Member since Oct '07

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English to Chinese
French to Chinese
Spanish to Chinese
Chinese (monolingual)
Chinese to English

Adsion's Lagnuage Studio - Adsion's Lagnuage Studio
★★★★★ 5-★ Lingua Services

Verdun, Quebec, Canada
Local time: 04:17 EDT (GMT-4)

Native in: Chinese (Variants: Traditional, Simplified) Native in Chinese
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Certified Pro translator since 1997, professional language studio with qualified translators, Fr-En-Sp-Zh (simplified & traditional)
Account type Freelancer and outsourcer, Identity Verified Verified member
This person previously served as a moderator.
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Services Translation, Editing/proofreading, Website localization, Software localization, Subtitling, MT post-editing, Transcription, Training, Project management, Operations management
Specializes in:
Environment & EcologyBotany
Automotive / Cars & TrucksMedical: Instruments
Medical (general)Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Mechanics / Mech EngineeringBusiness/Commerce (general)
Sports / Fitness / RecreationElectronics / Elect Eng

KudoZ activity (PRO) PRO-level points: 2858, Questions answered: 1498, Questions asked: 116
Project History 12 projects entered    7 positive feedback from outsourcers

Blue Board entries made by this user  21 entries

Payment methods accepted Check, Wire transfer, PayPal, Western Union, INTERAC, Interac e-Transfer | Send a payment via ProZ*Pay
Company size <3 employees
Year established 2002
Currencies accepted Canadian dollars (cad), Euro (eur), Pounds sterling (gbp), U. S. dollars (usd)
Portfolio Sample translations submitted: 14
English to Chinese: History of Canadian Fur
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Textiles / Clothing / Fashion
Source text - English
“Beautifully Canadian”
Your assurance of authentic & exclusive furs made in Canada

Canadian fur has been famous for centuries. It was the search for furs that drove Europeans to explore this vast continent in the 17th Century, and many Canadian cities began as fur-trading posts. Even the border between Canada and the USA reflects territories staked out by competing fur companies in their dash for the Pacific Ocean.

Fast forward four hundred years, and Canada is still an international fur trade capital. Fur supports the livelihoods and cultures of some 80,000 Canadians and contributes (US)$800 million to the Canadian economy, including more than (US)$400 million in exports.

Canada still produces some of the most beautiful furs in the world. But Canada today is also known for innovative fur design and impeccable fur craftsmanship. In fact, Canada provides an excellent example of the successful marriage of tradition with innovation -- a formula for success in any business.

Let’s take a closer look at Canada’s remarkable fur trade!

“Soft Gold”: Precious gifts of the land

It was, first and foremost, the quest for lustrous beaver fur, called “soft gold”, that fuelled the historic Canadian fur trade, and Canada is still the world’s most important producer of this extraordinarily luxurious, durable and versatile fur. Other uniquely Canadian wild furs include muskrat, marten, coyote, raccoon, mink, red fox, Canadian lynx, fisher and otter.

Precious Canadian “wild” furs are available for only a select group of consumers, because they are available only in very limited supply. Less than one million wild fur pelts are produced in Canada each year -- and only about 200,000 beaver furs. By comparison, more than 45 mink pelts and some 20 million fox furs are produced annually on fur farms around the world. Moreover, while the supply of farm-raised furs can be increased to meet ever-increasing consumer demand, there are strict, government-regulated limits on the number of furs that can be taken from the wild.

Canada’s exclusive wild furs are harvested by some 70,000 aboriginal and other Canadians living in some of the most remote and beautiful regions of the country. Beaver, muskrat and other fur animals also provide food for trappers and their families. Any meat they don’t eat is returned to the woods to feed hungry wildlife through the winter. Nothing is wasted!

Thanks to strictly enforced government regulations, trappers take only a small part of the surplus produced by nature each year. Endangered species are never used. The fur trade is an excellent example of “the sustainable use of renewable natural resources”, a principle endorsed by the UN Environment Program (UNEP), the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and all major conservation authorities.

Fur farming: a Canadian tradition

The farm raising of fur animals began on Prince Edward Island, Canada’s smallest province, about one hundred years ago. It was there that selective breeding was first successfully used to develop jet-black and, later, “silver” foxes.

Today, mink, fox and chinchilla are raised on more than 1,000 small family farms across Canada. Mink is the most important farmed fur, with a production of close to two million pelts annually. While this production is quite modest by international standards, Canadian short-napped mink is sought for its distinctive fashion qualities.

Canadian farmers are also very concerned about assuring excellent welfare for their animals. The Canadian Agriculture Department strictly enforces standards for nutrition, housing, veterinary care and euthanasia of mink and foxes. International consumers increasingly demand ethically produced products. Only animals that receive excellent care can produce the high quality fur for which Canada is famous.

Manufacturing: success by design!

Every Canadian-made fur garment or accessory is a unique work of art. The furs are individually selected, cut and sewn by skilled artisans who maintain craft traditions that have been passed from one generation to the next.

Canadian fur designers are renowned for their unequalled experience and skill with “wild” furs – and especially for innovative treatments in sheared beaver. Two well-known Canadian creators illustrate how tradition and innovation meet in this country where fur is, truly, a way of life.

Zuki is known internationally as one of the world’s most innovative fur designers. His exciting “intarsia” techniques are now copied around the world, although few can match the luxurious detail of his astounding “picture” coats. Small pieces of multi-coloured fur are meticulously cut and assembled to produce “wearable art”, as beautiful and unique as the stained-glass windows of famous cathedrals. Perhaps it was his childhood in Israel that imbued Zuki with his passion for colour. Today, his extraordinary renditions of flowers, horses and other images crafted in luxurious sheared beaver and other furs are worn by movie stars and celebrities. (

Paula Lishman is another Canadian innovator who developed an entirely new way of knitting with fur – a technique that is now widely copied but rarely equalled. “I knew that the aboriginal peoples of Canada wove or knit blankets for their babies with strips of rabbit fur. So, I began experimenting with knitting other furs,” says this trail-blazing designer. An ardent ecologist, Paula Lishman lives in beautiful rural Ontario, in an energy efficient “underground” house built by her artist husband Bill Lishman (who is also known for his pioneering ultra-light flights with migrating birds.) In business, as in her role as president of the Fur Council of Canada, Paula Lishman lives by her motto: “A fur for everyone, and everyone in fur!” (

Translation - Chinese









得益于政府严格执行的相关法规,猎人们每年只在丰富的大自然供给中猎取一小部分。我们的皮草从来不从濒临灭绝的动物身上取料。“合理利用可再生自然资源”是由联合国环境规划署(UNEP,the UN Environment Program)、国际自然和自然资源保护协会(IUCN,the World Conservation Union)和所有主要自然资源保护机构联合赞同的原则,而皮草贸易则是体现这一原则的最好例证。








Zuki 是国际知名的世界上最富创造力的皮草设计师之一。当今,其振奋人心的“嵌花”手法成就的产品遍及世界,尽管很少能与其动人心迫的“图绘”外套之奢华翻样相匹配。多色皮草的小拼片经精心裁剪缝制,以制作成像著名大教堂的彩色玻璃一样美丽而独特的“耐磨艺术品”。或许是其在以色列度过的童年时代使其深受感染,使其在色感方面激情饱满。当今,其精心制作于奢华剪绒海狸和其他皮草内的花、马和其他形象的“非常规引渡”普遍见诸于影星和名人之身。 (

Paula Lishman 为另一位加拿大皮草创作师,她开发了一种称为皮草针织的全新方法——一种当今广为运用却少有伦比的手工技艺。“我知道加拿大土著人用兔皮条为他们的婴儿纺织或针织小毛毯。因此,我也开始用其他皮草进行针织试验,”经历非凡的设计师说。作为一位热心的环保主义者,Paula Lishman 居住在美丽的安大略乡村地区,一座节省能源的“地下”房屋内;此房屋是由其艺术家丈夫 Bill Lishman (因倡导用候鸟进行超轻型飞行而知名)建造的。在商业运作中,作为加拿大皮草协会总裁,她用生命叙写着其座右铭:“人人有皮草,皮草暖人人!” (

English to Chinese: Website localization
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: IT (Information Technology)
Source text - English
What is an e-ticket?
An e-ticket is a ticket sent to you via e-mail in a PDF attachment within minutes of your transaction. You print your ticket(s) at home and bring them to the show. You need Adobe Acrobat Reader to view and print your tickets.

