English to Chinese: Superhuman: what gives elite athletes the edge? 超人何来? ——探寻杰出运动员竞争优势的来源 General field: Medical Detailed field: Genetics
Source text - English Until recently, it has been assumed that lactic acid, or lactate, is a bad thing, causing muscle fatigue and cramps. However, there is growing evidence that it can also act as an extra source of fuel - if your body has learned how to use it. Last year, George Brooks at the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues showed that muscle cells can reuse lactate by transporting it from the cytoplasm - the gelatinous fluid that fills cells - into the mitochondria, which use it to produce energy. Endurance training seems to increase the amount of lactate that is taken up by mitochondria, though it is probably also the case that some people's mitochondria are just naturally better at doing it, says Brooks. Efficient lactate use would be indicated by low levels of it in the muscles after exercise - as seen in Armstrong.
Lactic acid isn't the only cause of muscle fatigue. Andrew Marks at Columbia University in New York and his colleagues have discovered that a key factor in both muscle fatigue and how heart muscle responds after a heart attack is the development of a leak in a specific class of calcium channel in muscle cells. In both cardiac and skeletal muscle, contraction depends on the release of calcium stores from inside muscle cells. With muscle fatigue, one of the proteins that controls the channel gets used up, "so you end up getting a constant leak of calcium out of the channel, meaning the muscle no longer contracts properly", says Brett Giroir of the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Peak Soldier Performance programme, which part funds Marks's work. Marks has now developed a drug that stops this leakiness in heart muscle and is testing it to see if it can stop skeletal muscle from fatiguing so quickly.
The endurance gene
Researchers have yet to identify gene variants that predispose an individual to more efficient lactate use or less leaky muscles. However, the search for other genes that might influence athletic performance is well under way and there seem to be a number of likely candidates.
One of the best studied of these genes is ACE, which codes for the production of angiotensin converting enzyme, which helps to regulate blood pressure. It is also thought to influence how efficiently cells use oxygen, although exactly how is not fully understood. Nevertheless, there is evidence that one variant, labelled II, is more common in endurance athletes, while another variant, labelled DD, is associated with good performance in sports in which bursts of speed are needed, like football or sprinting.
Whether genetic screening could be used to identify children with the potential to become world-class athletes remains to be seen. Its success would depend on the relative importance of individual genes to elite athletic performance. "If there were a small number of genes with large effects, then tests could be quite valuable," says Claude Bouchard of Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. "However, so far it seems that we are dealing with a large number of genes, each of which contributes 3 to 4 per cent, if that." North agrees: "Ultimately, there are likely to be around 50 genes that influence the elite athletic phenotype."
So could coaches test for trainability and so tailor people's training programmes depending on their genetic make-up? North suspects it is possible. For example, erythropoietin (EPO) is a protein that increases the number of red blood cells in the body and therefore the amount of oxygen that can be carried in the blood. It can be increased artificially, which in professional sport is illegal, or naturally, through training at high altitude. If some individuals are genetically predisposed to produce more, or less, EPO than others they may respond differently to training in low oxygen - such as in a hypobaric oxygen chamber. Such simulated altitude training has been shown to improve speed, strength, endurance and recovery, and is practised by some athletes to improve their endurance ahead of competitions. How long the effects last is uncertain, however.
Unfortunately, having the right gene variants to be a superhuman endurance athlete is not necessarily all it's cracked up to be. Take energy efficiency. Some people's mitochondria are very efficient energy providers, while in other people they use more of the fuel to produce heat. Heat production is a natural function of these cell structures and is one of the main ways we keep warm in cold climates. Mitochondrial efficiency is very tightly linked to where in the world you come from: they are more efficient in people from warmer climates, and tend to produce more heat in people from cold climates, making them better able to tolerate the cold. That's not the case for everyone in cold countries, though. A study of elite Finnish athletes showed that all who excelled at endurance events had efficient mitochondria.
