Figur des Juden auf scheinbare Repräsentanten des Kapitalismus, wie Banker oder Manager, übertragen wird. Auch Teilbereiche der Kritischen Erziehungswissenschaft, wie etwa die historisch bedeutsame Friedenspädagogik, sind vor regressiven und ressentimentbeladenen Formen der Kapitalismuskritik nicht gefeit und bedürfen in Gegenwart eines neuen Populismus und einer neuen Querfrontpolitik einer materialistischen Reflexion ihres Kritikbegriffs. Mit dem Querfrontbegriff wird im historischen und heutigen Kontext auf die inhaltlichen Schnittmengen verschwörungstheoretischer und antisemitischer Weltbilder im rechten und in Teilen des linken Spektrums hingewiesen.
In den 1920er Jahren strebten Vertreter der Konservativen Revolution darüber eine Verbindung von Nationalismus und Sozialismus an. Ähnliche Bestrebungen sind auch im aktuellen Rechtpopulismus wieder verstärkt erkennbar (vgl. dazu Weiß 2017).
Translation - English
As a rule, the accusations made against the Neue Marx-Lektüre refer to its negligence of the emancipatory element of Marx, who was not merely a better economist but also a philosopher of liberation (cf. inter alia Reitter 2009). A subsequent Critical Pedagogy would therefore no longer need to pose the tiresome question about the general in pedagogy but would instead reflect the pedagogy in general society.
According to this notion, the educational system is in the first place a central regulatory authority for the production and reproduction of the workforce commodity. To a significant extent, pedagogy derives its social legitimation from its function of producing in the labour commodity the level of education, skills and competence required for the respective relations of production and is therefore a key factor in the expanded accumulation of endogenous growth conditions. Secondly, pedagogy has an ideological reproductive function when it comes to the enforcement of capital’s dominance over the resistance of living labour and the outcome of relations of production based on the division of labour. To see through the connection of this reproduction of reproduction, it becomes necessary once again to refer to the critique of natural ability models and the pedagogical legitimation of social inequality. And thirdly, the mode of social critique, which would always be a critique of capitalism, would need to be sharpened.
Even if the Neue Marx-Lektüre and a pedagogy stemming from it should encounter problems of structuralism, its insistence on a critique of the logic of capitalist collectivisation must at the same time be hailed as a main benefit, since that would undermine the basis of moralising and personifying critiques of capitalism.
Although the consequences of abbreviated critiques cannot be causally derived, theories of modern anti-Semitism correctly assume that the personification of the money fetish is embodied in the figure of the money-grubbing and subversive ‘jew’. Theories of structural anti-Semitism also point out that anti-Semitic arguments in a ‘critique of capitalism’ do not actually require the figure of the jew if this is transferred to ostensible representatives of capitalism such as bankers or managers. Even areas of Critical Education such as the historically significant peace education are not immune in the face of regressive and resentful forms of capitalist critique; in the presence of a new populism and new Third Position politics, they are in need of a materialist reflection on their critical concepts. With the concept of the Third Position, reference is made in both a historical and current context to the content-based intersections of conspiracy theories and anti-Semitic world views on the right and to some extent on the left of the political spectrum.
In the 1920s, representatives of the Conservative Revolution endeavoured to forge a link between nationalism and socialism. Similar efforts are once again strongly in evidence in current right-wing populism (cf. inter alia Weiss 2017).
Spanish to English: Christian theology
General field: Other
Detailed field: Religion
Source text - Spanish
En el prólogo del cuarto evangelio, que en realidad es una síntesis a la vez que la clave para leer todo el resto, asistimos a la absolutización de Cristo como lugar de conocimiento de Dios. Es una reasumpción de la historia de Moisés ratificada en un sentido, pero relativizada y superada en otro. "Porque la ley fue dada por Moisés, pero la gracia y la verdad vino por Jesucristo. A Dios nadie lo ha visto jamás. El Unigénito que está en el seno del Padre ese nos lo ha interpretado" (Jn 1,17-18). Él, que es su Palabra nos has hablado de él; él, que está en su seno desde la eternidad nos le ha revelado en el tiempo; él, que le ve cara a cara con una amistad que es filiación, nos hace posible una amistad con el superior a la que experimentó Moisés. Por eso los apóstoles, y tras ellos todos los creyentes, llegarán al conocimiento propio de la amistad. "Ya no os llamo siervos sino amigos, porque os he dado a conocer todo lo que he oído de mi Padre" (Jn, 15,15).

San Juan une los extremos: el Logos y la carne, el que estaba en el seno del Padre y el que muere dentro del mundo, el Hijo amado y el Hermano mayor asesinado por la violencia de los hermanos menores, el elevado en la cruz y el elevado en la gloria, el que pasó por nuestro mundo y el que fue traspasado por nuestros delitos. El cuarto evangelista, con la intención de identificar la gesta de Jesús desde el final, recoge el texto del profeta Zacarías: "Mirarán al que traspasaron" (Jn 19,37; Zac 12,10). Así se establece conexión entre los extremos: nuestras lanzas dirigidas contra su pecho y eso pecho abriéndose en agua y sangre para purificarnos; entre la elevación física en la cruz por los hombres, signo de rechazo, y la resurrección, signo de elevación en gloria por Dios. Crucifixión (acto de los hombres), muerte (acto de Jesús) y resurrección (acto del Padre) coinciden para San Juan en el concepto de glorificación. La gloria de Dios se muestra luminosa, vivificadora y fascinadora en el cuerpo de Cristo.

El cristianismo tiene sus raíces en la experiencia religiosa del pueblo de Israel. De él hereda su fe en el Dios único, trascendente, santo, invisible e incomprensible. Su presencia es su voz. Él se deja oír del hombre pero no ver. La encarnación de Cristo confiere a Dios carne, cuerpo historia, visibilidad y realismo. Cristo es de nuestro mundo en la unidad indivisible de lo humano y de lo divino.

Jesús es el nombre personal de este judío de Nazaret. Cristo (forma griega del hebreo Mesías) es el nombre funcional, el que describe la misión reveladora y redentora que cumplió de parte de Dios para los hombres.

Sus discípulos a partir de la resurrección lo irán comprendiendo a su vez en su específica relación con Dios; y consideraron que "Hijo", "el Hijo", es el nombre que le corresponde y diferencia a Jesús de todos los demás hijos de Dios. Pero a ese Hijo lo sienten presente y operante por su palabra, acción y Espíritu en la iglesia: y para explicar esa acción le otorgan el nombre con que los LXX traducen el nombre de Yahvé del Antiguo Testamento: Kyrios, Señor. La unión de estas cuatro palabras formará su nombre completo: "Jesús, Cristo, su Hijo, nuestro Señor". Jesús designa su individualidad concreta, Cristo su procedencia y relación intrínseca al pueblo de la primera alianza de Israel; su Hijo explicita la relación única que une a Jesús con Dios. Este a partir de ahora ya es concebido correlativamente como el Dios y Padre de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo. "Nuestro Señor" designa la acción redentora, santificadora e impulsora de Cristo desde su Iglesia. Jesucristo es una figura exterior en el tiempo (primeros años de nuestra era) y en espacio (Palestina), pero a la vez es una figura interior de la Iglesia, a la historia y a cada creyente, ya que él habita por la fe en nuestros corazones (Ef. 3,17). Él es, por consiguiente, una figura particular y universal, exterior e interior, en la que están expresados el misterio de Dios y el enigma del hombre.
Translation - English
In the prologue to the fourth Gospel, which is actually a synthesis of the others and at the same time the key to reading them, we witness Christ’s absoluteness as a way to know God. It takes up again the story of Moses, ratified in one sense but relativized and surpassed in another. “Because while the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. No one has ever seen God. The only son, God, who is at the Father’s side, has revealed Him” (John 1:17-18). He Who is His Word has told us of Him; He Who has been at His side for all eternity has revealed Himself to us in time; He Who confronts us with a friendship that is affiliation makes possible an amity greater than that known by Moses. This is why the disciples, and through them all believers, can achieve a self-understanding of friendship. "I no longer call you slaves … but friends, because I have told you everything I have heard from my Father" (John 15:15).

Saint John brings the extremes together: Logos and the flesh, the one Who was at the side of the Father and the one Who dies in the world, the beloved Son and the older Brother murdered through the violence of the younger brothers, the one lifted up on the cross and the one lifted up in glory, the one Who passed through our world and the one Who was wounded by our offenses. The fourth Evangelist, seeking to characterize Jesus’s deed at the end, cites the words of the prophet Zechariah: "They will look upon Him whom they have pierced" (John 19:37; Zechariah 12:10). In this way, the connection between the extremes is established: our lances penetrating His chest, and water and blood pouring from that chest to cleanse us; between the physical lifting of Jesus by men onto the cross, a sign of rejection, and the resurrection, a sign of God’s lifting Him into glory. Crucifixion (act of men), death (act of Jesus) and resurrection (act of the Father) all come together for Saint John in the concept of glorification. The glory of God is seen in the body of Christ as luminous, life-giving and fascinating.

Christianity has its roots in the religious experience of the people of Israel. It is the heritage of their faith in one transcendent, holy, invisible and incomprehensible God. His presence is His voice. God can be heard by man but not seen. Christ’s incarnation gives God flesh, body, visibility and realism. Christ is of our world in the indivisible unity of the human and the divine.

Jesus is the given name of this Jew from Nazareth. Christ (the Greek form of the Hebrew ‘Messiah’) is the functional name, the one that describes the mission of revelation and redemption that He accomplished for mankind on behalf of God.

Following the resurrection, His disciples would – one after another – begin to understand His specific relationship with God; and they reasoned that "Son" or "the Son" is the name that applies to Jesus and sets Him apart from all other children of God. But they sensed that this Son was present and functional in the church through His word, action and spirit: and to explain that action, they gave him the name used by the Septuagint as a translation into Greek of the Old Testament name of Yahweh: Kyrios, Lord. The combination of these four words forms his complete name: “Jesus, Christ, His Son, our Lord”. Jesus indicates his specific individuality, Christ his origin and intrinsic relationship to the people of the first covenant with Israel; His Son makes explicit the unique relationship that unites Jesus with God. From this point forward, he is conceptualized in relation to God and the Father of Our Lord Jesus Christ. "Our Lord" indicates the redeeming, sanctifying and driving action of Christ in his Church. Jesus Christ is a figure who is external to His time (the first years of our era) and His space (Palestine) and yet simultaneously a figure who is internal to the Church, to history, and to every believer, since he lives in our hearts “through faith” (Ephesians 3:17). He is, therefore a figure both particular and universal, both external and internal, in whom both the mystery of God and the enigma of man are expressed.
Spanish to English: Art history commentary on illuminated manuscript
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Art, Arts & Crafts, Painting
Source text - Spanish
Los ropajes son similares en todos los personajes, sueltos y con mangas largas, tal y como presentan los cuatro sacerdotes. Estas ropas muestran una gran riqueza ornamental simulando ricos bordados o incrustaciones en oro y piedras preciosas en las capas pluviales. Frente a éstos, los cantores ubicados en el primer plano presentan una menor riqueza en el tratamiento y visten ropas de una mayor sencillez, acompañándose sus cabezas bien con turbantes judíos o sombreros de puntas. Sin embargo, el cuidado en la representación del aerófono, cuya sombra se proyecta sobre el suelo y la pandereta, aparecen también en la página del Rey David (Ávila, Museo catedralicio, Cantoral 1, fol. 1r) en la que un niño toca la cornamusa, un centauro aparecen tañendo la pandereta y otro es representado como trompetero. Por lo que respecta al tocado femenino, reproduce un modelo que se repite constantemente a lo largo de las 242 miniaturas que componen el Libro del Caballero Zifar. Al tratar los pliegues, busca representar la tela con naturalidad, aunque en algunas ocasiones se permite ciertas licencias para crear efectos de claro oscuro en sus composiciones, a pesar de que cromáticamente expresa una transición muy gradual. Los movimientos de los personajes suelen reducirse al mínimo, y sus figuras se representan con las manos contenidas por los perfiles de sus formas, sin dirigirse al espacio que las circunda. Aunque Carrión personaliza el tratamiento del vestido, las prendas con que se atavían los individuos suelen corresponder en cierta manera a la época del artista, haciendo gala de los anacronismos históricos que caracterizan las representaciones pictóricas de este momento.
Junto a los rasgos estilísticos enunciados, distintos elementos empleados en la miniatura son compartidos por otros ejemplares vinculados al grupo de Carrión. El modo de componer la letra mediante un cuadrado dorado sobre el que asienta la misma, compuesta a través de carnosas hojas de acanto que la cubren con un gran cromatismo en cuyo interior se desarrolla la escena aparece también en la que representa al Rey David, la Natividad y la Epifanía (Ávila, Museo catedralicio, Cantoral 1, fols. 1r, 80r y 130r). La estructura arquitectónica descrita es un modelo que se localiza en la miniatura con el Rey David arrodillado del Breviario franciscano (Paris, Bibliothéque Nationale, ms. Latin 1064, fol. 200r), en el folio que contiene la imagen de Cristo ante Pilatos (Berlin, Kupfertischkabinett, ms. 78 A 26, fol. 10v), en los que ilustran la Presentación en el Templo y en la Última Cena en el Libro de Horas del Infante Don Alfonso (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 854, 95v y 212v), donde también se utiliza en la correspondiente a San Juan Evangelista el mismo pavimento (22v), y en la escena de Pentecostés tanto de los Libros de Coro de la Catedral de Ávila (Cantoral III, fol. 30r) como de Palencia (Cantoral 5, fol. 106r).
Las enunciadas proximidades estilísticas entre el citado conjunto de manuscritos y el fragmento de Libro de Coro que representa el Traslado del Arca de la Alianza permitirían aumentar el número de obras detrás de cuya ejecución se encuentra Juan de Carrión, uno de los iluminadores más destacados del tercer cuarto del siglo XV en Castilla. Hay que recordar, por último, la actividad documentada de Carrión en la catedral de Segovia y que los cantorales de dicho templo perecieron en la Guerra de las Comunidades en la que se destruyó la antigua catedral de Santa María (1520). ¿Podríamos estar ante un testimonio de aquel conjunto desaparecido? Sólo podemos plantearlo como hipótesis, pendiente de la aparición de nuevos datos.

Translation - English
The clothing presents similarities across all individuals, loose and with long sleeves in the manner of the four priests. These clothes show great ornamental richness, simulating rich embroidery or incrustations in gold and precious stones on the capes. Compared to these, the choir members located in the foreground are portrayed as less wealthy, wearing simpler garments, their heads covered with Jewish turbans or knit caps. Nevertheless, the care shown in the representation of the tambourine as well as the large wind instrument, which projects its shadow onto the floor, is also evident in the page of King David (Ávila, Cathedral Museum, Choral Book 1, p. 1r) where a child plays the bagpipe, one centaur appears playing the tambourine, and another is portrayed as a trumpeter. The woman’s headgear copies a model that is constantly repeated throughout the 242 miniatures that make up el Libro del Caballero Zifar. In addressing the creases, they endeavor to achieve a natural representation of the fabric while occasionally taking certain license to create chiaroscuro effects in their compositions, even though the chromatic transition is expressed very gradually. The movements of the individuals tend to be reduced to the minimum, and figures are represented with their hands contained within the outlines of their shapes rather than being thrust into the surrounding space. Although Carrión personalizes his treatment of dress, the clothing worn by the individuals generally corresponds to the artist’s period, demonstrating the historical anachronisms that characterize the pictorial representations of this age.
Along with the articulated stylistic characteristics, different elements employed in the present miniature are shared by other examples connected to the Carrión group. The manner of composing the letter by means of the gold frame within which it is placed, surrounded by fleshy acanthus leaves that provide it with a great color scheme within which the scene unfolds, also appears in the representations of King David, the Nativity and the Epiphany (Ávila, Cathedral Museum, Choral Book 1, pp. 1r, 80r and 130r). The fragment’s architectural structure is a model that is found in the miniature of the kneeling King David in the Franciscan breviary (Paris, Bibliothéque Nationale, Latin MS 1064, p. 200r), in the page containing the image of Christ Before Pilate (Berlin, Kupfertischkabinett, MS 78 A 26, p. 10v), in those illustrating the Presentation in the Temple, and in the Last Supper in the book of hours of the Infante Don Alfonso (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.854, 95v and 212v), where the same floor is used in the image corresponding to John the Baptist (22v) and in the Pentecost scene of the choral books of the Cathedrals of Ávila (Book III, p. 30r) and Palencia (Choral Book 5, p. 106r).
The expressed stylistic similarities between the cited group of manuscripts and the fragment from the choral book that represents the Moving of the Ark of the Covenant would signify an increase in the number of works associated in their execution with Juan de Carrión, one of the most important illuminators of the third quarter of the Fifteenth Century in Castile. Finally, the documented activity by Carrión at the Cathedral of Segovia must be included, and it should be recalled that the cathedral’s choral books were lost in the Revolt of the Comuneros that destroyed the old Cathedral of Santa María (1520). Is it possible that we have located evidence of that lost set? We can only raise this as a hypothesis pending the emergence of further data.
Spanish to English: Academic text on Gothic architecture in bell towers
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Architecture
Source text - Spanish
La parte baja presenta una mayor variedad de soluciones en la apertura de huecos. En los casos en que la torre se adosa a uno de los laterales de la iglesia, el fuste de la torre está completamente cerrado, mientras que en aquellas torres que forman un soportal a los pies del templo el muro se cala con un gran arco moldurado. Una tercera solución es aquella en que la torre se integra en el templo, constituyendo el primer tramo de su nave central; en este caso una portada adintelada, situada en el eje de simetría, establece el acceso al templo bajo la torre.

Otra abertura de importantes dimensiones se produce en aquellas torres donde el primer cuerpo se constituye en el coro del templo. En estos casos, el paramento que comparten torre e iglesia se abre, formando un gran arco triunfal que comunica el espacio interior de la torre con el de la nave mayor del templo.

Respecto a la forma de cubrir los diferentes cuerpos de las torres, generalmente los cuerpos bajos, como se ha dicho, se cubren con bóvedas de crucería que presentan ligaduras, terceletes y combados, al igual que sucede en los espacios destinados a coro sobre el cuerpo bajo de la torre. En el resto de los cuerpos, son estructuras de vigas y viguetas de madera las que configuran los diferentes forjados, así como la estructura de la cubierta a cuatro aguas que corona el cuerpo de campanas.
Translation - English
The openings in the lower section offer a greater variety of approaches. Where the tower is attached to one of the sides of the church, its wall is completely enclosed while, in cases where towers form a colonnade at the foot of the temple, the wall forms a large molded arch. A third approach integrates the tower into the temple, becoming the first section of its central nave; in this case a linteled façade situated at the symmetry axis provides access beneath the tower to the temple.

Another highly significant opening occurs in those towers where the first level contains the choir of the temple. In such cases, the wall face between tower and church is opened, forming a grand triumphal arch that connects the tower’s interior with that of the temple’s central nave.

With regard to the ceilings of the different levels of the towers, in general the lower levels, as previously described, are covered with ribbed vaults that feature liernes, tiercerons and arched ribs, with identical vaulting in the tower’s lowest level. The other levels feature wooden beams and joists to configure the different slabs as well as the hipped roof that caps the belfry level.
Spanish to English: Tender for Subway Expansion
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Transport / Transportation / Shipping
Source text - Spanish
Dada la complejidad asociada al tráfico ferroviario, debida a la interacción entre el material rodante con la infraestructura, y los requisitos asociados al servicio, las simulaciones se han realizado mediante una herramienta software, especialmente concebida para analizar dinámicamente estas relaciones, a partir del conjunto de bases de datos de entrada, para obtener como resultado, los aspectos técnicos y operativos más relevantes.
A partir de la herramienta de simulación, se obtienen dos conjuntos de resultados, en primer lugar, los resultados para el conjunto de simulaciones cinemáticas asociados al escenario bajo análisis y en segundo lugar, los resultados del estudio eléctrico partiendo de los datos cinemáticos calculados anteriormente.
Para el primer conjunto de resultados, y partiendo de las bases de datos creadas específicamente para estas simulaciones, las cuales incluyen, tanto las características del material rodante, como de la infraestructura, y permitirán analizar, evaluar y definir las velocidades máximas de circulación, peraltes, tiempos de parada, tiempos de viaje, etc. a fin de cumplir con las solicitudes base de las simulaciones (intervalos, tiempos de parada mínimos por estación, etc.). Los valores obtenidos de este primer conjunto de resultados, se utilizan como parámetros de entrada para la realización de las simulaciones que conforman el estudio eléctrico.
Translation - English
Given the complexity associated with rail traffic due to the interaction between rolling stock and infrastructure, as well as the requirements associated with the service, the simulations were conducted using a software tool specially designed to dynamically analyse these relations using a set of entry databases to achieve results regarding the most relevant technical and operational aspects.
From the simulation tool, two sets of results were obtained: first, the results of a set of film simulations associated with the scenario under analysis, and second, the results of the electrical study focused on the film data previously calculated.
For the first set of results, and based on the databases created specifically for these simulations, including characterisations of the rolling stock as well as infrastructure, and allowing for analysis, evaluation and definition of the maximum circulation speeds, cants, stop times, journey times, etc., in order to respond to the basic requests of the simulations (intervals, minimum station stop times, etc.). The values yielded in this first set of results are utilised as entry parameters for the performance of the simulations that make up the electrical study.
Spanish to English: New teaching strategies in architecture
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Architecture
Source text - Spanish
En nuestra comunicación queremos narrar nuestras experiencias en tres ámbitos diferentes: docencia en Dibujo Arquitectónico, docencia en representación avanzada de la arquitectura e investigación en Fotogrametría.

En nuestras experiencias, la combinación de redes colaborativas, más vídeos, más modelos virtuales, ha alcanzado unos resultados que superaban nuestras expectativas iniciales. Las redes sociales nos han permitido incorporar a personas interesadas más allá de nuestro alcance directo, a desconocidos que se han motivado con los proyectos. Los modelos realizados para ser soporte de contenidos, base de ideas, es decir un paso más allá de la forma, textura y color, nos obligaron a la búsqueda de sistemas más adecuados que los actuales. La realización de vídeos nos ha posibilitado una difusión mucho mayor y más rápida que en cualquier otro medio, si exceptuamos las revistas de alto impacto.

Figura 1 La combinación de sistemas para recorrer el camino de la documentación y difusión del Patrimonio Cultural



LAS VIDEOGRAFÍAS
Cuando nosotros empezamos nuestros estudios de arquitectura, el rapidógrafo (el rotring) había desplazado por completo al tiralíneas. Esta dinámica ha existido siempre, y se llama evolución. Algunas herramientas instrumentales se crean para mejorar las anteriores, que a su vez sólo desaparecen si no se adaptan. Es decir, el dibujo a pluma no ha desaparecido, por el contrario tiene un nuevo auge ya que actualmente sólo es empleado por sus amantes más sinceros.
La expresión gráfica arquitectónica tiene un campo en expansión y no en regresión como algunos apuntan. El papel cansón DIN-A1 no ha desaparecido. La diferencia sustancial es que desde hace mucho tiempo ya no es el “rey del dibujo”, tiene que compartir espacio con otros soportes.
El vídeo es una “herramienta” que está formada por una secuencia de imágenes “dibujos” que se visualizan y se enlazan dentro de un tiempo. El hecho de que pueda llevar incorporado otros lenguajes, es un valor añadido.
Un dibujo de arquitectura tiene mucho mayor sentido cuando se coordina con otros dibujos. La planta es amante doble de la sección y el alzado, y la sección tiene como hijos a los detalles constructivos.
Esta combinación de “dibujos” relacionados, ha constituido lo que denominamos “plano”. Y la combinación de planos es un “proyecto”. Esta conexión o secuencia documental es lo que nos arma el proyecto de arquitectura. En el caso del vídeo, la relación está establecida por el tiempo y reforzada con el sonido.
La pregunta primera que seguramente todos nos haremos es: si apenas tenemos tiempo y recursos para que dibujen algo, ¿vamos a destinar energías al vídeo? La respuesta está en considerar el vídeo como la manipulación efectiva de los dibujos, de tal modo que, con pocas energías la “representación” adquiere nuevas posibilidades. Nos referimos a que las “video-grafías” no implican competencias de director de cine, ni de operador de cámara, solamente tienen una pizca de montaje, una cucharada de guionista, y una taza grande de dibujos.

Translation - English
In this paper, we wish to describe our experiences in three different settings: teaching architectural drawing, teaching advanced architectural representation, and research in photogrammetry.

In our experience, combining collaborative networks with videos and virtual models has yielded results beyond our initial expectations. Social networks have allowed us to extend our reach to include other interested individuals – outsiders who have been encouraged by our projects. The development of models for supporting content or as a basis for ideas – in other words, going beyond shape, texture and color, has necessitated the search for more appropriate systems than those we employ today. Video production has made a much larger and more rapid dissemination possible than any other medium, with the exception of prestigious journals.


Fig. 1. Combination of systems to perform the tasks of documenting and disseminating cultural heritage sites




VIDEOGRAPHIES
When we began our architectural studies, the Rotring Rapidograph had completely displaced the drawing pen. This dynamic, which is called evolution, has always existed. Certain tools, created as improvements to the existing ones, in turn die out if they do not adapt. In other words, pen and ink drawing has not vanished; on the contrary, it is enjoying a renewed prominence now that it is only used by its most enthusiastic admirers.
In spite of allegations to the contrary, architectural graphic expression is an expanding – not shrinking – field. Canson DIN-A1 paper has not disappeared. The primary difference is that it has not been the “king of drawing” for a very long time, since it now must share the stage with other media.
Video is a “tool” formed by a sequence of “drawings”, images that are seen and linked over time. Its ability to accommodate other languages is an added value.
An architectural drawing is much richer in meaning when it is coordinated with other drawings. The floor plan is the darling of both the cross section and the elevation, and the cross section is the parent of the constructive details.
This combination of related “drawings” has comprised what we call the “plan”, and the combination of plans is a “project”. This connection or documentary sequence is what builds the architectural project. In the case of video, the relation is established over time and reinforced by a sound track.
The first question that all of us must surely ask is this: if we only have time and resources for drawing, are we going to devote energy to a video? The answer requires viewing the video as an effective and energy-efficient manipulation of drawings to endow the “representation” with new possibilities. We are referring to the fact that “video-graphies” do not involve skills of cinematic directing or camera operation; they only contain a pinch of montage, a spoonful of screenwriting, and a cupful of drawings.
Spanish to English: World Heritage site performance report
General field: Other
Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - Spanish
Se han producido importantes avances en coherencia con la firme convicción de las autoridades de evitar cualquier hipotético deterioro a los Valores Universales Excepcionales del Bien.

La posición del País sobre el proyecto de Dragado en Profundidad quedó fijada en el Informe y la carta remitidos al Comité de Patrimonio Mundial en 2016 y 2017, en las que se renuncia al proyecto de ejecución. En la revisión del Plan Hidrológico, el proyecto no aparecerá incluido entre las medidas e inversiones programadas.

El “Plan Especial de Ordenación de Regadíos” está implementándose de forma seria, coordinada, gradual y ajustada según cronograma previsto. Se ha reforzado la seguridad jurídica del plan ante los recursos judiciales presentados. Se han clausurado 46 captaciones que sumadas a las ya informadas al Comité con anterioridad elevan la cifra total, desde 2015, a 315 pozo cerrados. Estas clausuras corresponden a sustitución de captaciones y a ejecuciones por finalización de procesos judiciales. Se ha realizado el Plan de Extracciones previsto y un considerable esfuerzo en los ajustes de detalle de la planificación, realizándose innumerables trabajos que permiten aportar seguridad jurídica y establecer las prioridades de intervención. Como consecuencia de ello y de un enorme esfuerzo de inspección, se han realizado, en 2017 y 2018, un total 1831 inspecciones. De ellas 1605 en materia de aguas y 226 en materia forestal. Como resultado de ellas se han realizado 842 denuncias, 730 en materia de aguas y 112 en materia forestal. La culminación de todos estos expedientes supondrá otro avance considerable en el cumplimiento de los objetivos previstos.

Se ha continuado la intensa labor de monitoreo de la situación del acuífero mostrándose una situación similar a la de años anteriores, con unos sectores en buen estado (coincidentes con el Bien) y otros en peor estado, si bien las acciones emprendidas por las autoridades competentes en materia de agua, agricultura y medio ambiente han conseguido, tras muchos años de progresivo deterioro del estado, una estabilización de la situación, que se espera redunden en un cambio de tendencia.

Se aportan las Declaraciones de Impacto Ambiental de los proyectos de extracción y almacenamiento de gas denominados XX y YY y el análisis de la consideración del VUE del Bien y la “Nota del consejo de UICN sobre el patrimonio mundial: evaluación ambiental”. Todo ello teniendo en cuenta que la solicitud del Comité se realizó con posterioridad a la realización de las evaluaciones y que la “Nota del consejo de UICN...”, se publicó en noviembre de 2013, tres años después de la emisión de la Declaración de Impacto Ambiental del proyecto XX y 10 meses después de que se emitiese la declaración de impacto ambiental del proyecto YY.

Respecto a la Mina de ZZ, en cumplimiento del párrafo 172 de las Directrices Prácticas y la Decisión 41 COM 7B.9, se ha remitido al Centro de Patrimonio Mundial, el proyecto presentado por el promotor para su evaluación. El trámite de evaluación deberá incorporar específicamente las recomendaciones de la UICN sobre evaluaciones ambientales en los lugares Patrimonio Mundial así como el análisis de los riesgos. El Centro y Comité de Patrimonio podrá aportar sus consideraciones. Respecto a la Presa del WW, la situación es la misma que cuando se pronunció el Comité en 2017.

