English to Croatian: Mosquitoes now developing resistance to DEET bug spray chemical General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English PORTFOLIO - ENGLISH TO CROATIAN
Source website for this article is http://www.naturalnews.com.
Translated by Sunčana Kursan.
Mosquitoes now developing resistance to DEET bug spray chemical
Wednesday, March 06, 2013 by: Ethan A. Huff, staff writer
(NaturalNews) Millions of Americans spray it on their bodies in the summertime to avoid getting mosquito bites, but the popular insect repellant chemical DEET appears to be going the way of antibiotics in losing its efficacy over time. A recent study published in the journal PLoS One reveals that mosquitoes are becoming increasingly less responsive to DEET, and are even now learning how to shut off their senses when exposed to it.
For their research, Dr. James Logan and his colleagues from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine studied the effects of DEET on the Aedes aegypti mosquito type, which is known to bite during the day and transmit deadly diseases like yellow fever and dengue fever. Dr. Logan and his team exposed the mosquitoes to small amounts of DEET, and tracked their behavior throughout the course of several hours.
What they observed is that, following three hours after exposure, many of the mosquitoes were no longer averse to DEET as they were during the first three hours. As it turns out, even minimal exposure to DEET resulted in the mosquitoes developing a type of immunity to the chemical, which was observed to no longer be effective beyond three hours after exposure.
"We think that the mosquitoes are habituating to the repellant, similar to a phenomenon seen with the human sense of smell also," explains Dr. Logan about his findings. "Our study shows that the effects of this exposure last up to three hours," he adds, noting that mosquitoes previously exposed to DEET eventually adapt to it, and are no longer affected by it.
It is believed that the sensory receptors of mosquitoes gradually shut down following exposure to DEET, which results in the creatures no longer being able to smell or sense it. As a result, these DEET-exposed mosquitoes are likely to return to human skin that has already been sprayed with DEET and try to tap it for blood, as if it had never been sprayed in the first place.
The findings build upon earlier research by Dr. Logan, which hypothesized a genetic factor that resulted in some mosquitoes not responding to DEET. As reported by Nature back in 2010, some mosquito types have actually evolved to overcome the intended effects of DEET, thanks to a dominant gene that is sometimes passed down through mosquito families.
"That there might actually be a gene lurking in the background in mosquitoes that causes DEET resistance is the single most surprising result," said Leslie Vosshall of Rockefeller University in New York City to Nature about the earlier study. "This hasn't really been reported before."
Translation - Croatian
PORTFOLIO - ENGLESKI U HRVATSKI
Članak je preuzet s web stranice http://www.naturalnews.com.
Prevela Sunčana Kursan.
Komarci sada razvijaju otpornost na kemijski preparat u spreju protiv kukaca DEET
Srijeda, 6. ožujka 2013. g., autor: Ethan A. Huff, stalno zaposleni pisac
(NaturalNews) Milijuni Amerikanaca koriste ga kako bi izbjegli ugrize komaraca tijekom ljeta, no čini se da tijekom vremena popularni kemijski repelent protiv insekata DEET, baš poput antibiotika, prestaje biti učinkovit. U nedavno objavljenom članku u časopisu PLoS One izneseno je opažanje da su komarci sve otporniji na DEET te da postupno uče kako isključiti svoje osjete kada su mu izloženi.
Kako bi proveo ovo istraživanje, dr. James Logan sa Londonske škole higijene i tropske medicine, proučavao je utjecaj DEETa na vrsti komaraca Aedes aegypti koja je poznata po tome što grize po danu i prenosi smrtonosne bolesti poput žute groznice i denga groznice. Dr. Logan i njegov tim izložili su komarce malim količinama DEETa te pratili njihovo ponašanje tijekom perioda od nekoliko sati.
Uočili su da tri sata nakon izloženosti mnoge komarce DEET više nije odbijao, kao što je to bio slučaj tijekom prva tri sata. Ispostavilo se da čak i pri minimalnoj izloženosti DEETu komarci postaju imuni na tu kemikaliju, te da već tri sata nakon izloženosti ona prestaje biti učinkovita.
"Mišljenja smo da se komarci privikavaju na repelent slično fenomenu viđenom kod ljudskog osjeta mirisa", objašnjava svoj pronalazak dr. Logan. "Naše istraživanje je pokazalo da učinci te izloženosti traju do tri sata", dodao je, posebno naglasivši da se komarci koji su bili izloženi DEETu naposljetku priviknu na njega i nisu više podložni njegovom utjecaju.
Vjeruje se da se kroz izlaganje DEETu osjetilni receptori komaraca postupno zatvaraju rezultirajući nemogućnošću komaraca da ga ponovno nanjuše ili osjete. Kao rezultat, komarci koji su bili izloženi DEETu vraćaju se na ljudsku kožu već posprejanu DEETom kako bi ju pokušali ubosti baš kao da nikada prije nije bila nasprejana.
Ovi pronalasci temelje se na ranijem istraživanju dr. Logana u kojem je postavljena hipoteza da postoji genetski čimbenik zbog kojeg pojedini komarci ne reagiraju na DEET. Kao što je navedeno u časopisu Nature iz 2010. g., zahvaljujući dominantnom genu koji se ponekad prenosi kroz obitelji komaraca, došlo je do evolucije nekih vrsta komaraca u vidu prevladavanja ciljanih učinaka DEETa.
"Činjenica da bi kod komaraca uistinu mogao postojati skriveni gen koji uzrokuje otpornost na DEET, jest veoma iznenađujući rezultat.", izjavila je vezano uz svoja prethodna istraživanja za Nature Leslie Vosshall sa Sveučilišta Rockefeller u New Yorku. "Ovo zapravo nikada prije nije bilo zabilježeno."
Years of translation experience: 6. Registered at ProZ.com: Feb 2013. Became a member: Feb 2013.
English (Cambridge University (ESOL Examinations), verified) Chinese (China University of Geosciences, Wuhan,Language Di, verified) Chinese (China University of Geosciences, verified)
Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Photoshop, AutoCAD, CafeTran Espresso, MemSource Cloud, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Office Pro, Microsoft Word, Passolo, Powerpoint, SDL TRADOS, SDLX, Wordfast, XTM
firstly, we, as a family of engineers, have been doing technical translations for six years especially translations of user manuals, user guides, training documents, product guides, operating instructions.
During past six years we have been doing transcription, subtitling, software and website localization, translation, proofreading and editing work. We've been transcribing and subtitling Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian and Montenegrin. We've been translating English to Croatian.
Our speciality is translation of documents/manuals with engineering content (IT, Computer Sciences, Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Architecture, Power Engineering etc.).
Secondly, Croatian is our native language. We hold credentials in English.
Suncana is a Master in Civil engineering (University of Zagreb, Croatia) and Ivan is Ph.D. in Electrical engineering in the field of Electrical Power Systems and Automation (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China). We have spent several years in People's Republic of China doing some extra schooling in Environmental and Power Engineering.
We would charge 140 EUR per an hour of transcription, 0.06 EUR per source word (25 EUR per hour) of translation from English to Croatian. For subtitling we would charge 0.1 EUR per second of audio.
For proofreading we would charge 0.03 EUR per source word.
Number of words on average would be 1500 per day/10000 per week.
We assure you won't regret giving us an opportunity to show you our translation expertise. We are very interested in working as freelancers for your company, and we are confident that you will be happy with our work as other clients were before.
For your further information we enclose our curriculum vitae with references. Hoping that you will consider our application, we look forward to hearing from you soon.
Suncana & Ivan Kursan
This user has earned KudoZ points by helping other translators with PRO-level terms. Click point total(s) to see term translations provided.