But these same highly efficient mitochondria may have a downside. They produce more reactive oxygen species - damaging free radicals - particularly if the energy they produce is not used up. So a person who eats a lot of chocolate and works at a desk, and yet has highly efficient mitochondria, is going to produce a lot of reactive oxygen species. This would make them more susceptible to a variety of degenerative diseases, cancer and premature ageing, says Douglas Wallace of the Center for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics at the University of California, Irvine. It seems that if you're born with the genes for super-efficiency, you've got little choice but to exercise frequently to minimise the production of free radicals to stay healthy. Exercise hard, and you're more likely than the rest of us to reach the front of the pack.
Translation - Chinese 一直以来人们都认为乳酸或乳酸盐会导致肌肉疲劳和痉挛，因此对人体有害。但近期越来越多的证据表明，只要身体懂得如何利用，乳酸也是一种额外的人体生物能来源。去年，美国加州大学伯克利分校的乔治•布鲁柯斯（University of California, Berkeley, George Brooks）和他的同事证明，肌肉细胞能通过将乳酸从细胞质（细胞内的胶质液体）转移到线粒体（使用乳酸生产能量）内，从而对乳酸进行再次利用。乔治•布鲁柯斯说，耐力训练似乎可以增加线粒体对乳酸的利用，尽管有些人的线粒体可能天生就更善于此道。运动后肌肉所含乳酸的水平较低表明肌肉对乳酸进行了有效利用，正如兰斯•阿姆斯特朗的测试结果所显示的那样。
乳酸并不是导致肌肉疲劳的唯一原因。纽约哥伦比亚大学的安德鲁•马克思（Columbia University, Andrew Marks）和他的同事发现，导致肌肉疲劳和影响心肌在心脏病发作后如何反应的一个关键因素是肌肉细胞中某一特殊类型钙离子通道的泄漏情况。心肌和骨骼肌的收缩都要依靠释放贮存在肌肉细胞内的钙离子。如果肌肉出现疲劳，就意味着控制钙离子通道的蛋白质使用殆尽，对此布赖特•基洛伊（Brett Giroir）说，“所以最后人体的钙离子从通道内不断流失，也就意味着肌肉无法再正常收缩。”布赖特•基洛伊所在的先锋士兵表现项目隶属于美国国防部先进研究项目局（the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Peak Soldier Performance programme），正是他们为安德鲁•马克思的研究工作提供了部分资金来源。安德鲁•马克思目前开发出了一种药物可以停止心肌中钙离子的流失，这种药物还在测试阶段，以观察它是否也能减缓骨骼肌疲劳的速度。
基因筛选的方法能否用来挑选具有潜力成为世界级运动员的儿童呢？这个问题的答案还未揭晓。这种方法能否成功将取决于单个基因对杰出运动员表现的重要性。路易斯安纳州巴顿鲁日县，彭宁顿生物医学研究中心的克劳德•布查德（Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Claude Bouchard）说，“如果小部分基因能产生重大影响，那这一测试就具有重要意义，但目前看来我们手头待研究的基因数量庞大，而每个基因对运动员的表现型都只起到3% - 4%的作用。”诺斯（North）对此表示赞同，他说，“最终影响杰出运动员表现型的基因大概在50个左右。”
但是这些高效产能线粒体也有其不利影响。它们会产生更多种类的活性氧（一种具有破坏性的自由基），尤其当线粒体产生的能量没有得到完全消耗时发生。所以如果一个人吃很多巧克力并总是伏案工作，同时又拥有高效的线粒体，他的体内就会产生很多各种数量众多的活性氧。加州大学欧文分校，线粒体医学和遗传中心的道格拉斯•华莱士（the Center for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics at the University of California, Irvine, Douglas Wallace）说，更多的活性氧使这些人更易患上退变性疾病、癌症，并出现过早衰老的问题。由此看来，如果你生来就拥有超级高效的基因，最好就要经常运动来减少自由基的产生以保持健康。如果努力锻炼，会比我们其他人更有希望成为运动健将。
English to Chinese: Oil Drilling in Alaska 阿拉斯加石油钻井 General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Economics
Source text - English A controversial plan to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge's coastal plain to oil drilling is now moving through the US Congress after years of wrangling. However, ecologists and environmentalists claim that an even larger area of valuable wildlife habitat is also under threat from oil and gas development.