Respecto al Estado de Conservación del Bien, los datos de seguimiento más recientes demuestran que el Bien conserva los valores que llevaron a incluir el sitio en la lista del Patrimonio Mundial cumpliendo los criterios VII, IX y X., tanto en lo relativo a paisajes, como a habitats y especies. Los valores ornitológicos que motivaron la inclusión de este espacio en la Lista de Patrimonio Mundial siguen siendo excepcionales, con una media superior al medio millón de acuáticas invernantes y el mantenimiento de los hábitats para la reproducción de al menos 7 especies en peligro de extinción. El **águila, en las dos últimas temporadas, ha conseguido mantener el 100 % de los territorios ocupados por parejas reproductoras, con una regeneración y rejuvenecimiento de parejas. Los grandes esfuerzos dedicados a la conservación del **lince han sacado a la población de una situación crítica, pudiendo ahora afrontar el futuro con mayores garantías de supervivencia. La situación de la especie en el Parque Nacional no ha sufrido cambios significativos desde el último informe, y se destaca la continuación de esfuerzos para evitar atropellos.
Translation - English
Important advances have been made consistent with the authorities’ firm intention to avoid any hypothetical deterioration of the Property’s Outstanding Universal Values.

The country’s position regarding the Deep Dredging project is recorded in the Report and letter submitted to the World Heritage Committee in 2016 and 2017, where it abandons the construction project. In the revised version of the Hydrological Plan, the project will not be included among the programmed measures and investments.

The “Special Irrigation Plan” is being implemented in a serious, coordinated, gradual and calibrated manner in accordance with the planned schedule. The legal protection of the plan has been reinforced in the light of available court resources. Forty-six catchments have been shut down, raising the total capped wells since 2015 to 315 when added to those already reported to the Committee. These closings correspond to the substitution of catchments and to implementations at the conclusion of legal proceedings. The scheduled Extraction Plan was carried out and a considerable effort was made to adjust the planning details, with countless tasks performed to allow for the provision of legal protection and the setting of priorities for action. As a result of this along with an intense inspection effort, a total of 1831 inspections were carried out in 2017 and 2018, with 730 of these involving water resources and 226 focused on forestry. The culmination of all these actions represents another significant advance in completing the planned objectives.

The intensive work of monitoring the aquifer’s situation has continued, revealing a situation similar to that of previous years, with some sectors in good condition (consistent with the Property) and others in a worse state, although, following many years of steady deterioration, the actions taken by the competent water, agriculture and environment authorities have managed to achieve a stable situation that is expected to alter the trend.

The Environmental Impact Statements and the gas extraction and storage projects known as XX and YY are presented along with an analysis of the consideration of the Property’s OUV and the “note of the IUCN council regarding world heritage: environmental evaluation” – all this while keeping in mind that the Committee’s submission was made after the evaluations had been carried out and that the “note of the IUCN council…” was published in November 2013, three years after the XX project’s Environmental Impact Statement and 10 months after the YY project issued its own Environmental Impact Statement.

Regarding the ZZ Mine, in compliance with paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, the project prepared by the developer was submitted to the World Heritage Center for its evaluation. The evaluation process is specifically expected to incorporate the IUCN recommendations on environmental evaluations in the World Heritage locations along with a risk analysis. The Center and the Heritage Committee can provide their considerations. With respect to the WW Dam, the situation remains unchanged since the Committee’s 2017 decision.

Concerning the Property’s State of Conservation, the most recent monitoring data indicate that the Property retains the values that led to the site’s inclusion in the World Heritage list, fulfilling criteria VII, IX and X with respect to landscapes as well as habitats and species. The ornithological values that inspired the inclusion of this space on the World Heritage List continue to be exceptional, averaging over a half million wintering aquatic birds and the maintenance of habitats for the reproduction of at least 7 endangered species. Over the last two seasons, the **eagle has managed to retain 100% of the territories occupied by reproducing pairs, displaying regeneration and rejuvenation of the pairs. The major efforts dedicated to the conservation of the ** lynx have brought this population back from a critical situation to the point where it can now face the future with a greater assurance of survival. The situation in the National Park regarding species has not changed significantly since the last report and is distinguished by the continuation of efforts to prevent violations.
Portuguese to English: Brazilian criminal sentencing document
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law (general)
Source text - Portuguese
Para os crimes de corrupção passiva: Fulano de Tal não tem antecedentes registrados no processo. As provas colacionadas neste mesmo feito indicam que passou a dedicar-se à prática sistemática de crimes no exercício do cargo de Diretor da Companhia X, visando seu próprio enriquecimento ilícito e de terceiros, o que deve ser valorado negativamente a título de personalidade. Culpabilidade, conduta social, motivos, comportamento da vítima são elementos neutros. Circunstâncias devem ser valoradas negativamente. A prática dos crimes corrupção envolveu o recebimento de cerca de xx.xxx.xxx.00 reais pela Diretoria Y da Companhia X. Um único crime de corrupção envolveu pagamento de mais de vinte milhões em propinas. Mesmo considerando que Fulano de Tal recebia uma parcela desses valores, o montante ainda é muito elevado. Consequências também devem ser valoradas negativamente, pois o custo da propina foi repassado à Companhia X, através da cobrança de preço superior à estimativa, aliás propiciado pela corrupção, com o que a estatal ainda arcou com o prejuízo no valor equivalente. A corrupção com pagamento de propina de dezenas de milhões de reais e tendo por consequência prejuízo equivalente aos cofres públicos merece reprovação especial. Considerando três vetoriais negativas, de especial reprovação, fixo, para o crime de corrupção passiva, pena de cinco anos de reclusão.





Translation - English
For the crimes of passive corruption: Fulano de Tal has no antecedents recorded in the proceeding. The evidence collected in this same action indicate that he started dedicating himself to the systematic commitment of crimes in carrying out his responsibilities as Director at Company X for the purpose of his own illicit enrichment and that of third parties, which should be assessed negatively with respect to personality. Culpability, social conduct, motives, and behaving in the manner of a victim are neutral elements. Circumstances should be assessed negatively. The commitment of crimes of corruption involved received approximately xx,xxx,xxx.00 through the Y Directorate at Company X. Just one crime of corruption involved the payment of over twenty million in bribes. Even taking into consideration that Fulano de Tal received a portion of these funds, the amount is still extremely high. Consequences should also be assessed negatively, since the cost of the bribe was passed on to Company X through charging a price above its estimate - induced, moreover, by corruption, inflicting damages on the state-owned enterprise in the equivalent amount. Corruption involving payment of bribes in the amount of dozens of millions of Brazilian reals and resulting in equivalent damages to the public coffers deserves special condemnation. Taking into consideration three negative vectors of special condemnation, I determine a sentence of five years of imprisonment for the crime of passive corruption.
Portuguese to English: Section of article on women in competitive computer gaming
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: Sports / Fitness / Recreation
Source text - Portuguese
Entrando no assunto de competições, comentei sobre como torneios exclusivamente femininas são consideradas espaços seguros para mulheres jogarem e sentirem o gostinho de competir. Entretanto, muitos questionam essa ideia e se perguntam até quando tais torneios deveriam existir.

Para Taylor, o assunto é bastante complexo. “Não conheço ninguém que está trabalhando nesta área que quer um futuro no qual as mulheres sejam segregadas dos homens. No entanto, é o meio que encontramos de dar às mulheres uma oportunidade de jogar em um nível alto sem o assédio e a toxicidade”, explica.

A socióloga confessa que não sabe quando os torneios exclusivamente poderão deixar de existir, mas espera que não demore. “Eu diria que só conseguiremos, de fato, deixar de realizar esses torneios quando resolvermos problemas sistemáticos mais profundos. Neste momento, essas competições existem para ajudar mulheres, então precisamos primeiro resolver as barreiras de entrada, os problemas de assédio e a toxicidade”.

Ao ouvir as palavras “problemas sistemáticos mais profundos”, não pude evitar lembrar do recente caso envolvendo a Riot Games. Desenvolvedora e publisher de League of Legends, a empresa foi acusada em uma extensa reportagem de ter uma “cultura de brother” que criava um ambiente hostil para as funcionárias.

Os executivos da Riot prometeram mudanças estruturais para que a empresa acabe com as situações de sexismo e melhore nas questões de diversidade e inclusão, mas está enfrentando um processo por não ter prestado atenção nisso antes.

Mas, além da Riot, que é criadora de um dos jogos com cenário competitivo mais rentável, também pensei nas organizações de esporte eletrônico que não parecem se esforçar para incluir mulheres em suas equipes. Taylor concordou e até comentou sobre algumas desculpas que já ouviu por aí.

“Acho que alguns times são melhores que outros. Se não me engano, no ano passado teve um time que pensou em contratar uma jogadora, mas hesitou porque ela teria que morar na mesma casa que os outros jogadores e ‘isso seria estranho’”, recordou.

A socióloga acredita que esse é um tipo de problema estrutural e de preconceito que organizações terão que superar – e algumas até já o fizeram sem problema algum, como o mencionado caso de Geguri, que joga e mora com os companheiros da Shanghai Dragons da Overwatch League.

“Creio que as organizações que vão dar certo no futuro – e, com isso, quero dizer tanto na questão competitiva quanto na financeira – são as que vão perceber que existem muitas mulheres e integrantes de outros grupos de minoria que querem se envolver nos esports, e se você não oferece oportunidade a essas pessoas, é você que será deixado para trás”.

Enquanto essas barreiras de problemas sistemáticos e estruturais demoram a cair, continuamos incentivando as mulheres que conseguem quebrar o “teto de vidro” do competitivo, apoiando torneios exclusivos como espaços seguros e condenando casos de assédio e toxicidade. Também continuamos a fazer o mesmo tipo de matéria quase que semestralmente na esperança que esses muros desmoronem mais rápido.
Translation - English
Touching on the topic of competitions, I mentioned how women-only tournaments are regarded as safe spaces for women to play and get a little taste of competition. Still, many people challenge the idea and ask how long such tournaments should continue.

For Taylor, the matter is very complex. "I do not know anyone working in this area who hopes for a future where women are segregated from men. Still, it is the way we have found to give women a chance to play at a high level without harassment and toxic culture," she explains.

The sociologist confesses that she does not know when such tournaments can cease to exist, but she hopes it will not take long. "I would say that we will only truly succeed in phasing out these tournaments once we resolve deeper systematic problems. At this time, such competitions exist to help women, so first we need to find a way to overcome entrance barriers and problems of harassment and toxic culture."

When I heard the words "deeper systematic problems", I could not help recalling the recent case involving Riot Games. Developer and publisher of League of Legends, the company was accused in an extensive article of having a "bro culture" that created a hostile environment for female employees.
Riot Games executives promised structural changes to end the company's sexist climate and to make improvements on matters of diversity and inclusion, but it is facing a lawsuit for not having dealt with this situation before now.

But besides Riot, which is the creator of one of the most profitable competitive games, I was also aware of electronic sports organizations that seem to be making no effort to include women on their teams. Taylor agreed, commenting on some of the excuses she has heard.

"I think some teams are better than others. If I am not mistaken, there was a team last year that considered hiring a female player but hesitated because she would have to live in the same house with the other players and ‘that would be weird’, " she recalled.

The sociologist believes that this is the sort of structural problem and bias that organizations will have to overcome, and some of them have already done this with no problem at all, as in the case of Geguri, who plays and lives with the Overwatch League's Shanghai Dragons team members.

"I believe that the organizations that will succeed in the future — and by this I mean both in a competitive sense and financially — are those that realize that there are many women and members of other minority groups who want to become involved in sports, and that if you do not offer opportunities for such people, you will be left behind."

Until the barriers of systematic and structural problems are broken down, we will be encouraging women who want to break the "glass ceiling" of competition, supporting women's tournaments as safe spaces and protesting cases of harassment and toxic culture. We will also continue to report on the same kind of topic every six months or so in the hope that these walls will come down sooner.
Portuguese to English: Professional soccer/football sample
General field: Other
Detailed field: Sports / Fitness / Recreation
Source text - Portuguese
O palco estava armado para o retorno do Botafogo a um jogo de Libertadores diante de sua torcida após 17 anos. O cenário não podia ser melhor. Um Maracanã com 50.638 torcedores saudosos e confiantes, apesar da derrota para o Deportivo Quito por 1 a 0 no jogo de ida. Mas "O Gigante Voltou", e o tapete alvinegro de recepção foi em forma de um grande mosaico, que teve espaço também para uma homenagem ao eterno ídolo Nilton Santos.
Translation - English
The stage was set for Botafogo's return, competing in Libertadores Cup play in front of its fans for the first time in 17 years. The scene could not have been better: 50,638 yearning and confident fans at Maracanã in spite of the one-nil defeat by Deportivo Quito in the away game. But "The Giant Returned" and the black-and-white welcoming carpet took the form of a great mosaic that also featured a tribute to the timeless idol Nilton Santos.
Portuguese to English: Guide for Returning Brazilians
General field: Other
Detailed field: Government / Politics
Source text - Portuguese
Guia do Brasileiro Regressado
1. A atividade consular constitui uma das funções mais antigas e tradicionais da Chancelaria brasileira. A partir sobretudo dos anos 80, verificou-se um considerável aumento do número de brasileiros que passaram a viver no exterior ou que viajam a turismo ou para fins de estudos em outros países.
2. A assistência e proteção a brasileiros no exterior constitui, atualmente, uma efetiva prioridade da política externa brasileira.
3. O Itamaraty tem desenvolvido importantes ações nessa área, entre as quais contam-se a compactação e a modernização da rede consular de carreira e a ampliação da rede consular honorária, a realização de Consulados itinerantes e a instalação e funcionamento dos Conselhos de Cidadãos.
4. Dentre as inúmeras iniciativas de apoio ao nacional no exterior, figura a edição de Cartilhas Consulares, folhetos simples, com conselhos práticos para orientar o emigrante brasileiro, evitar situações embaraçosas e facilitar a vida dessas pessoas no exterior. Editaram-se cartilhas de viajantes, em três versões, destinadas às pessoas que se destinam à Europa, América do Norte e Japão, bem como cartilhas para brasileiros residentes em determinados países.
5. Em sua maioria, os brasileiros que residem no exterior não romperam os vínculos com o país. Em geral, mantêm vivo o desejo de retornar ao Brasil após certo tempo.
6. A esses brasileiros destina-se o presente “Guia do Brasileiro Regressado”, repositório de orientações práticas e indicações úteis à sua reinserção do território nacional.
Translation - English
Guide for Returning Brazilians
1. The consular role is one of the oldest and most traditional functions of the Foreign Relations Ministry. There has been, particularly since the 1980s, a considerable increase in the number of Brazilians who have chosen to live abroad or who travel to other countries for tourism or study.
2. Rendering assistance and protection to Brazilians abroad is currently a top priority of Brazil’s foreign policy.
3. The Ministry has taken significant steps in this area, including the streamlining and modernization of the network of professional consulates and the expansion of the network of honorary consulates, the creation of circuit consulates, and the creation and operation of Citizens Councils.
4. Among the countless initiatives in support of citizens abroad is the publication of the Consular Primers, short booklets with practical tips to guide Brazilian emigrants, avoid embarrassing situations, and assist these citizens in their life abroad. Different versions of travelers’ primers have been prepared for Brazilians bound for Europe, North America and Japan, as well as for those residing in certain countries.
5. Most Brazilians living abroad have not broken their ties to home. They generally nurture a desire to return to Brazil after some time abroad.
6. This “Guide for Returning Brazilians” is for them. It is a collection of practical guidelines and useful tips to assist them in reintegrating back into their home country.
Portuguese to English: Charitable organization business plan (sections)
General field: Other
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - Portuguese
MISSÃO INSTITUCIONAL

Atuar na promoção, prevenção e reparação de direitos de meninas e adolescentes com trajetória de vida nas ruas ou em situação de risco e vulnerabilidade social, assistindo-lhes em suas necessidades físicas, psicológicas, materiais, intelectuais e sociais e promovendo sua reintegração de volta às suas famílias e comunidades.

OBJETIVOS
 Promover ações de estímulo e incentivo à escolaridade e ampliação do universo informativo, cultural, inclusive de preparação para o mundo do trabalho;
 Realizar atividades formativas e de conscientização sobre gravidez precoce e uso de drogas, em parceria com instituições de ensino e organizações da sociedade civil;
 Ofertar proteção integral a meninas e adolescentes grávidas e com filhos(as) em ambiente em condições de segurança, conforto, salubridade, respeito, acolhimento e privacidade;
 Favorecer o fortalecimento de vínculos afetivos e a reintegração familiar e comunitária.

EIXOS PROGRAMÁTICOS DE ATUAÇÃO

O Criança Alegre optou por trabalhar de modo integrado com Prevenção de gravidez precoce, Prevenção de uso de drogas e Acolhimento institucional, o que chamamos de Eixos Programáticos de Atuação, pelo fato de se constituírem enquanto problemas mundiais e estarem, no mais das vezes, relacionados a violações de direitos. Dos USA ao Sudão, da França à Bolívia, do Canadá à Etiópia, a gravidez precoce e o contato com drogas ilícitas na infância e adolescência, em maior ou menor grau, são fenômenos corriqueiros e se interligam entre si, conforme se demonstrará na sequência.
De fato, no caso da gravidez precoce, sua ocorrência em todos os países do mundo e as especificidades relacionadas à sua incidência fizeram com que o Banco Mundial a utilizasse como um dos indicadores de desenvolvimento. Dados recentes, de 2016, divulgados pelo Banco demonstram a ocorrência mundial desse fenômeno, como se vê abaixo, referentes à taxa de fertilidade em adolescentes (nascimentos por cada 1.000 mulheres entre 15 e 19 anos de idade).
Translation - English
INSTITUTIONAL MISSION

To work to promote, protect, and restore the rights of pre-adolescent and adolescent girls who are headed for life on the streets or whose situation leaves them at risk and socially vulnerable, assisting them by addressing their physical, psychological, material, intellectual and social needs and promoting a successful return to their families and communities.

PURPOSES
 To sponsor actions that stimulate and encourage learning and a broadening of their base of knowledge and culture, including preparing them for the world of work
 In partnership with educational and civic organizations, to conduct training and consciousness-raising activities focused on early pregnancy and the use of drugs
 To provide comprehensive protection for pregnant girls and adolescents and those with children within an atmosphere that is secure, comfortable, wholesome, respectful, welcoming and confidential
 To facilitate the strengthening of emotional bonds and reintegration back into family and community life

FOCUSES OF PROGRAMMATIC ACTION

Criança Alegre elected to focus in a coordinated way on preventing early pregnancy, preventing drug use, and sponsoring institutional shelters, factors collectively called the Focuses of Programmatic Action, since these constitute worldwide problems that are related, in most cases, to rights violations. From the U.S. to Sudan, from France to Bolivia, from Canada to Ethiopia, early pregnancy and contact by children and adolescents with illegal drugs are, to a greater or lesser extent, commonplace occurrences that are linked to each other, as we demonstrate below.
In fact, in the case of early pregnancy, the presence of this factor in all countries of the world and the specific nature of its occurrence led the World Bank to include it as a development indicator. Recent data released by the Bank in 2016 demonstrate the worldwide extent of this phenomenon, indicated by the adolescent fertility rate (births per 1000 women between 15 and 19 years of age), as shown below.
Portuguese to English: Articles of Incorporation
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law (general)
Source text - Portuguese
PRIMEIRA ALTERAÇÃO DO CONTRATO SOCIAL

SAMPLE COMPANY– Acessórios LTDA.
CNPJ: 12.345.678/0001-70 - NIRE: 1234567890X

US COMPANY, INC., pessoa jurídica de direito privado, inscrita no CNPJ/MF sob o nº 12.345.678/0001-07, com sede na 100 Sample Rd., Sample, State, 12345, Estados Unidos da América, neste ato representada pelo Mr. John N. Doe Jr, americano, solteiro, residente e domiciliado na 1120 Sample Rd., Sample, State, 12345,, Estados Unidos da América, representado no Brasil por seu procurador Guilherme Fulano de Tal, brasileiro, casado, advogado inscrito na OAB/E sob o nº 12.345 e no CPF/MF sob o nº 123.456.789-0x, com endereço profissional na Av. Amostra, No. 123, Ed. Amostra Center, 6° Andar, bloco X, Centro, Amostra – E, CEP 88.015-100; e Miguel Fulano de Tal, brasileiro, casado, administrador de empresas, nascido em 01/02/1978, portador da cédula de identidade n° 1.234.567, expedida pela SSI/E, em 01/02/1981, inscrito no CPF/MF sob n° 123.456.789-01, residente e domiciliado na Rua Amostra, 234 – apto 902, Centro, Amostra – E - CEP 12345-123, resolvem, por deliberação unânime, promover a PRIMEIRA ALTERAÇÃO DO CONTRATO SOCIAL, modificando os dispositivos a seguir indicados na forma que segue:


Art. 1º O capital social que era de R$ 100.000,00 (cem mil reais), divididos em 100.000 (cem mil) cotas no valor nominal de R$ 1,00 (um real) cada, totalmente integralizado (art. 1.081 do Código Civil), será elevado para R$ 400.000,00 (quatrocentos mil reais), mediante a emissão de 300.000 (trezentas mil) novas cotas no valor nominal de R$ 1,00 (um real) cada, perfazendo o valor total de R$ 300.000,00 (trezentos mil reais), a serem integralizados na forma que segue:

• A sócia US COMPANY, INC. irá subscrever e integralizar, em moeda corrente, na data da assinatura do presente instrumento, 297.000 (duzentos e noventa e sete mil) novas cotas no valor nominal de R$ 1,00 (um real) cada, perfazendo o valor total de R$ 297.000,00 (duzentos e noventa e sete mil reais).

• O sócio Miguel Fulano de Tal irá subscrever e integralizar, em moeda corrente, na data da assinatura do presente instrumento, 3.000 (três mil) novas cotas no valor nominal de R$ 1,00 (um real) cada, perfazendo o valor total de R$ 3.000,00 (três mil reais).

Art. 2º Mantém-se o valor nominal das cotas em R$ 1,00 (um real).



Art. 3º Altera-se no Contrato Social a CLÁUSULA QUINTA, que passa a conter a seguinte redação:

CLÁUSULA QUINTA

O capital social é de R$ 400.000,00 (quatrocentos mil reais), divididos em 400.000 (quatrocentas mil) cotas, no valor nominal de R$ 1,00 (um real) cada, totalmente subscritas e integralizadas, pelos sócios:

a) US COMPANY, INC., com 396.000 (trezentas e noventa e seis mil) cotas, no valor total de R$ 396.000,00 (trezentos e noventa e seis mil reais), equivalente a 99% (noventa e nove por cento) do capital social da empresa;

b) Miguel Fulano de Tal com 4.000 (quatro mil) cotas, no valor total de R$ 4.000,00 (quatro mil reais), equivalente a 1% (um por cento) do capital social da empresa.


Art. 4º Altera-se no Contrato Social a CLÁUSULA SÉTIMA, que passa a conter a seguinte redação:


CLÁUSULA SÉTIMA

A participação dos sócios no Capital Social da empresa, por cotas e percentuais, fica dividida da seguinte forma:


NOME DO SÓCIO NÚMERO
DE COTAS % DE
PARTICIPAÇÃO
US COMPANY, INC.
396.000 99,00%
MIGUEL FULANO DE TAL
4.000 1,0%
TOTAL 400.000 100,00%








CONSOLIDAÇÃO DO CONTRATO SOCIAL

Em face das alterações promovidas, o instrumento original passa a vigorar pelas cláusulas seguintes, devidamente consolidadas:

CAPÍTULO I
DA DENOMINAÇÃO, SEDE, OBJETO, INÍCIO E PRAZO

CLÁUSULA PRIMEIRA

A presente sociedade empresária limitada girará nesta comarca sob a denominação social de SAMPLE COMPANY– Acessórios LTDA., regendo-se por este estatuto e pela legislação vigente que lhe for aplicável, em especial pela Lei nº 10.406, de 10 de janeiro de 2002 (Novo Código Civil).


CLÁUSULA SEGUNDA

A sociedade terá sua sede e domicílio na cidade de Amostra/E, na Avenida Prefeito Fulano de Tal, No. 123, Prédio Amostra Center, Bloco B – Sala 123, Bairro Centro, Postal Code 12.345-456.

Parágrafo Único: A sociedade poderá abrir filiais, sucursais e/ou escritórios em qualquer ponto do território nacional, ou fora dele, atribuindo-lhe ou não capital social próprio, mediante alteração contratual assinada por todos os sócios.

CLÁUSULA TERCEIRA

A sociedade terá como objetivo a importação, exportação, armazenagem e distribuição nacional de acessórios ergonômicos para inclusão em mobiliário de estabelecimentos industriais, comerciais e escritórios em geral.


CLÁUSULA QUARTA

A sociedade iniciará suas atividades em 25 de abril de 2011 e seu prazo de duração será por tempo indeterminado.



CAPÍTULO II
DO CAPITAL SOCIAL E DA RESPONSABILIDADE DOS SÓCIOS

CLÁUSULA QUINTA

O capital social é de R$ 400.000,00 (quatrocentos mil reais), divididos em 400.000 (quatrocentas mil) cotas, no valor nominal de R$ 1,00 (um real) cada, totalmente subscritas e integralizadas, pelos sócios:

a) US COMPANY, INC., com 396.000 (trezentas e noventa e seis mil) cotas, no valor total de R$ 396.000,00 (trezentos e noventa e seis mil reais), equivalente a 99% (noventa e nove por cento) do capital social da empresa;

b) Miguel Fulano de Tal com 4.000 (quatro mil) cotas, no valor total de R$ 4.000,00 (quatro mil reais), equivalente a 1% (um por cento) do capital social da empresa.


CLÁUSULA SEXTA

A responsabilidade dos sócios é restrita ao valor total de suas cotas, respondendo, no entanto, solidariamente, pela integralização da totalidade do capital social, na forma do art. 1.052 do Novo Código Civil.


CLÁUSULA SÉTIMA

A participação dos sócios no Capital Social da empresa, por cotas e percentuais, fica dividida da seguinte forma:


NOME DO SÓCIO NÚMERO
DE COTAS % DE
PARTICIPAÇÃO
US COMPANY, INC 396.000 99,00%
MIGUEL FULANO DE TAL 4.000 1,0%
TOTAL 400.000 100,00%



CAPÍTULO III
DO AUMENTO DE CAPITAL, RETIRADA DE SÓCIO, DIMINUIÇÃO DE CAPITAL

CLÁUSULA OITAVA

As quotas são indivisíveis e somente poderão ser cedidas ou transferidas a terceiros com o consentimento de titulares de mais de um quarto do capital social, a quem fica assegurado, em igualdade de condições e preço direito de preferência para a sua aquisição se postas à venda, formalizando, se realizada a cessão delas, a alteração contratual pertinente (arts. 1.056 e 1.057 do Novo Código Civil).

Parágrafo Primeiro: Não havendo interesse por parte dos sócios para a aquisição das cotas oferecidas igual direito se abre para a sociedade que, optando pela aquisição das respectivas cotas, promoverá a redução proporcional do capital social do sócio retirante, apurando seus haveres e pagando-lhe os valores correspondentes.

Parágrafo Segundo: Não havendo interesse por parte dos sócios ou da própria sociedade na aquisição das cotas postas à disposição, poderá o sócio retirante cedê-las ou transferi-las a terceiros estranhos ao quadro social.

Parágrafo Terceiro: As cotas em todos os casos serão valoradas conforme o levantado em balanço de determinação, nos termos da Clausula Nona.

Parágrafo Quarto: A redução do Capital Social e a respectiva forma, bem como o aumento do Capital Social e a forma de sua integralização, serão deliberados pela maioria simples representativa do capital social.


CLÁUSULA NONA

No caso de retirada, despedida ou exclusão de sócio, deverá a parte
interessada comunicar à outra de sua intenção através de notificação premonitória, com antecedência de 30 (trinta) dias, para efeitos de instauração do procedimento de transição e providências relativas à respectiva alteração contratual, prazo em que será levantado um balanço de determinação para apuração dos haveres do sócio que se desliga.

Parágrafo Único: Aplicar-se-á as disposições do caput, no que couber, para a apuração e pagamento dos haveres de sócio falecido.


CAPÍTULO IV
DO EXERCÍCIO SOCIAL, BALANÇO, DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE LUCROS E PREJUÍZOS

CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA

O exercício social encerrar-se-á aos 31 (trinta e um) dias do mês de dezembro de cada ano, quando o administrador prestará contas justificadas de sua administração, procedendo às elaborações de inventário, balanço patrimonial e balanço de resultado econômico, cabendo aos sócios, na proporção de suas quotas, os lucros ou perdas apurados. (art. 1.065 do Novo Código Civil).

Parágrafo Primeiro: Nos quatro meses seguintes ao término do exercício social, os sócios deliberarão sobre as contas e designarão administrador(es) quando for o caso (arts. 1.071, 1.072, § 2o e art. 1.078 do Novo Código Civil).

Parágrafo Segundo: Os prejuízos que porventura se verificarem serão mantidos em contas especiais para serem amortizados nos exercícios futuros e, não o sendo, serão suportados pelos sócios na proporção do capital social de cada um.


CAPÍTULO V
DA REMUNERAÇÃO, ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CONTABILIDADE E DO CONSELHO CONSULTIVO

CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA PRIMEIRA

Nos termos do artigo 1.061 da Lei 10.406/2002, deliberam os sócios que a sociedade poderá manter administrador não sócio.

Parágrafo Primeiro: A sociedade será gerida e administrada pelo sócio Miguel Fulano de Tal, já qualificado acima, que fica autorizado a receber citação em nome da empresa, outorgar procurações, podendo praticar todos os atos negociais necessários para a consecução do fim social, usar o nome empresarial nos objetivos da empresa, sendo vedado, no entanto, seu uso em atividade estranha ao interesse social, ficando ainda proibido, assumir obrigações seja em favor de qualquer dos quotistas ou de terceiros, bem como onerar ou alienar bens da sociedade, sem autorização do outro sócio (arts. 997, inciso VI, 1.013, 1.015, 1.064, do Novo Código Civil). Ficando vedado ao administrador deflagrar quaisquer despesas ou investimentos, ainda que afetas ao interesse social, que sejam iguais ou superiores a R$100.000,00 (cem mil reais), necessitando para tanto previa deliberação do Conselho Consultivo, nos termos da clausula décima quarta.

