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Translation - English The possibility of justice and the justice trap: a critique of John Rawls' theory of justice
Huang Yinghong, Sun Yat-sen University School of Government
Rawls believes justice can be achieved through efforts on two levels. First, on the social level, one must build a just society; second, on the individual level, one must ensure that individuals possess a strong sense of justice. In order to build a just society, Rawls suggests a four-stage application of the principles of justice (determining principles of justice, developing a constitution, legislation, and administration). The internalization of moral principles and the development of overlapping social consensus achieve the second aim. Rawls' theory of justice is a justice of reciprocity. It is based in relations of reciprocated support, mutual advantage, and shared expectations. This means, unfortunately, that it can never escape the limitations of jealous self-interest, and that Rawlsian justice can never be achieved in a society where justice is seriously deficient.
Chinese to English: Anisotropic and strabismic amblyopia: an fMRI study of cortical deficits General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - Chinese 屈光参差性与斜视性弱视皮层损害的功能磁共振视网膜脑图对比研究
贾传海 卢光明 张志强 汪泽 黄伟 马飞 尹婕 黄振平 邵庆
方法 2009年1-10月,以1.5 T MRI系统分别采集9例健康自愿者、南京军区南京总医院和南京东南眼科医院10例单眼屈光参差性弱视患者和10例单眼斜视性弱视患者对视网膜脑图刺激和6epd空间频率、50%对比度的黑白光点刺激的视觉皮层功能数据,对正常对照组主导眼、屈光参差性弱视组弱视眼及斜视件弱视组弱视眼行单因素方差分析,对屈光参差性弱视组、斜视性弱视组的弱视眼及健眼分别行配对t检验,分析比较屈光参差性弱视组与斜视性弱视组的初、高级视觉皮层功能区损害情况,并对两种类型弱视的初、高级皮层损害进行相关分析.
Translation - English Anisotropic and strabismic amblyopia: an fMRI study of cortical deficits
He, Lu, Zhang, Wang, Huang, Ma, Yin, Huang, Shao
Objective: To study of the mechanism of cortical deficit in anisometric and strabismic amblyopia sufferers through retinotropic mapping, using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI.
Methods: Between January and October 2009, a 1.5T MRI system was used to collect data on visual cortex function from 9 healthy volunteers, and amblyopia sufferers at Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command and Nanjing South East Eye Hospital. 10 subjects had anisometric amblyopia and 10 had strabismic amblyopia. Data was collected under retinal stimulation (6 cycles/°, 50% contrast monochrome light spots). To find and analyze deficits in the primary visual cortex and higher visual areas of amblyopia sufferers, one way ANOVA was used to compare cortex response for the dominant eyes of the control group, and the amblyopic eyes of the two subject groups. Matched pair t tests were also carried out between the control group and the two subject groups.
Findings: The one way ANOVA shows that the average response (T value) in the V1 (p=0.018), V2 (p=0.007), V3 (p=0.002), Vp (p=0.000) and V7 (p=0.025) areas was lower for the anisometric amblyopic eyes than for the dominant eyes of the control group. Comparison with the dominant eyes of the anisometric group themselves yields similar results: average response was lower for the amblyopic eye V1 (p=0.035), V2 (p=0.007), V3 (p=0.020), Vp (p=0.009) and V7 (p=0.023). Average response for the strabismic eyes was lower than the control group in the following areas: V1 (p=0.010), V2 (p=0.007), Vp (p=0.003). However, comparing strabismic eyes with the dominant eyes of the strabismic sufferers, responses were lower in just two areas: V2 (p=0.026 and Vp (p=0.009). Comparing the two subject groups: response was lower in V7 (p=0.048) for anisometric eyes than strabismic eyes, but in other areas differences were not significant (p>0.05). There was no causal correlation between deficits in the primary visual cortex and deficits in higher visual areas in either of the groups of subjects (p>0.05).
Conclusions: There is functional impairment in the primary visual cortex and higher visual areas in both anisometric and strabismic amblyopia. The higher visual areas are impaired because of understimulation by the impaired primary visual cortex, but there may also be more complex neural mechanisms involved. Both strabismic and anisometric amblyopia involve neural impairment and/or abnormal neural interaction in the visual cortex, but suppression of the amblyopic eye by the dominant eye may also be a factor. Acquisition and coding by higher visual areas of high spatial frequency stimulation was weaker in anisometric amblyopic eyes than that in strabismic eyes.