Printing e-tickets
If you encounter problems while printing your e-tickets, please use the "Ask a question" button provided on this page to contact us. We will get back to you as soon as possible
Translation - Chinese
电子票是通过电邮以PDF格式附件发送的,记录您的交易信息的票据。您可在家里打印出票据而后带着去看演出。您需要Adobe Acrobat Reader 来查看和打印票据。

如果您在打印电子票时遇到问题,请使用此页上的 "提问"按钮联系我们。我们尽快给您答复。
French to Chinese: Introduction to the environmental industry of the Québec
General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - French
Dossier Environnement

La Terre, ce legs immense… à préserver à tout prix

De vastes et nombreuses réserves naturelles, la magie des grands espaces… Le Québec a toujours chéri sa nature et s’est très tôt soucié de la protéger. Il n’est donc pas étonnant que l’industrie de l’environnement y ait fait son nid aussi vite, amenant le Québec à occuper une place de choix dans ce domaine et à être reconnu pour l’élaboration de nouvelles technologies et l’excellence de son savoir-faire.

La Stratégie de développement de l’industrie québécoise de l’environnement et des technologies vertes vise à mettre en œuvre des programmes qui permettront de dégager, des diverses initiatives gouvernementales, une force concertée favorisant à la fois l’atteinte d’objectifs environnementaux et le développement d’une industrie apte à créer de la richesse au Québec.

Le Québec a adopté une loi sur le développement durable et un plan de développement durable. Il figure ainsi parmi les quelques entités politiques dans le monde, dont quelques États américains, le Manitoba, le Luxembourg et la Belgique, à s’être donné une législation portant spécifiquement sur le développement durable.


La richesse et l’étendue de l’expertise des entreprises québécoises en matière d’environnement en font des partenaires recherchés. Ces entreprises offrent, en effet, une large gamme de produits et services, notamment en matière de planification et d’analyse environnementales, de gestion de l’eau et des matières résiduelles, de contrôle de la qualité de l’air, de la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) et d’efficacité énergétique.

La récupération, le recyclage, la valorisation et l’élimination des matières résiduelles n’ont pas de secret pour les spécialistes de l’environnement, qui excellent aussi dans la réhabilitation des sols contaminés ainsi que dans le traitement et la mise en valeur énergétique et agronomique des biomasses, telles que les boues municipales, les boues des papetières, les lisiers et les biogaz issus des sites d’enfouissement.

Certains fabricants d’équipement de l’industrie de l’environnement, des sociétés d’experts-conseils, des laboratoires de recherche et d’analyse et des entreprises de l’économie sociale spécialisées dans la récupération et le recyclage ont su développer leurs propres créneaux d’excellence.


Le Québec offre, pour les activités de R-D, le programme d’encouragements fiscaux le plus compétitif au Canada et l’un des meilleurs de tous les pays industrialisés. Ces mesures lui ont permis d’atteindre l’excellence dans le domaine des nouvelles technologies environnementales, tout en aidant les entreprises à renforcer leur performance et à s’imposer sur les marchés internationaux émergents.

L’expertise reconnue dans des secteurs tels que les mines, les alumineries, les pâtes et papiers et l’hydroélectricité favorise la diffusion du savoir-faire et des technologies québécoises. Plusieurs firmes québécoises de génie-conseil rayonnent dans le monde et réalisent des ouvrages de génie environnemental de grande envergure.

Ses politiques environnementales dans la gestion des matières résiduelles ou de l’eau, notamment, son engagement à réduire ses émissions de GES par la mise en place du Plan d’action du Québec en changements climatiques et sa procédure d’évaluation environnementale des grands projets, reconnue mondialement, placent le Québec parmi les économies ayant les plus hauts standards de protection de l’environnement, avec comme toile de fond le développement durable. Le marché du carbone se développe également au Québec avec la création du Marché climatique de Montréal à la Bourse de Montréal.

• 1 662 entreprises en 2004.
• 32 300 emplois en 2004.
• 3,5 milliards de dollars de ventes totales en 2004.
• 298 millions de dollars de ventes à l’extérieur du Canada, dont 80 % aux États-Unis en 2004.
1 Entreprises dont les activités portent, en tout ou en partie, sur la production de biens et de services environnementaux utilisés pour limiter ou corriger les dommages environnementaux ou pour diminuer l’utilisation des matières premières, des matériaux et de l’énergie.


Plusieurs entreprises québécoises d’envergure internationale offrent des services en matière de conception et de gestion des infrastructures, d’instrumentation, de suivi et d’automatisation. Les entreprises québécoises de l’industrie de l’environnement possèdent le savoir-faire et la flexibilité nécessaires pour répondre adéquatement aux exigences de leur clientèle et plusieurs sont en mesure de réaliser des partenariats leur permettant de proposer des produits et des services clé en main. Quelques centaines d’entreprises sont déjà bien implantées dans bon nombre de pays et plusieurs d’entre elles sont actives sur le marché du carbone et réalisent des projets permettant de générer des crédits d’émissions.
Translation - Chinese












魁北克省在残渣或水处理方面的环保政策,特别是其通过制订《魁北克气候改变行动计划》进行的在降低温室气体排放方面所做的工作,及其世界知名的大项目环境评估程序,让魁北克经济以持续发展为背景,跻身于拥有环保高标准的新型经济行列。在魁北克省,碳市场也随着“蒙特利尔气候市场(Marché climatique de Montréal )”在蒙特利尔证券交易所的上市而发展起来。

• 2004 年有1 662 家企业
• 2004 年有32 300 名员工
• 2004 年共创销售额 35 亿加元
• 2004 年出口额2.98 亿加元,其中 80% 出口到在美国
1 统计在内的企业,其经营活动全部或部分涉及生产和提供用来限制或纠正对环境的破坏或用来减少原材料、原始物资和能源消耗的产品和服务。


General field: Marketing
Detailed field: Advertising / Public Relations
Source text - English

May 9, 2008

WINNIPEG - Canadian Pacific (TSX/NYSE: CP) today announced it will launch a mobile ambassador for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Games . The Canadian Pacific Spirit Train will carry Olympic pride to communities across Canada while celebrating Canada’s once-in-a-generation opportunity to welcome the world as host of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Beginning in September 2008, the Spirit train will stop in communities across Canada for day-long celebrations where families can meet Olympic and Paralympic athletes and will have an opportunity to interact with Olympic and Paralympic partners.

“CP first united Canadians almost 127 years ago when our rail line initially connected Canadians from coast to coast,” said Canadian Pacific CEO Fred Green. “The Spirit Train is a natural extension of that legacy. Our employees are excited and proud to be involved in this initiative, demonstrating that our commitment to Canada’s Olympiad has a community flavour which extends beyond moving products and providing logistic services.”