Parágrafo Segundo: O administrador declara sob as penalidades da lei que não está incluído entre pessoas impedidas por lei especial; em virtude de condenação criminal cuja pena vede, ainda que temporariamente, o acesso a cargos públicos; por crime falimentar, de prevaricação, peita ou suborno, concussão, peculato, ou contra a economia popular, contra o sistema financeiro nacional, contra as normas de defesa da concorrência, contra as relações de consumo, a fé pública ou a propriedade, enquanto perdurarem os efeitos de condenação, conforme expresso no art. 1.011 do Novo Código Civil.


CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA SEGUNDA

Os sócios, que efetivamente prestem serviços em prol da sociedade, terão o direito a uma retirada mensal a título de pró-labore, definido pela maioria do capital social e nos limites permitidos pela legislação vigente.

Parágrafo Único: O Administrador assinará com os sócios majoritários um acordo de não concorrência que será registrado na Junta Comercial do Estado de Amostra.


CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA TERCEIRA

Do Conselho Consultivo

O Conselho Consultivo compor-se-á de 3 (três) membros, no mínimo, todos eles eleitos pela Reunião/Assembléia de Sócios e por ela destituíveis a qualquer tempo, obedecido o seguinte:
Parágrafo Primeiro – Caberão aos sócios detentores de 51% (cinqüenta e um por cento) do capital social decidir os membros que farão parte do Conselho Consultivo;
Parágrafo Segundo – O mandato dos membros do Conselho Consultivo é de 3 (três) anos, permitida a reeleição.
Parágrafo Terceiro – Os membros serão investidos nos seus cargos mediante termo lavrado e assinado em livro próprio.
Parágrafo Quarto – O Conselho Consultivo reunir-se-á mediante convocação, na qual constará a agenda da reunião, sendo feita formalmente por escrito, dispensando-se as formalidades a publicação do anúncio, com antecedência mínima de 5 (cinco) dias. Excepcionalmente, poderá o Presidente do Conselho convocá-lo, em caráter extraordinário, com antecedência mínima de 48 horas.
Parágrafo Quinto – O Conselho Consultivo somente poderá reunir-se com a presença de, no mínimo, três (3) membros e, seja qual for o comparecimento, as deliberações serão tomadas por maioria de votos, com exceção das matérias elencadas no Contrato Social, quando será necessário "quorum" qualificado.
Parágrafo Sexto – Das reuniões do Conselho Consultivo lavrar-se-ão Atas.

CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA QUARTA
Ao Conselho Consultivo, caberá a fixação da orientação geral dos negócios da Sociedade, por meio de diretrizes fundamentais de administração, bem como o controle superior da Sociedade, pela fiscalização da observância das diretrizes por ele fixadas, acompanhamento da execução dos programas aprovados e verificação dos resultados obtidos.
Parágrafo Primeiro – No exercício de suas atribuições cabe, também, ao Conselho Consultivo:
I – aprovar o orçamento anual, bem como eventuais suplementações;
II – deliberar sobre o relatório da administração e as contas da Diretoria;
III – deliberar previamente sobre os atos ou contratos, quando o valor em questão for igual ou superior a R$ 100.000,00 (cem mil reais);
IV – autorizar a participação em outras sociedades, aquisição, bem como a alienação ou transferência, a qualquer título de bens do ativo permanente, ou quotas de outras sociedades detidas pela Sociedade;
V – autorizar a Diretoria a onerar bens do ativo permanente, a constituir ônus reais, bem como a prestar garantias, fianças, caução ou avais em negócios da própria sociedade ou de sociedades interligadas, coligadas ou controladas, e, ainda, a terceiros, desde que do interesse da sociedade, quando de valor superior a R$ 100.000,00 (cem mil reais);

CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA QUINTA
É vedada ao Conselho Consultivo, a prática de atividades estranhas ao interesse social ou assumir obrigações, seja em favor de qualquer dos quotistas ou de terceiros, bem como onerar ou alienar bens imóveis da sociedade, sem autorização dos outros sócios, nos termos dos arts. 997, inciso VI, 1.013. 1.015, 1064 do Novo Código Civil.

CAPÍTULO VI

DA DISSOLUÇÃO E LIQUIDAÇÃO DA SOCIEDADE

CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA SEXTA

A sociedade não se dissolverá em caso de retirada, despedida, inabilitação, interdição ou morte de qualquer dos sócios, prosseguindo com os remanescentes. Em caso de falecimento, e em não havendo concordância de um quarto dos sócios remanescentes, fica vedado aos herdeiros e/ou sucessores ingressarem na sociedade, sendo que os haveres respectivos serão apurados e pagos na forma estatuída na CLÁUSULA NONA e seu parágrafo único, sendo facultado aos herdeiros e/ou sucessores fazer-se representar perante a sociedade por um dentre eles designado expressamente, ou pelo inventariante do espólio do sócio falecido, enquanto indiviso o quinhão e até o pagamento dos respectivos haveres.

Parágrafo Primeiro: Aplicar-se-á as disposições do caput, no que couber, para a apuração e pagamento dos haveres de sócio falecido.

Parágrafo Segundo: O mesmo procedimento será adotado em outros casos em que a sociedade se resolva em relação a seu sócio (arts. 1.028 e 1.031 do Novo Código Civil).


CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA SÉTIMA

Poderá o sócio ser excluído judicialmente, na forma do disposto no art. 1.030 do Novo Código Civil, mediante iniciativa da maioria dos demais sócios, por falta grave no cumprimento de suas obrigações, ou, ainda, por incapacidade superveniente.

Parágrafo Primeiro: O sócio que tiver falência ou insolvência declarada, ou cuja cota tenha sido penhorada, será de pleno direito excluído da sociedade.

Parágrafo Segundo: Fica terminantemente proibido, sob pena de configuração de falta grave, o oferecimento das cotas sociais aqui elencadas como garantia de qualquer modalidade de divida.







CAPÍTULO VII
DAS DISPOSIÇÕES GERAIS

CLÁUSULA DÉCIMA OITAVA

Por mútua conveniência, os sócios elegem o Foro da Comarca de Cidade Amostra/E, para dirimir quaisquer dúvidas ou questões oriundas do presente instrumento contratual, renunciando a qualquer outro, por mais privilegiado que se apresente.

E por estarem assim justos e contratados as partes assinam o presente instrumento, o qual é lavrado em três (3) vias de igual teor e forma, na presença de duas testemunhas instrumentais, sendo a primeira via encaminhada para arquivamento perante a Junta Comercial do Estado de Amostra, para todos os efeitos jurídicos e legais.



Cidade Amostra, 24 de janeiro de 2012.



______________________
Guilherme Fulano de Tal pp.
OAB/E nº 12345
US COMPANY, INC.
Representada por Mr. John N. Doe Jr

_______________________
Miguel Fulano de Tal
CPF/MF no. 123456789-0x





VISTO DO ADVOGADO
Charles Beltrano de Tal
OAB/E (Brazilian Bar Association/SC) No. 12.345


Testemunhas:


______________________
Mario Fulano de Tal
CPF/MF no. 123.456.789-1x
ID (E) No. 12.345.678-9 – SSP/E
_______________________
Felipe Beltrano de Tal
CPF/MF no. 123.456.789-1x
ID (E) No. 12.345.678-9 – SSP/E



Translation - English
FIRST AMENDMENT TO THE ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION

SAMPLE COMPANY– Acessórios LTDA.
LEGAL ENTITY TAXPAYER ID (CNPJ): 12.345.678/0001-70 - COMPANY ID (NIRE): 1234567890X

US COMPANY, INC., a corporate legal entity registered with the General Taxpayers' Registry (CNPFJ/MF) under No. 12.345.678/0001-07, with headquarters at 100 Sample Rd., Sample, State, 12345, United States of America, herein represented by Mr. John N. Doe Jr, American, single, resident and domiciled at 1120 Sample Rd., Sample, State, 12345, United States of America, represented in Brazil by his attorney Guilherme Fulano de Tal, Brazilian, married, a lawyer registered with the Order of Brazilian Lawyers/Estado (OAB/E) under No. 12.345 and Registry of Individuals (CPF/MF) under No. 123.456.789-0x, with professional address at Av. Amostra, No. 123, Ed. Amostra Center, 6th Floor, Block X, Centro, Amostra – E, Postal Code 12.345-678; and Miguel Fulano de Tal, Brazilian, married, business administrator, born on 01/02/1978, bearer of ID No. 1234567, issued by SSI/E, on 01/02/1981, registered with CPF/MF (Tax ID) No. 123456789-01, resident and domiciled at 234 Rua Amostra, Apt 902, Centro, Amostra – E - POSTAL CODE 12345-123, decide by unanimous vote to approve the FIRST AMENDMENT TO THE ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION , changing the provisions shown as follows:


Article 1 The capital, which was R$ 100,000.00 (one hundred thousand reals), divided into 100,000 (one hundred thousand) shares with nominal value of R$ 1.00 (one real) each, fully paid (Article 1.081 of the Civil Code), will be raised to R$400,000.00 (four hundred thousand reals) through the issuance of 300,000 (three hundred thousand) new shares, each with nominal value of R$ 1.00 (one real), totaling R$ 300,000.00 (three hundred thousand reals) to be paid as follows:

• The partner US COMPANY, INC. will subscribe and pay in legal tender on the date of execution hereof, 297,000 (two hundred and ninety-seven thousand) new shares, each with nominal value of R$ 1.00 (one real), in amount totaling R$297,000.00 (two hundred ninety seven thousand reals).

• The partner Miguel Fulano de Tal will subscribe and pay in legal tender on the date of execution hereof, three thousand (3,000) new shares, each with nominal value of R$ 1.00 (one real), in amount totaling R$ 3,000.00 (three thousand reals).

Article 2 The nominal value of the shares remains at R$ 1.00 (one real).



Article 3 CLAUSE FIVE of the Articles of Incorporation is hereby changed to read as follows:

CLAUSE FIVE

The share capital is R$ 400,000.00 (four hundred thousand reals), divided into 400,000 (four hundred thousand) shares, each having a nominal value of R$ 1.00 (one real), fully subscribed and paid by the partners:

a) US COMPANY, INC., with 396,000 (three hundred and ninety-six thousand) shares, totaling R$ 396,000.00 (three hundred and ninety-six thousand reals), equivalent to 99% (ninety-nine percent) of the share capital of the company;

b) Miguel Fulano de Tal with 4,000 (four thousand) shares, totaling R$ 4,000.00 (four thousand reals), equivalent to 1% (one per cent) of the share capital of the company.


Article 4 CLAUSE SEVEN of the Articles of Incorporation is hereby changed to read as follows:


CLAUSE SEVEN

The participation of the partners in the company's Share Capital, by shares and percentages, is divided as follows:


PARTNER NAME
NUMBER
OF SHARES % OF
PARTICIPATION
US COMPANY, INC
396,000 99.00%
MIGUEL FULANO DE TAL
4,000 1.0%
TOTAL 400,000 100.00%








ARTICLES OF CONSOLIDATION

As a result of the changes rendered, the original instrument is now governed by the following duly consolidated clauses:

CHAPTER I
NAME, HEADQUARTERS, PURPOSE, START AND DURATION

CLAUSE ONE

This limited liability company shall operate in this jurisdiction under the corporate name SAMPLE COMPANY– Acessórios LTDA.. and shall be governed by this statute and by applicable legislation in force, in particular Law No. 10.406, dated January 10, 2002 (New Civil Code)


CLAUSE TWO

The company will be headquartered and domiciled in the city of Amostra, Estado, at Avenida Prefeito Fulano de Tal, No. 123, Prédio Amostra Center, Bloco B – Sala 123, Bairro Centro, Postal Code 12.345-456.

Sole Paragraph: The company may open branches, subsidiaries and/or offices anywhere in the country or out of it, optionally assigning them their own capital, by amendment to these articles signed by all partners.

CLAUSE THREE

The company’s objectives include the importing, exporting, warehousing and national distribution of ergonomic accessories to equip industrial and commercial firms and general office environments.


CLAUSE FOUR

The company shall start its activities on April 25, 2011 and its duration shall be for an undetermined time period.



CHAPTER II
SHARE CAPITAL AND PARTNER LIABILITY

CLAUSE FIVE

The share capital is R$ 400,000.00 (four hundred thousand reals), divided into 400,000 (four hundred thousand) shares, each in the nominal value of R $ 1.00 (one real), fully subscribed and paid by the partners:

a) US COMPANY, INC., with 396,000 (three hundred and ninety-six thousand) shares, totaling R$ 396,000.00 (three hundred and ninety-six thousand reals), equivalent to 99% (ninety nine percent) of the share capital of the company;

b) Miguel Fulano de Tal with 4,000 (four thousand) shares, totaling R$ 4,000.00 (four thousand reals), equivalent to 1% (one percent) of the share capital of the company.


CLAUSE SIX

The liability of the shareholders is limited to the total value of their shares, accounting jointly, however, for the payment of the entire share capital as per Article 1.052 of the New Civil Code.


CLAUSE SEVEN

The participation of the partners in the company's Share Capital, by shares and percentages, is divided as follows:


PARTNER NAME
NUMBER
OF SHARES % OF
PARTICIPATION
US COMPANY, INC
396,000 99.00%
MIGUEL FULANO DE TAL
4,000 1.0%
TOTAL 400,000 100.00%



CHAPTER III
INCREASE IN CAPITAL, WITHDRAWAL OF A PARTNER, DECREASE IN CAPITAL

CLAUSE EIGHT

The shares are indivisible and can only be assigned or transferred to third parties with the consent of holders of more than a quarter of the share capital, to whom the preferential purchase right under equal conditions and price is assured, if offered for sale, to be formalized by appropriate amendment (Articles 1.056 and 1.057 of the New Civil Code) , should assignment thereof be carried out.

Paragraph 1: Should there be no interest by partners in acquiring the shares offered, equal right shall be open to the shareholders who, should they choose to acquire the shares, shall realize the proportional reduction of the share capital of the withdrawing partner, calculating those assets and paying said partner the corresponding amount.

Paragraph 2: Should there be no interest by partners or shareholders in acquiring the shares offered, the withdrawing partner may assign or transfer them to nonshareholding parties outside the company.

Paragraph 3: Share value shall in all cases be determined according to the procedures defined in Clause Nine.

Paragraph 4: Share Capital reduction and its form, as well as Share Capital increase and form of payment, shall be decided by a simple majority representing the share capital.


CLAUSE NINE

In the event of partner withdrawal, dismissal or exclusion, the interested party
must provide the other with thirty (30) days advance notice of this intention, for the purpose of initiating the transition process and taking measures to amend the respective Articles, during which time a balance sheet analysis shall be performed to calculate the terminating partner's assets.

Sole Paragraph: The provisions of caput shall apply, as applicable, in the calculation and payment of the assets of a deceased partner.


CHAPTER IV
FISCAL YEAR, BALANCE SHEET, DISTRIBUTION OF PROFIT AND LOSS

CLAUSE TEN

The fiscal year shall end on the 31st (thirty-first) day of December of each year, when the administrator shall present reconciled accounts of his/her administration, detailing the inventory, balance sheet and income statement, with profits or losses accruing to the partners in proportion to their shares. (Article 1.065 of the New Civil Code).

Paragraph 1: In the four months following the end of the fiscal year, the partners shall make decisions regarding the accounts and shall appoint administrator(s) if applicable (Articles 1.071, 1.072, Section 2, and Article 1.078 of the New Civil Code).

Paragraph 2: Any identified losses shall be recorded in special accounts to be amortized over future periods and, should this not occur, shall be borne by the members in proportion to their share capital.


CHAPTER V
REMUNERATION, ADMINISTRATION, ACCOUNTING AND ADVISORY BOARD

CLAUSE ELEVEN

Pursuant to Article 1.061 of Law 1.0406/2002, the partners determine that the company may have a non-member as Administrator.

Paragraph 1: The company shall be managed and administered by the partner Miguel Fulano de Tal, characterized above, who is authorized to receive summonses on behalf of the company, grant powers of attorney, being empowered to perform all acts necessary to achieve the corporate purpose, to use the company name for the company's objectives, albeit denied said use in activities not in the corporate interest, likewise forbidden to undertake obligations on behalf of shareholders or third parties, or to encumber or dispose of company assets without the consent of the other partner (Articles 997, Paragraph 6, 1.013, 1.015, 1.064, of the New Civil Code). The administrator is forbidden to initiate any expenses or investments, even when made in the corporate interest, equal to or greater than R$ 100,000.00 (one hundred thousand reals), as such actions require advance approval by the Advisory Board, under the terms of Clause Fourteen.

Paragraph 2: The administrator declares, under penalty of law, that he is not included among persons restricted by special law: for criminal conviction the sentence of which prohibits access to public office, even temporarily; for bankruptcy-related crimes, malfeasance, bribery or subornation, extortion, embezzlement; or for crimes against the public economy, the national financial system, free competition standards, consumer relations, public trust or property, for so long as said conviction shall be in force, as described in Article 1.011 of the New Civil Code.


CLAUSE TWELVE

The partners, who provide actual services on behalf of the company, shall be entitled to a monthly withdrawal as a management fee, determined by the majority shareholders and within the extent permitted by current legislation.

Sole Paragraph: The Administrator shall sign a non-compete agreement with the majority shareholders that shall be placed on file with the Estado State Board of Trade.


CLAUSE THIRTEEN

The Advisory Board

The Advisory Board shall be composed of at least 3 (three) members, all elected by the Shareholders Meeting/Assembly and may be dissolved by it at any time as per the following:
Paragraph 1 - Shareholders holding 51% (fifty-one percent) of the shares shall elect the members who will make up the Advisory Board;
Paragraph 2 - The Advisory Board members' term is 3 (three) years, with reelection allowed.
Paragraph 3 - Members shall be certified in their positions by means of minutes recorded and signed in a book maintained for this purpose.
Paragraph 4 -The Advisory Board shall meet by convocation, which shall include the formal written agenda of the meeting, at least five (5) days prior to the date, without requiring formal publication of the notice. Alternatively, the Chairman of the Board may convene it in extraordinary session, with at least 48 hours advance notice.
Paragraph 5 - The Advisory Board may only meet under the presence of at least three (3) members and, whatever the attendance, the decisions shall be taken by majority vote of those attending, except for matters included in the Articles of Incorporation, where a true "quorum" shall be required.
Paragraph 6 – Minutes of Advisory Board meetings shall be recorded.

CLAUSE FOURTEEN
The Advisory Council shall be responsible for setting the general direction of Company business through basic administrative guidelines, as well as for the ultimate control of the Company, by overseeing compliance with the guidelines it establishes, monitoring the implementation of approved programs, and verifying the results achieved.
Paragraph 1 - In exercising its powers it is also the Advisory Board's duty to:
I - Approve the annual budget, as well as any supplementary spending;
II - Approve the management report and the Board of Directors accounts;
III - Give prior approval to actions or contracts, when the amount in question is equal to or greater than R$ 100,000.00 (one hundred thousand reals);
IV - Authorize participation in other companies, acquisitions, as well as disposal or transfer of any property from fixed assets or of other companies' shares held by the Company;
V - Authorize the Board of Directors to encumber fixed assets, create liens, as well as provide guarantees, bails, security or sureties for the company's own businesses or for interconnected, affiliated or subsidiary companies, and also for third parties, when done in the company's interest, in amounts greater than R$ 100,000.00 (one hundred thousand reals);

CLAUSE FIFTEEN
The Advisory Board is forbidden to engage in activities unrelated to the company's interests or assume obligations whether in favor of shareholders or third parties, as well as encumber or dispose of the company's real estate property, without the consent of the other shareholders, pursuant to Articles 997, Paragraph 6, 1.013. 1.015, 1.064 of the New Civil Code.

CHAPTER VI

DISSOLUTION AND LIQUIDATION OF THE COMPANY

CLAUSE SIXTEEN

The company shall not be dissolved in the event of the withdrawal, dismissal, incapacitation, injunction or death of any partner, continuing instead with those remaining partners. In case of death, and without the agreement of one fourth of the remaining partners, the heirs and/or successors are prohibited from joining the company, and the respective assets shall be calculated and paid as stipulated in CLAUSE NINE and its sole paragraph, with the heirs and/or successors allowed to be represented within the company by one of them expressly designated among themselves, or by the executor of the estate of the deceased partner, so long as the portion remains undivided and until payment of the respective assets.

Paragraph 1: The provisions of caput shall apply, where applicable, in the calculation and payment of the assets of a deceased partner.

Paragraph 2: The same procedure shall be adopted in other cases the company decides regarding its partner (Articles 1.028 and 1.031 of the New Civil Code).


CLAUSE SEVENTEEN

The partner may be judicially excluded, as provided in Article 1.030 of the New Civil Code, on the initiative of the majority of other partners, for failure to comply with his duties or additionally, by the partner’s becoming incapacitated.

Paragraph 1: The partner who becomes bankrupt or insolvent, or whose shares have been pledged, shall be fully excluded from the company.

Paragraph 2: It is categorically forbidden, under penalty of attribution of gross misconduct, to offer the company's shares described herein as a guarantee of any kind of debt.







CHAPTER VII
GENERAL PROVISIONS

CLAUSE EIGHTEEN

For mutual convenience, the members elect the Courts of Cidade Amostra, State of Estado, for the resolution of any questions or issues arising from this contractual instrument, renouncing any other jurisdiction, however favorable it may appear.

And in witness whereof, the parties sign this document, which is issued in three (3) copies of equal content and form, in the presence of two witnesses, the first copy being forwarded for filing to the Estado State Board of Trade, for all legal and judicial effects.



Cidade Amostra, January 24, 2012.



______________________
Guilherme Fulano de Tal pp.
OAB/E (Brazilian Bar Association/E) nº 18400
US COMPANY, INC.
Represented by Mr. John N. Doe Jr
_______________________
Miguel Fulano de Tal
CPF/MF (Tax ID) No. 017564299-01



ATTORNEY'S STAMP
Charles Beltrano de Tal
OAB/E (Brazilian Bar Association/SC) No. 12.345


Witnesses:


______________________
Mario Fulano de Tal
CPF/MF (Tax ID) No. 123.456.789-1x
ID (E) No. 12.345.678-9 – SSP/E
_______________________
Felipe Beltrano de Tal
CPF/MF (Tax ID) No. 123.456.789-1x
ID (E) No. 12.345.678-9 – SSP/E
Portuguese to English: History of Asians in Brazil
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: History
Source text - Portuguese
A presença de asiáticos no Brasil colonial esteve condicionada às circulações de pessoas, bens e mercadorias que integraram as redes de comércio do Império português em suas interações entre os espaços coloniais e trânsitos intercontinentais nos oceanos Atlântico, Índico e Pacífico. Os orientais que viajaram nas naus portuguesas e estiveram em África, na América lusitana ou na Europa eram oriundos dos territórios do Estado da Índia, fundado por Francisco de Almeida em 1505, cuja sede administrativa foi estabelecida em Goa no ano de 1510 e compreendia feitorias, fortalezas e igrejas em possessões desde o Cabo da Boa Esperança e costa oriental africana, até às ilhas Molucas, Macau, Nagasaki e Timor, incluindo o Mar Arábico, o subcontinente indiano, Golfo de Bengala e sudeste da Ásia. De Macau, no sul da China, e de Goa, partiram, muito mais que sujeitos históricos. Além de pessoas, imagens, objetos, plantas, têxteis, memórias e crônicas sobre o Oriente chegaram ao Novo Mundo pelos circuitos oceânicos tornando a Ásia mais próxima da América portuguesa. Uma integração de caráter econômico, social e cultural que uniu os principais espaços conectados e encontrou na rota marítima da Carreira da Índia o acesso aos portos brasileiros por onde diversos elementos da cultura material asiática e pequenos núcleos de orientais adentraram às terras brasileiras.
O historiador José Roberto do Amaral Lapa em sua tese de doutoramento, A Bahia e a Carreira da Índia, orientada por Sérgio Buarque de Holanda em 1966 na Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Marília , empreendeu um trabalho referencial, baseado numa ampla e profunda investigação desenvolvida em arquivos brasileiros e portugueses, além da Biblioteca Nacional de Madri, que teve como objeto de estudo o papel do porto da Bahia na Carreira da Índia. Pela vastidão de dados e informações relativas à movimentação portuária em Salvador através de uma contínua presença da naus portuguesas vindas do Oriente, com o escoamento de produtos orientais na Bahia e posteriormente em Pernambuco e no Rio de Janeiro, e a circulação de mercadorias e dos diversos cidadãos lusitanos que transitavam entre os espaços coloniais, desde mercadores e navegantes a autoridades civis e religiosas, além de missionários, colonos, soldados e degredados, Amaral Lapa destacou o impacto do comércio das naus da Carreira da Índia na economia e sociedade de baiana:
O descobrimento ou reconhecimento do Brasil, longe das controvérsias sobre a sua casualidade ou não, foi e aqui já não podem pairar dúvidas, um episódio da Carreira da Índia. Assim começa, oficialmente, nossa existência, indissoluvelmente vinculada ao grande roteiro que, tanto pelos seus antecedentes, como pelas suas repercussões – a aventura da Índia, e portanto a sua Carreira [...]. Mais ou menos na mesma ordem de idéias, queremos ainda registrar a completa ausência neste estudo de um capítulo que é bem possível ser desenvolvido sobre a ‘presença cultural’ do Oriente no Brasil. [...] Preocupou-nos mais, dentro de um critério geral e, no caso, um tanto subjetivo, a importância do porto de Salvador, demonstrada no caso através da sua integração na Carreira.

No seu vasto trabalho Lapa contabilizou, do século XVI ao XVII, noventa e nove navios que ancoraram na Bahia, citando as datas das estadias, os nomes e procedência das naus entre Portugal e a Índia. Notou as razões das suas escalas no porto de Salvador - que vão desde os reparos técnicos, reabastecimentos e fatores humanos como recrutamento de tripulantes, socorro às vítimas de escorbuto e doenças consequentes dos desafios das viagens em longos meses nos oceanos, aos nomes dos capitães das naus. Se forem estudados os números que incluem as escalas nos portos do Rio de Janeiro e de Recife, avançando no século XVIII, os dados revelarão a intensidade dos tráfegos e fluxos marítimos entre o litoral atlântico da América do Sul, incluindo a Bacia do Rio da Prata, e o Sul da Ásia, nomeadamente a Índia, o Golfo de Bengala, e os entrepostos que se estendiam até Macau.
Ora, a cultura material asiática a qual Amaral Lapa observou, proveniente das naus da Carreira, teve como origem os contínuos contatos com a Ásia através das possessões do Estado da Índia. Desta perspectiva, a obra de Amaral Lapa juntou-se aos clássicos de Gilberto Freyre, neste caso Sobrados e Mucambos com o capítulo intitulado O Oriente e o Ocidente, que em 1936 trouxe uma contribuição ímpar para os estudos culturais do Brasil, já iniciados por Freyre em 1931, com Casa Grande & Senzala. No paradigma freyriano insere-se a crítica de Edward Said no seu clássico Orientalismo.
Translation - English
The presence of Asians in colonial Brazil was a consequence of the network of people, goods and merchandise created by the Portuguese Empire through its colonial interactions and intercontinental voyages around the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. The “orientals” who traveled in Portuguese ships to Africa, Portuguese America or Europe were native to the territories of the State of India, founded in 1505 by Francisco de Almeida, who in 1510 set up its capital in Goa to administer commercial trading posts, forts and churches in colonial possessions scattered from the Cape of Good Hope and the East African coast to the Moluccas, Macau, Nagasaki and Timor, including the Arabian Sea, Indian subcontinent, Gulf of Bengal and Southeast Asia. Ships embarking from Macau in Southern China or from Goa carried much more than subjects of the empire. In addition to the people, Eastern imagery, objects, plants, textiles, reminiscences and accounts also arrived in the New World via the ocean routes, bringing Asia closer to Portuguese America. This process of economic, social and cultural integration united the main areas it connected, using the sea routes of the Carreira da Índia to gain access to the Brazilian ports through which various elements of Asian cultural material and small groups of Easterners proceeded into the interior areas of Brazil.
In José Roberto do Amaral Lapa’s 1966 doctoral thesis, Bahia and the Carreira da Índia, directed by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda at the Marília Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters , the historian sought to create a reference work based on a comprehensive and in-depth research study carried out in Brazilian and Portuguese archives and at the National Library in Madrid with the purpose of studying the role of the Port of Bahia in the Carreira da Índia. From the extensive data and information on port activity in the city of Salvador involving the continual presence of Portuguese ships arriving from the East, the flow of “oriental” wares first into Bahia and later into Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro, and the circulation of merchandise and various Portuguese citizens who moved around the colonial spaces, from merchants and sailors to civil and religious authorities as well as missionaries, colonists, soldiers and convicts, Lapa focused on the impact of the commercial activity of the Carreira da Índia’s ships on the Bahian economy and society:
The discovery or rediscovery of Brazil, apart from the controversies over whether or not it was accidental, was an official chapter in the history of the Carreira da Índia, and of this there is no doubt. It is the official start to our existence, as inseparably linked to the great itinerary in both its antecedents and its consequences as is the adventure in India, and therefore its Pathway [Carreira] [...]. More or less in this same regard, however, we wish to note the total absence in this study of a chapter that could quite possibly be developed on the Eastern ‘cultural presence’ in Brazil. [...] We were more concerned, as a general and in this case rather subjective criterion, with the importance of the Port of Salvador as shown here by its integration with the Carreira.