Only in recent years have oil companies been in a position to explore the reserve seriously, in part because of better technology, and also because of high oil prices. In 1998 the Clinton administration opened 19,000 square kilometres of land in the north-east corner - the section that holds the most environmentally important parts, including Teshekpuk Lake - to leasing. Since then, 17 exploratory wells have been drilled.
Clinton's plan excluded all development on 1500 square kilometres of environmentally sensitive land, including Teshekpuk Lake itself and important wetlands to its north and west. It also banned surface activity on a 1000-square-kilometre piece of prime caribou calving territory. Last year, however, the Bush administration abandoned even these minimal safeguards and announced a plan to allow development on all but a tiny portion of the protected land in the petroleum reserve's north-east corner. This, the administration said, would more than treble the amount of recoverable oil in that part of the reserve, from 600 million to 2.1 billion barrels. Only Teshekpuk Lake itself would stay closed to drilling for the time being.
One reason the north-east corner is so attractive is that it is closest to the existing oil infrastructure around Prudhoe Bay. In fact, the industry has already breached the eastern boundary of the reserve with the expansion of an oil field called Alpine, operated by ConocoPhillips and Anadarko Petroleum. In 2008, new wells there will supply the first commercial oil from the petroleum reserve.
Geologically speaking, the north-east sector has the highest oil and gas potential. That's because it is close to an underground structure called the Barrow Arch, a huge ridge running parallel to the coastline which in places has vast amounts of oil trapped beneath it. According to the federal Bureau of Land Management, all oilfields now in production on Alaska's North Slope are on or near the Barrow Arch: the huge Prudhoe Bay field, discovered in 1968, is right on top of it. And, as ConocoPhillips noted in comments on the Bush plan it submitted in August: "Historical exploration clearly shows that the greatest potential for commercial hydrocarbon occurrences in the petroleum reserve exists within 40 miles from the crest of the Barrow Arch." Unfortunately, it just so happens that the Barrow Arch is also very close to the most ecologically sensitive areas.
"It's remarkable to me that we would essentially commit the entire Arctic coast to development," says John Schoen, senior scientist for the National Audubon Society's Alaska group. "Is there no place on the United States' only Arctic coastal plain that should be protected simply from a scientific standpoint?"
Translation - Chinese 在经过多年的争论后，美国国会日前正在通过一项颇具争议的有关开放北极国家野生动物保护区内沿海平原进行石油开采的计划。不过，生态学家和环境学家声称一个更具价值、范围更广的野生动物栖息地也正受到石油和天然气开发带来的威胁。
克林顿计划禁止在1500平方公里的环保敏感地区进行石油开发，包括泰舍克普克湖和其西部和北部的一些重要沼泽地(term mistranslation)(whole sentence was mistranslated)。这项计划同时禁止了在一片1000平方公里的驯鹿(term mistranslation)最佳繁殖地进行地面活动。但是去年，布什政府连这些(precise)最低限度的保护措施都放弃了，并宣布了一项除了一小部分位于油藏东北角的的保护地外，允许在任何区域进行石油开采的计划。布什政府声称，这将使这一地区油藏的可采石油储量增加(term mistranslation)三倍多，从6亿桶增加到21亿桶。而眼下只有泰舍克普克湖可以暂时幸免于钻井。
油藏东南角如此有吸引力的原因之一就是它最接近普拉德霍湾附近现有石油开采基础设施。事实上，康菲石油公司和安纳达克石油公司（ConocoPhillips and Anadarko Petroleum）在扩大阿尔卑斯（Alpine）油田的时已经侵入了油藏东部的边缘。在2008年，那里的新油井将从油藏产出首批商业原油。
来自美国国家奥杜邦协会阿拉斯加小组的高级研究员约翰•肖恩（John Schoen） 说，“(mistranslation and I will analyse these sentences at the next class)”
Master's degree - Imperial College London
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I'm a native Chinese speaker(Mandarin) and I'm fluent in both spoken and written English. After my bachelor's degree in English studies in Xiamen University China, I came to the UK and did my MSc degree at Imperial College London - Scientific, Technical and Medical Translation with Translation Technology.
I was most interested in Software/website localisation during my year at Imperial and I did my final theses on tabbed dialog design and localisation, which was very successful. I also achieved A in practical translation module, covering a large amount of translation in scientific, technical and medical area.
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