CP also announced Canadian recording artist Colin James and his Little Big Band will be the musical headliner for the 2008 Spirit Train.

“Being from Vancouver and knowing the excitement of the coming Winter Olympic Games, I am very proud to be taking a lead role in broadcasting this feeling across the country with Canadian Pacific,” said six-time Juno award-winner Colin James.

“CP has once again put their ingenuity to work and developed a creative way to involve all Canadians in the Vancouver 2010 journey,” said John Furlong, CEO of the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC). “The Canadian Pacific Spirit Train is a wonderfully inclusive way to celebrate sport, culture and sustainability with Canadians from coast to coast.”

The Spirit Train includes an elaborate Olympic-themed Spirit Train Village which will include family-friendly booths, Olympic sport simulation activities, pin trading, video message centres, unique entertainment and engaging interactions with other participating Olympic partners such as Rona.

The Spirit Train will unite Canadian communities under its maple leaf banner to create momentum for the Olympic spirit over the next three years. The 2008 tour includes Metro Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Thunder Bay, Sudbury, Toronto, Smiths Falls and Montreal.

Further details about the Canadian Pacific Spirit Train, including lists of local and First Nations performers and the latest Olympic partners to join the Spirit Train experience, will be posted in time on, a new interactive website also launched today.

About Canadian Pacific
Canadian Pacific, through the ingenuity of its employees located across Canada and in the United States, intends to be the safest and most fluid railway in North America. Our people are the key to delivering innovative transportation solutions to our customers and to ensuring the safe operation of our trains through the more than 900 communities where we operate. Our combined ingenuity makes Canadian Pacific a better place to work, rail a better way to ship, and North America a better place to live. Come and visit us at to see how we can put our ingenuity to work for you. Canadian Pacific is proud to be the official rail freight services provider for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.

VANOC is responsible for the planning, organizing, financing and staging of the XXI Olympic Winter Games and the X Paralympic Winter Games in 2010. The 2010 Olympic Winter Games will be staged in Vancouver and Whistler from February 12 to 28, 2010. Vancouver and Whistler will host the 2010 Paralympic Winter Games from March 12 to 21, 2010. Visit
Translation - Chinese




“近127年前,当我们的铁路线横跨加拿大,初步把加拿大人从一端海岸线连接到另一端时,CP(加拿大太平洋铁路公司,Canadian Pacific)也第一次把加拿大社区联为一体,”加拿大太平洋执行总裁(CEO)格林(Fred Green)如此说。“精神专列为这一遗产的自然延伸。我们的员工为能参与这一行动而倍感激奋和自豪,这说明我们为加拿大国际奥林匹克运动会所承担的义务有益于社区和民众,这超越了运载产品和提供物流服务本身。”

CP还宣称,加拿大唱片艺术家科林詹姆斯(Colin James)及其Little Big Band乐队将挑起2008精神专列的音乐宣传重任。

“作为温哥华人并熟悉即将到来的冬奥会亮点所在,我为自己能与加太铁路公司一道承担起把这一激奋人心的感受传遍整个国家的重任而深感自豪,”曾6次获得朱诺奖(Juno award)的科林詹姆斯说。

“CP又一次将其聪明才智投入到其工作中并开发出一种创造性的方式,让每位加拿大人都能参与到温哥华2010旅程中去,”2010冬奥会及残奥会温哥华组织委员会(VANOC)执行总裁约翰(John Furlong)说。“加太精神专列是用来庆祝运动赛事、文化和加拿大人从一端海岸到另一端海岸之持续性的,一种精彩独特、内容丰富的方式。”


精神专列将在其枫叶旗的指引下联合加拿大各地社区,在未来的3年里为奥林匹克精神推波助澜。2008行程包括温哥华地铁(Metro Vancouver)、卡尔加里(Calgary)、埃德蒙顿(Edmonton)、萨斯卡通(Saskatoon)、温尼伯(Winnipeg)、桑德贝(Thunder Bay)、萨德伯(Sudbury)、多伦多(Toronto)、史密斯福(Smiths Falls)和蒙特利尔(Montreal)。


关于加拿大太平洋(Canadian Pacific)

VANOC(The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games,温哥华2010冬季奥运会及残奥会组织委员会)是一个负责2010年第21届冬奥会和第10届冬季残奥会的计划、组织、融资和举办工作的组织委员会。2010冬奥会将于2010年2月12 至 28日在温哥华和惠斯勒(Whistler)举行。温哥华和惠斯勒两市并将从2010年3月12 至 21日主办2010冬季残奥会。详情请访问。
English to Chinese: Discount program, Banking
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - English

This guide will help you to understand easily and rapidly how to use the program for the discount of your promissory notes.
For any questions concerning the preparation and expedition of the documents as well as the discounting procedures, please contact
• Legal documents, such as the Financing offer as well as all related documents, should be returned to Natexport duly signed to enable us to activate your Program.
• Please carefully read the conditions specified under the section "Conditions Precedent" of your Financing offer. These conditions should be met in order to enable us to activate your Program.
• For any questions concerning the two previous points please contact the Analyst in
charge of your file.

Please be advised that when the time comes to discount promissory notes, you will be required to submit the documents specified in the financing letter under "Required documents for disbursement".
► IMPORTANT: Natexport will not proceed with the discounting of your promissory notes if the required documents specified in the Financing offer are not complete. For any questions concerning these documents please contact Mr. XXX.

You may forward these documents to us via our internal mail by simply depositing your envelope addressed to Mrs. XXX, transit 1614-1, at the nearest XXX Bank of Canada Branch or by any other delivery service.
Please be advised that all required documents for disbursement must be presented at our offices, before 11:00 a.m. to be discounted the next 48 hours. As such, any documents received after 11:00 a.m. will only be discounted two days later as long as the conditions of the Financing offer are met.
►IMPORTANT : Please note that it will take up to 48 hours to add a new supplier to your program after we have received your 'Supplier to pay' form.

• In order to facilitate the exchange of information and also to improve our customer services, we kindly ask you to identify to Natexport the person in charge of the preparation of the documents.
►IMPORTANT: The person in charge of the preparation of the documents should contact Mr. XXX at:XXX-XXXXXXX
BEFORE sending the documents for the first discount. This will enable you to verify with us if all the necessary documents are available and prevent any delays in the process.
►IMPORTANT: You will find in the appendix an check-list designed to help the person in charge of preparing the documents.
Translation - Chinese

关于准备或提交所需文档及贴现手续,如有任何问题,请联系 XXX。
1. 首次贴现前须了解的重要信息
• 为了让我们能激活贵司程序,应把所需的合法文件(如金融协议及所有相关单据)正确签署并发回 Natexport。
• 请认真阅读贵司金融协议之“先决条件(Conditions Precedent)”部分所规定的条款。为了让我们能够激活贵司程序,应首先满足这些条款。
• 就以上两点,如有任何问题,请联系贵司个案负责分析师。

2. 贴现所需单据:
►重要提示:如果所需单据未能提交完整,Natexport 将不能处理贵司本票贴现。如有关于这些单据的任何问题,请 XXX 先生。

贵司可通过我们的内部邮寄服务把这些单据转发给我们,这样只需携装好单据的信封到最近的加拿大XXX银行支行或其他任何邮寄服务处进行投递,投寄地址为:Mrs. XXX, transit(转) 1614-1。
请注意,所有支付单据都必须到我们的办公室呈交,提交时间为贴现前 48 小时的上午 11:00 之前。这样,所有在上午 11:00 之后收到的单据只有在两天后,满足金融协议所规定条件时才能进行贴现。
►重要提示:请注意,如需向贵司程序中添加新供应商,我们在收到贵司“需付款供应商”表格后需要有 48 小时的处理时间。

3. 制单负责人
• 为了方便信息交换同时提高我们的客户服务质量,我们殷切请求贵司将制单负责人的身份在Natexport 进行备案。
►重要提示:制单负责人应在提交首次贴现所需单据之前联系 XXX 先生,电话:XXX-XXXXXXX。这样,贵司便可跟我们一同检验所需单据是否已准备好,并可防止操作过程中不必要的延迟。
English to Chinese: Machining tools
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - English
Rubber drum holders

Rubber drum holders are re-usable supports for our abrasive spiral bands. They are defined in ISO 15637-1 as “Holding Fixtures for Cylindrical Abrasive Sleeves“. The PFERD range includes both cylindrical and conical drum holders.