In his vast work, Lapa recorded 99 ships that dropped anchor at Bahia from the 16th to the 17th Centuries, citing dates in port, names and origins of the ships sailing between Portugal and India. He noted the purposes of their coming into the Port of Salvador -- which varied from repair and resupply to human factors such as contracting crews or caring for those suffering from scurvy or diseases resulting from the challenges of many months of ocean voyage -- and the names of the ships’captains. If one includes studies of the number of ships that also called at the ports of Rio de Janeiro and Recife going forward into the 18th Century, the data reveal the intensity of shipping traffic and flows between the Atlantic coast of South America -- including the Rio de la Plata Basin -- and Southern Asia, namely India, the Gulf of Bengal, and the trading posts that extended as far as Macau.
The Asian cultural material noted by Lapa, carried by the Carreira’s ships, originated with the continual contacts with Asia via the State of India possessions. From this perspective, Lapa’s work links to the classic studies by Gilberto Freyre, in this case The Mansions and the Shanties and its chapter entitled East and West, published in 1936, which made a unique contribution to Brazilian cultural studies that followed on those he supplied in 1931 with the publication of The Masters and the Slaves. Edward Said, with his critical classic Orientalism, fits within this Freyrean paradigm.
German to English: Judgment of Appeal
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law (general)
Source text - German
Zur Verwechslungsgefahr

42 In Bezug auf die Verwechslungsgefahr ist darauf hinzuweisen, dass eine solche Gefahr dann besteht, wenn in kumulativer Weise die Ähnlichkeit der betreffenden Marken und die Ähnlichkeit der mit diesen Marken gekennzeichneten Waren oder Dienstleistungen hinreichend hoch sind (Urteil MATRATZEN, oben in Randnr. 19 angeführt, Rn. 45).

43 In der vorliegenden Rechtssache ergibt sich aus der vorstehenden Rn. 32, dass die von den einander gegenüberstehenden Zeichen erfassten Waren der Klassen 9, 12, 18, 25 und 28 identisch sind und dass die von der angemeldeten Marke erfassten Waren der Klasse 22 und die von der älteren Marke erfassten Waren der Klasse 28 ähnlich sind. Außerdem ergibt sich aus der vorstehenden Rn. 41, dass sich die einander gegenüberstehenden Zeichen stark ähneln.

44 Folglich sind bei kumulativer Betrachtung der Grad der Ähnlichkeit der einander gegenüberstehenden Zeichen und der Grad der Ähnlichkeit der mit diesen gekennzeichneten Waren hoch genug. Die Beschwerdekammer hat daher zu Recht festgestellt, dass die Gefahr einer Verwechslung der einander gegenüberstehenden Zeichen bestehe.

45 Diese Feststellung wird durch das Vorbringen der Klägerin, dass die ältere Marke geringe Kennzeichnungskraft habe, nicht entkräftet.

46 Die Kennzeichnungskraft der älteren Marke ist bei der Beurteilung der Verwechslungsgefahr zwar zu berücksichtigen, doch stellt sie nur einen der dabei zu berücksichtigenden Faktoren dar. Selbst wenn es um eine ältere Marke mit geringer Kennzeichnungskraft geht, kann daher eine Gefahr von Verwechslungen, insbesondere wegen einer Ähnlichkeit der Zeichen und der betroffenen Waren oder Dienstleistungen, gegeben sein (Urteile des Gerichts vom 22. September 2005, Alcon/HABM – Biofarma
[TRAVATAN], T-130/03, Slg. 2005, II-3859, Rn. 78, und vom 13. Juli 2011, Inter IKEA
Systems/HABM – Meteor Controls [GLÄNSA], T-88/10, nicht in der amtlichen Sammlung veröffentlicht, Rn. 52). Angesichts der Umstände des vorliegenden Falles besteht jedenfalls,
selbst wenn man eine geringe Kennzeichnungskraft der älteren Marke unterstellte, die Gefahr einer Verwechslung der einander gegenüberstehenden Zeichen, so dass nicht festgestellt zu werden braucht, ob die Beschwerdekammer der älteren Marke zu Recht durchschnittliche Kennzeichnungskraft zugesprochen hat oder ob die ältere Marke, wie die Streithelferin behauptet, hohe Kennzeichnungskraft hat.

47 Zu der Rüge der Klägerin, die Beschwerdekammer habe ihre Feststellung, dass der älteren Marke durchschnittliche Kennzeichnungskraft zuzuerkennen sei, nicht hinreichend begründet, ist – unterstellt, eine Prüfung dieses Punktes wäre erforderlich – festzustellen, dass die Beschwerdekammer mit der Erklärung, dass die ältere Marke, wenn sie von den maßgeblichen Verkehrskreisen wahrgenommen werde, in Bezug auf die fraglichen Waren keine Bedeutung habe, weshalb ihr durchschnittliche Kennzeichnungskraft zuzuerkennen sei, ihre Entscheidung in diesem Punkt hinreichend begründet hat. Diese Ausführungen haben es der Klägerin ermöglicht, Kenntnis von den Gründen für die getroffene Maßnahme zu erlangen, damit sie ihre Rechte verteidigen konnte, und das Gericht in die Lage versetzt, die angefochtene Entscheidung auf ihre Rechtmäßigkeit hin zu überprüfen (vgl. in diesem
Sinne Urteile des Gerichtshofs vom 6. September 2012, Storck/HABM, C-96/11 P, nicht in der amtlichen Sammlung veröffentlicht, Rn. 86, und des Gerichts vom 9. Juli 2008, Reber/HABM – Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli [Mozart], T-304/06, Slg. 2008, II-1927, Rn. 43 und die dort angeführte Rechtsprechung).
48 Der einzige Klagegrund der Klägerin ist daher zurückzuweisen und die Klage somit insgesamt abzuweisen, ohne dass die von der Streithelferin gegen die Klage erhobene Einrede der Unzulässigkeit geprüft zu werden braucht.


Kosten

49 Nach Art. 87 § 2 der Verfahrensordnung des Gerichts ist die unterliegende Partei auf Antrag zur Tragung der Kosten zu verurteilen. Da die Klägerin unterlegen ist, sind ihr gemäß den Anträgen des HABM und der Streithelferin die Kosten aufzuerlegen.
Translation - English
Regarding the likelihood of confusion

42 With regard to the likelihood of confusion, it must be pointed out that such a likelihood exists when, in a cumulative sense, the similarity of the marks in question and the similarity of the goods or services identified by these marks are sufficiently high (MATRATZEN Judgment, cited in Recital 19 above, Recital 45).

43 In the present case, it is established in Recital 32 above that the Class 9, 12, 18, 25 and 28 goods covered by the marks in question are identical and that the Class 22 goods covered by the registered mark and the Class 28 goods covered by the older mark are similar. In addition, it arises from Recital 41 above that the marks in dispute strongly resemble each other.

44 Consequently, from a cumulative standpoint, the degree of similarity of the marks in question and the degree of similarity of the goods identified with these marks is high enough. The Appeals Board has therefore rightly found that a likelihood of confusion between the marks in dispute exists.

45 This finding is not rebutted by the Applicant’s assertion that the older mark has little distinctive character.


46 The distinctive character of the older mark must be taken into account in the assessment of likelihood of confusion, although it represents only one of the factors to be considered. Even in the case of an older mark with little distinctive character, a likelihood of confusion can still be present, especially due to similarity between the mark and the affected goods or services (Judgment of the Court of September 22, 2005, Alcon/OHIM – Biofarma [TRAVATAN], T-130/03 [2005], II-3859, Recital 78, and of July 13, 2011, Inter IKEA Systems/OHIM -- Meteor Controls [GLÄNSA], T-88/10, not published in the ECR, Recital 52). At any rate, considering the circumstances of the present case, the likelihood of confusion between the marks in question exists even if one assumes little distinctive character in the older mark, such that it does not have to be established whether the Appeals Board correctly found moderate distinctive character or whether the older mark, as claimed by the Intervener, has substantial distinctive character.

47 Concerning the Applicant’s claim that the Appeals Board, in its finding, has not sufficiently justified its decision that the older mark should be accorded moderate distinctive character, it is concluded – assuming the necessity of an examination of this point – that the Appeals Board sufficiently justified its finding that the older mark, as perceived by the relevant public, has no relevance related to the goods in question, thereby according it moderate distinctive character. These statements enabled the Applicant to obtain knowledge of the reasoning behind the actions taken, in order to be able to defend its rights, and placed the Court in a position to review the legality of the Contested Decision (cf. in this sense Judgment of the Court of September 6, 2012, Storck/OHIM, C-96/11 P, not published in the ECR, Recital 86, and of the Court of July 9, 2008, Reber/OHIM – Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli [Mozart], T-304/06 [2008], II-1927, Recital 43 and the case law cited therein).

48 The applicant’s sole plea must therefore be rejected and the action dismissed in its entirety, without the need to examine the defense of inadmissibility put forward by the Intervener.

Costs

49 In accordance with Article 87, Section 2 of the Rules of Procedure of the Court, the unsuccessful party shall bear the costs. As the Applicant has lost, and OHIM and the Intervener have applied for costs, the Applicant is ordered to pay said costs.
German to English: Anthropology text
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: Anthropology
Source text - German
Der Begriff „Anthropologie“ leitet sich vom griech. ánthropos, Mensch, und vom griech. lógos, Rede, Darlegung, Gespräch, Beratung und Vernunft ab. Im Allgemeinen bezeichnet Anthropologie dementsprechend das Wissen und die Wissenschaften vom Menschen. Das Wort Anthropologie stellt eine Neuschöpfung des 16. Jahrhunderts dar, die sich in den darauffolgenden zwei Jahrhunderten etabliert. Seitdem besteht das Thema der Anthropologie in der Spannung des Menschen zwischen seiner Herkunft aus Natur und der Zukunft seiner Bestimmung.
Als naturwissenschaftliche Disziplin, die sich als Ergänzung der Zoologie im 18. Jahrhundert zu entwickeln beginnt, geht es der Anthropologie zunächst darum, Aussagen über die biologische, physiologische und morphologische Entwicklung des Menschen bis weit in seine Vorgeschichte hinein zu erarbeiten. Dabei wird der Mensch im Kontext evolutionärer Prozesse, d.h. von genetischen Kombinationen, Mutationen und Auslesevorgängen, die in Wechselwirkung mit ökologischen, sozialen und kulturellen Faktoren stehen, in den Blick genommen.
Translation - English
The term ‘anthropology’ derives from the Greek ánthropos, human, and lógos, discourse, doctrine, speech, guidance, or reason. Accordingly, anthropology generally means the knowledge and science of human beings. The word ‘anthropology’ is a neologism of the 1600s that became established over the following two centuries. Since that time, the subject of anthropology has reflected the tension between humanity’s natural origins and its determination of the future. As a scientific discipline that began its development as an offshoot of zoology in the 18th Century, anthropology centrally involves formulating assertions about human biological, physiological, and morphological development that reach back into prehistory. In this way, human beings are viewed in the context of evolutionary processes: genetic combinations, mutations, and processes of selection that interact with ecological, social, and cultural factors.
German to English: Food Industry Communication
General field: Science
Detailed field: Business/Commerce (general)
Source text - German
Die Wissenschaftlerin legt in ihren Forschungen großen Wert auf die Ermöglichung tiergerechten Verhaltens besonders an Schlachthöfen. Dem Schlachtvieh müssen Schmerzen und Stress erspart bleiben. „Die Tiere fürchten sich nicht. Die Abläufe stimmen“, resümierte Grandin zum Abschluss ihres Besuchs. Auch die 41 Seminarteilnehmer aus Europa, Amerika und Asien nahmen positive Eindrücke mit.
Translation - English
In her research, the scientist places great emphasis on facilitating animal-friendly attitudes, especially at slaughterhouses. Slaughter cattle should be spared from pain and stress. "The animals are not afraid. The procedures work," concluded Grandin at the end of her visit. The 41 seminar participants from Europe, the Americas and Asia also left with positive impressions.
German to English: Marketing a translation service
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Computers (general)
Source text - German
China ist aktuell weltweit die Nation mit dem größten Zuwachs am Weltmarkt und wird somit als Geschäftspartner immer attraktiver. Das Land besitzt Kapital und spielt längst auf den globalen Kapitalmärkten eine überdurchschnittlich große Rolle. Das Land war zu allen Zeiten eine Handelsnation und als solche hat China der politische Kurs des geschlossenen Landes nicht gut getan. Innenpolitisch ist ein solcher Kurs immer rentabel. Er lenkt den Fokus des Volkes auf die eigenen Belange und unterbindet gezielt den Vergleich mit dem Standard anderer Nationen, welcher neue, und auch fremdartige Bedürfnisse weckt. Schon vor einigen Jahren musste die politische Führung des Landes aber erkennen, dass eine solche Politik nicht durchführbar ist. Wenn man als Nation am Weltmarkt führend beteiligt sein will, muss man die Außenpolitik den Bedürfnissen einer Handelsnation anpassen. So entstand das heutige widersprüchliche China, welches einen überdimensional großen Anteil an Import- und Export-Geschäften hat, während es versucht, die Innenpolitik als Gegengewicht zur Außenpolitik einzusetzen, um die westliche Einflussnahme zu minimieren.

Der richtige Übersetzer für Ihr Vorhaben
Für erfolgreiche Geschäftstätigkeiten in China müssen Sie die kulturellen Gegebenheiten kennen. Auch die Sprache spielt dabei eine große Rolle. Deshalb unterstützen wir Ihr Vorhaben mit professionellen Übersetzungen durch kompetente und vor allem muttersprachliche Übersetzer. Se kennen das Land mit seinen kulturellen, wirtschaftlichen und besonders sprachlichen Besonderheiten und können Ihre Texte punktgenau übersetzen. Ihre chinesischen Geschäftspartner werden Ihre Mühen zu schätzen wissen. Testen Sie unsere herausragenden Leistungen und senden Sie uns Ihren zu übersetzenden Text per Email oder mithilfe des Angebotsformulars auf der rechten Seite und Sie erhalten schnellstmöglich ein unverbindliches Angebot von uns zurück. Unsere Projektmanager beraten Sie auch gerne telefonisch.

Made in China
Unbeabsichtigt wirkt sich die Innenpolitik aber auch auf die globalen Handelsbeziehungen aus. Obwohl China sehr viele Produkte für andere Nationen produzieren lässt, genießen diese Produkte bei den Verbrauchern kein gehobenes Ansehen. Der Umgang mit schädlichen Substanzen wird in ganz Asien anders gehandhabt als in Europa. Zwar gilt die Gesundheit in beiden Welten als erstrebenswert, wird aber trotzdem dem Wohlstand untergeordnet. Nur wenige Chinesen sehen in Umweltschutz und Verbraucherschutz Vorteile oder denken darüber nach. Wirtschaft und Politik sind untrennbar verbunden. Möchten auch Sie auf dem chinesischen Markt Fuß fassen, unterstützen wir Sie gerne. Unsere Projektmanager finden für jeden Fachbereich den richtigen Übersetzer. Unsere Übersetzer sind muttersprachliche Profis, die die chinesische Sprache kennen und eins zu eins übersetzen können. Sie kennen außerdem die kulturellen Gegebenheiten und sorgen so für eine reibungslose Kommunikation mit Ihren Geschäftspartnern. Testen Sie uns jetzt und senden Sie uns Ihre zu übersetzenden Texte per E-Mail oder über das Angebotsformular auf der rechten Seite. Wir freuen uns auch über Ihren Anruf.
Translation - English
China is now the fastest growing country in the global market and is thus becoming increasingly attractive as a business partner. The country possesses capital and has for a long time played an outsize role in international capital markets. It has always been a trading nation, and for this reason the political consequence of being a closed country was not healthy for China. Such policies are still profitable domestically. They direct the people’s focus onto their own interests and specifically forestall comparisons with standards elsewhere in the world that generate new and unfamiliar needs. But a number of years ago the country’s political leadership was forced to recognize that such policies were not practicable. If the goal is to see the country become the global market leader, then foreign policy has to reflect the needs of a trading nation. This led to today’s contradictory China, which claims an oversized share of import and export business while it seeks to use domestic policy as a counterweight to foreign policy in order to minimize Western influence.

The right translator for your project
To be successful in business in China, it is essential that you know the cultural landscape. Language too plays a significant role. That is why we support your project with professional translations by competent and above all else native-speaking translators. They know the country and its cultural, economic and especially linguistic features and can give your translation pinpoint accuracy. Your Chinese business partners will know how to appreciate your efforts. Put our outstanding services to the test and send us the text you wish to see translated, either by email or using the request form at the right, and you will receive our non-binding prospectus. Our project managers are also happy to consult with you by telephone.

Made in China
Domestic policy also has an unintended effect on global trade relations. Although China manufactures very many products for other countries, these have not earned a high reputation among consumers. The handling of harmful substances is managed differently throughout Asia than it is in the West. While good health is seen as a worthwhile goal, it nevertheless ranks below prosperity. Very few Chinese see advantages in environmental or consumer protection or even give these concepts much thought. Economics and politics are inseparably tied. If you would like to enter the Chinese market, we are happy to support you. Our project managers have the right translator for every field. Our translators are native-speaking pros who know the Chinese language and provide personalized translation. They are familiar with cultural realities as well and can facilitate smooth communications with your business partners. Put us to the test now by sending us your text to be translated, whether by email or via the request form at the right. We would also welcome a phone call.



Doing business through courtesy and tradition
In China, personal contact is viewed from a very different standpoint than in Western business relations. Acquaintance and friendship blend together, and even mere acquaintances are readily introduced as close friends. This can lead to problems with business contacts. Business deals are often conducted over a meal. Unlike Koreans, the Chinese do not find it impolite to negotiate while eating. Negotiations should not be the main topic of conversation, however. It is common to praise the food, commend the artistry of the chef, and admire the choice of restaurant if it was selected by one’s business partner. Business topics are only briefly touched on, and business-related conversations are spaced between entertaining anecdotes. It is considered polite not to react to another’s mistake but instead to avoid it by deferring the topic to a later point in time. Asians avert loss of face in this way. This can lead to misunderstanding if you have no experience with this particular form of negotiation. Our translators are well versed in Chinese and familiar with the tone of Chinese conversation. As native speakers raised in the country, they are able to translate your texts with pinpoint accuracy, taking into account all aspects of the language.
German to English: Visual study of terrorist images
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: Telecom(munications)
Source text - German
Die Analysen der einzelnen Bilder zusammen betrachtet, bedient sich der IS klassischer, zum Teil kommerzieller Motive zur Darstellung seiner Macht und traditioneller Wertevorstellung. In erster Linie dienen die Darstellungen des IS der Machtmanifestierung über Mechanismen wie Abschreckung, Übermacht und Brutalität. Entsprechend verhält sich die jeweilige szenische Choreografie und Planimetrie ähnlich vieler klassischer Bildaufbauten von Siegesbildern aus Feldzügen und Kriegen. In den Motiven verpackt der IS viele symbolische Botschaften (z.B. Kreuzigungen, Enthauptungen, Zerstörungen von Kulturgütern, Machtaufzüge) wie sie oft im Ikonoklasmus genutzt werden. Er bedient sich damit einer Technik, die in Grundzügen bereits im Byzantinischen Ikonoklasmus des 8. und 9. Jahrhunderts nach Christus angewendet wurde.

Hervorzuheben ist, dass sich der IS zum großen Teil auf klassische westliche Bildmotive stützt, die durchgängig in der propagandistischen Bildsprache eingesetzt wird. Die verwendeten Bilder lehnen sich an Bildkompositionen an, die im europäischen Kontext der Malerei seit hunderten von Jahren, besonders aber in dokumentarischen und journalistischen Kontexten seit Jahrzenten zum kanonischen westlichen Bildverständnis gehören.

Grundsätzlich lässt sich feststellen, dass übergreifend klassische, anschlussfähige Bildmotive für den Transport der Botschaften zum Einsatz kommen. Der IS nutzt also gezielt das Vorwissen potenzieller Rezipienten, um die Wirkung der eigenen Bilder zu steigern.

Bemerkenswert ist dabei einerseits die prinzipielle Ablehnung westlicher Werte hinsichtlich des IS, die sich andererseits konträr zum Einsatz westlicher Bildmotive verhält. Die historische Kraft und Kompetenz der verwendeten Bildkompositionen nähren den Macht- und Wahrheitsanspruch als finale und unumstößliche Aussage des Islamischen Staates. Dies geschieht überwiegend mit destruktiven visuellen Mitteln der Macht (z.B. Bilder der Zerstörung von Palmyra), aber auch zum Teil mit konstruktiven visuellen Darstellungen (IS als fürsorgender Staat). Dabei unterscheiden sich die kompositionellen Strategien nicht von Bildeinsätzen westlicher Medien, die konträre Positionen und Werte vertreten.

Vorwiegend in den sozialen Medien erscheinen inzwischen neuere Bildwelten, die Themen wie Freizeit, Gesundheitswesen und Familie abdecken. Diese Bilder zeichnen im kommerziellen Stil westlicher Medien eine regelrechte „Normalität“ sozialen Lebens auf dem Herrschaftsgebiet des IS, damit einher gehend eine Verharmlosung der sonstigen Gewalttaten des Regimes. Die Kamerapositionen in Augenhöhe der abgebildeten Personen unterstützen die Aussage. Diese Aufnahmen weichen von den harten und brutalen Darstellungen des IS ab und werben auf sozialer Ebene für die „Werte“ und „Vorteile“ des Lebens im Islamischen Staat. Sie sollen bewirken, dass sich möglichst viele junge Menschen dem „Abenteuer IS“ anschließen.
Translation - English
Based on analyses of the individual images, one concludes that IS uses classic and often commercial motifs to portray its power and traditional values. Using mechanisms of fright, superiority and brutality, these representations proclaim IS power. Individually, each instance of staged choreography and planimetry functions similarly to many classical images of battlefield victory. The IS builds symbolic messages into these motifs (for example, crucifixions, destruction of cultural objects, displays of power) that were traditionally employed in iconoclasm, thus utilizing techniques already evidenced in 8th-9th Century Byzantine iconoclastic struggles.

The IS relies largely on classic Western motifs that it consistently converts into propagandistic visual language. These images are inspired by pictorial compositions that have been part of the Western process of visual understanding for centuries in the case of European painting - but also, in particular, for decades in documentary and journalistic contexts.

Classic, culturally compatible visual motifs are routinely used to convey messages. Thus the IS deliberately exploits its potential recipients᾽ existing knowledge in order to enhance the effect of its own images.

Notably, the IS rejects Western values in principle yet employs Western visual motifs. The historic power and competence of its pictorial compositions nurture its claim to power and truth as the final, incontrovertible assertion of the Islamic State. This occurs mainly with destructive visual tools of power (for example, images of the destruction of Palmyra), but sometimes with constructive visual representations (the IS as welfare state). In such cases, the compositional strategies are similar to those employed by Western media that represent conflicting positions and values.

In social media, still other more recent visual worlds predominate, covering topics like freedom, health care and family. In the Western commercial style, these images depict “normal” social life within IS territory while minimizing the regime’s various violent acts. The camera positioned at individuals‘ eye level underscores the statement. These photographs depart from the hard and brutal characterizations of the IS, promoting on a social level the “values” and “advantages” of life in the Islamic State. Their hoped-for effect is that many young people will sign up for the “IS adventure”.
German to English: Turkish cuisine in Germany
General field: Other
Detailed field: Cooking / Culinary
Source text - German
Unsere Dönerspieße werden täglich neu hergestellt. Für unseren Kalbsdöner verwenden wir 100 Prozent Kalbfleisch. Das von den Knochen abgetrennte Fleisch wird in Tranchen (Scheiben) geschnitten und einen Tag lang in einer speziellen Gewürzmarinade eingelegt. Anschließend werden die Fleischscheiben auf einen Spieß gesteckt. Das Gewicht des aufgespießten Fleischkegels kann hierbei, je nach Bedarf, zwischen 50 und 120 kg variieren.
Ist der Spieß fertig aufgesteckt, stellen wir ihn auf unseren Gasgrill und beginnen, das Fleisch zu garen. Bis unser Fleisch den perfekten Garpunkt erreicht, dauert es dann ca. 1,5 Stunden.
Gut zu wissen: Ausschlaggebend für den Geschmack ist u.a. die Größe des Dönerspießes. Je größer der Fleischkegel, umso besser der Geschmack. Denn: durch den Druck, der durch die Pressung des Fleischgewichts entsteht und durch das permanente Schneiden, trocknet das Fleisch nicht aus und bleibt schön saftig. Auch die Dicke der Tranchen (Scheiben) ist entscheidend. Je dünner die Tranchen sind, desto intensiver ist der Geschmack.
Hähnchendöner
Unser Hähnchendöner wird aus Hähnchenkeulen hergestellt. Dies ist für uns ein wichtiger Punkt, denn das Fleisch von der Keule ist nicht nur besonders saftig, sondern lässt sich auch besser aufspießen. Unsere Hähnchenkeulen werden einzeln per Hand entbeint und danach in unserer hauseigenen Marinade mit Gewürzen eingelegt. Nachdem das Fleisch einen Tag lang geruht hat, wird das mit der Marinade durchzogene Fleisch aufgespießt und auf den Gasgrill gestellt. Bis der Hähnchendöner dann perfekt gegart und verzehrbereit ist, dauert es ca. eine Stunde.

Egal ob als Beilage oder direkt im Fladenbrot: Unsere Salate werden täglich frisch und aus den besten Zutaten für Sie zubereitet.

Qualität ist wichtig. Gerade beim Brot. Darum backen wir auch unser Brot selber. Denn nur so können wir uns wirklich sicher sein, dass nur die besten Zutaten reinkommen, ohne jegliche Zusatzstoffe.

Bei all unseren Soßen handelt es sich um hauseigene und selbsthergestellte Kreationen. Folgende Auswahl bieten wir Ihnen zu unseren Dönerprodukten an:

Cacık-Soße: leichter Begleiter, bestehend aus fein geschnittenen Gurken in Knoblauch-Joghurt-Soße, mit Minze verfeinert

Cocktailsoße:mildes Zusammenspiel von cremiger Mayonnaise, Joghurt, Gewürzketchup, Kräutern und Zucker

Currysoße: würziger Genuss aus Curry, cremiger Mayonnaise, Joghurt, Kräutern und Zucker
Scharfe Soße: scharfe Versuchung, bestehend aus Tomatensauce, Paprikamark, Gewürzketchup, Chilischoten, Kräutern und Zucker
Translation - English
Our döner kebabs are prepared fresh daily. We use 100% veal for our veal kebabs. We separate the meat from the bones, cut it into slices and marinate it in a special blend of spices. Lastly, we attach the meat slices onto the spit. As needed, the weight of the meat cone on the spit can vary between 50 and 120 kilograms. When the spit is fully loaded, we place it on our gas grill and begin to grill the meat. It then takes about an hour and a half to grill the meat to perfection.
Good to know: a key to the taste is the size of the döner spit. The larger the meat cone, the better the taste. Here is the reason: the pressure from the weight of the meat, along with the constant cutting, keeps the meat from drying out, so that it stays juicy. Slice thickness is also important. The thinner the strip (slice), the more succulent the taste.
Chicken kebab
We make our chicken kebab from chicken drumsticks. This is an important point for us, since the leg meat is not only especially juicy but also easier to attach to the spit. We debone the drumsticks individually by hand and then soak them in spicy marinade. After the meat marinates for a day, we place it on the spit over the gas grill. It takes about an hour to grill chicken kebab to perfection.

Whether for a side dish or to be stuffed into the pocket of the pita bread, we prepare our greens fresh each day, using only the best ingredients.

Quality is important. Especially with bread. This is why we also bake our own bread in-house. There is no other way we can be certain that only the best ingredients are used, without additives of any kind.

