English to Chinese: HOW TO ASSEMBLE THE ANEMOMETER General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Mechanics / Mech Engineering
Source text - English HOW TO ASSEMBLE THE ANEMOMETER
Build the rotating assembly
1. The three wind cups secure to the 5cm rotating cap using 10cm long screws. Slip a nylon washer on a 10cm screw, then push the screw through one of the holes into a wind cup. Slip on another nylon washer, then thread two hex nuts about 4cm on the screw. Slip on another nylon washer, then push the screw through the other hole and out of the wind cup. Slip another nylon washer on the screw and thread another hex nut on the screw. Repeat these two steps for the other two wind cups.
2. To attach a wind cup to the 5cm rotating cap, thread a hex nut about 1cm on a 10cm screw, then slide on an internal tooth lock washer. Thread the screw into one of the holes in the side of the 5cm rotating cap. On the inside of the rotating cap, slip an internal tooth lock washer onto the screw, then thread on a hex nut. Adjust the screw so the end of the screw is flush with the side of the nut.
3. Remove the inside nut. Apply a tiny amount of thread locking adhesive to the screw for both the inside nut and the outside nut. Again install the inside nut and make sure the end of the screw is flush with the side of the nut. Tighten both the inside and the outside nuts onto the rotating cap so that the wind cup is secure and adjust so that the wind cup is vertical. Repeat these two steps for the other two wind cups.
Install and adjust the rotating assembly
a. Set the rotating assembly on a table and adjust all three wind cups as necessary so they are exactly vertical.
b. Remove one nut from the magnetic switch. Adjust the remaining nut to about 2.5cm from the end of the magnetic switch. Install the switch through the hole in the 3.5cm stationary cap with a flat side of the nut adjacent to the side of the stationary cap. Adjust the nut position as necessary so that the switch extends 1.5cm beyond the top of the stationary cap. Secure the magnetic switch in place with the remaining nut, tightening gently.
Caution: Tightening with too much force bends the magnetic switch case and may crack it. If you are concerned about the switch coming loose, after completing the next three steps put a dab of epoxy adhesive between the nuts and the screw threads on the magnetic switch.
1) Slide the 4.5cm screw through the ball bearing, flat washer and through the nylon spacer.
2) Thread the 4.5cm screw into the rotating cap. Tighten, but do not over tighten as it is possible to strip the screw threads in the rotating cap. Secure with the acorn nut.
3) Verify that the 5cm rotating cap turns freely, without rubbing on the 3.5cm stationary cap. Also verify that the magnetic switch does not hit the 10cm screws or nuts.
English to Chinese: Culture in non-human species General field: Science Detailed field: Science (general)
Source text - English Culture in non-human species
In 1999 Professor Andrew Whiten of the University of St Andrews, UK, teamed up with a group of luminaries in the world of primatology to catalogue chimp cultural traditions. Their combination of so much evidence, big-name authors and publication in Nature finally persuaded many animal behaviourists to embrace the idea that culture is not exclusively human. Before long, many more creatures had gained admission into the culture club, including whales and dolphins, orang-utans and capuchin monkeys. It is clear to see why social learning would be beneficial to these species. An animal that can copy behaviour already acquired by a compatriot can pick up new skills more quickly. This is particularly advantageous in fast-changing environments, where behaviours that are hard-wired into the genes would soon become redundant. But what about more "cognitively challenged" animals - would they have the brainpower to cash-in on social learning?
It has long been known that some birds learn their songs from one another, and there is now convincing evidence that they can use social learning beyond this one specific trait. Fish also learn techniques from their peers to navigate many of life's problems, from deciding what to eat and where to find food, to recognising and avoiding predators. Moving even further down the animal kingdom, there is even some evidence of social learning in insects including crickets and bees, leading some to claim that they, too, may have their own cultural traditions. It has now become clear that the fundamental building block of culture - social learning - is widespread in the animal kingdom. A conundrum remains, however. If a fish with a brain the size of a pea is sophisticated enough for social learning, how come millions of years of evolution have only produced a single species, humans, with cultural traditions as diverse as the tango and dim-sum?