Abrasive spiral bands are addressed in ISO 2421 as “Cylindrical Abrasive Sleeves“. PFERD offers these tools in a variety of shapes, sizes, abrasive types, grit sizes, and packaging units.

A closely toleranced fit ensures that the sleeve will remain firmly secured to the drum holder during grinding.

 PFERD offers an extensive range of abrasive spiral bands and drum holders.
 Drum holders are fully reusable.
 Slots allow the drum to expand during grinding, thereby tensioning the abrasive sleeve.
 A special manufacturing method ensures an outstanding tool life, even in heavy-duty use.
 Particularly high stock removal and very aggressive abrasive action.

Application examples
 Weld dressing on structural steelwork.
 Fine grinding in tank and process equip¬ment construction
 Rework in assembly and repair projects
 Refinement of edges and contours in jet engine construction

Recommendations for use
 Sleeves are easily mounted and removed by a slight clockwise twist.
 Sleeves are easier to replace when the holder is mounted in a power tool.
 A secure fit of the sleeve is only ensured at RPM levels meeting or exceeding the speci¬fied minimum.
 Sleeves perform best at the recommended peripheral speed of 20-30 m/s.
 The addition of grease or grinding oil is recommended, especially with long-chip or sticky materials.
 Loaded abrasive spiral bands can be cleaned with our ABRACLEAN® stick (refer to catalogue 206).

Safety notes
 The maximum approved peripheral speed is 30 m/s.
 For safety reasons, it is imperative to remain within the stated RPM limit.

In the diagram, peripheral speeds are repre¬sented by blue diagonal lines. Each vertical line represents a tool diameter. From its point of intersection with the diagonal line for a given peripheral speed, proceed horizontally to the left margin where you will find the corresponding rotational speed of the tool (machine spindle RPM).

KSB 4530 A60
Peripheral speed: 20 - 30 m/s
Rotational speed: 8,500 – 12,500 RPM

Rubber drum holders marked “H” are the harder type and permit grinding at higher con¬tact pressures. Due to their reduced elasticity they are more suitable for edge grinding.
Rubber drum holders - standard type = Hardness approx. 65 Shore A
Rubber drum holders - special type “H” = Hardness approx. 80 Shore A
Ordering example
GK 2220/6 H

How to order
GK = Slotted rubber drum holder cylindrical
2220 = D x T mm
6 = Shank dia. mm
H = Rubber hardness

Ordering example
GK 201463/6
How to order
GK = Slotted rubber drum holder conical
201463 = D1 x D2 x T mm
6 = Shank dia. mm

Abrasive Spiral Bands

Abrasive spiral bands with aluminium oxide grain are universally suitable for many materials.

Small pack KSB = for occasional requirement

Abrasive: Aluminium oxide (A)
Ordering example
KSB 4530 A 40

How to orde
KSB = Abrasive spiral bands, small pack
4530 = D x T m
A = Aluminium oxide
40 = Grit size
Translation - Chinese

橡胶柱柄是与我们的研磨螺旋砂带配套使用,可重复使用的支撑机构。在国际标准 ISO 15637-1 中将其定义为“用于柱状研磨套的夹紧机构(Holding Fixtures for Cylindrical Abrasive Sleeves)”。PFERD 系列把圆柱形和锥形的柱柄架都包括在内。
在 ISO 2421 中,研磨螺旋砂带被称为“柱状研磨套(Cylindrical Abrasive Sleeves)”。PFERD 可提供多种形状、尺寸、研磨类型、磨料粒度、和包装单位的此类工具。

 PFERD可提供种类繁多的研磨螺旋砂带和橡胶柱柄
 橡胶柱柄百分之百可重复使用
 设有调节缝,可供橡胶柱在研磨过程中膨胀,从而张紧研磨套
 用特殊工艺制作而成,即使在繁重的应用场合中也可确保其出色的耐用性
 磨削量特高,磨削能力极强


 钢结构上的焊缝修整
 箱体和工艺设备中的精磨
 装配和维修工程中的返工
 喷气式发动机结构中边角和轮廓精加工


 向顺时针方向轻轻拧动,便可轻松装卸研磨套
 将柱柄安装在动力工具上时,更容易更换研磨套
 只有达到或超过规定的最低转速标准时,才可保证研磨套的可靠配合
 在所推荐的20-30 米/秒的圆周速度下,研磨套可发挥其最佳的工作性能
 建议添加研磨脂或研磨油,特别是在研磨长条或粘性材料时
 可用我们的ABRACLEAN® 棒(参见产品目录206)来清洁既装载研磨螺旋砂带


 经过验证的最大安全圆周速度为30米/秒
 安全起见,一定要保证磨具在规定的转速极限范围内工作


KSB 4530 A60
圆周速度:20 - 30 米/秒
旋转速度: 8500 – 12 500转/分


标准型橡胶柱柄 = 约为 65 邵氏硬度(Shore A )

特殊“H”型橡胶柱柄 = 约为 80 邵氏硬度(Shore A )

GK 2220/6 H

GK = 柱形开槽橡胶柱柄
2220 = D x T 毫米
6 =柱柄直径(毫米)
H =橡胶硬度

GK 201463/6

GK =锥形开槽橡胶柱柄
201463 =D1 x D2 x T 毫米
6 =柱柄直径(毫米)



小包装 KSB = 用于临时需求

研磨剂:铝氧粉 (A)

KSB 4530 A 40

KSB =研磨螺旋砂带,小包装
4530 = D x T m
A = 铝氧粉
40 = 磨料粒度
French to Chinese: Practical advices to foreigner visitos during Olympics Beijing 2008, Sports
General field: Social Sciences
Detailed field: Advertising / Public Relations
Source text - French
Conseils pratiques

Conseils généraux
- Il fait très chaud l’été à Pékin. Prévoyez des protections contre la chaleur et le soleil (lunettes de soleil, casquette, crème solaire, brumisateur...). Prévoyez également des vêtements légers.
- Les distances parcourues au sein des stades ainsi qu’en visite ou pendant votre temps libre peuvent être importantes. Prévoyez des chaussures confortables.

Dans les stades
- Les contrôles à l’entrée des stades pouvant être longs, prévoyez suffisamment de temps pour entrer dans le stade.
- Prévoyez une casquette et une protection solaire pour les compétitions en extérieur ou dans des stades ouverts.
- Les gros sacs sont interdits dans les stades. Ne prévoyez donc qu’un sac de petite taille par personne.
- Nourritures ou boissons ne peuvent être introduites sur les lieux de compétitions.
- Ne vous séparez de votre billet. Il peut être demandé à tout moment.
- Il est interdit de rentrer dans un stade après en être sorti. Toute sortie est définitive. Des stands de nourriture et de boissons sont à votre disposition à l’intérieur.
- Les logos ostentatoires sont interdits dans les stades. Vérifiez donc que vos vêtements et casquettes ne comportent pas de logos trop visibles.
- Mettez vos téléphones en mode vibration ou silencieux.