We create all our sauces in-house. We offer the following selections to go with our döner menu:

Cacik: a light accompaniment made from thinly sliced cucumbers in a garlic-yogurt sauce, refined with mint

Cocktail sauce: a mild combination of creamy mayonnaise, yogurt, spicy ketchup, herbs and sugar

Curry sauce: a spicy taste treat made from curry, creamy mayonnaise, yogurt, herbs and sugar
Hot sauce: a tangy temptation blending tomato sauce, pepper paste, spicy ketchup, chili peppers, herbs and sugar
Portuguese to English: Portuguese-language literature in Macau
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Poetry & Literature
Source text - Portuguese
A memória coletiva dos macaenses legitima, sem dúvida, uma identidade cultural bastante particularizada de Macau, evocando uma cultura crioula que pode ser identificada na língua própria de Macau (patoá de Macau), e que, hoje, apesar de ter perdido a sua função comunicativa, foi reavivada, recentemente, com a criação do grupo Papiaçam di Macau, dirigido por Miguel de Senna Fernandes. Com certeza, é na culinária que o padrão dessa cultura mestiça é mais vivo e forte.
No período de transição, de doze anos, a alteração do modo de se compreender a presença cultural portuguesa foi seguindo as transformações das infra-estruturas pelas quais a região passou. O que interessa a este trabalho é que esse mar de empreendimentos e acontecimentos que transcorreram em Macau foi responsável pelo retorno ao território de macaenses que viviam diasporicamente e antigos residentes portugueses que haviam partido em decorrência da situação do Pós-Guerra, acionando antigas solidariedades do eixo familiar ou do círculo de amizades. Foi também responsável pela transferência de vários portugueses, tanto de Lisboa quanto dos países africanos, para Macau  seja por se enquadrarem nos quadros funcionais das instituições públicas, seja por buscarem melhores oportunidades de trabalho na iniciativa privada.
Das rotas africanas surgiram, na poesia, modulações de vozes e ritmos que procuram marcar a fusão de tempos ou de fragmentos espaciais, como os que aparecem nas poesias de Jorge Arrimar e de João Rui Azeredo, ou ainda, de Alberto Estima de Oliveira. Nota-se, nesses escritores, no período de transição, a presença de uma preocupação comum em ancorar sentidos do tempo histórico em seus textos, por conta das transformações culturais radicais pelas quais passou a região. Portugueses que cruzaram a RAE de Macau, como José Augusto Seabra, em seu Poemas em nome de Deus, ou José Jorge Letria, em seu Oriente de mágoa, acabam por ativar, inclusive, os sentidos míticos da possível presença de Camões na região e também da história de Portugal. Este último livro, um longo poema narrativo, retoma, por exemplo, o exílio de Camões, dentro de uma noção decadentista que se formou, na Europa, com relação ao oriente, nos séculos XVIII e XIX, fixando-o dentro da visão romântica. De uma forma bem mais complexa, estará Macau representada, em meio a outras localidades, no oriente de Até ao longínquo China navegou ..., de Antônio Manuel do Couto Viana, publicado pelo Instituto Cultura de Macau, em 1991. Todas estas obras precisariam ser estudadas, de forma cuidadosa e atenta, para que se pudesse fazer uma análise mais rigorosa da significação de Macau.
Na RAE de Macau, enquanto a fugacidade e o provisório eram conceitos sinalizadores da ruptura eminente, que emergiam em textos diversos, uma demanda de rememorações procurava resistir à voracidade do tempo. Na poesia, é possível verificar que os poetas produziram um inventário de referências do espaço urbano, tornando-se cúmplices da (s) cultura (s) outra (s), mas, de algum modo, não deixam de situar Macau como um signo que interroga as suas próprias qualidades.
Em Margens do Destino. Macau e a literatura em língua portuguesa (2007), foi feita a análise de várias obras entre elas Chü Kong, de Maria do Rosário, também da obra de João Rui de Azeredo, de Fernanda Dias e, ainda, da prosa do mesmo período, para o qual se remete o leitor. Desta última autora seria interessante que se desse a conhecer este primeiro poema do livro Chá verde:
definição
chá: esse outro meu coração verde
que fora do meu peito pulsa.
ritual de silêncio, amargo e quente,
que te dou a beber em cada taça
(p. 13)

O poema abriga evidentemente uma alta interação com este “outro” cultural, o que vai se revelar também no fato de traduzir e recontar poesia e estórias das comunidades chinesas de Macau. Fez versões para a poesia de Wong Io Fong, conhecido por Gao Ge e para a poesia de Shu Wang, além de, em 2011, num gesto admirável, ter publicado uma versão poética do Yi Jing, o clássico livro das mutações, que está tanto na base do pensamento taoísta quanto na do confucionismo, sendo considerada, portanto, uma das obras mais importantes do enraizamento cultural.
Translation - English
Without a doubt, the Macaenses’ collective memory legitimates a very particularized Macau cultural identity, evoking a creole culture that can be distinguished in the local language of Macau (patoá de Macau) and that, in spite of having lost its communicative function, has been recently revived through the founding of the group Papiaçam di Macau, directed by Miguel de Senna Fernandes. It is certainly in the area of cuisine where the signs of this mestizo culture are strongest and most dynamic.
In the 12-year transition period, changes in the way of understanding Portuguese cultural presence followed the transformations of infrastructure experienced by the region. Of relevance to the present work is that the sea of projects and events that occurred in Macau was responsible for the return to the territory of Macaenses from the diaspora as well as former Portuguese residents who had left because of the post-war situation, now reactivating old family contacts and friendships. It was also responsible for the transfer to Macau of a number of Portuguese from Lisbon or the African countries – whether to staff the public institutions or in search of better employment in the private sector.
The African routes brought poetic influences in the form of vocal modulations and rhythms that attempt to mark time combinations or spacial fragments like those that appear in the poems of Jorge Arrimar or João Rui Azeredo, or even Alberto Estima de Oliveira. One notes in these writers, during the transition period, the presence of a common preoccupation with anchoring a sense of historic time in their texts, the better to describe the radical cultural transformations the region experienced. Portuguese writers who had contact with Macau, like José Augusto Seabra in Poems in the name of God [Poemas em nome de Deus] or José Jorge Letria, with his Sorrowful Orient [Oriente de mágoa], end up reviving even the mythic sense of the possible presence of Camões in the region as well as the history of Portugal. The latter book, a long narrative poem, takes up again, for example, the exile of Camões, under a decadentist notion that developed in Europe with respect to the East in the 18th and 19th Centuries, locating it within the Romantic vision. In a much more complex fashion, Macau is represented along with other places in the Orient of He sailed to distant China … [Até ao longínquo China navegou ...] by Antônio Manuel do Couto Viana, issued by the Macau Cultural Institute in 1991. All these works would need to be studied in a careful and attentive way in order to be able to perform a more rigorous analysis of the significance of Macau.
In Macau, while impermanence and transition were concepts signaling an imminent break that emerged in several texts, a demand for remembrances attempted to resist the rampages of time. In poetry, it is possible to verify that poets produced an inventory of references to urban space, becoming accomplices of other culture(s), but they somehow do not fail to situate Macau as a sign that examines its own qualities.
In On the Fringes of Destiny. Macau and the literature of the Portuguese language [Margens do Destino: Macau e a literatura em língua portuguesa] (2007), a study was made of a number of texts, including Chü Kong, by Maria do Rosário, as well as the works of João Rui de Azeredo, Fernanda Dias and, as well, prose writings of the same period, to which the reader is referred. Concerning the latter author, it is worthwhile to become acquainted with this first poem from her book Green Tea [Chá verde]:
definition
tea: this other green heart of mine
that beats outside my chest.
silent ritual, bitter and hot,
that I give you to drink in each cup
(p. 13)

The poem evidently describes a significant interaction with this cultural “other,” revealed as well in the act of translating and recounting poetry and stories from Macau’s Chinese communities. She produced versions of the poetry of Wong Io Fong, known as Gao Ge, and that of Shu Wang, in addition to having published in 2011, in an admirable gesture, a poetic version of the I Ching, the classic Book of Changes, that forms the base of Taoist thought as much as does Confucianism, thus being regarded as one of the most important cultural foundational works.
Portuguese to English: Youth Olympic Games Team Roster
General field: Other
Detailed field: Sports / Fitness / Recreation
Source text - Portuguese
JOGOS OLÍMPICOS DA JUVENTUDE

Relação completa do Time Brasil nos Jogos Olímpicos da Juventude Cingapura 2010
14.07.2010 :: 13h15



Confira a seguir os atletas que representarão o Brasil nos Jogos Olímpicos da Juventude Cingapura 2010:

ATLETISMO (15 atletas)

MASCULINO
Antonio César Rodrigues - SP, 200 m - 12/01/1993
Caio Cézar Fernandes dos Santos - SP, salto em distância - 24/03/1993
Felipe Mathias Weber Hickmann - RS, salto em altura - 10/02/1993
Ioran Fernandes Etchechury - RS, 2.000m com obstáculos - 24/01/1993
Jean Roberto Franchini da Silva - SP, 110 m com barreiras - 25/05/1993
Joseilton Costa Cunha - MT, 1.000 m com obstáculo - 01/03/1993
Leandro Pitarelli de Araújo - SP, 400m - 22/02/1993
Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Oliveira - SP, salto triplo - 01/06/1993
Thiago Braz da Silva - SP, salto com vara - 16/12/1993


FEMININO
Andressa Moreira Fidelis - SP, salto em distância - 20/01/1994
Jéssica Carolina Alves dos Reis - SP, 100 m - 17/03/1993
July Ferreira da Silva - RN, 2.000 m com obstáculos - 27/10/1994
Natania Habitzreiter - RS, 400 m com barreiras - 17/09/1993
Saionara Pavanatto - RS, arremesso do peso - 14/02/1994
Tamara Alexandrino de Sousa - RJ, 100 m com barreiras - 16/12/1993


Basquete (4 atletas)

Erika Leite - 04/01/1993 - SP
Isabela Macedo - 23/01/1994 - RJ
Joice Coelho - 01/04/1993 - RJ
Stephanie de Oliveira - 05/04/1993 - SP

Boxe (1 atleta)
David Lourenço da Costa - 69kg - SP - 02/04/1992

Canoagem (1 atleta)
Isaquias dos Santos - C1 Sprint - BA - 03/01/1994

Ciclismo (4 atletas)
Guilherme Pinerua - SC - 15/01/1993
Leandro Miranda - SC - 02/11/1992
Mayara Perez - SP - 19/10/1992
William Alexi - SC - 21/04/192

Esgrima (1 atleta)
Guilherme Melaragno (Espada) - SP - 08/09/1993

Ginástica artística (2 atletas)
Feminino
Harumi Maruki Freitas, de 14 anos - Curitiba (PR) - 24/06/1995


Masculino
Arthur Nory Oyakawa Mariano, de 16 anos - Campinas (SP) - 18/09/1993

Ginástica Trampolim feminino (1 atleta)
Daienne Cardoso Lima, de 16 anos - Rio de Janeiro (RJ) - 09/06/1993

Handebol (28 atletas)

Masculino

Andre Leal - 19/01/1992 - SP
Arthur Patrianova - 22/04/1993 - SP
Daniel da Luz - 24/07/1992 - SP
Fernando Dutra - 17/06/1992 - SC
Fulvio Volpe - 19/12/1992 - SC
José Filipe Rocha - 11/10/1992 - PB
Leonardo de Oliveira - 25/02/1992 - MT
Matheus Dias - 28/06/1992 - SP
Ricardo Assef - 29/03/1992 - SP
Rodolfo de Oliveira - 13/07/1992 - SP
Roney Franzini - 23/07/1992 - SP
Victor Lucio - 30/01/1992 - SP
Welton Lima - 12/01/1992 - PE
Matheus Francisco - 03/04/1993 - SC


Feminino

Patricia Silva - 08/04/1992 - SP
Gabriela Constantino - 01/07/1994 - SP
Deborah Nunes - 14/03/1993 - PE
Thatyanne Lopes - 28/06/1992 - SC
Francielle da Rocha - 10/06/1992 - SP
Larissa Araújo - 01/07/1992 - PR
Caroline Martins - 21/01/1992 - SP
Fernanda Marques - 12/02/1992 - PR
Elaine Barbosa - 01/06/1992 - SC
Ana Eduarda Vieira - 12/02/1992 - SP
Lais da Silva - 10/06/1992 - RS
Isadora Garcia - 26/02/1992 - RS
Juliana de Araujo - 29/06/1992 - PE
Keila Alves - 05/04/1992 - PR


Hipismo (1 atleta)
Guilherme Foroni - SP

Judô (2 atletas)
Flávia Gomes -71kg - SP
Henrique Silva -81kg - SP

Natação (8 atletas)

Pedro Antonio Domingos - 50m borboleta - MG - 11/06/1992
Pedro Henrique Lopes de Souza - 200m livre - DF - 23/11/1992
Victor Rodrigues - 200m livre - MG - 04/03/1993
Vinicius Borges - 50m costas - SP - 17/02/1992

Alessandra Christine Marchioro - 50m costas - PR - 13/051993
Bruna Caroline Rocha - 50m borboleta - SP - 05/05/1993
Carolina Bergamaschi - 50m livre - PR - 16/05/1994
Julia Gerotto - 200m borboleta - SP - 19/09/1993

Pentatlo Moderno (1 atleta)
William Muinhos - RJ - 02/08/1993

Remo (1 atleta)
Tiago Ribeiro Braga

Saltos Ornamentais (1 atleta)
Pedro de Amorim Abreu - Plataforma 10m - RJ

Tênis (1 atleta)
Tiago Fernandes - AL - 29/01/1993

Tênis de mesa (2 atletas)
Eric Jouti - SP - 26/04/1994
Caroline Kumahara - SP - 27/07/1995

Tiro com arco (1 atleta)
Brunna Araujo - 70m - MG - 06/12/1992

Tiro esportivo (1 atleta)
Felipe Wu (Pistola de ar 10m 60 tiros) - SP - 06/11/1992

Triatlo (1 atleta)
Iuri Venuto - CE - 04/10/1992

Vela (3 atletas)
Alexander Elstrodt - Classe Byte CII Masculino - SP - 12/11/1994
Cláudia Mazzaferro - Classe Byte CII Feminino - SP - 13/10/1995
Wendy Soares - Classe BIC Feminino (prancha a vela) - RJ

TOTAL: 80
Translation - English
Complete Team Brazil roster for the Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games
with state, event and birth date

As of July 14, 2010, 1:15 pm


The following athletes will represent Brazil at the Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games:

TRACK AND FIELD (15 athletes)

MEN
Antonio César Rodrigues – São Paulo, 200 meters – January 12, 1993
Caio Cézar Fernandes dos Santos – São Paulo, long jump – March 24, 1993
Felipe Mathias Weber Hickmann – Rio Grande do Sul, high jump – February 2, 1993
Ioran Fernandes Etchechury – Rio Grande do Sul, 2000 meter steeplechase – January 24, 1993
Jean Roberto Franchini da Silva – São Paulo, 110 meter hurdles – May 25, 1993
Joseilton Costa Cunha – Mato Grosso, 1000 meter steeplechase – March 1, 1993
Leandro Pitarelli de Araújo – São Paulo, 400 meters – February 22, 1993
Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Oliveira – São Paulo, triple jump – June 1, 1993
Thiago Braz da Silva – São Paulo, pole vault – December 16, 1993


WOMEN
Andressa Moreira Fidelis – São Paulo, long jump – January 20, 1994
Jéssica Carolina Alves dos Reis – São Paulo, 100 meters – March 17, 1993
July Ferreira da Silva – Rio Grande do Norte, 2000 meter hurdles – October 27, 1994
Natania Habitzreiter – Rio Grande do Sul, 400 meter hurdles – September 17, 1993
Saionara Pavanatto – Rio Grande do Sul, shot put – February 14, 1994
Tamara Alexandrino de Sousa – Rio de Janeiro, 100 meter hurdles – December 16, 1993


Basketball (4 athletes)

Erika Leite – São Paulo – January 4, 1993
Isabela Macedo– Rio de Janeiro – January 23, 1994
Joice Coelho – Rio de Janeiro – April 1, 1993
Stephanie de Oliveira – São Paulo – April 5, 1993

Boxing (1 athlete)
David Lourenço da Costa – São Paulo – 69 kg (welterweight) – April 2, 1992

Canoeing (1 athlete)
Isaquias dos Santos – Bahia – C-1 sprint – January 3, 1994

Cycling (4 athletes)
Guilherme Pinerua – Santa Catarina – January 15, 1993
Leandro Miranda – Santa Catarina – November 2, 1992
Mayara Perez – São Paulo – October 19, 1992
William Alexi – Santa Catarina – April 21, 1992

Fencing (1 athlete)
Guilherme Melaragno (épée) – São Paulo – September 8, 1993

Artistic Gymnastics (2 athletes)

Women
Harumi Maruki Freitas, age 14 – Curitiba (Paraná) – June 24, 1995

Men
Arthur Nory Oyakawa Mariano, age 16 – Campinas (São Paulo state) – September 18, 1993


Trampoline (1 athlete)

Women
Daienne Cardoso Lima, age 16 – Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro state) – June 9, 1993



Handball (28 athletes)

Men

Andre Leal – São Paulo – January 19, 1992
Arthur Patrianova – São Paulo – April 22, 1993
Daniel da Luz – São Paulo – July 24, 1992
Fernando Dutra – Santa Catarina – June 17, 1992
Fulvio Volpe – Santa Catarina – December 19, 1992
José Filipe Rocha – Paraíba – October 11, 1992
Leonardo de Oliveira – Mato Grosso – February 25, 1992
Matheus Dias – São Paulo – June 28, 1992
Ricardo Assef – São Paulo – March 29, 1992
Rodolfo de Oliveira – São Paulo – July 13, 1992
Roney Franzini – São Paulo – July 23, 1992
Victor Lucio – São Paulo – January 30, 1992
Welton Lima – Pernambuco – January 12, 1992
Matheus Francisco – Santa Catarina – April 3, 1993


Women

Patricia Silva – São Paulo – April 8, 1992
Gabriela Constantino – São Paulo – July 1 ,1994
Deborah Nunes – Pernambuco – March 14, 1993
Thatyanne Lopes – Santa Catarina – June 28, 1992
Francielle da Rocha – São Paulo – June 10, 1992
Larissa Araújo – Paraná – July 1, 1992
Caroline Martins – São Paulo – January 21, 1992
Fernanda Marques – Paraná – February 12, 1992
Elaine Barbosa – Santa Catarina – June 1, 1992
Ana Eduarda Vieira – São Paulo – February 12, 1992
Lais da Silva – Rio Grande do Sul – June 10, 1992
Isadora Garcia – Rio Grande do Sul – February 26, 1992
Juliana de Araujo – Pernambuco – June 29, 1992
Keila Alves – Paraná – April 5, 1992


Equestrian (1 athlete)
Guilherme Foroni – São Paulo


Judo (2 athletes)
Flávia Gomes – São Paulo – 71kg (half-heavyweight)
Henrique Silva – São Paulo – 81kg (half-middleweight)


Swimming (8 athletes)

Pedro Antonio Domingos – 50 meter butterfly – Minas Gerais – June 11, 1992
Pedro Henrique Lopes de Souza – 200 meter freestyle – Federal District – November 23, 1992
Victor Rodrigues – 200 meter freestyle – Minas Gerais – March 4, 1993
Vinicius Borges – 50 meter backstroke – São Paulo – February 17, 1992

Alessandra Christine Marchioro – 50 meter backstroke – Paraná – May 13, 1993
Bruna Caroline Rocha – 50 meter butterfly – São Paulo – May 5, 1993
Carolina Bergamaschi – 50 meter freestyle – Paraná – May 16, 1994
Julia Gerotto – 200 meter butterfly – São Paulo – September 19, 1993

Modern Pentathlon (1 athlete)
William Muinhos – Rio de Janeiro – August 2, 1993

Rowing (1 athlete)
Tiago Ribeiro Braga

Diving (1 athlete)
Pedro de Amorim Abreu – 10 meter platform – Rio de Janeiro

Tennis (1 athlete)
Tiago Fernandes – Alagoas – January 29, 1993

Table Tennis (2 athletes)
Eric Jouti – São Paulo – April 26, 1994
Caroline Kumahara – São Paulo – July 27, 1995

Archery (1 athlete)
Brunna Araujo – FITA Olympic Round, 70 meters – Minas Gerais – December 6, 1992

Shooting (1 athlete)
Felipe Wu – 10m air pistol, 60 shots – São Paulo – November 6, 1992

Triathlon (1 athlete)
Iuri Venuto – Ceará – October 4, 1992

Sailing (3 athletes)
Alexander Elstrodt – Byte CII Men’s Dinghy – São Paulo – November 12, 1994
Cláudia Mazzaferro – Byte CII Women’s Dinghy – São Paulo – October 13, 1995
Wendy Soares – BIC Women’s Windsurfer – Rio de Janeiro

TOTAL: 80
German to English: History of the song 'Lili Marleen' in World War II
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Music
Source text - German
Lili Marleen sang sich in Windeseile in die Herzen der deutschen Soldaten und löste eine Welle der Begeisterung aus, die aufgrund der Übertragungsstärke des Soldatensenders Belgrad bis zu den deutschen Verbänden in Nordafrika reichte. Dort, beim Deutschen Afrikakorps (DAK), hatte die Manie um das Lied ihren Ursprung. Die Tatsache, dass die Geschichte eigentlich aus der Perspektive des jungen Wachpostens erzählt ist, scheint die Hörerschaft zu keinem Zeitpunkt gestört zu haben. Vielmehr blieb von Männern gesungenen Versionen jeglicher Erfolg verwehrt. Das Ausmaß der Popularität des Liedes wurde den Verantwortlichen in Belgrad erst bewusst, als der Sendeleiter, Leutnant Karl-Heinz Reintgen, im Juli 1941 der Lili Marleen überdrüssig geworden war und ihre Übertragung verboten hatte. Der daraufhin seitens einer furiosen Hörerschaft losbrechende Sturm der Entrüstung ließ keinen Zweifel daran, dass Lili Marleen einen sentimentalen Nerv deutscher Soldaten getroffen hatte. Sie wurde daraufhin wieder ins Programm aufgenommen und bekam einen fixen Platz am Ende einer Sendung namens Wir grüßen unsere Hörer, in der Briefe aus der Heimat an die Front verlesen wurden.
Die eigentliche Überraschung war aber, dass Lili Marleen auf der alliierten Seite der Frontlinien denselben Erfolg hatte wie im deutschen Lager. Britische Soldaten in Nordafrika waren die Ersten, welche anfänglich sogar noch dem deutschen Original erlagen. Im Jänner 1942 sendete der Reichsrundfunk eine englische Version, übersetzt von Norman Baillie-Stewart, einem Briten beim deutschen Auslandssendedienst. Nachdem die Army of the United States im November 1942 in Nordafrika gelandet war, dauerte es nicht lange, bis Lili Marleen auch für die G.I.szu einer Hymne geworden war; einem Symbol für Heimweh, Trennung und Sehnsucht sowie der Hoffnung auf ein Wiedersehen. Bill Mauldin:
Our musical geniuses at home never did get around to working up a good, honest, acceptable war song, and so they forced us to share “Lili Marlene” [sic] with the enemy. Even if we did get it from the krauts it’s a beautiful song …
Ernie Pyle bezeugte: … we all loved [Lili Marleen] and … we practically took [her] away from the Germans as our national overseas song. Auch im deutschen Propagandaapparat wurde Lilis Potential erkannt. Das Lied wurde in der Folge in Propagandasendungen für alliierte Soldaten gespielt. In order to prevent any hint of sympathy for the enemy that the song in German might generate , wurde bald eine alliierte Version mit Anne Shelton aufgenommen, die zu dieser Zeit eine Radiosendung für britische Soldaten in Nordafrika moderierte. Im Mai 1943 erschien schließlich beim amerikanischen Chappel Label die endgültige englische Textfassung als My Lilli of the Lamplight:
Underneath the lantern, by the barrack gate, Darling I remember the way you used to wait. T’was that you whispered tenderly, that you loved me, you’d always be, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
Time would come for roll call, time for us to part, Darling I’d caress you and press you to my heart, and there ‘neath that far off lantern light, I’d hold you tight, we’d kiss good night, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
Orders come for sailing, somewhere over there. All confined to barracks was more than I could bear. I knew you were waiting in the street I heard your feet, but could not meet, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
Resting in our billets, just behind the lines, even tho’ we’re parted, your lips are close to mine. You wait where that lantern softly gleams, your sweet face seems to haunt my dreams, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
In kurzer Folge erschienen verschiedene englischsprachige Versionen des Liedes, unter anderem vom britischen sweetheart of the forces, Vera Lynn. Die Version von Marlene Dietrich, dem Superstar amerikanischer G.I.sdes Zweiten Weltkriegs, wird fälschlicherweise oft für das Original gehalten, was vermutlich mit dem übereinstimmenden Namen zu tun hat. Insgesamt geht man von mindestens 48 verschiedenen Sprachfassungen des Liedes aus. Eine RCA-Aufnahme schaffte es im Juni 1944 auf Platz 13 der amerikanischen Billboard Charts.
John Steinbeck, der als Korrespondent für die New York Herald Tribune schrieb, widmete Lilli Marlene [sic], ihrer Magie und ihrem Erfolg über die Fronten des Krieges hinweg am 12. Juli 1943 eine ganze Kolumne. Interessanterweise gab er den Inhalt des Liedes völlig falsch wieder. Den Anfang der ersten Strophe zitierte er wie folgt: Underneath the lanterns, by the barracks square, I used to meet Marlene and she was young and fair. In der Folge beschreibt er Marlene als junge Frau … who first liked stripes and then shoulder bars. Sie trifft im Lauf des Liedes nach Steinbeck eine Reihe von Soldaten mit stetig steigenden Dienstgraden, bis sie schließlich bei einem Brigadier angelangt ist. Der Brigadier stellt sich schließlich als das heraus, wonach sie von Anfang an suchte.
Der von Steinbeck zitierte erste Vers, wie auch der von ihm beschriebene Inhalt des Liedes, lassen sich weder mit dem Originaltext von Hans Leip noch mit der englischen Chappel-Übersetzung in Einklang bringen. Letztere ist eine behutsame, auf die Situation von G.I.sangepasste, Adaption des Leip’schen Originals. Die von Steinbeck beschriebene Version hat mit beiden hier verhandelten Texten nichts gemeinsam. Theoretisch bestünde die Möglichkeit, dass er sich auf die Übersetzung von Norman Baillie-Stewart bezog. De facto ist dieser Ansatz aber unwahrscheinlich. Es ließe sich nur schwer begründen, warum die deutsche Propaganda daran Interesse gehabt haben sollte, ihre kulturelle Doppelagentin Lili Marleen als promiskuitiv und dabei an möglichst hohen Dienstgraden interessiert darzustellen. Eher noch kann man vermuten, dass sich Steinbecks Text auf eine Selbstübersetzung alliierter Soldaten beziehen könnte, welche Melodie, Versmaß, Lili Marleen und Laterne berücksichtigte, ansonsten aber eine anrüchig-promiskuitive Geschichte erzählte.
Die Ereignisse der Entdeckung von Lili Marleen werden von Steinbeck offensichtlich mit viel kreativer Freiheit wiedergegeben. So spielte der Soldatensender Belgrad die Schallplatte deswegen, weil die meisten anderen Tonträger bei einem Bombenangriff zerstört worden waren. Nachdem der afrikanische Erfolg von Lili Marleen in Berlin registriert wurde, trug ihn die vormalige Opernsängerin Madame Goering, laut Steinbeck, einem ausgewählten Kreis von Nazigrößen vor. Die daraufhin losbrechende Erfolgswelle erfuhr einen (temporären) Rückschlag, als Hermann Göring des Liedes überdrüssig wurde und darüber die Unvereinbarkeit von Lilis Lebenswandel mit den konservativen Werten der nationalsozialistischen Ideologie entdeckte. Freilich, so Steinbeck, war der Erfolg des Liedes zu diesem Zeitpunkt nicht mehr aufzuhalten und dem Einfluss der Nazis entglitten.
Man kann davon ausgehen, dass Axel Jockwer, dessen Dissertation über Unterhaltungsmusik im Dritten Reich einen Exkurs über den Mythos Lili Marleen enthält, sorgfältiger recherchiert hat als Steinbeck. Laut Jockwer wurde Lale Andersen für das Nazi-Regime im zweiten Halbjahr 1942 zur Persona non grata. Angeblich hatte sie sich im Frühjahr desselben Jahres geweigert, das Ghetto in Warschau zu besichtigen, was erste Zweifel an ihrer Integrität entstehen ließ. Im September fing die Gestapo einen Brief ab, den Andersen aus Italien an den in der Schweiz lebenden jüdischen Chefdramaturgen des Zürcher Schauspielhauses, Kurt Hirschfeld, geschrieben hatte. Als in der Folge weitere Kontakte zu im Ausland lebenden Personen jüdischen Glaubens bekannt wurden, schloss man die Andersen aus der Reichskulturkammer aus. Sie sollte aus dem öffentlichen Künstlerleben verschwinden, gegen ihre Person oder ihre persönliche Freiheit dürfte man aber wegen ihrer internationalen Bekanntheit nichts tun. Die BBC griff in der Folge kursierende Gerüchte auf und meldete, Lale Andersen habe sich einer drohenden Inhaftierung in einem Konzentrationslager durch Selbstmord entzogen. Goebbels persönlich enttarnte die alliierte Lügenpropaganda und ließ die Andersen zum Beweis öffentlich auftreten. Die internationale Aufmerksamkeit, welche der Sängerin zuteil geworden war, hatte sie vor weiteren Sanktionen des Nazi-Regimes gerettet. Ihr Auftrittsverbot wurde im Mai 1943 zwar gelockert, öffentlich Lili Marleen zu singen oder sich selbst mit Lili Marleen in Verbindung zu bringen, blieb ihr im Reich des Ariers aus Braunau am Inn aber weiterhin verboten.
Translation - English
Lili Marleen instantly found its way into the hearts of German soldiers and triggered a wave of enthusiasm that spread as far as North Africa, thanks to the powerful transmitter used by Soldatensender Belgrad. It was there, among the troops of the German Afrika Korps, that the mania over the song began. Listeners were apparently not at all disturbed by the fact that the story was told from the perspective of the young man posted on guard duty. On the contrary, male vocalists who also recorded the song encountered a notable lack of success. Authorities in Belgrade first became aware of the extent of the song’s popularity when the station director, Lieutenant Karl-Heinz Reintgen, tired of hearing it on his airwaves, forbade it to be played. The resulting storm of indignation on the part of a furious listening audience left no doubt that Lili Marleen had struck a sentimental nerve among German soldiers. As a consequence, it was reinstated into the repertoire, earning a permanent slot as the closing number of the broadcast Wir grüßen unsere Hörer [Greetings to our Listeners], in which letters from home were read over the air for soldiers at the front.
The real surprise, however, was that Lili Marleen was having the same effect on the
Allied side of the front that it had produced in the German camp. British soldiers in North Africa, hearing the song initially in the German original version, became the first Allied enthusiasts. In 1942, the Reich’s broadcasting company transmitted an English version translated by Norman Baillie-Stewart, a Briton working for Germany’s foreign broadcasting service. Once the Army of the United States had landed in North Africa in November 1942, it did not take long for the GIs to adopt Lili Marleen as well. It became a symbol for homesickness, separation and yearning as well as the hope of reunion. According to Bill Mauldin:
Our musical geniuses at home never did get around to working up a good, honest, acceptable war song, and so they forced us to share “Lili Marlene” [sic] with the enemy. Even if we did get it from the krauts it’s a beautiful song …
Ernie Pyle testified: … we all loved [Lili Marleen] and … we practically took [her] away from the Germans as our national overseas song. Even the German propaganda machine recognized Lili᾽s potential, and the song was accordingly approved to be played for Allied soldiers over the Reich᾽s propaganda broadcasts. In order to prevent any hint of sympathy for the Enemy that the song in German might generate , an Allied version was soon recorded by Anne Shelton, at that time the moderator of a radio broadcast for British soldiers in North Africa. Ultimately, in May 1943, the Chappel label in the U.S. released the song in its definitive English version as My Lilli of the Lamplight:
Underneath the lantern, by the barrack gate, Darling I remember the way you used to wait. T’was that you whispered tenderly, that you loved me, you’d always be, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
Time would come for roll call, time for us to part, Darling I’d caress you and press you to my heart, and there ‘neath that far off lantern light, I’d hold you tight, we’d kiss good night, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
Orders come for sailing, somewhere over there. All confined to barracks was more than I could bear. I knew you were waiting in the street I heard your feet, but could not meet, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
Resting in our billets, just behind the lines, even tho’ we’re parted, your lips are close to mine. You wait where that lantern softly gleams, your sweet face seems to haunt my dreams, my Lilli of the Lamplight, my own Lilli Marlene.
In short order, various English-language renditions of the song appeared, including one by the British Forces’ Sweetheart, Vera Lynn. The version by Marlene Dietrich, the American GIs᾽ superstar of World War II, is often mistakenly assumed to have been the original recording, an error that presumably has something to do with the similarity between her name and the title of the song. Lilli Marleen was translated into at least 48 languages. One RCA Victor recording reached #13 on the American Billboard charts in June 1944.
John Steinbeck, who worked as a correspondent for the New York Herald Tribune, devoted his entire column of July 12, 1943 to Lilli Marlene, her magic and her success on both sides of the war front. Curiously, his quotation of the song’s lyrics was completely at variance with the official version. He cites the beginning of the first verse as: Underneath the lanterns, by the barracks square, I used to meet Marlene and she was young and fair. He then describes Marlene as a young woman … who first liked stripes and then shoulder bars. In the course of the song, according to Steinbeck, she meets a series of soldiers of steadily increasing rank until she finally works her way up to a brigadier general, who proves to be the one she has been looking for from the start.
Steinbeck’s first verse and his description of the song’s remaining lyrics are consistent with neither the Hans Leip original text nor the English-language Chappel translation. The latter is a cautious adaptation of the Leip lyrics, written to conform to the reality of the GIs. The version described by Steinbeck has nothing in common with either of these texts. It is a theoretical possibility that he based his column on the translation by Norman Baillie-Stewart. In fact, however, this concept is unlikely. It is difficult to explain why German propaganda would have wanted to portray Lilli Marleen, its cultural double agent, as a promiscuous gold-digger interested in snagging the highest-ranking officer possible. It would be more reasonable to suppose that Steinbeck᾽s text refers to an independent translation by Allied soldiers that retains the melody, meter, Lili Marleen herself and the lanterns, but otherwise simply recounts a disreputable and promiscuous story.
Steinbeck clearly takes considerable liberties in his creative recounting of the events surrounding the dissemination of Lili Marleen. He describes Soldatensender Belgrad as playing the record because most other broadcast stations had been destroyed by a bombing attack. Then, in Steinberg’s telling, after news of the Lili Marleen᾽s success in North Africa had reached Berlin, it was performed before a select audience of Nazi elites by Madame Goering, who was a former opera singer. This sparked a wave of popular interest in the song that waned only temporarily when Hermann Goering grew weary of hearing it, detecting an inconsistency between Lili’s lifestyle and the conservative values of National Socialist ideology. By this point, Steinbeck maintained, the song’s triumph had propelled it beyond Nazi control.
We can conclude that Axel Jockwer, whose dissertation on popular music during the Third Reich contains a discussion of the myth of Lili Marleen, conducted his research more thoroughly than did Steinbeck. According to Jockwer, Lale Andersen was persona non grata to the Nazi regime in the latter half of 1942. She was reputed to have declined a visit the Warsaw Ghetto earlier that year, and this refusal had awakened the first suspicions as to her integrity. In September, the Gestapo had intercepted a letter that Andersen had written from Italy to the principal playwright of the Zurich Schauspielhaus, Kurt Hirschfeld, a Jew living in Switzerland. When additional contacts with Jews abroad subsequently became known, she was banned by the Reichskulturkammer, the committee overseeing cultural matters. It was determined that she should vanish from public artistic life but that no action should be taken against her personally or to limit her personal freedom in view of her international celebrity. The BBC then picked up on rumors in circulation, reporting that Lale Andersen had committed suicide in order to escape threatened detention in a concentration camp. Goebbels himself personally exposed the lying Allied propaganda by allowing Andersen to appear publicly as proof of the falsehood. The international attention that the singer gained in this incident served to protect her against further sanctions by the Nazis. The ban on her appearances was relaxed in May 1943, although she remained forbidden by the Hitler regime to perform Lili Marleen in public or to have any contact with the song.
German to English: Teacher education research report
General field: Other
Detailed field: Education / Pedagogy
Source text - German
Studiendesign, rekonstruktive Analyse mithilfe der dokumentarischen Methode und Typen von Lehrkräften als Reflexionsimpuls

