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English to Chinese: DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ACCOMPANYING DRAWINGS 附图的详细描述 General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Patents
Source text - English As those of ordinary skill in the art will understand, various features of the embodiments illustrated and described with reference to any one of the Figures may be combined with features illustrated in one or more other Figures to produce alternative embodiments that are not explicitly illustrated or described. The combinations of features illustrated provide representative embodiments for typical applications. However, various combinations and modifications of the features consistent with the teachings of the present disclosure may be desired for particular applications or implementations. Those of ordinary skill in the art may recognize similar applications or implementations whether or not explicitly described or illustrated.
Translation - Chinese 业内普通技术人员都能理解，可以将任何一个附图所描述和说明的实施例的各种特征与一个或多个其他附图所示的特征进行综合，从而得到尚未清楚地描述或说明的其他实施例。综合所描述的各种特征，可以提供针对各种典型应用并具有代表性的实施例。然而，为了具体的应用或实施，在不违反本发明的宗旨下，可能需要对这些特征进行各种综合及修改。但无论是否对这类应用或实施做了清晰的描述或说明，业内普通技术人员都可以认出。
English to Chinese: Overspeed Governor 限速器 General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - English The overspeed governor operates in conjunction with the type of safety gear used.
Instantaneous type (Type A-USA) can be used where rated speeds do not exceed 0.63 m/s (Eruope) or 0.76 m/s (USA).
Instantaneous type with buffers (Type C-USA) can be used up to 1 m/s (Europe) or 2.5 m/s (USA).
Progressive type (Type B-USA) can be used for all speeds and must be used for speeds greater than 1 m/s in Europe.
Minimum Governor Tripping Speed
According to US-a17.1 and EN81 Standards, the minimum permissible tripping speed for an overspeed governor should be a speed greater than 115% of the rated speed.
Maximum Governor Tripping Speed
The maximum permissible tripping speeds for EN81 are given as less than:
0.8 m/s for instantaneous safety gears (except captive roller type)
1.0 m/s for captive roller type safety gears
1.5 m/s for instantaneous safety gears with buffered effect
1.5 m/s for progressive safety gears up to 1.0 m/s
1.25v 0.25/v for other types of safety gears (v is the rated speed)
The US-a17.1 Standard provides tabular and graphical indication for the maximum permissible tripping speeds. They vary from 40% above the rated speed at 0.63 m/s to 20% above the rated speed at speeds above 5.0 m/s. See table overleaf.
Counterwieght governors shall trip at a speed above the car speed governor, but no more than 10% higher.
Minimum ratio pitch diameter of the governor pulley and the nominal diameter of the rope:
US-A17.1(less than 1.02 m/s rated speed)：
6 strands: 42
8 strands: 30
US-A17.1(more than 1.02 m/s rated speed)：
6 strands: 46
8 strands: 32
Translation - Chinese 限速器配合所用类型的安全钳一起运行。
瞬时式（美国 A 型）可用于额定速度不超过 0.63 米/秒（欧洲）或 0.76 米/秒（美国）的场合。
English to Chinese: Tubular exchanger 管式换热器 General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Manufacturing
Source text - English Improper start-up or shut-down sequences, particularly of fixed tubesheet units, may cause leaking of tube-to-tubesheet and bolted flanged joints.
Composition gaskets have become dried out and brittle so that they do not always provide an effective seal when reused.
When compressed initially, metal or metal jacketed gaskets flow to match their contact surfaces. In doing so, they are work hardened, and if reused, may provide an imperfect seal or result in deformation and damage to the gasket contact surfaces of the exchanger.
Tubes shall be spaced with a minimum center-to-center distance of 1.25 times outside diameter of the tube.
Translation - Chinese 如果启动或关闭顺序不正确（尤其是固定管板式设备），可能导致管子与管板之间和螺栓紧固式法兰连接处的泄漏。
English to Chinese: MCU51 Instruction Set MCU51指令集 General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Computers: Software
Source text - English DJNZ [byte], [rel-addr]
Function: Decrement and Jump if Not Zero
Description: DJNZ decrements the location indicated by 1, and branches to the address indicated by the second operand if the resulting value is not zero. An original value of 00H underflows to 0FFH. No flags are affected. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement value in the last instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC to the first byte of the following instruction.
The location decremented may be a register or directly addressed byte.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output port, the value used as the original port data will be read from the output data latch, not the input pins.