Les taxis
- Avant de vous rendre quelque part en taxi, préparez l’adresse en chinois de l’endroit où vous souhaitez vous rendre. Vous pouvez demander à votre hôtel ou guide de vous l’écrire en caractères.
- Dans la rue, il suffit de faire signe aux taxis pour qu’ils s’arrêtent. Les stations de taxis existent mais il n’est pas nécessaire d’être à l’une d’entre elles pour en arrêter. Notez cependant qu’il faut être dans un endroit où le taxi puisse stationner temporairement; les taxis ne s’arrêtent pas au milieu de la rue.
- Méfiez-vous des faux taxis. Un vrai taxi a la lettre « B » inscrite sur sa plaque d’immatriculation. De plus, exigez toujours que le chauffeur démarre le compteur.
- Restez calmes. La circulation à Pékin est parfois difficile et il est mal vu de perdre son sang froid.
- En sortant du taxi, n’oubliez pas de demander la facture (fapiao). En effet, si vous avez oublier quelque chose dans un taxi ou si vous pensez avoir été dupé, ce ticket comporte toutes les informations dont la compagnie de taxi a besoin pour retrouver la voiture. De plus, sur ce reçu est écrit le numéro que vous devez appeler si vous rencontrez l’un de ces problèmes.

Les transports publics
- Munissez-vous de l’adresse en caractères de l’endroit où vous souhaitez aller.
- Les bus et métros roulent en général de 6 ou 7h à 22 ou 23h.
- Le ticket de bus coûtent en général entre 1 et 2Y et il s’achète à la montée dans le bus soit auprès d’un contrôleur, soit en glissant de l’argent dans une urne à l’entrée du bus.
- Le ticket de métro coûte 2Y et s’achète dans la station aux distributeurs automatiques. Munissez-vous donc de petite monnaie.

Le shopping
- Négociez. A Pékin, presque tout se négocie spécialement dans les lieux touristiques. Le prix annoncé est parfois dix fois supérieur au prix réel.
- Soyez prudent quant à la contrefaçon, c’est un délit passible d’amendes et parfois de prison dans la plupart des pays.
- Prévoyez de l’argent liquide. En effet, même si les cartes bancaires sont de plus en plus acceptées, leur utilisation reste tout de même limitée à certains lieux touristiques. De plus, une commission assez importante est appliquée pour les achats par carte de crédit notamment étrangère.
- Le pourboire n’est pas la coutume en Chine.
Translation - Chinese

- 北京夏季炎热。请备好防暑防晒用品(如太阳镜、鸭舌帽、防晒霜和喷雾等)。同时要预备些轻薄的衣服。
- 在场馆里走动或自由闲睱时间的游览都要走不少路,故请准备舒适些的鞋子。

- 因检票入场可能需时较长,故请预留出足够时间等待入场。
- 如观看室外或露天场馆的比赛,请带上一顶鸭舌帽和一把遮阳伞。
- 禁止将体积较大的包带入场馆,每人携带一个小包即可。
- 禁止将食物和饮料带入比赛现场。
- 请保管好门票,以备随时查票。
- 离开场馆后不得在再次入场。从任何一个出口出去都意味着离开场馆。在场馆内有食物和饮料供应。
- 禁止在馆内打出夸耀性标志,故请确保您的衣服和帽子上没有此类标志。
- 请将手机设为振动或静音状态。

- 搭乘出租车去某地时,请您准备好目的地的中文地址。您可以让所下榻酒店的服务员或您的导游帮你用中文写下来。
- 在路上,只要向出租车司机作个手势,他就会把车停下来。路上设有出租车站,但通常不必在那里等车。然而请注意,您必须在出租车可以暂时停靠的地方打车(出租车不能停在路中央)。
- 请不要相信那些不正规的出租车。正规出租车的车牌上印有字母“B”。另外,请要求司机启动计价器。
- 乘坐出租车赶路时请保持冷静。北京的交通有时比较拥挤,焦躁不安并不明智。
- 下车时,请不要忘记索取发票。因为如果您将物品落在车上,或是感觉被骗,这张发票上的信息可让出租车公司帮你找到那辆出租车。此外,如果您遇到什么问题,可以拨打此发票上的电话号码。

- 请您随身携带目的地的中文地址。
- 公共汽车和地铁通常从早上6点或7点到晚上22点或23点运行。
- 公车票价通常为1到2元,上车时,可向车上的售票员买票,也可向车门口处的自动售票箱内投币。
- 地铁票价为两元,要在地铁站内的自动售票机上购买。因此请您备好零钱。

- 讲价。在北京,几乎所有的地方,特别是在旅游景点都要讲价。商贩报出的价格有时是实际价格的 10 多倍。
- 请您谨防假冒。这在大多数国家是一项轻罪,要缴纳罚款,有时甚至会被判入狱。
- 购物时请您准备好现金。其实,即使刷卡购物已经越来越为大众所接受,但在一些旅游景点,其使用范围仍然有限。而且,特别是用国外的信用卡购物消费时,还要缴纳一笔不小的手续费。
- 中国没有付小费的习惯。 
English to Chinese: Windows 2003 Server, IT
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: IT (Information Technology)
Source text - English

Monitoring server performance is an important part of maintaining and administrating your operating system. Routine performance monitoring ensures that you have up-to-date information about how your computer is operating. Performance monitoring also provides you with data that you can use to predict future growth and to plan for how changes to your system configurations may affect future operation.

After completing this module, you will be able to:

 Establish a performance baseline.
 Perform real-time and logged monitoring.
 Configure and manage counter logs.
 Configure alerts.

Introduction to Monitoring Server Performance
This lesson explains the concept of performance monitoring, a baseline, performance objects, and counters. It also describes how to establish a performance baseline.
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
 Explain the reason for monitoring performance.
 Explain what a baseline is and when to create one.
 Describe a performance object.
 Explain a counter.
 Explain the guidelines for establishing a baseline.

Why Monitor Performance?

Monitoring performance is a necessary part of preventive maintenance for your server. By routinely monitoring the performance of your server over periods ranging from days to weeks to months, you can establish a baseline for server performance. Through monitoring, you obtain performance data that is useful in diagnosing server problems.
(1) Why monitor performance?
You use performance data to:
 Understand your workload characteristics and the corresponding effect on your system’s resources.
 Observe changes and trends in workload characteristics and resource usage so you can plan for future upgrades.
 Test configuration changes or other performance tuning efforts by monitoring the results.
 Diagnose problems and identify components or processes for optimization.
(2) Analysis of performance data and bottlenecks
Analysis of performance data can reveal problems, such as excessive demand on certain resources that results in bottlenecks. A bottleneck exists when a single resource adversely affects the performance of the whole system. Demand on the single resource may become excessive enough to cause a bottleneck of the four subsystems: memory, processor, disk, and network.
Some of the reasons that bottlenecks occur are:
 Subsystems are insufficient, so additional or upgraded components are required. For example, lack of memory is a major cause of bottlenecks.
 Subsystems are not sharing workloads evenly and need to be balanced. For example, an older network card that is installed on a new server may cause a bottleneck.
 A subsystem is malfunctioning and needs to be replaced. For example, a hard disk often has minor problems before it fails.
 A program is monopolizing a particular resource. For example, a custom program that was written by a consultant may not be sharing memory correctly. Solutions to this problem include substituting another program, asking a developer to rewrite the program, adding or upgrading resources, or running the program during periods of low demand.
 A subsystem is incorrectly configured, so configuration settings must be changed. For example, an older multispeed network card may be configured for 10 megabits per second (Mbps) when it should be set to 100 Mbps.

