Japanese to English: Main-Sequence Stars General field: Science Detailed field: Astronomy & Space
Source text - Japanese 原始星が十分成長し、中心部の温度がおよそ1,000万度に達すると、水素原子核4つからヘリウム原子核1つが作られる核融合反応が始まります。この状態にある星を主系列星と呼びます。太陽や夜空で輝く多くの星がこの主系列星です。恒星は一生のほとんどをこの主系列星という段階で過ごします。近年では太陽の近くにある多くの主系列星の周りに惑星が回っていることが分かっています。
Translation - English When a protostar develops to the point where its core temperature reaches about 10 million degrees Celsius, the process of nuclear fusion begins forming helium nuclei from sets of four hydrogen nuclei. Stars existing in this state are known as main-sequence stars. There are a large number of main-sequence stars, including the Sun and the stars shining in the night sky. A star spends almost all of its life in this stage. In recent years, planets have been discovered orbiting many main-sequence stars not far from the Sun.
The brightness of a main-sequence star is determined by its mass. As the mass of a star becomes larger, its brightness also rapidly increases. For example, a star with one-tenth the mass of the Sun would be about 1,000 times dimmer, whereas a star ten times more massive than the Sun would be around 10,000 times brighter. The star Deneb in the constellation Cygnus, twenty times more massive and two hundred times larger than the Sun, shines over 60,000 times more brightly. Despite the fact that massive stars such as this possess great amounts of hydrogen fuel, the intense rate of nuclear fusion reactions required to shine so brightly means that they will end their lives in a short period of time.
Nuclear fusion occurs inside a star, but not everywhere. For stars with a similar mass to the Sun, nuclear fusion takes place in approximately 25% of the core. High-energy light (gamma rays) generated by the nuclear reactions in the core passes through a layer of plasma in the interior of the star as it heads to the surface. However, since this plasma is more than ten times as dense as metals found on Earth, the light collides wildly with electrons and protons and gradually loses energy. Upon reaching an area about 30% from the surface, the light is absorbed by gas, transferring its energy and becoming unable to continue on. From here, the energy that was carried by light from the core is transported to the outer area of the star via gas convection and makes its way to the outside. It is believed to take about 20,000 years for light generated in core nuclear fusion reactions to arrive at the surface of the star through these various mechanisms.
Japanese to English: Form of Interstellar Matter General field: Science Detailed field: Astronomy & Space
At first glance, the vast space that exists between stars appears to be entirely empty. However, contained within that space are gigantic, formless clouds of matter. This matter consists primarily of molecular or neutral hydrogen gas, along with trace amounts of heavier atoms and molecules such as calcium, sodium, water vapor, ammonia, methanal, and carbon dioxide. Microscopic dust exists in large quantities, although its composition has not yet been identified. A magnetic field can also be found weaving its way through interstellar space. The total amount of interstellar matter in the Milky Way adds up to about 1,010 times that of the Sun, which corresponds to approximately 5% of the total galactic mass. The majority of this is in the form of molecular hydrogen. Interstellar gas and dust is generally clumped together into cloud-like structures; occasionally, this material condenses enough to form a star. Meanwhile, stars discharge matter during violent explosive events known as supernovae, as well as through novae and the formation of planetary nebulae. In addition, recent discoveries suggest that newly formed stars eject a steady stream of material, creating a reverse flow of matter back into the interstellar medium. Matter undergoing these types of processes returns to interstellar space to be used again in future star formation. Every single atom that makes up the human body was originally forged inside a star; after traveling back and forth between stars and the interstellar medium many times over, the particles became attached to the Earth during the formation of the Solar System.