Example: Internal RAM locations 40H, 50H, and 60H contain the values 01H, 70H, and 15H, respectively. The following instruction sequence,
Causes a jump to the instruction at label LABEL_2 with the values 00H, 6FH, and 15H in the three RAM locations. The first jump was not taken because the result was zero.
This instruction provides a simple way to execute a program loop a given number of times or for adding a moderate time delay (from 2 to 512 machine cycles) with a single instruction. The following instruction sequence,
TOGGLE: CPL P1.7
Toggles P1.7 eight times, causing four output pulses to appear at bit 7 of output Port 1. Each pulse lasts three machine cycles; two for DJNZ and one to alter the pin.
English to Chinese: China Joint Ventures: Financial Due Diligence 中国合资企业的财务尽职调查 General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Business/Commerce (general)
Source text - English Nov 09, 2009
Source: China Briefing
By Chris Devonshire-Ellis and Richard Hoffmann
Financial Due Diligence in China can be an awkward issue to resolve, not least because there are no publicly available records systems in China that permit viewing of reported accounts. Instead, field investigations must be carried out to determine the position of the business. Delving into the minutiae of Chinese financial reporting is something of an art – the average Chinese businessman will not have filed accurate accounts, as China’s tax bureau is woefully inefficient at collecting incomes. Tax avoidance is rife, standards of reporting are far less sophisticated than in the West, and some statements may be designed to extract money from the unwary investor. However, because of this scenario, financial due diligence in China goes beyond a look at the books. It also provides a platform to enable the foreign investor to examine the integral honesty of the business, the management systems in place that administer it, and what needs to be done to bring these up to scratch.
Domestic Chinese companies are not generally scrutinized much by the local tax bureau, however foreign investors are. A Chinese investor in a JV should be amenable to changing reporting habits if he is to own stock in a foreign invested JV. Comments such as “We’ve always done it this way” or “We’ll take care of it” are simply not good enough and will lead to trouble later. If that mentality cannot be broken down, walk away. In this article we will examine some of the common issues when conducting financial due diligence on joint ventures in China.
The majority of Chinese companies keep two sets of books, mostly for tax avoidance purposes. Accordingly, providing the true set of accounts to you represents a risk – the business owner has to trust the potential partner to keep his secret. This can result in a reluctance to provide a full set of accounts. However, they must be obtained, to examine both risk, and management standards. If you forgo this procedure your investment is at serious risk.
There are a number of checks and balances experienced Chinese auditors can employ to “kick the tires” and evaluate how accurate the financial statement is. There are also a number of areas that demand scrutiny. Have overheads been correctly stated? Are there any inflated related party transactions? Have staff liabilities been properly assessed?
Related party transactions
If a supplier is identified and costs merely accepted, then you run the risk that a related party has been inserted into the purchase chain. Costs of materials and services provided must be checked against market norms.
Many companies in China do not properly pay mandatory welfare, and this liability may be left off the books. It can be a huge risk. HR payments need to be cross-referenced.
Are these at norms? Are there any related third party transactions? Does stock control match up with the sales ledger? It is common for stock to have been shifted without supporting invoices in a mechanism designed to limit the cash flow impact of paying VAT.
Again, for tax avoidance issues it can be common for company money to be in private accounts. If there are sales/stock discrepancies, there maybe an off balance sheet private account somewhere that needs to be tracked down and identified.
Are these verified? Have they been inflated? Are there third party transactions? Are prices sustainable? Is there a risk in the nature of the buyers? Stock control again will provide some answers, however it is always a good idea to run checks on some of the customers to verify purchase.
These can be hidden. What are the levels of bad debt? What happened to the stock? Was litigation pursued? Is the debtor still buying from the company? Was a bankrupt notice provided to offset any material loss?
Does the company own any IP, or have license agreements in place? Will any of these be chargeable or liable to the JV?
Does the company properly declare its financial reports to the tax bureau? What is the extent of any double book keeping issue? What is the liability – including fines – if this is uncovered? What will the impact be on the Chinese partners business when the JV has to sign off on properly reported accounts? Could it cause problems if the JV correctly reports and the Chinese partners business does not?
Due diligence will also demonstrate the capabilities of the existing management team and what needs to be done if this needs to be upgraded. Is the business essentially honest? Is administration competent? Are any problems with the financials fixable? Will you be able to engineer a higher standard of financial reporting in the JV? Management is always a key fixture of Chinese JV’s, and attention to detail needs to be placed upon it. Analyzing the contents of your financial due diligence also gives you an opportunity to examine cultural compatibility, and the level of competence you have to work with.