Translation - Chinese

 建立性能基准
 进行实时监视和日志监视
 配置与管理计数器日志
 配置警报信号


 说明监视性能的理由
 解释什么是基准,何时要创建基准
 描述性能对象
 解释什么是计数器
 说明建立基准的准则


 了解工作负载量特性及其对系统资源的影响
 观察工作负载量和资源使用情况的变化和趋势,以规划好将来的升级工作
 测试配置更改或其他性能调节动作(用监视结果)
 诊断所出现问题并找出要优化的部件或进程。
(2) 性能数据和瓶颈分析
分析性能数据可透露出问题,如在瓶颈中产生的对特定资源的过度请求。当某项资源单独影响整个系统的运行性能时,就会存在瓶颈问题。以下 4 个子系统就可能对单项资源有过度请求,从而导致瓶颈的出现:内存、处理器、磁盘和网络。
 子系统资源不足,所以需要添加和升级部件。例如,内存不足是产生瓶颈的一个主要原因
 各子系统之间的工作承载度分配不均,需要调整。比如老式网卡安装在新服务器上,会导致瓶颈
 某个子系统出现故障,需要更换。例如,硬盘在失效前常会有一些小问题
 某个程序独占一项特定资源。例如,顾问所写的用户程序也许不能恰当地分享到内存。解决这个问题的方法包括替换程序(请开发商重写程序),添加或升级资源,或者在非高峰时段运行程序
 某个子系统配置错误,必须更改配置。例如,一个旧多速网卡在应该配置为100Mbps的情况下可能被设置为10Mbps

Chinese to English: Welcome Speech to Chile Biz Inviting Group
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Transport / Transportation / Shipping
Source text - Chinese
自1970年智利与中国建立外交关系以来, 两国间的贸易得到迅猛发展。2003年,智利对中国的出口总额达到19亿美元,比前一年增长了50.5%;智利从中国进口商品总额也达到16亿美元, 与前一年相比增长了19%。
根据对2004年1—5月份的分析来看, 智利与中国的双边贸易额增长了47%。





Translation - English
Since the establishment of diplomatic relationships in 1970, foreign trade between Chile and China has grown rapidly, with the Chilean exportation amounting to 1.9 billion USD in 2003, 50.5% more than the year before, and the importation from China amounting to 1.6 billion dollars, 19% more than 2002.

An analysis of the period from January to May of 2004 shows that, bilateral trade between these 2 countries has grown by 47%.

The flowery and lifeful city of Shanghai has always been an important long-term business partner for Chile.
In 2003, it concentrated about 35% of the total amount of Chilean exportation to China.

The political, economic and social stability has permitted us to keep the growth rate more than 5% during the past decades. At the same time, with our open trade policy, we have reached a series of free trade agreements with more than 40 countries all over the world, such as USA, Canada, Mexico, Korea, EU and so on.

Chile and China are now at the moment of exploring the possibility of managing a Free Trade Treaty between our two countries, which will, with no doubt, promote our economic, business and political relations to a higher level.

The coming APEC Summit to be held in Chile in this November will be important event for all APEC members. However, it will also be significant for the Chile-Chinese relations, because the Chinese president Hu Jintao will pay an official visit to Chile just before the Summit.

In China, Chile is well known for its major export products, which are mainly primary raw materials such as copper, cellulose, and fish meal. All of these are basic and strategic materials for the industrial development.
However, we are less known for our flooding and drinking products.

I would like to conclude these words by thanks to you all for your presence. I also would like to extend our special thanks to CCPIT (China Chamber of International Commence Shanghai Chamber of Commerce) and Shanghai Import Food Enterprise Association for your support.
English to Chinese: Auto tyre
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Automotive / Cars & Trucks
Source text - English
Destructive criteria:
By destructive criteria, we understand the unavoidable performances for which the minimal level is not reached, where the tyre will not be the objective of complementary evaluations.
The answer is valued in binary way: level reached YES/NO

Safety on dry ground
a – Active safety on dry ground
b – Braking on dry ground
Safety on wet ground
a – Active safety on wet ground
b – Braking on wet ground
Road hazard

Tire selective characteristics: Wet ground performance
By selective criteria, we understand the performances which can be targeted to a balance (the minimal acceptable performance being reached) within a performance compromise frame.
Various presented solutions will be classified between them by a weighted medium.

1 21% Dry ground performance
2 16% Comfort
3 14% Dry ground direction agreement
4 13% Wet ground performance
5 11% Wear resistance
6 10% Roll resistance
7 6% Roll noise
8 5% Wet ground direction agreement
9 4% Mass

5.2.1 Dry ground dynamic performances

Road dynamics / Pneumatic tests synthesis

175/65 R14 82T
Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe
175/65 R14 82T
185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe
185/60 R15 84H
195/55 R15 85H
DIRECTION Free steering-wheel withdrawal Ref. = =
Steering-wheel / Yaw
Yaw centering Ref. = =
Yaw linearity Ref. = =
Angle at steering-wheel in haulage Ref. = =
Steering-wheel / Force
Force centering Ref. = =
Force gradient Ref. = =
Force level Ref. = =
… … … … …

5.2.2 Wet ground dynamic performances:
Subjective tests following method SDR06_0133

Reference road: Wet road of Belchamp*
"Technique calibration" tyre: 175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 of T1
selected Vehicle: T1 TU3A
Conditions 5°C to 35°C of ground temperature

175/65 R14 82T
Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe TU3A
175/65 R14 82T or 185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe TU3A
185/60 R15 84H or 195/55 R15 85H
Active safety Lateral adherence
Pedal raise Ref = =
Behavior Road stability Ref = =
AGREEMENT of direction Ref = =

* Without counter-performance on the manufacturer tracks (Fontange – Ladoux – Contidrome – Vizzola – Mireval – TCE Rome)

5.2.3 Dry ground braking:
Subjective test following method SDR05_0030

Reference road: Ring road of Belchamp*
Reference tyre: 175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 of T1
Selected Vehicle: T1 TU3A
Vehicle load: 2 persons 14Kg
Conditions 5°C to 35°C of ground temperature

Initial speed (km/h) Stop distance
175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe TU3A
175/65 R14 82T or 185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe TU3A
185/60 R15 84H or 195/55 R15 85H
130 km/h 100 % 103%
(min 100%) 104%
(min 102%)

* Without counter-performance on the manufacturer tracks (Fontange – Ladoux – Contidrome – Vizzola – Mireval – TCE Rome)

5.2.4 Wet ground braking:
Objective tests following method SDR05_0318

Reference road: Wet road of Belchamp*
Reference tyre: 175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 of T1
selected Vehicle: T1 TU3A
Vehicle load: 2 persons 14Kg
Conditions 5°C to 35°C of ground temperature

Initial speed
(km/h) Stop distance
175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe TU3A
175/65 R14 82T or 185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe TU3A
185/60 R15 84H or 195/55 R15 85H
80 km/h 100 % 103%
(min 101%) 105%
(min 103%)

* Without counter-performance on the manufacturer tracks (Fontange – Ladoux – Contidrome – Vizzola – Mireval – TCE Rome)

Reference assembly: 175/65 R14 82T Michelin Energy3 of C2/C3 with vehicle 206

The performance objective is to count in integrating the masses and the geometry of the suspensions.

Values following standard ISO 18164 at 90 km/h
The manufacturer will indicate the diameter of the rollers utilized for the measure.