Lehrkräfte mit ihren Orientierungen im Kontext eines basiskonzeptionellen Geographieunterrichts stehen im Zentrum der präsentierten Studie und besuchen eine halbjährige Fortbildungsreihe zum didaktischen Ansatz geographischer Basiskonzepte, die aus drei Sitzungen à drei Tagen Dauer besteht (Fögele 2016).
Das Fortbildungsprogramm der Studie ist entlang von zehn evidenzbasierten Kriterien wirksamer Lehrkräftefortbildungen gestaltet (Timperley, Wilson, Barrar andFung 2007; Hattie 2009; Fögele, Mehren 2015, p. 87) und folgt einem symbiotischen Design (Gräsel andParchmann 2004) für ein beidseitiges Lernen zwischen Theorie und Praxis.
Auf diese Weise erwerben die 41 teilnehmenden Geographielehrkräfte für Gymnasien die Kompetenz für die Gestaltung eines basiskonzeptionellen Geographieunterrichts, während Erfahrungen aus der Praxis auf die Theorie zurückwirken.
Die rekonstruktive Begleitforschung basiert auf wiederkehrenden Gruppendiskussionen der Lehrkräfte (sieben Gruppen à sechs Erhebungszeiträume, insg.
42 Gruppendiskussionen), die prozessanalytisch mit der dokumentarischen Methode ausgewertet werden.
Ziel ist es, die handlungsleitenden Orientierungen von Lehrkräften im Kontext eines konzeptionellen Fachunterrichts zu rekonstruieren, da diese einen je unterschiedlichen unterrichtspraktischen Umgang mit Basiskonzepten hervorbringen (Fögele 2018).
Das Längsschnittdesign erlaubt darüber hinaus, Aussagen über Transformation und Persistenz der impliziten Orientierungen zu treffen, d.h. welche habituellen Muster sich im Verlauf der Fortbildung verändern und welche stabil sind (Asbrand et al., 2013, p. 3).
Der Fortbildungsgegenstand als didaktische Innovation stellt eine Handlungsaufforderung bzw. –möglichkeit und normative Erwartung dar, die im Sinne eines Orientierungsschemas einen Transformationsdruck darstellen kann.
Empirisch wird einerseits dieser habituelle Aushandlungsprozess in der Prozessanalyse begleitet (Ergebnisse dieser Längsschnittanalyse der Transformation siehe Fögele 2016, p. 395), andererseits bietet die Responsivität als Verfahren zur Beobachtung zweiter Ordnung den Lehrkräften die Möglichkeit, die Bewältigung dieser Irritation bisheriger Praxis möglichst bewusst zu gestalten.
Das symbiotische, d.h. verschränkte Vorgehen der Fortbildungsreihe wird fortgesetzt im Rahmen der Erkenntnisgewinnung, indem mit dem responsiven Verfahren wechselseitig Informationen auf mehreren Ebenen generiert werden können.
Translation - English
Design of the study, reconstructive analysis using the documentary method and teacher types as an impulse toward reflection

Teachers and their orientations in the context of basic conceptual geography instruction are at the heart of the present study; they attend a one-semester further education series dealing with a didactic approach to basic geographical concepts that consists of three three-day sessions (Fögele 2016).
The further education program under study is designed along ten evidence-based criteria for effective advanced teacher training (Timperley, Wilson, Barrar and Fung 2007; Hattie 2009; Fögele, Mehren 2015, p. 87), following a symbiotic design (Gräsel and Parchmann 2004) for reciprocal learning between theory and practice.
In this way, the 41 participating secondary-level geography teachers acquire the competencies for the design of a basic conceptual geography lesson while experiences from practice have a retroactive effect on the theory.
The reconstructive accompanying research is based on recurrent discussions by groups of teachers (seven groups in each of six survey periods, totaling
42 group discussions) who are assessed through analytical processes employing the documentary method.
The goal is to reconstruct the action-based orientations of teachers in the context of a conceptual specialized class, since these represent varying levels of practical experience dealing with basic concepts (Fögele 2018).
In addition, the longitudinal design allows for conclusions regarding the transformation and persistence of the implicit orientations -- in other words, which habitual patterns change over the course of the training period and which remain stable (Asbrand et al., 2013, p. 3).
The advanced training object as a teaching innovation presents an invitation or opportunity to participate in an activity with normative expectations that can represent pressure for transformation directed at orientation patterns.
On one hand, this habitual process of negotiation is empirically tracked in the process analysis (for results of this longitudinal analysis of transformation, see Fögele 2016, p. 395); on the other hand, the responsiveness as a second-order observation process offers the teachers the opportunity to shape as consciously as possible their mastery of this irritation from earlier practice.
The symbiotic -- that is, limited -- approach of the training program is pursued in the context of knowledge production, while bidirectional information can be generated in the responsive process on multiple levels.
Spanish to English: Screenplay on Roman Empire
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Cinema, Film, TV, Drama
Source text - Spanish
Dentro de la tienda Cassia permanece callada, con un gesto serio.

CORBULÓN:
Conozco esa mirada Cassia.
Sabes que no puedo ayudar a Peto.
¿Ya se te ha olvidado que casi me cuesta la cabeza sus calumnias ante el emperador?

CASSIA LONGINA se levanta, le escancia vino y se sirve otra copa ella misma. CORBULÓN señala un punto en el mapa y recorre con el dedo la que ha debido de ser la ruta del legionario. CASSIA observa con atención. Ambos le dan un sorbo al vino.

CORBULÓN:
Ese hombre ha hecho un largo camino. Montañas, bosques, terreno casi desértico, perseguido y acosado.

CASSIA LONGINA:
Siempre me ha impresionado la tenacidad que tienen algunos hombres por cumplir una misión.

La lealtad de esos hombres por encima incluso de la razón.

CORBULON:

Es su deber.

CASSIA LONGINA:

(Cassia Longina retoma tras un breve silencio)
Recuerdo que cuando te conocí sabías valorar a los buenos soldados. Decías que sin ellos no tendría ninguna oportunidad el mejor de los generales.

Me hablabas de Anibal el cartagines que llegó hasta las puertas de Roma, que nada habría logrado sin su Maharbal. O Escipión el general romano imbatido sin su Cayo Lelio.

Y sin embargo nadie recuerda esos nombres, solo el de sus generales.

CORBULON:
Tanto tiempo en Roma me ha hecho más egoísta y huraño

Un breve silencio

CASSIA LONGINA:
¿Qué vas a hacer?

CORBULÓN:
¿Por qué me preguntas eso?
Peto no se merece ni que le escupa a la cara. Debería dejarle caer…

CASSIA LONGINA:
¿Más?

CORBULÓN:
¿Qué quieres decir?

CASSIA LONGINA:
Peto ya no puede caer más. Si muriera le estarías haciendo un favor. Quizá se convirtiera en un mártir, en un héroe incluso. No hay peor enemigo que uno muerto

CORBULÓN mira a su esposa a los ojos, esta sonríe y le da un sorbo al vino.

CORBULÓN:
Si regresa a Roma seguirá difamándome ante el Emperador, como ha hecho hasta ahora.

CASSIA LONGINA:
¿Difamar a su salvador? No. Sería atentar contra sí mismo. No le quedaría más remedio que alabarte.

CORBULÓN:
Todos dirían que…

CASSIA LONGINA:
Dirían que el ilustre Cneo Domicio Corbulón, el más reconocido general del Imperio, marchó en auxilio de su adversario político. Porque así es como actúa un hombre honorable.

Peto está acabado. Marcha en su auxilio, di que lo haces por sus hombres. Ensalza el valor de este soldado que ha servido fielmente a Roma.

Hazlo y las legiones te amarán. Entonces, serás intocable.
Habrás condenado a tu mayor adeversario político a estarte agradecido de por vida.

Corbulón mira al suelo, luego al mapa de Armenia y luego mira a Cassia sonriendo.
CORBULON:
Siempre he admirado lo bien que conoces los entresijos de Roma sin ser romana.

CASSIA LONGINA:
El poder es igual en todos sitios, solo cambian los nombres de los que lo ejercen.
Translation - English
Inside the tent, Cassia remains quiet, a serious expression on her face.

CORBULO:
I know that look, Cassia.
You know that I cannot assist Paetus.
Have you forgotten how his defamation of me before the emperor almost cost me my head?

CASSIA LONGINA stands to pour a goblet of wine for him and another for herself. CORBULO points at a location on the map and runs his finger along what must have been the legionnaire’s route. CASSIA watches attentively. They sip their wine.

CORBULO:
This man has traveled a long way. Mountains, forests, virtual deserts, pursued and hounded.

CASSIA LONGINA:
I have always been impressed by the tenacity some men have to complete their mission.

The loyalty of those men, beyond even reason.

CORBULO:
It is their duty.

CASSIA LONGINA:

(Cassia Longina continues after a short pause)
I recall when I met you, you knew how to appreciate good soldiers. You said that without them, the best generals would have no chance for success.

You told me about Hannibal the Carthaginian, who reached the gates of Rome, who would have accomplished nothing without his Maharbal. Or Scipio, the unbeaten Roman general, without his Gaius Laelius.

And yet no one remembers those names – only those of their generals.

CORBULO:
So much time in Rome has made me more selfish and unsociable.

There is a brief silence.

CASSIA LONGINA:
What will you do?

CORBULO:
Why do you ask me that?
Paetus is not even worth my spitting in his face. I should let him fall.

CASSIA LONGINA:
Further?

CORBULO:
What are you trying to say?

CASSIA LONGINA:
Paetus cannot fall further. If he died, you would be doing him a favor. He could become a martyr or even a hero. There is no worse enemy than a dead one.

CORBULO looks into his wife’s eyes, she smiles and gives him more wine.

CORBULO:
If he returns to Rome, he will continue to slander me before the Emperor as he has done before.

CASSIA LONGINA:
Slander his rescuer? No. That would be the same as injuring himself. He would have no choice other than to praise you

CORBULO:
Everyone would say that…

CASSIA LONGINA:
They would say that the celebrated Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, the most renowned general in the Empire, marched in support of his political adversary. Because that is the action of an honorable man.

Paetus is finished. March to his aid, say you are doing it for his men. Praise the courage of this soldier, this faithful servant of Rome.

Do it and the legions will love you. You will then be unassailable.
You will have condemned your greatest political rival to remain grateful to you for life.

Corbulo looks at the ground, then at the map of Armenia, and then, smiling, at Cassia.
CORBULO:
I have always admired how well you understand Rome’s complexity without actually being a Roman.

CASSIA LONGINA:
Power is the same everywhere. What changes are the names of those who wield it.



German to English: Information from the Court to the parties in civil proceedings
General field: Law/Patents
Detailed field: Law (general)
Source text - German
Was müssen Sie vortragen?
Die klagende Partei muss den Sachverhalt schilde rn, aus dem sich ihr Anspruch ergibt. Geben Sie an, welche Zeugen (mit vollständiger Adresse) die einzelnen Tatsachen bestätigen können, oder auf welche anderen Beweismittel Sie sich beziehen. Beweismittel sind z.B. Sachverständ igengutachten, Urkunden, Fotos, Belege, Verträge, Rechnungen oder frühere Schreiben .

Die beklagte Partei soll alles mitteilen, was sie gegen die Klage vorbringen will. Geben Sie z.B. an,
a) welche Behauptungen in der Klageschr ift Ihrer Meinung nach nicht zutre ffen,
b) welche in der Klageschrift nicht enthaltenen Angaben das Gericht außerdem berücksichitgen soll,
c) welche Zeugen (mit vollständiger Adresse) Ihre Behauptungen bestätigen oder die
Behauptungen der Gegenseite widerlegen sollen,
d) auf welche anderen Beweismittel Sie sic·h beziehen (z.B. Gutachten eines vom Gericht beauftragten Sachverständigen , Urkunden).

Was geschieht, wenn Sie Fristen versäumen?
Die in einer richterlichan Verfügung gesetzte Frist beginnt mit der Zustellung der Verfügung und gegebenenfalls der weiteren Schriftstücke. Geht Ihre Stellungnahme nicht fristgerecht ein, so können Sie auch deshalb den Prozess verlieren.
Beachten Sie daher im gesamten Verlauf des Rechtsstre its vom Gericht gesetzte Fristen oder Termine. Antworten Sie also stets rechtzeitig, sonst laufen Sie Gefahr, allein wegen verspäteter Antwort z.B. den Rechtsstre it zu verlieren.

Wollen Sie als Beklagter den Anspruch ganz oder teilweise anerkennen?
Wenn Sie gegenüber dem Gericht den Klageanspruch ganz oder teilweiseanerkennen, so kann das Gericht Sie ohne mündliche Verhandlung entsprechend Ihrem Anerkenntn is verurteilen. Dies würde zu einer Ermäßigung der Gerichtsgebühren führen.

Wie und wo können Sie Ihre Erklärungen abgeben?
Sie können alle Erklärungen schriftlich einreichen oder mündlich der Geschäftsstelle eines Amtsgerichts zu Protokoll geben . Jedenfalls müssen Ihre Erklärungen innerhalb der Fristen beim Amtsgericht XXX eingehen .

Geben Sie bei allen Schreiben deutlich lesbar das Aktenze ichen des Gerichts an, welches Sie dem beigefügten Schreiben des Gerichts entnehmen können. Fügen Sie auch jedem Schreiben zwei Kopien für die Gegenseite bei. Ansonsten müssen Sie damit rechnen, dass die notwendigen Kopien vom Gericht auf Ihre Kosten gefertigt werden .
Translation - English
What are you required to present?
The claimant party must describe the facts giving rise to its claim. Identify the witnesses (with full address) who can confirm the individual facts or to whom other evidence is connected. Examples of evidence include expert reports, documents, photographs, records, contracts, invoices or earlier correspondence.

The defendant party should disclose everything it wishes to state regarding the claim. Examples include:
a) Assertions in the complaint you believe to be inaccurate,
b) Information not contained in the complaint that should also be taken into consideration by the Court,
c) Witnesses (with full address) who can confirm your assertions or refute the assertions of the opposing party,
d) Other evidence to which you refer (such as reports by a court-appointed expert, documents).

What happens if you default on deadlines?
The deadline set by the Court begins upon receipt of the judge’s decree and any other written documents. If your response statement is not submitted prior to the deadline, this fact can cause you to lose the case.
You should therefore meet deadlines or timetables set by the Court throughout the course of the legal dispute. You should also provide prompt responses to avoid the risk of losing the case (for example) solely due to delayed replies.

As defendant, do you wish to acknowledge the claim either fully or in part?
If you fully or partially acknowledge the claim to the Court, the Court can issue its decision without a hearing. This would lead to a reduction in court costs.

How and where can you submit your statements?
You can place on record all statements in writing or orally at a District Court Office. In any case, your statements must reach the XXX District Court prior to the deadline.

In all written correspondence, you should include clearly legible reference to the court file number, which you can find on the attached letter from the Court. You should also attach to each piece of correspondence two copies to be provided to the opposing side. If you fail to do this, the necessary copies will be made by the Court at your expense.
German to English: Feature films in the German Democratic Republic (essay)
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Cinema, Film, TV, Drama
Source text - German
SPIELFILME

Die sozialistischen Gesellschaften waren zu DDR-Zeiten strikte Arbeits- und Arbeitergesellschaften, in denen Produktivität und körperliche Arbeit über eine immense Bedeutung verfügten. Die Vorstellung einer produktiven Arbeitsgesellschaft ist in der Metapher vom Aufbau der industriellen Revolution Deutschlands (1870 – Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs) verankert und hat den Erfolg des industriellen Kapitals als Grundlage. Die
Adaption dieser Metapher durch den Sozialismus in der DDR basierte auf der Idee eine neueGesellschaft auf Grundlage industrieller Produktion aufzubauen und zu stärken. Die Figur des Arbeiters diente dem Staat – und auch den Filmemachern – als Topos für das ideologische System, als Metapher für den Aufbau und zur Darstellung einer Selbstkonzeption, in dem der
Arbeiter als „Erbauer der Zukunft“ angesehen wird. In diesem Sinne forderte die SED die Künstler der DDR dazu auf, Kunst im Zeichen des Sozialismus zu erschaffen, das heißt, Kunst
parteiisch zu gestalten. Wurde dieser Anforderung nicht entsprochen, litt die Kunst – und damit auch der Film – unter Zensur und Verbot.

Ab Mitte der 1950er Jahre präsentierte sich die DDR als moderner sozialistischer Industriestaat: In Filmen der DEFA wurde über große Schwerindustrieanlagen, neue Technologien und hochwertige Verarbeitungsgüter berichtet. Dabei wurde kontrolliert, dass die Industrie und die Arbeitergesellschaft in einem guten Licht abgebildet und Inhalte nicht negativ vermittelt wurden. Die Spielfilme dienten nicht nur der Unterhaltung, sondern erfüllten auch den Auftrag der Parteiideologie zu dienen und die Ideale der Arbeiterklasse zu
vermitteln. In den Spielfilmen sollten die industriellen Fortschritte, die guten Arbeitsbedingungen und die neuen Technologien unterhaltsam dargestellt werden. Die
beliebtesten Drehorte lagen im Bundesland Sachsen-Anhalt, darunter Bitterfeld, Schkopau, Bernburg und Gerbstedt im Mansfelder Land.
Translation - English
FEATURE FILMS

Under the GDR, socialist societies were strictly working and
laborer societies where productivity and physical labor held immense significance. The concept of a productive work society was enshrined in the metaphor of the development of the German Industrial Revolution (from 1870 to the end of World
War I), grounded in the success of industrial capital. The
adaptation of this metaphor by socialism in the GDR was based on the idea of building and consolidating a new
society through industrial production. The figure of
the worker served the State - and also the filmmakers - as a theme for the ideological system, as a metaphor for the construction and presentation of a self-conception in which the
worker is seen as the "builder of the future." In this sense, the Socialist Unity Party demanded that artists in the GDR create art as a symbol of socialism - in other words, that they shape their art to the Party. If artists failed to meet this demand, their art — including their films – would be subject to censorship and bans.

In the mid-1950s, the German Democratic Republic portrayed itself as a modern socialist industrial state: DEFA films reported on large heavy-industry plants, new technologies and high-quality manufactured goods. Controls were in place to ensure that industry and the worker society were shown in a good light and that contents were not presented negatively. The purpose of motion pictures was not merely to entertain but also to achieve the mission of party ideology and convey the ideals of the working class. Feature films were supposed to present industrial progress, good working conditions and new technologies in an entertaining manner. The most popular locations were in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, including Bitterfeld, Schkopau, Bernburg and Gerbstedt in Mansfelder Land.
German to English: Evening sutra from Zen manual
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Philosophy
Source text - German
Freundschaft und Mitgefühl zu allen Wesen
sind der direkte Weg zum Geistes-Frieden.
Wer sich in allen Wesen wiedererkennt,
dessen Herz wird weit und unbegrenzt.
Ob er geht, steht, sitzt oder liegt,
er teilt sein Wohlwollen ohne Unterschied aus.
Wie eine Mutter ihr einziges Kind beschützt und behütet,
so umfasst auch sein Herz alles,
was da lebt, mit uneingeschränktem Wohlwollen.
Wer diese Gesinnung entfaltet:
Der hat einen guten Schlaf ohne Alpträume,
hat Glück bei all seinen Unternehmungen,
er wird von den Menschen geliebt,
er lebt, wie von einem Schutzgeist umgeben.
Freundlich und entspannt sind seine Gesichtszüge,
sein Geist kann sich leicht sammeln,
den Tod betrachtet er ohne Angst,
und so stirbt er klar und unverwirrt.
In Stille
Jeden Tag nehme ich mir die Zeit,
still zu sitzen und
den Dingen der Welt zu lauschen.
Ich achte auf den Klang des Lebens
und schwinge behutsam mit.
Mein Geist ist still wie ein klarer Bergsee,
in dem sich hell der volle Mond spiegelt.
INTRO:
Atem - ruhig
Körper - still
Gefühl – wohl (leicht lächeln)
Geist – friedvoll
5 tiefe Atemzüge
Nur HIER
Nur JETZT
Nur DIES
OUTRO:
„Mögen alle Wesen glücklich sein“
Kanzeon
Sutra des langen Lebens
Tiefstes Mitgefühl
und höchste Weisheit
sind unsere wahre Natur.
Ihre Vollendung ist die Quelle des Glücks
Der ursprüngliche Geist ist
ewig, heiter, selbstlos, rein.
Von morgens bis abends
voll von grenzenlosem Mitgefühl.
Alles entspringt unserem Geist.
Alles ist reiner Geist.
Translation - English
Friendship and compassion towards all beings
are the direct path to spiritual peace.
For those who recognise themselves in all beings,
their heart will be vast and immense.
Whether walking, standing, sitting or lying down,
they radiate their benevolence without distinction.
Like a mother protecting and sheltering her only child,
their heart embraces every living
creature with inexhaustible benevolence.
Whoever spreads this disposition
can sleep peacefully without nightmare,
find fortune in all endeavours
and be loved by all people
and will live enveloped by a protective spirit.
Such a person possesses a friendly and tranquil countenance
and a spirit that composes itself with ease,
fearlessly faces death
and dies serenely and undisturbed.
In silence
I take time every day
to sit in silence and
listen to the things of the world.
I take in the sounds of life
and gently resonate with them.
The silence of my spirit is like a clear mountain lake
reflecting the radiance of the full moon.
INTRO:
Breath - calm
Body - tranquil
Feeling - contentment (smiling freely)
Spirit - peaceful
Five deep breaths
Only HERE
Only NOW
Only THIS
OUTRO:
“May all beings enjoy happiness”
Kanzeon
Sutra of long life
The deepest compassion
and vastest knowledge
are our true nature.
The achievement of these is the source of happiness
The primordial spirit is
eternal, serene, selfless, pure.
Filled from morning to night
with boundless compassion.
Everything emanates from our spirit.
Everything is pure spirit.
Spanish to English: Extract from newspaper article on historic Spanish home
General field: Other
Detailed field: Architecture
Source text - Spanish
Situada frente a la bahía de Cadaqués desde hace más de un siglo, la Casa Serinyana, conocida como la Casa Blaua, es un edificio de caprichosa arquitectura modernista, que rompe con el perfil discreto de sus vecinos. Hoy, impecablemente restaurada, es un prototipo de las mansiones que edificaron los indianos al regresar al pueblo tras hacer fortuna al otro lado del Atlántico. Para la gente de Cadaqués, que vivía prácticamente aislada del continente, el mar siempre fue su única salida, una promesa de riqueza y otras vidas. Octavio Serinyana, el propietario de esta casa, era médico y vivía en Barcelona, pero descendía de una emblemática familia de larga tradición marinera enriquecida en Cuba, y tal vez fuera para dejar constancia de sus orígenes que encargó al arquitecto Salvador Sellés la construcción de una casa señorial en la que se leen las señas de las llamativas mansiones construidas con capital americano.
SIEMPRE CON AGUA
Cadaqués no disponía de agua potable, por lo que la existencia de una mina de agua en Port Dixó, junto a la riba, fue determinante para seleccionar la ubicación de la casa. Había allí una casita sencilla de pescadores que el arquitecto integró en el conjunto de la nueva edificación, uniéndola a través de un puente al cuerpo principal, de tres pisos y buhardilla, que se levantó al otro lado de la calle. La antigua casa pasó a ser el almacén de la cisterna del agua y su cubierta se convirtió en una espléndida terraza. Una escalera la une al puente que, convertido en una segunda terraza, comunica directamente con el balcón central de la planta noble de la vivienda. El 20de septiembre de 1913, tras dos largos años de obras, se coronó el techo del edificio, con sus dos torres, una a cada extremo, y un cuerpo central, llamativamente recubierto de tejas vidriadas en color anaranjado. La fachada, que sigue la línea curva de la calle, decorada con elementos de cerámica en color azul claro enmarcando puertas y ventanas, y el trabajo de hierro forjado en balcones y ventanas.
RESTAURACIÓN
Pasadas sus épocas de esplendor, la Casa Serinyana comenzó a languidecer, hasta que en 1983, un italiano, Augusto Marocci, se encaprichó con ella y se embarcó en el titánico proyecto de restaurarla. Sirviéndose de fotografías antiguas que inspeccionó con lupa, descubrió todos sus secretos y elementos que el tiempo había borrado. Analizó químicamente el color primitivo de los azulejos, el de los arrimaderos cerámicos con motivos florales, restauró las pinturas del techo, el forjado de los balcones, los esgrafiados, la carpintería, el mosaico hidráulico del suelo y las vidrieras, completando el mobiliario interior con una cuidadosa selección de piezas antiguas, lámparas de Murano y obras de arte contemporáneo. Hoy, la Casa Blaua luce impecable, tal como la soñó Octavio Serinyana, y su terraza es un estratégico mirador, ajardinado con flores azules, e invadido por el mar, con la silueta blanca del pueblo coronado por la iglesia, como telón de fondo.
Translation - English
Situated at the Cadaqués seafront for over a century, Casa Serinyana, also known as Casa Blava, is a whimsical modernist architectural structure that breaks with the discreet profile of its neighbours. Today, impeccably restored, it is a prototype of the mansions constructed by Indians who returned to the village after finding fortune on the other side of the Atlantic. For the people of Cadaqués, who lived in virtual isolation from the continent, the sea had always been their only way out, a promise of riches and new lives. Octavio Serinyana, the owner of this house, was a physician living in Barcelona, but his family was rooted in a long-standing maritime tradition. The family had found financial success in Cuba, and it was perhaps to refer back to its origins that he commissioned the architect Salvador Sellés to build a stately home with features of the striking mansions and constructed with capital from the Americas.
WATER ALWAYS AT HAND
Cadaqués had no potable water supply, and it was the existence of a spring at Port Dixó, next to the bay, that determined the location of the house. Already present on the site was a small fishermen’s cottage, which the architect incorporated into the new structure, linking the cottage by bridge over the street to the main building, which featured three storeys and an attic. The cottage was used to house a cistern, and its rooftop was converted into a splendid terrace. Steps ascend from the terrace to the bridge, which becomes a second terrace leading directly to the central balcony of the home’s main floor. On 20 September 1913, following two long years of construction, the crown of the roof was achieved, with towers at both ends of the house and a central core topped with roofing tiles in a colourful orange glaze. The facade, following the curve of the street, featured light blue decorative elements framing the doors and windows, with balconies and windows adorned with wrought iron.
RESTORATION
With its days of splendor behind it, Casa Serinyana fell into a period of neglect that ended in 1983 when an Italian, Augusto Marocci, became infatuated with the property and embarked on an ambitious project to restore it. Using old photos he examined under a magnifying glass, he uncovered all its secrets and details that time had erased. He had chemical analysis performed on the colours of the primitive tiles and ceramic rails with their floral motifs. He restored the ceiling paintings, wrought iron of the balconies, sgraffiti and woodwork as well as the hydraulic mosaic of the floor tiles and the stained-glass elements, completing the interior furnishings with a curated selection of antique items, Murano lamps and contemporary artworks. Casa Blava gleams flawlessly today, exactly as Octavio Serinyana imagined, and its terrace is a strategic vantage point landscaped with blue flowers and permeated by the sea. All this is set against the backdrop of the village’s white silhouette and crowned by the church.
German to English: Promotion of association of cities
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Advertising / Public Relations
Source text - German
Heute ist Neue Hanse mit 195 Städten in 16 Ländern die weltweit größte freiwillige Städtegemeinschaft. Wie einst kommt dem Lübecker Bürgermeister als „Vormann der Hanse“ eine hervorgehobene Stellung zu.