One possible explanation comes from the growing realisation that learning by copying is not the unalloyed good it was once thought to be. Although social learning is an efficient way of picking up information, if used indiscriminately it can be arbitrary or even harmful. Is this where humans steal a march over other animals? Unlike many other species, we do not merely copy our parents, but instead consider everyone around us as potential role models. This should give us more opportunities to acquire useful traditions, provided that we can work out who is most likely to possess good information. Adults are known to choose the most successful, prestigious and knowledgeable individuals to copy. Even children are highly selective of who to trust, rather than blindly copying the people they know best, as had previously been believed. All of this is very sensible and clever, but there's a problem: every single one of these behaviours have previously been observed in fish. We might like to think that we are more discriminating than a fish, but perhaps what really sets us apart from other species is not who we learn from, but how we learn.
Translation - Chinese 非人类物种的文化
在1999年，英国圣安德鲁斯大学（The University of St Andrews, UK）的教授安德鲁•怀腾（Andrew Whiten）与一批灵长类动物学界的知名专家合作，编录了黑猩猩的文化传统。此次编录集合了大量的证据, 知名的作者和在《自然》 (Nature) 杂志上发表了文章，最终说服许多动物行为学家接受了文化并不是人类所专有这一观点。不久之后，更多的动物获准加入“文化俱乐部”(被承认拥有文化)，这些动物包括鲸鱼、海豚、红毛猩猩和僧帽猴。社会学习将对这些物种有益是显而易见的。动物能够模仿同类既已习得的行为能够更快地学会新技能。这种能力在瞬息万变的环境中是相当有利的，而深植于基因中的行为习惯很快将变得多余。但更多“认知能力不足”的动物会有足够的智力利用社会学习的能力吗？
English to Chinese: Gallstone Disease General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English Gallstone Disease
Most gallstone-related disease presents with pain, located typically in the epigastrium or abdominal right upper quadrant. The character of the pain varies according to the diagnosis; in most cases, it is acute and intermittent. The severity ranges from very severe pain that requires hospital admission to moderately severe pain that can be managed at home. For the less severe group, gallstone disease tends to be investigated from the outpatient clinic. Less commonly, gallstone disease presents as jaundice caused by a stone passing into and obstructing the common bile duct. Non-acute upper abdominal pain is a common cause of surgical referral, accounting for up to 7% of outpatient referrals in a general hospital. Of these, about half will be diagnosed as having gallstone disease. Furthermore, about 25% of elective abdominal operations on adults in general hospitals are performed for gallbladder disease.
Investigation of Gallbladder Pathology
Investigation for gallbladder disease aims to demonstrate the presence of stones and signs of chronic gallbladder inflammation. Ultrasonography is the mainstay of investigation but cholecystography is occasionally employed.
Ultrasonography is reliable for identifying stones in the gallbladder and increased gallbladder wall thickness (caused by inflammation or fibrosis). Ultrasound provides a simple and accurate means of demonstrating dilatation of the common duct system, which often indicates distal duct obstruction. Unfortunately, it is unreliable for identifying bile duct stones directly, particularly at the lower end. Ultrasound has the great advantage of being suitable for the seriously ill or jaundiced patient.
Oral cholecystography has now largely been superseded by ultrasonography. It provides a different perspective by showing gallbladder function and only incidentally revealing stones. It involves ingestion of contrast medium which is absorbed, excreted by the liver and then radiographically demonstrated in the extrahepatic biliary system. A radiograph of the biliary area may demonstrate stones, although only about 10% of all stones are radiopaque. It may occasionally show calcification in the pancreas (indicating previous pancreatitis), or gallbladder calcification.
Chronic Symptoms Suggesting Gallbladder Disease
Many patients are referred with a long history of almost daily pain which is poorly localised in the right upper quadrant or epigastrium. It is often accompanied by nausea or even vomiting. The pain may be exacerbated by large or fatty meals and may radiate around towards the back. The symptoms are often rather vague and ill-defined; this probably explains why patients often delay consulting a doctor. Physical examination rarely reveals more than vague upper abdominal tenderness.
Most of these patients turn out not to have gallstones on ultrasonography. The most frequent diagnosis is irritable bowel syndrome but the differential diagnosis includes peptic ulcer disease, urinary tract infection and chronic constipation. Asymptomatic gallstones are a common incidental finding and it sometimes takes fine clinical judgement to decide whether cholecystectomy is likely to cure the symptoms. When symptoms are characteristic of gallbladder disease, no special investigations other than ultrasonography are required. When the symptoms are less clear-cut, a more extensive search is necessary, perhaps including upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
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