Reference: 175/65 R14 82T Michelin XT1 of T1
Tyre measured at 9.5 kg/T at 90 km/h  100%

Dimension Objective at 90 km/h
175/65 R14 82T Michelin XT1 of T1 100%
175/65 R14 82T or 185/65 R14 86T 105%
185/60 R15 84H or 195/55 R15 85H 100%

The mass objectives for each dimension are defined as follows:

Dimension Mass objective:
(kg) Max mass
175/65 R14 82T 6.9 7.4
185/65 R14 86T 7.5 8.0
185/60 R15 84H 8.0 8.5
195/55 R15 85H 7.5 8.0
Translation - Chinese
5 性能
5.1 性能划分:

a –干燥路面主动安全性
b –干燥路面制动
a –潮湿路面主动安全性
b –潮湿路面制动


1 21% 干燥路面性能
2 16% 舒适性
3 14% 干燥路面方向一致性
4 13% 潮湿路面性能
5 11% 耐磨性
6 10% 滚动阻力
7 6% 滚动噪音
8 5% 潮湿路面方向一致性
9 4% 质量

5.2 T3欧洲性能关于道路动力方面的目标
5.2.1 干燥路面动力特性


175/65 R14 82T
Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe
175/65 R14 82T

185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe
185/60 R15 84H

195/55 R15 85H
方向 自由转向轮回位 参考标准 = =
偏摆定心度 参考标准 = =
偏摆直度 参考标准 = =
行车时转向轮偏角 参考标准 = =
扰力定心度 参考标准 = =
扰力斜度 参考标准 = =
(抗)扰力强度 参考标准 = =
… … … … …
5.2.2 潮湿路面动力性能:
根据方法SDR06_0133 进行的主观测试

参考路面: Belchamp潮湿路面*
“技术校准”轮胎: 175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 之T1
所选车型: T1 TU3A
测试条件 地面气温 5°C 到 35°C

175/65 R14 82T
Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe TU3A
175/65 R14 82T 或 185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe TU3A
185/60 R15 84H 或 195/55 R15 85H
主动安全性 侧向路面附着力
(加速器)踏板升高 参考 = =
行车状态 驾驶稳定性 参考 = =
一致性 方向 参考 = =

* 在制造商路轨(Fontange – Ladoux – Contidrome – Vizzola – Mireval – TCE Rome)上无性能不理想问题

5.2.3 干燥路面制动:
根据方法SDR05_0030 进行的主观测试

参考路面: Belchamp环形路面*
参考轮胎: 175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 之T1
所选车型: T1 TU3A
车辆载重: 两人 14 Kg
测试条件 地面气温 5°C 到 35°C

起始速度(km/h) 停止距离
175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe TU3A
175/65 R14 82T 或 185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe TU3A
185/60 R15 84H 或 195/55 R15 85H
130km/h 100 % 103%
(最小100%) 104%
(min 102%)

* 在制造商路轨(Fontange – Ladoux – Contidrome – Vizzola – Mireval – TCE Rome)上无性能不理想问题

5.2.4 潮湿路面制动:
根据方法SDR05_0318 进行的客观测试

参考路面: Belchamp潮湿路面*
参考轮胎: 175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 之T1
所选车型: T1 TU3A
车辆载重: 两人 14Kg
测试条件 地面气温 5°C 到 35°C

(km/h) 停止距离
175/65 R14 82T Goodyear GT3 T3 Europe TU3A
175/65 R14 82T 或 185/65 R14 86T T3 Europe TU3A
185/60 R15 84H 或 195/55 R15 85H
80km/h 100 % 103%
(最小101%) 105%

* 在制造商路轨(Fontange – Ladoux – Contidrome – Vizzola – Mireval – TCE Rome)上无性能不理想问题

5.3 磨损
参考装配:175/65 R14 82T 米其林(Michelin)Energy3 之 C2/C3 与206车型搭配


5.4 滚动阻力
根据国际标准ISO 18164,其数值为90 km/h。

参考:175/65 R14 82T 米其林(Michelin) XT1 之T1
轮胎在车速90 km/h、轮胎载荷比9.5 kg/T的条件下测量  100%

尺寸 在90 km/h时的目标
175/65 R14 82T 米其林(Michelin) XT1 之T1 100%
175/65 R14 82T 或 185/65 R14 86T 105%
185/60 R15 84H 或 195/55 R15 85H 100%

5.5 轮胎质量

尺寸 质量目标:
(kg) 最大质量
175/65 R14 82T 6.9 7.4
185/65 R14 86T 7.5 8.0
185/60 R15 84H 8.0 8.5
195/55 R15 85H 7.5 8.0
English to Chinese: MGE UPS SYSTEMS, Electricity
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - English
GALAXY 3000 10-30 kVA UPS
Data Center Grade Three Phase Uninterruptible Power Supply

Guide Specifications


The UPS module shall be designed to operate as a double conversion, on-line reverse transfer system in the following modes.

A. Normal: The inverter shall continuously supply power to the critical load. The rectifier/battery charger shall derive power from the utility AC source and supply DC power to the inverter while simultaneously float charging the battery.

B. Emergency: Upon failure of the utility AC power source, the critical load shall be supplied by the inverter, which, without any switching, shall obtain its power from the battery.

C. Recharge: Upon restoration of the utility AC power source (prior to complete battery discharge), the rectifier/battery charger shall power the inverter and simultaneously recharge the battery.

D. Bypass Mode: The static bypass transfer switch shall be used to transfer the load to the bypass without interruption to the critical power load. This shall be accomplished by turning the inverter off. Automatic re-transfer or forward transfer of the load shall be accomplished by turning the inverter on.

E. Maintenance Bypass/Test Mode: A manual make before break internal maintenance bypass switch shall be provided to isolate the UPS inverter output and static bypass transfer switch for maintenance. This shall allow the UPS to be tested or repaired without affecting load operation.


Rectifier / Battery Charger

Incoming AC power shall be converted to a regulated DC output voltage by an IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) power factor corrected (PFC) rectifier/battery charger. The rectifier / battery charger shall provide high quality DC power to charge the batteries and power the inverter and shall have the following characteristics:

1. Input Power Factor Correction (PFC): The rectifier shall be power factor corrected so as to maintain an input power factor of 0.98 lagging to unity at all load levels to ensure generator compatibility and avoid reflected harmonics from disturbing loads sharing the utility power.

2. Input Harmonic Current Suppression: The PFC rectifier/battery charger shall produce a sinusoidal input AC current on each phase with low harmonic content, limiting THD on the UPS input to below 3%. This shall eliminate the requirement for an input filter.

3. Input Current Limiting: The UPS shall be equipped with a system designed to limit the battery recharge current (from 0.05 C10 to 0.1 C10).

4. Modular Assembly: The rectifier/battery charger assembly shall be constructed of modular design to facilitate rapid maintenance.

5. Charging Levels: The battery charging circuitry shall be capable of being set for automatic battery recharge operation, float service, manual battery charge service and equalizing or commissioning operation.

6. Intermittent Charging: The battery charge level shall be maintained by an intermittent charging technique between two values Vfmin and Vfmax very close to the floating voltage. This technique shall be based on a cycle made up of a short charge period (a few seconds) from Vfmin to Vfmax followed automatically by a slow discharge period (a few minutes) from Vfmax to Vfmin. This cycle shall be repeated continuously to maintain the battery charge level. In this way the battery shall actually be charging only for a small part of the time, which considerably increases its service life.

7. Temperature Compensated Charging: The battery charger shall be equipped with a temperature probe to enable temperature compensated charging and adjust the battery float voltage to compensate for the ambient temperature using a negative temperature coefficient of 3 mV per cell per degree Celsius at a nominal temperature of 25°C.