Im Mittelalter sind viele Städte und ihre Bewohner durch die Hanse reich geworden. Dies geschah nicht immer unter fairen Bedingungen. Erst 2014 auf dem 34.
Internationalen Hansetag in Lübeck konnte der Faire Handel zum Thema gemacht werden. Im Nachgang wurde eine Arbeitsgruppe „Faire Hanse“ gegründet, die seitdem eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle in der Gestaltung des Hansetages spielt.

Schon seit den 1970er Jahren werden in Lübecker Kirchen nach dem Gottesdienst Kaffee und andere Produkte aus Fairem Handel angeboten. Der erste Weltladen wurde vor über 30 Jahren gegründet, heute gibt es eine Vielzahl von Geschäften im Stadtgebiet mit Produkten aus Fairem Handel. 2011 wurde Lübeck als erste Stadt in Schleswig-Holstein und 65. in Deutschland als Fairtrade Town ausgezeichnet. 2014, als der
34. Internationale Hansetag in Lübeck stattfand, gab es 30 Hansestädte in Deutschland, die als Fairtrade Towns ausgezeichnet waren. Heute sind es bereits 51.
Translation - English
Today, with a membership of 195 cities in 16 countries, the New Hansa is the world‘s largest association of cities. As was true in earlier days, the Mayor of Lübeck holds a prominent position as the Hansa’s skipper.

In the Middle Ages, many cities became wealthy through the Hanseatic League along with their residents. This did not always occur under fair conditions. Ultimately, the issue of fair trade was broached in 2014 at the 34th International Hanseatic Day observances in Lübeck. In the wake of those discussions, a "Fair Hansa" working group was established that has ever since played an increasingly important role in the organization of the International Hanseatic Day, the annual meeting of the League.

As far back as the 1970s, churches in Lübeck offered coffee and other fair trade goods for sale following religious services. The first world shops were established over 30 years ago, and today there exist a variety of businesses within the city offering fair trade products. In 2011, Lübeck became the first city in the state of Schleswig-Holstein and the 65th in Germany to be designated as a Fair Trade Town. By the time Lübeck hosted the 34th International Hanseatic Day in 2014, there were 30 Hansa towns and cities in Germany that had been designated as Fair Trade Towns. Today the number has reached 51.
German to English: From a book on Renaissance Italy
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: History
Source text - German
Als Marcantonio am 14. June starb, hatte er die wirtschaftliche Zukunft seiner Familie offensichtlich ebenso gut gesichert wie die gesellschaftliche. Weit davon entfernt, seinen Besitz in Siena durch Konfiskation zu verlieren, erwarb er vielmehr von den Erben des Pietro de’ Bargagli am 23. September 1558 die sogenannte “Casa Nuova” in Bibbiano mit dem dazugehörigen Landbesitz für 520 Lire. Auch spekulativem Kapitalerwerb war Marcantonio nicht abgeneigt. Ebenfalls 1558 teilten er und seine Brüder Fabio, Alessandro und Pier Francesco den Nachlaß ihres verstorbenen Vaters Jacomo unter sich auf. Marcantonio fiel dabei ein Haus mit Grundstück in Siena zu. Eine offensichtlich für seine in Siena lebenden Brüder bestimmte Abrechnung über die Jahre 1558-1561/62 führt eine feste Jahreseinnahme von 500 Kammerdukaten an, dazu 300 Goldscudi.
Translation - English
It appears that, by the time of his death on 14 June 1574, Marcantonio had secured both the economic and societal futures of his family. Far from losing his Siena properties to confiscation, he in fact acquired the “Casa Nuova” in Bibbiano from Pietro de’ Bargagli’s estate on 23 September 1558 together with its associated landholdings for 520 lire. Nor was Marcantonio averse to speculative capital acquisition. In that same year, he and his brothers Fabio, Alessandro and Pier Francesco divided among themselves the bequest of their late father Jacomo. Marcantonio’s share included a house and land in Siena. A settlement apparently for his brothers living in Siena covering the years 1558-1561/62 cites a fixed yearly income of 500 trading ducats and 300 gold shields.
German to English: Restaurant press release
General field: Other
Detailed field: Food & Drink
Source text - German
Giuseppe D’Errico, Küchenchef im Ristorante Ornellaia in Zürich, beehrt das Ristorante Frescobaldi in London mit einem Besuch: Der vom Guide Michelin mit
1 Stern prämierte Italiener kocht vom 15. bis 18. Juli 2019 im edlen Londoner Lokal der toskanischen Winzerfamilie Frescobaldi.

London wird um 1 Guide-Michelin-Stern reicher: Giuseppe D’Errico, Küchenchef im mehrfach ausgezeichneten Ristorante Ornellaia in Zürich, kocht vom 15. bis 18. Juli 2019 im Ristorante Frescobaldi in London. D’Errico legte in Zürich einen kometenhaften Start hin: Erst im April 2018 eröffnete das Lokal an der Zürcher Bahnhofstrasse seine Türen, wenige Monate später wurde die Arbeit von Küchenchef Giuseppe D’Errico mit einem Guide-Michelin-Stern sowie 16 GaultMillau-Punkten geadelt. Zuvor brillierte der Küchenvirtuose im weltbekannten Drei-Sterne-Restaurant Troisgros in Roanne als Sous-Chef.

«Meine Küche ist der Einfachheit, dem Geschmack und der Tradition verbunden. Michel Troisgros hat mir die Werte einer Speise eingeprägt: Das Schöne, das Gute und das Einfache. Ich nähere mich dem Essen wie dem Wein mit grossem Respekt und Interesse.»

Im Ristorante Frescobaldi in London will D’Errico mit Sensibilität die Geschmacksvielfalt der Toskana, einer für den Weinbau prädestinierten Gegend, auf den Teller bringen. Das Ristorante Frescobaldi in Mayfair ist das erste Lokal in Grossbritannien, das die berühmten toskanischen Winzerfamilie Frescobaldi zusammen mit der Good Food Company führt.
Translation - English
The Ristorante Frescobaldi in London is to be honoured by the presence of Giuseppe D'Errico, chef at the Ristorante Ornellaia in Zurich. Originally from Italy, chef D’Errico has been awarded a star by the Michelin Guide. From 15 to 18 July 2019, he will be presiding as visiting chef at the refined London restaurant of the Tuscan wine-growing Frescobaldi family.

London is about to receive yet another Michelin star: Giuseppe D'Errico, chef at the award-winning Ristorante Ornellaia in Zurich, will be cooking at the Ristorante Frescobaldi in London from 15 to 18 July 2019. D'Errico got off to a meteoric start in Zurich: Although the restaurant on Zurich's Bahnhofstrasse only opened its doors in April 2018, Chef Giuseppe D'Errico's work was recognised just a few months later with a Guide Michelin star and 16 Gault Millau points.

Previously, the kitchen virtuoso sparkled in the world-famous three-star Troisgros restaurant in Roanne as a sous-chef. D’Errico states, "My cuisine is linked to simplicity, taste and tradition. Michel Troisgros impressed on me the values of a dish: the beautiful, the good and the simple. I approach food and wine with great respect and interest."

D'Errico is sensitive to the tastes of Tuscany, a region predestined for viticulture, and wants to serve these up at the Ristorante Frescobaldi in London. The Mayfair restaurant is the first location in the UK to be jointly operated by the famous Tuscan wine-making Frescobaldi family and the Good Food Company.
German to English: Promotion for association of cities
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Advertising / Public Relations
Source text - German
Heute ist New Hansa mit 195 Städten in 16 Ländern die weltweit größte freiwillige Städtegemeinschaft. Wie einst kommt dem Lübecker Bürgermeister als „Vormann der Hanse“ eine hervorgehobene Stellung zu. Im Mittelalter sind viele Städte und ihre Bewohner durch die Hanse reich geworden. Dies geschah nicht immer unter fairen Bedingungen. Erst 2014 auf dem 34.
Internationalen Hansetag in Lübeck konnte der Faire Handel zum Thema gemacht werden. Im Nachgang wurde eine Arbeitsgruppe „Faire Hanse“ gegründet, die seitdem eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle in der Gestaltung des Hansetages spielt.

Schon seit den 1970er Jahren werden in Lübecker Kirchen nach dem Gottesdienst Kaffee und andere Produkte aus Fairem Handel angeboten. Der erste Weltladen wurde vor über 30 Jahren gegründet, heute gibt es eine Vielzahl von Geschäften im Stadtgebiet mit Produkten aus Fairem Handel. 2011 wurde Lübeck als erste Stadt in Schleswig-Holstein und 65. in Deutschland als Fairtrade Town ausgezeichnet. 2014, als der
34. Internationale Hansetag in Lübeck stattfand, gab es 30 Hansestädte in Deutschland, die als Fairtrade Towns ausgezeichnet waren. Heute sind es bereits 51.
Translation - English
Today, with a membership of 195 cities in 16 countries, the New Hansa is the world‘s largest association of cities. As was true in earlier days, the Mayor of Lübeck holds a prominent position as the Hansa’s skipper. In the Middle Ages, many cities became wealthy through the Hanseatic League along with their residents. This did not always occur under fair conditions. Ultimately, the issue of fair trade was broached in 2014 at the 34th International Hanseatic Day observances in Lübeck. In the wake of those discussions, a "Fair Hansa" working group was established that has ever since played an increasingly important role in the organization of the International Hanseatic Day, the annual meeting of the League.

As far back as the 1970s, churches in Lübeck offered coffee and other fair trade goods for sale following religious services. The first world shops were established over 30 years ago, and today there exist a variety of businesses within the city offering fair trade products. In 2011, Lübeck became the first city in the state of Schleswig-Holstein and the 65th in Germany to be designated as a Fair Trade Town. By the time Lübeck hosted the 34th International Hanseatic Day in 2014, there were 30 Hansa towns and cities in Germany that had been designated as Fair Trade Towns. Today the number has reached 51.
Spanish to English: Poet's account of indigenous conservation - rewrite of original translation
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - Spanish
Los Saglas (Guías espirituales) nos cantan que venimos de grandes montañas y de grandes ríos. Después de un largo proceso de desplazamiento por las guerras y enfermedades que azotaron en esa época, los abuelos emigraron a las costas e islas de lo que hoy se conoce como Gunayala.

Luego de adaptarnos a la vida marina volvemos a mirar a las grandes montañas en busca de una solución ante el calentamiento global que poco a poco se lleva una parte de nuestro territorio marino, las islas.

La mar que sirvió como una gran carretera, nos conectó al mundo, nos dió hogar, alimentos y protección, hoy poco a poco se lleva nuestra piel y memoria.

Los Gunadule proceden originalmente del norte de Colombia desde donde migraron hacia el Darién. Se enfrentaron a distintos pueblos indígenas así como a invasores y colonizadores como los españoles, ingleses y escoceses. La migración hacia las islas comenzó aproximadamente a mediados del siglo XVIII, con algunas pequeñas poblaciones que permanecieron en la zona costera quedándose al principio muchos de ellos en la desembocadura de los ríos. Hasta mediados del siglo XIX que los Gunadulemar empezaron a desplazarse para terminar viviendo en las islas.

En 1872 el pueblo gunadule obtuvo el reconocimiento de la comarca Tulenega. En 1903 Panamá al separarse de Colombia desconoce el territorio. Los gobiernos y autoridades nacionales intentaron “occidentalizar” a los Gunadule en repetidas ocasiones. La tensión fue en aumento desde el año 1921, hasta que en Febrero de 1925 estalló la Revolución Dule.
En 1938 se creó la Comarca de San Blas, hoy llamada Guna Yala, dando a los Gunadule autonomía y soberanía para gestionar sus tierras así como sus recursos marinos y terrestres.
Los arrecifes coralinos constituyen uno de los ecosistemas más productivos de nuestro Muu Bil-li (ambiente marino). A lo largo de la costa de la Comarca existe una amplia variedad de ambientes marinos: mar abierto, arrecifes de coral, islas, manglares, playas arenosas y playas rocosas.

Forman barreras naturales que protegen las costas e islas contra las altas e intensas olas. Además, ofrecen diversas fuentes como alimentos, turismo, recreación y educación.

"En el pueblo donde nací hombres y mujeres se alimentan de peces y mariscos —dule masi— en el pueblo donde nací bajo pulsación de tinieblas se oyen chirriar las hamacas"
Translation - English
The Saglas (spiritual guides) tell us in their songs that we came from great mountains and great rivers. After a long process of displacement due to the wars and illnesses that afflicted us at that time, our forebears emigrated to the coasts and islands of what is now known as Gunayala.

After adapting to life on the sea, we are once again looking to the great mountains in search of a solution to global warming, which is gradually taking away a part of our marine territory: the islands.

The sea that was a great crossroads, that connected us to the world, that gave us a home, is now stripping away our skin and our memory a little at a time.

The origins of the Gunadule people trace to the north of Colom-bia, from where they migrated to Darién. They clashed with vari-ous indigenous people as well as such invaders and colonizers as the Spanish, English and Scots. Their migration to the islands began roughly in the middle of the Eighteenth Century, with a few small populations remaining in the coastal zone, many of them initially at river mouths, until the middle of the Nineteenth Century, when the Gunandulemar began to move again, to end up living on the islands.

In 1872, the Gunadule people obtained recognition from the ad-ministrative region of Tulenega. In 1903, Panama separated from Colombia and revoked its recognition of their territory. National governments and administrative authorities attempted on multiple occasions to “westernize” the Gunadule. Tensions rose beginning in 1921 and lasted until the Dule Revolution in February 1925.

The District of San Blas, today called Guna Yala, was created in 1938. This act awarded the Gunadule autonomy and sovereignty to govern their territory as well as their sea and land resources.
The coral reefs make up one of the most productive ecosystems in our Muu Billi (marine environment). Along the district’s coast-line are many varied marine environments: open sea, coral reefs, islands, mangrove forests, sandy beaches and rocky beaches.
These form natural barriers that protect the coastal areas and is-lands against high and intense waves. Moreover, they offer a wide variety of resources, including food, tourism, recreation and education.

"In the village where I was born, men and women ate fish and shellfish —dule masi—in the village where I was born, under the pulsing of the darkness could be heard the creaking of the hammocks."
German to English: From a book on terms related to historic vehicles
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Automotive / Cars & Trucks
Source text - German
Nachbauten, Replikas oder Specials werden zur Fälschung, wenn ihnen eine fremde (möglicherweise historische) Identität oder die Geschichte eines anderen Fahrzeuges angedichtet wird und sie bewusst oder mit stillschweigender Billigung mit dieser Legende bezeichnet, benannt oder vermarktet werden.
Es ist dabei sehr wichtig, zwischen der juristischen Echtheit und der materiellen Originalität eines Fahrzeuges zu unterscheiden.
So bezieht sich die Frage, ob ein Fahrzeug echt ist auf seine korrekte Identität. Das heißt darauf, ob es sich bei dem vorliegenden Fahrzeug im juristischen Sinne um dasjenige handelt, dessen Identität es in Anspruch nimmt. Grundlage dafür ist heute im Normalfall, dass die Identität eines Fahrzeuges durch seine herstellungszeitliche Chassis-/Rahmennummer beziehungsweise FIN festgelegt ist. Es gibt also Fahrzeuge, die nachweislich echt sind (das heißt: bei ihnen liegt eine ungebrochene historische Kontinuität ihrer rechtlichen Identität inklusive der dafür legal ausschlaggebenden Komponenten vor), gleichzeitig enthalten sie aber kaum noch originale Bauteile, Materialien oder Zustände aus ihrer Herstellungs- und Gebrauchsphase.
Andererseits kann eine große Anzahl von original erhaltenen, sogar im Sinne von matching numbers zusammengehörigen historischen Komponenten in einem Fahrzeug vorhanden sein, allerdings ohne die korrekten, rechtlich Identitätgebenden Bauteile (in der Regel der Rahmen bzw. das Chassis).
Dabei mag die Substanz in der Summe originaler sein als im erstgenannten Fall, dieses Fahrzeug kann jedoch ohne das entsprechende Chassis (das juristisch für eine Identität ausschlaggebende Bauteil) nicht in die legale Nachfolge desjenigen Fahrzeuges eintreten, von denen die technischen Komponenten stammen.

Beispiele

■■Zwei vergleichbare Fahrzeuge des Modells Mercedes-Benz 300 SL (W 198, »Flügeltürer«) sind beide juristisch gesehen echt (haben jeweils also eine korrekt nachgewiesene Identität), einer der beiden Wagen ist jedoch mit deutlich mehr originaler Substanz erhalten als der andere.

■■Ein Pur Sang Bugatti-Nachbau aus dem Jahr 2009 bleibt so lange echt, wie er als »Pur Sang Baujahr 2009« kommuniziert, gezeigt und gehandelt wird.
Die Behauptung jedoch, es handele sich dabei um einen Bugatti Typ 35 mit Baujahr 1929, möglicherweise unter »Kaperung« einer entsprechenden historischen Chassisnummer, macht diesen Wagen zu einer Fälschung.

■■Wagen wie der heute im Technik Museum Speyer ausgestellte Special des Mercedes-Benz 500K (W 29) mit Stromlinienkarosserie (die Vorlage wurde 1935 gestaltet von Erdmann & Rossi für den irakischen König) müssen angesehen werden als eine spätere Nachempfindung auf einem fremden, wenn auch baugleichen Chassis.
Das Chassis allein gibt die Identität dieses Specials vor.
Das heißt, er kann nie den Platz des heute verschollenen Fahrzeuges von 1935 einnehmen, sondern wird immer die Identität des tatsächlich zugrunde liegenden historischen Chassis tragen.
Translation - English
Reproductions, replicas or specials are regarded as forgeries if they assume a different (possibly historical) identity or
narrative from another vehicle and are portrayed either actively or through passive silence as this object.
It is therefore extremely important to distinguish between a vehicle’s legal genuineness and its material originality. Thus
the question whether or not a vehicle is genuine hinges on its correct identification. In a legal sense, this revolves around
whether the specific vehicle’s actual identity matches its claim. In principle, the normal test for this today is to determine a
vehicle’s identity through the chassis/frame number or VIN that was assigned and affixed at the time of manufacture.
Thus there are vehicles that are demonstrably genuine (in other words, their legal identity indicates an unbroken historical
continuity with respect to legally determinative components) even if at the same time they have scarcely any original parts,
materials or conditions stemming from their original state or usage phase.
Conversely, a large number of preserved original historic components can be present in a vehicle even in the sense of
matching numbers but without the correct parts that convey the vehicle’s identity under the law (generally the frame or
chassis). In such a case, while the latter vehicle’s substance may be more original in an overall sense than the object in the
former case, such a vehicle cannot claim to be the legal successor to the vehicle that yielded up these technical components unless it has the corresponding chassis (the legally determinative part in establishing its identity).
Examples ■■Two comparable Mercedes-Benz Model 300SL (W 198 ‘Gullwing’) cars both meet the legal definition of authentic
(in other words, each has a correctly established identity), but one of these two cars contains significantly more
original substance than the other.

■■A 2009 Pure Blood Bugatti reproduction is defined as authentic if the words ‘2009 Pure Blood’ are always included
in its description, display and merchandising. However, any claim that this is a 1929 Bugatti Type 35, possibly by
‘hijacking’ a historic original chassis number, would cause it to be labeled a forgery.

■■Cars such as the streamlined-body Mercedes-Benz 500K (W29) special on display today at the Technik Museum in
Speyer (the original vehicle was designed in 1935 by Erdmann & Rossi for the King of Iraq) must be viewed as a later
imitation built on a different but identically constructed chassis. The chassis alone provides the identity of this special.
This means that it can never take the place of the 1935 vehicle, which has been lost, but will always bear the identity
of the actual underlying historic chassis.
German to English: From an essay on German regional spatial policy
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: Government / Politics
Source text - German
Der Beitrag hat die austeritätspolitischen Föderalismus als raumordnungspolitische Krisenbewältigungsstrategie im Anschluss an die Staatsschuldenkrise in Europa eingeführt.
Ob diese Politik der Sparsamkeit überdauern kann, bleibt angesichts des konjunkturellen Einbruchs in Folge der Covid19-Pandemie abzuwarten.

So stellt der starke Rückgang der Gewerbesteuereinnahmen die Städte und Gemeinden vor enorme finanzielle Herausforderungen und führt die Probleme einer skalar abwärts gerichteten Delegation von Aufgaben in der Raumordnung vor Augen.

Die zweite Wirtschaftskrise globalen Ausmaßes innerhalb von etwas mehr als zehn Jahren zeigt darüber hinaus auch die Vulnerabilität einer Landesentwicklung auf, die sich in erster Linie auf das wirtschaftliche Wachstum als Entwicklungsstrategie stützt.

Angesichts der aktuellen Debatten über eine resiliente Neuorientierung in der Raumordnung und auch vor dem Hintergrund des Verfassungsgrundsatzes Gleichwertiger Lebensverhältnisse müssen diese Entwicklungen revidiert – und politisches Handeln darauf ausgerichtet werden, die Raumordnung von den zyklischen Krisen des Kapitalismus zu emanzipieren.
Translation - English
This essay has presented federalist austerity policy as a political strategy in the area of spatial policy to manage the crisis that developed out of the European government debt crisis.
Whether this austerity policy can endure remains to be seen in view of the economic collapse in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In this way, the steep decline in trade tax revenues in the cities and towns poses enormous financial challenges and creates an awareness of the problem of a scalar and top-down delegation of spatial policy responsibilities.

Moreover, the second economic crisis of global dimensions within a little more than ten years reveals the vulnerability of a state development approach that is predominantly based on a strategy of developing economic growth.

In view of the current debates over a resilient reorientation in spatial policy and against the backdrop of the constitutional principle of equality of living conditions, these developments must be revised – and political action must be directed toward emancipating spatial policy from the cyclical crises of capitalism.
German to English: Announcement for solar power builder/operator
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Energy / Power Generation
Source text - German
AA baut seine Präsenz auf dem BB
Solarmarkt kontinuierlich aus: Mit der Fertigstellung des Solarparks „CC“ (über 9 MW) konnte
AA als EPC-Dienstleister (Engineering-Procurement-Construction) das erste von insgesamt zwei
Projekten für den Kunden DD aus Deutschland termingerecht fertigstellen und ans Netz anschließen.
Die Photovoltaikanlage in der Provinz EE besteht aus über 23.000 Solarmodulen und erzeugt ausreichend
grünen Strom, um jährlich umgerechnet rund 3.000 Haushalte klimafreundlich zu versorgen. Zudem errichtet
AA derzeit die Solaranlage „FF“ in der Provinz GG. Diese wird über eine Kapazität von rund
24 MW verfügen, wenn sie im vierten Quartal dieses Jahres ihren kommerziellen Betrieb aufnimmt. AA
wird auch den Betrieb und die Wartung (O&M) der beiden Solaranlagen dienstleistend für DD
übernehmen.
„Bis Jahresende 2020 haben wir in BB bereits mehr als 100 MW Solarkapazität gebaut. Darunter
auch besonders innovative Projekte, wie eine Solaranlage für ein Hybrid-Kraftwerk. Damit sind wir in BB einer der führenden Solaranlagenbauer und -betreiber“, erklärt I.V., Vorsitzender der
Geschäftsführung (CEO) der AA GmbH.
„Im Rahmen der baulichen Realisierung unseres aktuellen 250 MW Portfolios in den BB sind wir froh,
mit AA einen exzellenten Realisierungspartner gefunden zu haben. Angesichts der zunehmend wichtigen
IPP Strategie der DD setzen wir auf strategische Partnerschaften, die Effizienz und hohe Qualität
gewährleisten“, erläutert Dr. A.A., Geschäftsführer (CEO) der DD GmbH.
„Wir entwickeln in den Kernmärkten BB, HH, JJ und CC gegenwärtig Projekte von rund
zwei Gigawatt Gesamtleistung.“
Neben den beiden Projekten für DD errichtet AA aktuell eine Solaranlage mit 38 MW installierter
Leistung für den „Energiepark LL“ der KK. Das Hybridsystem besteht
aus einem Windpark (22 MW), einem Batteriespeicher (12 MW) sowie der Freiflächen-Photovoltaikanlage und
entsteht rund 30 Kilometer südwestlich von MM auf NN in der Provinz PP.
Translation - English
The German solar power specialist AA continues to expand its presence in the BB solar market:
With the completion of the “CC” solar energy park (over 9 MW), the EPC (engineering-procurement-construction) provider AA has achieved a successful on-time launch and connection of the first of two projects for its German client DD.
The photovoltaic system in the Province of EE consists of over 23,000 solar cells and produces enough climate-friendly green energy to supply around 3000 households per year.
In addition, AA is currently constructing the “FF” solar plant in the Province of GG.
This will have a capacity of around 24 MW when it commences commercial operations in the fourth quarter of this year.
AA will also assume operations and maintenance services for both solar plants on behalf of DD.
“By the end of 2020, we will have built a solar capacity of more than 100 MW in BB.
This includes particularly innovative projects such as a solar power system for a hybrid power plant.
All this makes us one of the leading builders and operators of solar systems in the Netherlands”, says I.A.,, CEO of AA GmbH.
“In the context of the structural implementation of our current 250-MW portfolio in BB, we are pleased to have found an excellent construction partner in AA.
In view of the increasingly significant IPP strategy at DD, we appreciate strategic partnerships that ensure efficiency and high quality”, states Dr. A. A., CEO of DD Projects GmbH.
“In the core markets of the BB, HH, JJ and CC, we are currently developing projects with a total output of approximately two gigawatts.”
Besides the two projects for DD, AA is presently constructing a solar power system with an installed capacity of 38 MW for KK’s „LL Energy Park“.
The hybrid system, which consists of a wind park (22 MW), battery storage (12 MW) and open-space photovoltaic system, is currently taking shape around 30 kilometres southwest of MM at NN in PP Province.
Spanish to English: UN article on disaster risk reduction related to COVID-19
General field: Science
Detailed field: Government / Politics
Source text - Spanish
Más allá del manifiesto menoscabo en los sistemas de salud, se estima que el PIB de América Latina y el Caribe podría disminuir un 9.1% en 2020, según el informe de Naciones Unidas ‘El impacto del COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe’.
El documento señala, además, que se prevén aumentos de 5.4% en desempleo, 7% en pobreza, 4.5% en pobreza extrema y un incremento de 4 millones de personas en situación de inseguridad alimentaria aguda.
“Es fundamental que cada país promueva un espacio de análisis y sistematización de la respuesta ante el COVID-19.
Seguramente en muchos países se deberán actualizar los aspectos claves de la gobernanza del riesgo, que permitan un análisis claro del riesgo sistémico que afronta cada país, pero sobre todo que facilite la respuesta a cualquier tipo de amenaza, sin importar su origen, duración e impacto”, asegura Ciro Ugarte, director del Departamento Emergencias en Salud en la Oficina Regional de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud.
La gobernanza guía el camino
Hay incontables evidencias que demuestran que la buena gobernanza del riesgo de desastres nace de la colaboración y las alianzas entre mecanismos e instituciones para reducir el riesgo de desastres y pavimentar el camino hacia el desarrollo sostenible.
La respuesta de Uruguay ante la pandemia de COVID-19, por ejemplo, resonó en toda la región.
A través de un bloque integral que agrupó a tomadores de decisiones, científicos y académicos, aplicaron estrategias y planes que incidieron en la gestión de la crisis sanitaria -apenas 1,500 contagios- y redujeron el riesgo de las amenazas socioeconómicas que han sacudido a tantos otros.
“La pandemia provocó la confección de distintos protocolos y el inicio de enfocar el riesgo de forma integral.
También fortaleció y profundizó una cultura de gestión y conocimiento del riesgo”, manifiesta Sergio Rico, director del Sistema Nacional de Emergencia de Uruguay.
La ciencia y la tecnología se han convertido en aliados fundamentales de la buena gobernanza del riesgo.
Recopilar datos e información permite la construcción de proyecciones de amenazas y escenarios de riesgos para así reducir el impacto de los desastres, principalmente en poblaciones dominadas por pobreza, exclusión y desigualdad.
El Centro de Coordinación para la Prevención de los Desastres en América Central y República Dominicana (CEPREDENAC) ha aprovechado las bondades de la tecnología para fortalecer la gestión del riesgo de desastres en la región.
A través de la Plataforma de Información y Coordinación para la Emergencia SICA COVID-19, consolidaron información que complementó los esfuerzos nacionales y fortaleció los enfoques estratégicos en la región.
“La plataforma digital se enfocó en adoptar medidas sobre las tres dimensiones del riesgo de desastre (características y exposición a amenazas, vulnerabilidad y capacidad) para poder prevenir la creación de nuevos riesgos, reducir los riesgos existentes, aumentar la resiliencia y crear mecanismos que permitan conocer el impacto de la pandemia a nivel regional”, explica Claudia Herrera, Secretaria Ejecutiva de CEPREDENAC.
Los esfuerzos integrales, añade Herrera, son fundamentales en la construcción de la buena gobernanza para “sacar adelante a la región mediante una combinación de trabajo, ideas y experiencias entre gobiernos y sector privado”.
El sector privado ha sido, precisamente, uno de los sistemas que más ha tenido que apelar a la resiliencia durante la pandemia.
“Se afectó la oferta y demanda, aumentó el costo de operación, se redujo el recurso humano, se interrumpió la cadena de abastecimiento y producción”, enfatiza Lizra Fabien, Directora Ejecutiva de la Asociación de Industrias y Comercio de Dominica (DAIC) y Expresidente de la Red de Cámaras de Comercio del
Caribe (CARICHAM).
La Alianza del Sector Privado para Sociedades Resilientes ante Desastres (ARISE), en este sentido, se convirtió en la plataforma indicada para un sector privado robusto que pueda trabajar de la mano con el sector público en la construcción de una buena gobernanza.
“Este proceso de recuperación también desarrollará las colaboraciones regionales y la implementación de buenas prácticas aprendidas entre nosotros mismos para garantizar que emerjamos como una región más fuerte”, añade Fabien.
Trabajar hacia la buena gobernanza
La pandemia de COVID-19, entonces, en conjunción con la Meta E del Marco de Sendai construyen el escenario propicio para mejorar la gobernanza en la región.
Tal y como lo dice Ugarte: “en tiempos de crisis es necesario seguir reforzando la buena gobernanza en las estrategias de reducción del riesgo de desastres a nivel nacional, regional y mundial”.
"El mayor propulsor del riesgo de desastres es una gobernanza débil.
Es necesario contar con objetivos claros, planes, directrices y coordinación entre todos los sectores.
Todos somos responsables de la reducción del riesgo de desastres y de ello depende el éxito de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.
Debemos construir una buena gobernanza para garantizar un futuro próspero y seguro", destaca Raúl Salazar, jefe de la Oficina de Naciones Unidas para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres (UNDRR), Oficina Regional – Las Américas y El Caribe.