Japanese to English: Crested Ibis Restoration General field: Science Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - Japanese トキを野生復帰させるために，環境庁（現・環境省）は自然環境や社会環境整備について関係行政機関，団体，専門家，地域住民等の各主体が取り組むべき課題とそのための手法を明らかにし，トキと共存しうる地域社会を構築することを目的に「共生と循環の地域社会づくりモデル事業（佐渡地域）」を平成12年度より開始しました。新潟県もこれに連動して「トキの住む島づくり事業」を平成13 年度より開始しましたが，1）自然環境整備の遅れ，2）必要な科学的データの不足，3）地元住民の意識と行政の乖離，4）循環型農林業の担い手不足など深刻な問題が多かったため，平成14 年度に日本経団連自然保護基金の助成を得て，新潟大学農学部附属フィールド科学教育研究センター佐渡ステーションの教員と地元ボランティアにより，上記問題群に対処することを目的として活動を開始しました。
Translation - English In an effort to restore the crested ibis in the wild, the Environment Agency (now the Ministry of the Environment) initiated the “Pilot Project for Building Mutual and Renewable Communities (Sado Region)” in the year 2000 with the goal of developing local communities that are able to coexist with crested ibises as well as of defining the challenges of environmental and public works reform that should be addressed by relevant administrative bodies, organizations, experts, and local residents, in addition to the methods for dealing with these issues. Niigata Prefecture also jointly launched the “Crested Ibis Island Development Project” in 2001; however, due to serious problems such as 1) delays in environmental improvements, 2) insufficient scientific data, 3) a divide between the government and the attitudes of local citizens, and 4) a lack of support for renewable agriculture and forestry, in 2002 the assistance of the Keidanren Nature Conservation Fund was obtained and work aimed at tackling the above set of issues began with the help of teaching staff from Niigata University’s Field Center for Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry Sado Station and local volunteers.
Japanese to English: Concentrations of Radioactive Cesium in Soil Near Fukushima General field: Science Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - Japanese とくに警戒区域および計画的避難区域において農地土壌中の放射性セシウム濃度は高かった。なお、コメの作付け基準である土壌中の放射性セシウム濃度が5,000 Bq/kg乾土を超えると推定される農地の95%以上は警戒区域および計画的避難区域の両区域に集中していた。中通り地方では、土壌中の放射性セシウム濃度が帯状に高くなる傾向が認められ、その濃度範囲が1,000～5,000 Bq/kg乾土であると推定される農地が多かった。福島県中通り地方で認められた帯状の汚染域は宮城県南東部から栃木県の中部にまで達していた（図1-14、図1-16）。また、群馬県の中山間地域および茨城県霞ケ浦周辺で農地土壌中の放射性セシウム濃度は高い傾向を示した（図1-15、図1-17）。福島県会津地方に分布する農地のほぼ全てにおいて、放射性セシウム濃度は1,000 Bq/kg乾土以下であると推定された。
Translation - English Hazard areas and planned evacuation areas in particular had farmland soil with high concentrations of radioactive cesium. Furthermore, over 95% of farmland containing dried-soil concentrations estimated to exceed the 5,000 Bq/kg standard for rice planting was concentrated within these areas. In the Nakadori region, a belt-shaped swath of high cesium concentrations was observed, within which numerous tracts of farmland were estimated to contain dried-soil concentrations between 1,000 Bq/kg and 5,000 Bq/kg. This belt-shaped contamination area extended north into the southeastern region of Miyagi and south as far as the central region of Tochigi (Figures 1-14 and 1-16). A trend of high soil concentrations was also indicated in the farmland of mountainous regions in Gunma as well as in areas around Kasumigaura in Ibaraki Prefecture (Figures 1-15 and 1-17). Almost all of the dried-soil concentrations in Fukushima's Aizu region were estimated to fall below 1,000 Bq/kg.
Japanese to English: Closely Related Keys General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Music
Source text - Japanese 近代和声では長調・短調それぞれに12の調があります。この中でも密接な関係にある調を「近親調」と呼びます。最も近親関係が深い調は次の四つです。それ以外は、「遠隔調」と呼ばれます。
Translation - English Modern harmony consists of 12 major keys and 12 minor keys. Among these, keys that have a close connection with each other are known as “closely related keys.” The following four key relationships have the strongest link. Keys other than these are referred to as “distantly related keys.”
