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RESEARCH ON FOUR CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINES, INCLUDING ARTEMETHER, TO EXAMINE THEIR INHIBITORY EFFECTS ON HEMORRHAGE FEVER VIRUS
Abstract: In order to study their inhibitory effects on epidemic hemorrhage fever virus (EHFV), animal experiments and observations were carried out on four Chinese herbal medicine injections: artemether, glycyrrhizin, houttuynin and bupleurum. Results: Artemether and glycyrrhizin showed fairly strong inhibitory effects on EHFV, while houttuynin and bupleurum only showed some inhibitory effects on EHFV.
Artemisia annua. L, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fish, Houttuynia cordata Thunb and Bupleurum chinense DC are all common Chinese herbal medicines. Research has showed that: Artemether, the extract of A.annua. L, has plasmodicidal and interferon-inducible effects; glycyrrhizin, the extract of G.uralensis Fish has immunoregulation and interferon-inducible effects; H.cordata Thunb has anti-biotic and diuretic effects; B.chinense DC has an antipyretic effect. The Chinese herbal medicines described above have been widely used for clinical treatments for diseases such as dysentery and hepatitis. Positive results have been achieved in treatment trials for AIDS using G.uralensis Fish and B.chinense DC. Only the inhibitory effects of these Chinese herbal medicines on epidemic hemorrhage fever virus (EHFV) have yet to be reported. Therefore, relevant animal experiments and observations were carried out and the results are reported as follows.
English to Chinese: RGD-Functionalised Liposome for Tumour Targeting General field: Science Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - English
RGD-Functionalised Liposome for Tumour Targeting
Liposomal vectors have been widely studied for targeted gene and drug delivery to tumour cells. In vivo, these systems encounter many problems including serum stability, tumour localisation, cell internalisation, endosomal escape etc.
Modification or shielding of the liposome surface helps to inhibit non-specific interaction with blood components and enables an extended circulation of the vectors after systemic administration. This is achieved with a hydrophilic polymer of which polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been found to be best.
Targeting cell-surface receptors is a very attractive concept to achieve specific binding and internalisation of the liposome. To this end, cell-binding ligands are displayed from the surface of the liposome. The common denominator for these ligands is that their cell receptor targets are over-expressed in tumours.
We have developed a post-modification methodology for coupling cell or tissue targeting moieties onto liposomes via chemioselective oxime bond formation. Thus, liposomes comprising a highly nucleophilic aminoxy-functionalised lipid are formulated. The aminoxy lipid readily reacts with aldehyde functionalised targeting ligands in aqueous conditions to form a stable oxime bond conjugated targeted liposome.
A peptide displaying the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD) sequence was selected as the targeting ligand to validate our post-coupling methodology. A cyclic RGD peptide conjugate has been successfully synthesised using a combination of solution- and solid-phase synthesis.
Additionally, control Arginine-Glycine-Glutamic acid (RGE) peptide and polyethylene glycol (PEG) linker conjugates have been prepared. All the ligands terminate in an aldehyde functional group separated from the targeting moiety by a PEG linker. The couplings between the RGD conjugate and aminoxy liposomes in water at pH 4 were shown to be efficient, simple and reproducible.
In vitro, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) cell uptake studies show a definite targeted uptake of the RGD-targeted liposomes relative to appropriate control liposomes.
English to Chinese (Institute of Translation and Interpreting) Chinese to English (Institute of Translation and Interpreting) English to Chinese (Chartered Institute of Linguists) Chinese to English (Chartered Institute of Linguists)
ITI, American Society of Gene Therapy, British Society for Gene Therapy, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), CIOL
With a PhD in Chemistry/Gene Therapy from Imperial College London and working experiences in both scientific research and translations, I provide high-standard Chinese<=>English translation services (including translation, interpreting, abstracting, summarising, proof reading, editing and desktop publishing) specialised in technical & scientific fields such as Pharmaceuticals, Medicine, Chemistry, Biology, Biochemistry etc., as well as translations for patents, certificates, publications, marketing communications and websites.