Translation - English
Beyond the evident undermining of health systems, it is estimated that the GDP for Latin America and the Caribbean could fall by 9.1% in 2020, according to the United Nations report ‘The Impact of COVID-19 on Latin America and the Caribbean’.
Moreover, the document foresees a rise of 5.4% in unemployment, 7% in poverty and 4.5% in extreme poverty as well as an increase of 4 million people experiencing a situation of acute food insecurity.
“It is fundamental that each country develop a strategy for analyzing and systematizing the response to COVID-19.
Many countries surely need to update key risk governance aspects to foster a clear analysis of the systemic risk confronted by each country, but above all to enable a response to any sort of threat regardless of its source, duration or impact,” declares Ciro Ugarte, Director for Health Emergencies at the Regional Office of the Pan American Health Organization.
Governance leads the way
Extensive evidence indicates that good disaster risk governance springs from the collaboration and alliances among mechanisms and institutions to reduce disaster risk and pave the way toward sustainable development.
As an example, Uruguay’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic resonated throughout the entire region.
Through the formation of a comprehensive body that brought together decision makers, scientists and academics, it became possible to apply strategies and plans that shaped the management of the health crisis - only 1500 infections - and reduced the risk of the socio-economic threats that have shaken so many other countries.
“The pandemic led to the establishment of various agreements and the beginning of a more holistic focus on risk.
It also enhanced and deepened a culture of risk management and awareness,” asserts Sergio Rico, Director of Uruguay’s National Emergency System.
Science and technology have become key allies of good risk governance.
The gathering of data and information allows for the construction of threat projections and risk scenarios intended to reduce the impact of disasters, especially in populations afflicted by poverty, exclusion and inequality.
The Coordinating Center for Disaster Prevention in Central America and the Dominican Republic (CEPREDENAC) has taken advantage of the benefits of technology to strengthen disaster risk management in the region.
Through the Information and Coordination Platform for the COVID-19 Emergency, a resource available through the web portal of the Central American Integration System (SICA), these countries consolidated information to complement national efforts, enhancing strategic focuses in the region.
“The digital platform focused on taking steps to characterize the three dimensions of disaster risk (exposure, vulnerability and resilience) in an effort to prevent the creation of new risks, reduce existing risks, increase resilience and create mechanisms that allow us to understand the pandemic’s impact on a regional level,” explains Claudia Herrera, CEPREDENAC Executive Secretary.
Herrera adds that comprehensive efforts are essential to the promotion of good governance to “move the region forward through a combination of work, ideas and experiences across governments and the private sector.”
The private sector in particular has been among the systems with the greatest need to rely on resilience during the pandemic.
“Supply and demand were affected, operational costs rose, human resources were reduced, and supply and production chains were interrupted,” stresses Lizra Fabien, Executive Director of the Dominica Association of Industry & Commerce (DAIC) and former President of the Network of Caribbean Chambers of
Commerce (CARICHAM).
In this sense, the Private Sector Alliance for Disaster Resilient Societies (ARISE) has become the preferred platform for a robust private sector that can work hand-in-hand with the public sector in creating good governance.
“This process of recuperation will also develop regional collaboration and implement the good practices we learn from one another to ensure that we come out of this crisis as a stronger region,” Fabien adds.
Working toward good governance
In this way, the COVID-19 pandemic and Target E of the Sendai Framework are together creating a favorable environment to improve governance in the region.
As Ugarte says: “In times of crisis, it is necessary to continue to strengthen good governance in disaster risk reduction strategies at national, regional and world levels.”
“The most significant driver of disaster risk is weak governance.
It is necessary to have clear objectives, plans, directives and coordination across all sectors.
All of us are responsible for reducing disaster risk, which is key to the success of the Sustainable Development Goals.
We must build good governance to guarantee a prosperous and safe future,” emphasizes Raúl Salazar, Chief of the Americas/Caribbean Regional Office of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR).
Spanish to English: Extract from a biography of an Origami artist
General field: Art/Literary
Detailed field: Art, Arts & Crafts, Painting
Source text - Spanish
Buscando algo para ganar unos dólares, compuso un par de librillos sobre trucos de magia y juegos de cartas que le
vendió a un amigo editor. Aunque no tuvieron ningún éxito, la idea de los juegos de ingenio lo llevó a pensar en el plegado del papel.

“Sin saber nada de plegados, excepto cómo hacer avioncitos de papel y flores de loto, me dirigí a la biblioteca pública donde encontré más información”, escribiría Legman años más
tarde.

Una bibliotecaria amable en la New York Public Library, le alcanzó un cajón con recortes de revistas donde abundaban las manualidades, entre ellas, una nota ilustrada sobre un español que vivía en la Argentina, Vicente Solórzano Sagredo. Sus plegados lo asombraron. No se parecían en nada a lo que él había aprendido en su infancia.

Fiel a su estilo, Legman se lanzó a un frenesí recopilatorio. Buscó información por todos lados, escribió cartas, revolvió manuscritos olvidados en bibliotecas y de ahí nació su deseo de
saber más y más sobre esa manualidad que lo intrigaba y apasionaba. El origami le parecía un arte olvidado que merecía ser redescubierto. Una práctica que seguramente tenía raíces en Japón y en otros países remotos e insospechados. En suma, era una historia llena de misterios, con una carga de
exotismo y riqueza que parecía hecha a medida para él.

De a poco su idea fue tomando cuerpo y convirtiéndose en algo más. Algo que le podría traer dinero si sabía moverse bien. Se le ocurrió que algún periódico importante podría comprarle
los derechos para producir una tira semanal que luego se reproduciría en diarios y revistas de todo el país. La idea le causaba una euforia difícil de contener. Quería que sucedieran las cosas ya mismo, pero había que tener paciencia.

Pasaba las tardes en la biblioteca copiando diagramas de libros que pensaba usar en sus futuras producciones. Le interesaba el proceso pero también la procedencia. Algunos plegados de
Solórzano Sagredo se parecían a los del filósofo español Miguel de Unamuno. ¿Existía una corriente española de plegado? Los mismos se encontraban en libros japoneses y se preguntaba
cómo habrían llegado hasta allí. De a poco fue reuniendo una importante colección de libros sobre el tema. Contar con un listado bibliográfico (en tiempos en que no existía Internet) era fundamental para avanzar en cualquier investigación y para compartir conocimientos con otros interesados. Fue
así como en el verano de 1952 pagó de su bolsillo la edición de un cuadernillo de ocho páginas con títulos de libros, sus autores y en muchos casos una breve explicación de contenidos y lo publicó bajo el nombre de "Bibliography of Paperfolding".

En el interín, se comunicaba con amigos para intercambiar ideas.“Quiero decirle lo mucho que significaría para mi la posibilidad de incorporar este arte popular en el circuito nacional (…) Se podría hacer una publicación en pequeños espacios para periódicos sindicados", le escribía a Ethan Allan Brown, un médico alergista de Massachusetts que además tenía una editorial de libros y revistas sobre temas de salud.
Translation - English
Seeking a way to earn a few dollars, he wrote a couple booklets on magic and card tricks that he sold to a publisher he knew. While these did not achieve success, the idea of games of invention led him to thoughts of paper folding.

“Knowing no foldings myself except the airplanes and the Hindu lotus, I went to the trusty public library for more information,” Legman would write many years later.

A helpful librarian at the New York Public Library allowed him access to a box of newspaper clippings on handicrafts that contained an illustrated note regarding a Spaniard, Vicente Solórzano Sagredo, living in Argentina. Legman was astonished by his folds. They resembled nothing he had ever learned as a child.

True to his style, Legman threw himself into a frenzy of information gathering. He sought materials everywhere, wrote letters, rummaged through forgotten manuscripts in libraries, at each step intensifying his interest in increasing his knowledge about this craft that both intrigued and excited him. Origami seemed to him to be a lost art that deserved to be rediscovered. This was surely a practice with roots in Japan and other remote and unimagined locations. In sum, it was a history filled with secrets, having an exoticism and richness that seemed tailor-made for him.

His idea gradually took shape and expanded. A money-making opportunity truly seemed to be in motion. It occurred to him that some major newspaper might buy the rights to run a weekly column that could be syndicated to other papers and magazines across the country. It was hard for him to contain the euphoria such thoughts generated. He wanted everything to happen immediately, but patience was required.

He spent his afternoons at the library, copying diagrams from books for possible use in future productions. He was interested in not only the process but the provenance as well. Some of the Solórzano Sagredo folds were similar to those created by the Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno. Was there a Spanish folding tradition? When he found the same folds in Japanese books, he asked himself how they came to be there. Over time, he amassed an important collection of books on the subject. In those pre-internet times, it was essential to have a bibliography to carry out any research effort and to share knowledge with other enthusiasts. This is how, in the summer of 1952, he came to pay out of his own pocket to produce an eight-page booklet with book titles, authors, and often a brief notation of contents. The volume was published under the title “Bibliography of Paperfolding.”

In the meantime, he communicated with friends to exchange ideas.“ I'm trying to avoid saying how much – at many levels – getting this folk-art into the national bloodstream would mean to me (...) how the steps can be published in a small amount of space for newspaper syndication, (…)”, he wrote to Ethan Allan Brown, an allergist in Massachusetts who also was also a publisher of books and magazines on health topics.
German to English: Insurance letter regarding COVID-19
General field: Other
Detailed field: Insurance
Source text - German
Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren,

in unseren Versicherungsbedingungen im Teil „Allgemeine Bestimmungen“ ist geregelt, dass kein Versicherungsschutz besteht, wenn bei Einreise für Ihr Zielgebiet eine Reisewarnung des Auswärtigen Amtes besteht.

Wegen der zahlreichen und immer unvorhersehbareren Reisewarnungen des Auswärtigen Amtes aufgrund von Covid-19, kommt es jedoch vermehrt zu unklaren Situationen in der Anwendbarkeit des Ausschlusses „Reisewarnung“ in der Reisekranken-Versicherung.

Im Sinne unserer Versicherten haben wir uns daher entschieden, in der Reisekranken-Versicherung Versicherungsschutz zu gewähren, sofern Reisewarnungen des Auswärtigen Amtes aufgrund von Covid-19 ausgesprochen wurden.

Diese Regelung gilt rückwirkend ab dem 17. März 2020.

Bitte beachten Sie, dass weiterhin kein Versicherungsschutz besteht, wenn die Reisewarnung aufgrund einer anderen Ursache als dem Covid-19-Virus ausgesprochen wurde.

Mit freundlichem Gruß
Translation - English
Dear ladies and gentlemen,

Our conditions of insurance specify in the “General Conditions” section that no insurance coverage exists where a travel warning has been issued by the Foreign Office concerning the area where you intend to travel.

Due to the numerous and always unforeseeable Foreign Office travel warnings due to COVID-19, however, the number of unclear situations affecting the applicability of the “travel warning” exclusion for travel health insurance has been increasing.

With respect to our policyholders, we have therefore taken the decision to grant insurance coverage under travel health insurance in situations where Foreign Office travel warnings are issued based on COVID-19.

This regulation is applicable retroactively to March 17, 2020.

Please note that the exclusion of insurance coverage continues to apply if the travel warning has been issued based on a cause other than the COVID-19 virus.

With kind regards,
German to English: Alpine tourism text
General field: Other
Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - German
Begegnungen mit seltenen Tieren und Pflanzen, mit alten Bräuchen und Traditionen im Nationalpark Hohe Tauern. Das größte Naturschutzgebiet der Alpen ist voller faszinierende Osttiroler Themen und Geschichten.

Die Bergwelt braucht keine Inszenierungen. Der Nationalpark Hohe Tauern in Osttirol bietet als größter geschützter Naturraum der Alpen unendlich viele eindrucksvolle Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen. Zusammen mit Nationalpark Rangern beim Nature Watch Wildtiere beobachten, auf geführten Wanderungen unglaublich sinnliche Stimmungen erleben oder das ewige Eis der Gletscherlandschaften erkunden. Die beiden erweiterten Themenwege Zedlacher Paradies bei Matrei und Wassererlebnisweg St. Jakob im Defereggental machen in diesem Jahr den Nationalpark noch interessanter und vielseitiger.

Der erste Nationalpark Österreichs

Für viele Menschen war er vor 35 Jahren ein zukunftsweisendes und völlig neues Projekt. 1981 wurde der Nationalpark Hohe Tauern als erster Nationalpark Österreichs etabliert.

Er entwickelte sich in der Folgezeit zum flächenmäßig größten Schutzraum in den Alpen mit seinen 1.856 Quadratkilometern, von denen 1.198 die Kernzone mit besonders umfangreichen Schutzmaßnahmen bilden. Heute ist der Nationalpark Hohe Tauern nicht mehr weg zu denken. Das Schutzgebiet erstreckt sich über weite alpine Urlandschaften wie Gletscher, Felswände und Bergwiesen sowie die über Jahrhunderte sorgsam und mühevoll gepflegten Almlandschaften. Es umfasst 200 Quadratkilometer Wald, 766 Moore, 848 Seen und 180 Quadratkilometer Gletscher. Es bietet rund 10.000 Tierarten und 1.500 Pflanzenarten optimale Bedingungen. Es ist aber auch eine einzigartige touristische Erlebniswelt, die Menschen auf behutsame und nachhaltige Art mit der alpinen Naturlandschaft vertraut macht. Allein im Tiroler Teil des Nationalparks gibt es 1.200 Kilometer Wanderwege mit 17 verschiedenen Themenwegen.

Zwei erweiterte Themenwege machen den Nationalpark noch interessanter

Wanderer können sich im Nationalpark Hohe Tauern auf zwei Themenwege freuen, die weiter ausgebaut werden. Im Zedlacher Paradies oberhalb von Matrei entsteht ein 1.800 Meter langer Themenweg mit vielen eindrucksvollen Stationen, die interessante Geschichten über Bären und Eulen erzählen, die mit Vogelstimmen und Baumarten vertraut machen. Gerade das Zedlacher Paradies mit seinen bis zu 400 Jahre alten Lärchen schafft eine eindrucksvolle Kulisse für diese Erlebnisse. Im Defereggental bietet der Wassererlebnisweg St. Jakob auf einem zwei- bis dreistündigen Rundweg eindrucksvolle Begegnungen mit stillen Bergseen, geheimnisvollen Mooren, klaren Quellen, reißenden Gebirgsbächen und einem Wasserfall. Acht Schautafeln, ein Naturspielplatz und eine wasserbetriebene Stockmühle begleiten diese abwechslungsreiche Wanderung.

Begegnungen mit Adlern, Gämsen und Steinböcken

Den Schlüssel zu vielen spannenden und unvergesslichen Naturerlebnissen haben die Nationalpark Ranger – wie Maria Mattersberger, die jeden Winkel kennt und die ihre Gäste zu den schönsten Plätzen und auf die Spuren von Gams, Steinbock und Murmeltier begleitet. Der Nationalpark Hohe Tauern bietet ein umfassendes Programm an natürlichen Freizeitaktivitäten. Zu den Highlights zählen die Nature Watch Führungen, bei denen die Teilnehmer von den Nationalpark Rangern zu besonders interessanten Plätzen geführt werden, wo sie mit Ferngläsern von „Swarovski Optik“ einzigartige Beobachtungen von Adlern, Geiern, Gämsen und Steinböcken machen können. Die Natur im Nationalpark Hohe Tauern ist voller spannender Geschichten. Dafür gibt es Kräuterwanderungen und Exkursionen in die Welt der Gletscher.

Osttirol steht wie kaum eine andere Region Österreichs für eine intakte Naturlandschaft und für authentisches Brauchtum und gewachsene Kultur. Osttirol und der Nationalpark Hohe Tauern sind mit ihren besonderen Qualitäten Seelenverwandte und mit ihrem unverfälschten Charakter gerade in Zeiten, in denen die Menschen wieder mehr natürliche und glaubwürdige Erlebnisse suchen, besonders aktuell.
Translation - English
Sightings of rare flora and fauna, encounters with old customs and traditions in Hohe Tauern National Park. The largest nature reserve in the Alps is filled with fascinating East Tyrolean themes and stories.

The mountains require no special staging. As the largest protected natural area in the Alps, Hohe Tauern National Park in East Tyrol offers endless memorable encounters. Accompanied by national park rangers, you can observe wild animals at Nature Watch, experience the unimaginably sensuous atmosphere on guided hikes or explore the permanent ice flows of the glacial landscape. This year, two extended thematic trails – Zedlach Paradise near Matrei and the St. James Water Experience Trail in the Deferegg Valley – are making the National Park even more interesting and varied.

Austria’s first national park

Thirty-five years ago, this was a pioneering and completely new concept. In 1981, Hohe Tauern National Park was established as the first national park in Austria.
In the years that followed, it developed into the nature preserve with the largest surface area in the Alps, a territory of 1,856 square kilometres containing a core area of 1,198 square kilometres with especially vigilant conservation measures. Today it is impossible to imagine being without Hohe Tauern National Park. The Alpine preserve stretches over vast virgin landscapes including glaciers, rock faces and mountain meadows as well as pasture lands that have been carefully and painstakingly maintained for centuries. It covers 200 square kilometres of forest, 766 bog lands, 848 lakes and 180 square kilometres of glacial surfaces. Approximately 10,000 animal species and 1,500 plant varieties flourish here under ideal conditions. But it is also a unique tourist experience that cautiously and sustainably puts people into close contact with the natural landscape of the Alps. In the Tyrolean section of the National Park alone, there are over 1,200 kilometres of hiking trails with 17 different themes.


Two extended thematic trails make the National Park even more interesting

Hikers can enjoy two interpretative trails that are being extended. In Zedlach Paradise above Matrei, there is an 1800-metre trail with many informative stations that provide interesting stories of bears and owls and familiarize visitors with bird calls and tree species. Zedlach Paradise itself, with its 400-year-old larch trees, provides a spectacular backdrop for these experiences. In Deferegg Valley, the St. James Water Experience Trail offers a two- to three-hour circuit of impressive encounters with placid mountain lakes, mysterious bogs, crystal springs, rapidly flowing mountain streams and a waterfall. Eight interpretative displays, a nature playground and a water-driven mill are only part of the variety of this trail.

Encounters with eagles, chamois and ibexes

The keys to these exciting and unforgettable adventures in nature are held by the park rangers – like Maria Mattersberger, who knows every corner of the park and accompanies her guests to the most stunning locations on the trail of chamois, ibex and marmot. Hohe Tauern National Park provides a comprehensive program of nature-related leisure activities. Highlights include the Nature Watch tours, where park rangers guide visitors through particularly interesting sights, using Swarovski binoculars to view eagles, vultures, chamois and ibexes. In Hohe Tauern National Park, nature has many exciting stories to tell. This is why the park offers herbal hikes and excursions into the world of glaciers.

Like scarcely any other region of Austria, East Tyrol represents intact natural landscapes, authentic local customs and traditional culture. East Tyrol and Hohe Tauern National Park are tightly bound to each other because of their special features, and their authentic character reveals them to be particularly up to date, precisely at a time in which people are seeking out natural and authentic experiences.
German to English: Welcome letter from Berlin district mayor
General field: Other
Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - German
zunächst heiße ich Sie recht herzlich im Bezirk Steglitz-Zehlendorf willkommen. Ich freue mich ganz besonders, dass Sie in unseren schönen Bezirk gezogen sind und somit den Weg in den Südwesten von Berlin gefunden haben.

Damit haben Sie eine gute Wahl getroffen, denn Steglitz-Zehlendorf bietet Ihnen als Bewohner, aber auch Ihren Gästen und Besuchern mehr als man zunächst denkt. Wer von Ihnen bereits einm al den Bezirk besucht hat, konnte vielleicht schon einige unserer touristischen Highlights kennen lernen? Der grüne Bezirk Steglitz-Zehlendorf hat nämlich so einiges zu bieten:

Die ausgedehnten Wasserflächen des Wannsees und der Havel, Naherholung im schönen Grunewald, Shopping in der modernsten Einkaufsmeile Berlins, der Steglitzer Schloßstraße und kulturelle Attraktionen durch den Botanischen Garten und durch die Vielzahl der im Bezirk beheimateten Museen. Insbesondere die Nähe zu Potsdam und der unvergleichlichen Berlin-Potsdamer Kulturlandschaft mit dem Jagdschloss Glienicke und dem Park Sanssouci bieten einmalige Eindrücke, weshalb diese von der UNESCO als Welterbestätten ausgezeichnet wurden.

Neben dem ausgeprägten Freizeitsektor bietet der Bezirk mit der Freien Universität Berlin, der Charite­ Universitätsmedizin Berlin Campus Benjamin-Franklin, dem Helmholtz-Zentrum (Hahn-Meitner-lnstitut) oder der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft eine hervorragende Wissenschafts- und Forschungslandschaft, die als Basis zahlreicher Netzwerkverbindungen fungiert, insbesondere bei den zukunftsträchtigen Bereichen Biotechnologie, Medizin- und Umwelttechnologie.

Einmalig in Berlin ist die Domäne Dahlem mit dem agrarhistorischen Freilichtmuseum, Deutschlands einziger Bauernhof mit Li-Bahn-Anschluss! Auf ca. 15 Hektar landwirtschaftlicher Nutzfläche wird eine vielfältige Landwirtschaft mit Ackerbau, Grünland, Gemüsebau und Tierhaltung betrieben. Seit 1993 ist die Domäne Dahlem anerkannter Bioland-Betrieb und wirtschaftet nach den Richtlinien ökologischer Landwirtschaft.

Wie Sie sehen, sind Sie bei uns bestens aufgehoben! Anliegend übersende ich Ihnen als Neubürgerin bzw. als Neubürger unseren Lageplan mit ausgewählten Ausflugszielen und Unterkünften und hoffe, dass Sie viel Spaß und Vergnügen in unserem schönen Bezirk haben! Im Internet unter www.steglitz­ zehlendorf.de erhalten Sie weitere interessante Informationen sowie die aktuellen Termine meiner Bürgersprechstunde, falls Sie ein Anliegen mit mir persönlich besprechen möchten.
Translation - English
At the outset, I want to extend to you my heartfelt welcome to the Steglitz-Zehlendorf district. I am particularly pleased that you have moved into our beautiful district and in this way have found your way into Southwest Berlin.

You have made the right choice, since Steglitz-Zehlendorf offers you, your guests and visitors more than you might initially imagine. Any of these individuals who has already visited the district has perhaps become familiar with some of the highlights for tourists. Specifically, the green district of Steglitz-Zehlendorf has much to offer:

The extensive bodies of water represented by Wannsee and the Havel River, local recreation in beautiful Grunewald, shopping in Berlin’s ultra-modern shopping mile, Steglitzer Schlossstrasse and the cultural attractions of the Botanical Garden and the many museums located in the district. In particular, the proximity to Potsdam and the incomparable cultural landscape of Berlin-Potsdam with the Glienicke Hunting Lodge and Sanssouci Park offer unique insight into why these areas were chosen by UNESCO as World Heritage sites.

Beyond its distinctive leisure sector, the area provides outstanding scientific and research opportunities through the Free University of Berlin, the Benjamin Franklin Berlin campus of Charité Medical University, the Helmholtz Center (Hahn-Meitner Institute) or the Max Planck Society, providing the basis for numerous network connections, especially in the futuristic areas of biotechnology and medical and environmental technology.

Unique in Berlin is Dahlem Manor with its open-air Museum of Agricultural History, Germany’s only farm offering subway access! A diverse agricultural operation is conducted on approximately 15 hectares of land, featuring crop cultivation, pastures, vegetable growing and livestock. Since 1993, Dahlem Manor is a certified organic farm operating in observance of the guidelines for ecological agriculture.

As you can see, you are in good hands with us! As a new resident, I am enclosing our area map with selected getaway destinations and lodging, and I hope that you will find great fun and pleasure in our beautiful district! You can find additional interesting information on the Internet at www.stegilitz-zehlendorf.de; also available there are my current office hours when I welcome the chance to speak with residents, should you wish to speak with me personally.
Spanish to English: Portion of article on COVID-19 and disaster risk reduction
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Safety
Source text - Spanish
Las amenazas de erupción volcánica en San Vicente y Las Granadinas y en Martinica vuelven a poner de manifiesto la necesidad de la prevención y el trabajo intersectorial para la reducción del riesgo de desastres.

Las posibilidades de una erupción ocurren en un momento clave: pandemia.

Las medidas y políticas implementadas para controlar los contagios de COVID-19 asumen ahora la movilización que implicaría la evacuación de miles de personas.

En el caso de San Vicente y Las Granadinas con un factor adicional, que es la epidemia de dengue por la que atraviesan en estos momentos.

No es la primera vez que el Caribe debe enfrentar amenazas acumulativas en los últimos meses.

La movida temporada ciclónica de 2020 obligó a los países de la región a prepararse ante los huracanes en medio de sus planes de respuesta a la pandemia, y con medidas de protección de la población incompatibles; Tales que la imposibilidad de realizar evacuaciones preventivas por alerta ciclónica, ya que el distanciamiento social es incompatible con la utilización de los refugios temporales.

“Las amenazas múltiples demuestran la importancia de desarrollar sistemas robustos”, señaló Raúl Salazar, jefe de la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas para la Reducción del Riesgo de Desastres - Oficina regional para las Américas y el Caribe.
Translation - English
The threats of volcanic eruptions in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and in Martinique once again bring to light the need for prevention and inter-sectoral cooperation to reduce the risk of disasters.

The potential for eruptions is occurring at a key moment: the pandemic.

Measures and policies that have been implemented to control the spread of COVID-19 infection now include the relocation that would have to take place if thousands of people are to be evacuated.

An additional factor in the case of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the dengue fever epidemic currently plaguing the country.

This is not the first time that the Caribbean Region has been forced to confront cumulative risks in recent months.

The active 2020 cyclone season required the countries of the region to prepare for hurricanes concurrently with their pandemic response plans, saddled with incompatible measures to protect the population such as the futility of carrying out preventive evacuation using cyclone alerts since social distancing is not compatible with the use of temporary shelters.

“These multiple threats demonstrate the importance of developing robust systems,” says Raúl Salazar, head of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction’s Regional Office for the Americas and the Caribbean.

Translation education PhD - Univ Florida
Experience Years of experience: 6. Registered at ProZ.com: Aug 2007. Became a member: Feb 2014.
ProZ.com Certified PRO certificate(s) N/A
Credentials Portuguese to English (Universidade Federal da Paraíba)
Spanish to English (New York University - School of Continuing and Professional Studies)
German to English (New York University - School of Continuing and Professional Studies)
Memberships N/A
Software Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, Pagemaker, Powerpoint, SDL TRADOS, Wordfast
CV/Resume English (DOC)
Bio
Lived and worked in Germany, Mexico, Brazil. Many years in academia (NYU, Syracuse, Michigan State) in international administration. Certificate in German-to-English Translation, NYU, 2011. Certificate in Spanish-to-English Translation, NYU, 2012. Ph.D. and Certificate in Latin American Studies (University of Florida). In addition to high fluency in German, Portuguese and Spanish, I have exceptional mastery of English, my mother tongue (English major, experience in copy editing and dissertation supervision, service on editorial boards). Based in Michigan.
Keywords: academic translator, government, technical, legal, medical, science, technology, news, marketing, tourism, localization, fast service.


Profile last updated
Jan 28






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