8. Capacity: The rectifier/battery charger shall have sufficient capacity to support a fully loaded inverter and fully recharge the battery to 95% of its full capacity within 6-8 hours.

Translation - Chinese
MGE 不间断供电(UPS)系统
GALAXY 3000 10-30 kVA UPS



2.3 工作模式


A. 正常模式:逆变器须可不断向临界负载输电。整流器/电池充电器须从交流电源获取电能并向逆变器供电,同时以浮动方式给电池充电。

B. 紧急模式:当交流电源断开失效时,临界负载须由逆变器供电,这应无需任何切换操作,逆变器便可从电池获取电能。


D. 旁路模式:静态旁路转换开关须可用来在不妨碍临界功率负载的情况下把负载转换到旁路。这要通过关闭逆变器来实现。负载的自动再转换或正向转换要通过打开逆变器来实现。

E. 维护旁路/测试模式:须提供一个手动先断后合内部维护旁路开关,以把UPS逆变器输入和静态旁路转换开关隔离开来进行维护。这应可使UPS在不影响负载工作的条件下进行测试或维修。

2.4 元件说明



1. 输入功率因数校正(PFC):整流器须经功率因数校正,以在所有能级上都能维持在滞后于1的输入功率因数0.98,保证发电机兼容性并防止在其他共用电网的分布负载上产生反射谐波。

2. 输入谐波电流抑制:PFC整流器/电池充电器须在各相产生低谐波正弦交流输入电流,把UPS输入的总谐波失真(THD,Total Harmonic Distortion)限制在3% 以下。这应可免除对使用滤波器的要求。

3. 输入电流限定:UPS须装备有可限定电池充电电流(0.05 C10 到 0.1 C10)的系统

4. 模块化组件:整流器/电池充电器组件须为模块化构造设计,以方便快速维修。

5. 充电电平:电池充电电路须能够设置为自动充电、浮动充电、手动电池及补偿或试运行工作状态。

6. 间歇充电:须用间歇充电技术将电池充电电平维持在Vfmin 和 Vfmax两个与浮动电压非常接近的数值之间。此项技术须基于这样一个运行周期,此周期由电平从Vfmin 到 Vfmax的短时充电期(数秒)和随后自动切换到的、电平从Vfmax 到 Vfmin的缓慢放电期(数分钟)构成。这一周期须接连重复,以维持电池的充电电平。这样电池会只充电很短时间,可大大增加其使用寿命。

7. 补偿充电温度:电池充电器应配备一个温度探针以能够进行温度补偿充电和调节电池浮动电压,并用名义温度25°C下为3 mV每节电池每摄氏度的负温度系数来补偿环境温度。

8. 容量:整流器/电池充电器应有足够的容量以支持满载逆变器并在6-8小时内给电池充电到其全部容量的95%。

French to English: Operating guidance of data generation Catia VLAB
General field: Tech/Engineering
Detailed field: IT (Information Technology)
Source text - French
Mise en données Nastran dans Virtual Lab à partir d’un modèle CATIA V5

1 Introduction
Le logiciel Virtual Lab offre aujourd’hui la possibilité de mettre en données des calculs Nastran (analyse statique, analyse modale, réponse en fréquence) à partir d’un modèle Catia V5. Ce document explique la démarche à suivre pour effectuer cette mise en données conformément aux calculs Nastran historiquement réalisés avec le logiciel MEDIA. Le cas particulier d’un modèle hybride comportant CAO et maillage mort n’est pas abordé ici, et fera l’objet d’une méthodologie future.
Ce document part donc du postulat que l’utilisateur dispose d’un modèle CATIA V5 complet (maillage, propriétés, liaisons (hors MPC))

1.1 Versions informatiques

Versions utilisées dans la méthodologie : Catia V5 R17 SP4, VLAB 7A
1.2 Lancement de l’application

Sur le poste doivent être installées les applications Catia V5 et Virtual Lab, accessibles depuis la palette soft. On peut indifféremment lancer Catia en sélectionnant VLAB comme produit associé, ou le contraire :

1.3 Préconisations générales
De nombreuse fonctionnalités existent à la fois dans l’environnement Natif Catia V5 et dans l’environnement VLAB (doublon). C’est par exemple le cas de l’entité « Encastrement » .
Afin d’avoir un modèle le plus générique possible, il est vivement conseillé de respecter la règle suivante :
- Mise en données sur la CAO : il faut se servir de la fonctionnalité CATIA.
- Mise en données sur le maillage : il faut se servir de la fonctionnalité VLAB.
Translation - English
Nastran data generation in Virtual Lab based on a model CATIA V5

1 Introduction

The software Virtual Lab offers today the possibility to generate data in the Nastran computing (analysis, statistics, modal analysis, and frequency response) based on a Catia V5 model. This document explains the attempt to follow to accomplish this data generation in accordance with the Nastran computing historically realized with the MEDIA software. The special case of a hybrid model combining CAD and non CAD based mesh is not concerned here, and this will be the target of a future methodology.

This document then begins with the assumption that the user deploys a complete CATIA V5 model (mesh, proprieties, and links (out of MPC))

1.1 Computing versions

Versions used in the methodology: Catia V5 R17 SP4, VLAB 7A

1.2 Start of the application

On the workstation, the Catia V5 and Virtual Lab applications must be installed, and accessible from the soft palette. We can disinterestedly launch Catia while selecting VLAB as associated product, or the contrary:

1.3 General recommendations

Numerous functions exist at the same time in the Native Catia V5 environment and the VLAB (duplicate) environment. That’s the circumstance of the “Embedding” entity, for example.

In order to have a model the most possibly general, it’s strongly recommended to respect the following rules:

- Data generation on the CAD: we should operate from the CATIA functionality.
- Data generation on the mesh: we should operate from the VLAB functionality.
English to Chinese: Blood glucose level
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English
Blood glucose testing can be used to screen healthy, asymptomatic individuals for diabetes and pre-diabetes because diabetes is a common disease that begins with few symptoms. A fasting blood glucose test also called a fasting plasma glucose, or FPG test measures blood glucose levels after you've gone without food for at least eight hours. It''s reliable, and the results aren't affected by your age or the amount of physical activity you do. Normal blood glucose levels are less than 100 mg/dL. If your blood glucose measures 126 mg/dL or higher, your doctor will order a second test.
Translation - Chinese
血糖测试可用来从健康、无症状的人群中筛查出糖尿病患者或前期患者,因为此病是一种开始时并没有多少症状的常见病。空腹血糖测试的英文名为 “fasting blood glucose test”,也称“fasting plasma glucose(FPG)test”,这种测试在受测试者至少持续 8 个小时不进食的情况下来测试其血糖浓度。此测试真实可靠,其结果不受年龄和体力活动量的影响。正常血糖浓度低于 100 毫克/分升(mg/dL)。如果测得的血糖浓度等于或高于 126 毫克/分升,医生会让受测试者再进行一次测试。如果改天进行的第二次测试的测试结果仍然等于或高于 126 毫克/分升,那么受测试者就有糖尿病,并且无须再进行测试便可确诊。
English to Chinese: Cancer
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English
Cancer begins in the cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body.
Translation - Chinese

Glossaries alpha, AutoMech, BioMedical, Biz, Com, Ele, Env, IT, Linguistics, Sports
Standards / Certification(s) SDL Certified
Translation education Bachelor's degree - Harbin Institute of Tehcnology
Experience Years of experience: 23. Registered at Jul 2004. Became a member: Oct 2007. Certified PRO certificate(s)
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