These are just some of many financial due diligence issues that need to be addressed; they vary depending upon each specific case. A good professional firm will be able to discuss all the issues with you, assess what needs to be checked through, and allocate dedicated on the ground staff to look into and report back. We do not recommend using any firm that subcontracts such work, as if they are not in control of, or managing the process directly, the margin for error is significantly increased. We recommend only using firms with a proven track record and with applicable resources and offices in China.
Translation - Chinese 2009年11月9日
作者：Chris Devonshire-Ellis 和 Richard Hoffmann
English to Chinese: Weekly Wrap Up 一周总结 General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Investment / Securities
Source text - English Last week began with a slow start, but ended on a high note. Overall, the markets trended upward throughout the week. However, investors saw the most impressive swings on Thursday when the Dow Jones managed to eclipse the coveted 10,000 point mark. For the week, the Dow Jones rose 310.69 points to 10023.42 while the Nasdaq jumped up 67.33 points to finish at 2112.44. The S&P 500 advanced 33.11 points to 1069.30.
The week started off on the right foot as the Ford Motor Company announced a third-quarter net income of $997 million. It's the first operating profit since early 2008. Investors also seemed excited about Berkshire Hathaway's decision to purchase Burlington Northern Santa Fe for $44 billion.
However, the week also witnessed major companies announcing jobs cuts. Nokia Siemens Networks plans to eliminate as many as 5,760 jobs while Johnson & Johnson intends to reduce its workforce by 8,200 employees. In other corporate news, Disney received approval from the Chinese central government to open up a park in Shanghai after nearly 10 years of negotiations.
The big break for the markets came on Thursday when the Labor Department announced that unemployment filings fell to its lowest level since January. The news appeared to inspire investors’ confidence in the economy. Cisco also added to the optimism when it announced that it expects revenue to grow for the first time in a year.
Unfortunately, it was not all positive on Thursday. The CVS pharmacy unit reported that it lost $3.7 billion in contracts in the third quarter. Investors did not take kindly to this news, and sent company shares to an eight year low. The markets’ positive momentum slowed down Friday after the US jobless rate crept up to 10.2% for October, the highest level since April of 1983. The December delivery for crude oil gained $0.43 per barrel to $77.43, and the price of gold went up 55.40 a troy ounce to $1095.10. (Source: InvestorGuide Weekly)
English to Chinese: MEETINGS AND CONSENTS OF MEMBERS 股东会议与股东同意书 General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Law: Contract(s)
Source text - English 1. The directors of the Company may convene meetings of the members of the Company at such times and in such manner and places within or outside XXX Islands as the directors consider necessary or desirable.
2. Upon the written request of members holding ten per cent or more of the outstanding voting shares in the Company the directors shall convene a meeting of members.
3. The directors shall give not less than seven days notice of meetings of members to those persons whose names on the date the notice is given appear as members in the share register of the Company and are entitled to vote at the meeting.
4. The directors may fix the date notice is given of a meeting of members as the record date for determining those shares that are entitled to vote at the meeting.
5. A meeting of members may be called on short notice:
a) If members holding not less than 90 per cent of the total number of shares entitled to vote on all matters to be considered at the meeting, or 90 percent of the votes of each class or series of shares where members are entitled to vote thereon as a class or series together with not less than a 90 per cent majority of the remaining votes, have agreed to short notice of the meeting, or
b) If all members holding shares entitled to vote on all or any matters to be considered at the meeting have waived notice of the meeting and for this purpose presence at the meeting shall be deemed to constitute waiver.
6. The inadvertent failure of the directors to give notice of a meeting to a member, or the fact that a member has not received notice, does not invalidate the meeting.
7. A member may be represented at a meeting of members by a proxy who may speak and vote on behalf of the member.
8. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be produced at the place appointed for the meeting before the time for holding the meeting at which the person named in such instrument proposes to vote.
9. An instrument appointing a proxy shall be in substantially the following form or such other form as the Chairman of the meeting shall accept as properly evidencing the wishes of the member appointing the proxy.
(Name of Company)
I/We [ ] being a member of the above Company with [ ] shares HEREBY APPOINT [ ] of [ ] or failing him [ ] of [ ] to be my/our proxy to vote for me/us at the meeting of members to be held on the [ ] day of [ ] and at any adjournment thereof.