Keys that have the same tonic note are called parallel keys. For example, the parallel key for C major is C minor, while the parallel key for C minor is C major. Relative keys share the same key signature; the relative key for C major is A minor, and the relative key for A minor is C major. The tonic notes of relative keys are always related by an interval of a minor third. In a dominant key, the tonic note is a perfect fifth above that of the original key. Dominant keys can be thought of as taking the dominant chord of a key and making it the tonic chord. The dominant key of C major is G major, while the dominant key of G major is D major. Similarly, the dominant key of A minor is E minor. Key signatures in dominant keys have either one more sharp or one less flat than their corresponding tonic keys. Finally, subdominant keys have a tonic note which is a perfect fifth below (a perfect fourth above) the root note of the original key. F major is the subdominant key of C major. Dominant and subdominant keys form exact pairs – if the dominant key of C major is G major, then the subdominant key of G major is C major.
Japanese to English: Modulation General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Music
Source text - Japanese 転調とは文字通り調を転ずることである。 転調と一言でいっても、 他調の和音を臨時借用するだけの一時的な転調もあるし、 反対に新たな調に完全に移るような転調もある。 新たな調を確固たるものにするためには、 その調の終止形を完全な形で登場させなければならない。 従ってそうしない場合は一時的な転調であるか、 或いは転調する際の経過的な調である。
Translation - English Modulation refers to a shift in key. The term encompasses both temporary modulation, in which chords from other keys are merely borrowed for a short time, as well as cases where complete modulation into a new key occurs. In order to firmly establish a new key, a perfect-form cadence in that key must appear. Therefore, instances where this does not take place are either temporary modulations or else transitional keys used for modulating to some other key.
Major and minor keys with the same tonic, such as C major and C minor, are called parallel keys. The point that separates these two keys – the boundary between them – is ultimately the tonic chord. This is because the dominant chord in a minor key, which as we know is changed from a minor triad to a major triad, is in a way being borrowed from the dominant chord of the parallel major key. Although rarer than in minor keys, this same borrowing also occurs in major keys; namely, the subdominant chord of a major key is changed to a minor triad. Consequently, the difference between major and minor keys can be narrowed down to only the tonic chord. Because the tonic chord should be the primary anchor of a key, it alone is sufficient to characterize major and minor keys. This phenomenon of mixing major and minor keys by utilizing the close relationship between parallel keys can be seen often.
Japanese to English: Laser Fundamentals General field: Science Detailed field: Physics
Translation - English 11-1. Basic Laser Operating Principles
(1) Light emission and absorption
Atoms and molecules possess energy, but values for this energy can only be obtained at certain intervals. The lowest energy value is referred to as the ground state, while higher energy levels are referred to as the excited state. When a transition is made from a higher energy state (E2) to a lower energy state (E1), light is emitted. The wavelength of this light (v) can be approximated by E2 – E1 = hv, where h is Planck’s constant. Conversely, absorption of light with wavelength v will cause excitement from the E1 state to the E2 state.
(2) Stimulated emission of light
Light can be emitted through both spontaneous emission and stimulated emission. In spontaneous emission, the transition from the excited state occurs incidentally and light is emitted irregularly. In stimulated emission, however, atoms and molecules in the excited state are acted upon by the light frequency v determined by E2 – E1 = hv, which results in a phenomenon in which the emitted light is identical in direction, frequency, phase, and polarization to the incident light, and proportional to its intensity.
(3) Population inversion and pumping
In normal thermal equilibrium, the number of atoms in the E1 ground state is greater than the number of atoms in the E2 excited state, which results in the occurrence of more absorption than emission. On the other hand, when the number of low-energy E1 atoms becomes less than the number of high-energy E2 atoms, more emission than absorption will occur - a state known as population inversion. In order to achieve population inversion, external energy must be supplied to the atoms or molecules. This supply of energy is known as “pumping.” The pumping method depends on the type of laser; for gas lasers, electric discharge is induced by applying high voltage to the gas, while ruby lasers accomplish the task by irradiating a ruby with a xenon flashtube.
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