Chinese to English: Images, Knowledge and Empire (extract)
Source text - Chinese 本文的個案研究顯示，「圖像」不管在乾隆天下知識的建構或祥瑞的成立上，都扮演一個積極而關鍵的角色，而這在乾隆朝並不是一項特例。就以視覺的手段重構「真實」而言，乾隆也許與徽宗沒有很大的不同，但乾隆將其發揮得更淋漓盡致、所涉及的面向更廣，也更加強調其對客觀「真實」的掌控。一方面，乾隆朝除了幾乎是常態性地以擬真風格來圖繪各地上呈、足以作為祥瑞之徵的各種珍禽異獸，例如，《東海馴鹿》（圖30） 描繪了1745年蒙古塔將軍八靈阿所進呈的東海使鹿部所產之馴鹿，《廓爾喀貢象馬圖》（圖31） 則描繪了乾隆剛征服之廓爾喀（今尼泊爾）國王於1793年所進貢之象與馬等；另一方面，乾隆朝宮廷也擅長以具有透視等臨場感之圖像，再現各種與帝國形象有關的慶典與成就，例如乾隆《萬壽盛典圖》與《平定準部回部得勝圖》等的製作；有時更以實地調查配合圖像的使用，進行與古人的對話，證明他比古人更能掌握真實，例如，乾隆五十五年（1790），為了反駁古人「清渭濁涇」之說，乾隆特別派遣陝西巡撫秦承恩親赴兩水交接處作實地調查，得到答案後，他不但作〈御筆涇清渭濁紀實〉一文，且附以圖，製作成長卷與織繡等不同形式的作品。 在這些製作中，不管是透過西洋折衷風格所擅長的擬真效果、透視法的使用，或是強調一手資訊的調查、甚至歐洲知識的運用，乾隆都得以將與客觀世界連接的資訊編織入虛構的世界中，縱橫古今，以圖像再現所有傳統聖王之治的理想視界。因此，就這點而言，如果我們說乾隆的帝國是一個建築在視覺榮耀的帝國，也並不為過。
Translation - English In both Qianlong’s construction of universalist knowledge and in his creation of political narrative, we have found images playing key roles. This was common in Qianlong’s court. Like Huizong, Qianlong was an innovator in the use of visual technique to recreate or even replace "reality". In fact Qianlong took this practice much farther than Huizong, applied it more widely, and displayed even stricter control over objective "reality". Qianlong ordered documentary-style paintings with illusionistic effects to be made of almost all the marvellous creatures sent to the court as auspicious signs. For example, Donghai xunlu 東海馴鹿 (Northeastern Reindeer) (fig. 30) shows a white reindeer sent by General Balinga from the deer parks of the northeast in 1745; Kuoerka xian xiang ma tu 廓爾喀貢象馬圖 (The Tribute of Gurkhas) (fig. 31) shows elephants and horses sent by the king of Gurkha (Nepal) after Qianlong conquered the country. The Qianlong court was also expert at producing perspective images showing celebrations and achievements befitting a mighty empire: examples include Wan shou sheng dian tu 萬壽盛典圖 (Imperial Birthday Celebrations) and Pingding huaibu huibu desheng tu 平定準部回部得勝圖 (Receiving the Surrender of the Ili). Sometimes Qianlong would enter into a dialogue with older texts, and demand first-hand reexamination of ancient sites to demonstrate his greater mastery of reality. In 1790, he sent Qin Chengen 秦承恩, governor of Shaanxi, to personally inspect the confluence of the Jing and Wei rivers, to check the accuracy of a classical saying: "The Wei is clear, the Jing muddy" (清渭濁涇). On receiving the governor’s report, he wrote an essay, created a painting to accompany it, and had them mounted as a scroll and reproduced in embroidery.
In each of these examples, Qianlong introduced objective elements of reality into an artificially constructed world, either through the use of paintings with perspective in a European fusion style, or first-hand observations, or even the deployment of information from Europe. He created images which recreated the traditional ideal of sage king rule by incorporating elements of old and new. It would not be going too far to say that Qianlong’s empire was built on visual splendour.
Master's degree - Birmingham University
Years of experience: 16. Registered at ProZ.com: Jun 2010.