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Portuguese to English: Carbon, Nitrogen, and the Natural Abundance of 13C and 15N in Macro and Microaggregates General field: Science
Source text - Portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivos mensurar os teores de carbono, nitrogênio e abundância natural de 13C e 15N dos agregados do solo sob sistema plantio direto (SPD) e sistema de preparo convencional (SPC) e compará-los com áreas de floresta e pastagem no Sul do Brasil. Foram quantificados o C, N e a abundância natural de 13C e 15N dos macro e microagregados do solo nas camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm. Maiores variações nos teores de C e N foram encontradas para a classe de 8-2 mm, com a seqüência pastagem > floresta = SPD > SPC, em comparação a classe de 0,25-0,105 mm. Os valores de 13C mais negativos foram verificados nos microagregados e os menos negativos foram encontrados nos macroagregados.
O uso das práticas de aração e gradagem no SPC ocasionam a ruptura dos agregados do solo, acelerando as reações de mineralização da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS) e desfavorecendo a oclusão da MOS nos agregados, culminando em maiores valores de 15N em comparação aos demais sistemas avaliados. As maiores variações nos teores de C para a classe de 8-2 mm e menores variações na classe de 0,25-0,150 mm indicam que há maior e menor sensibilidade ao manejo adotado nessas áreas e menor e maior proteção do C por essas classes de agregados, respectivamente. Nas áreas de SPD, floresta e pastagem, o N é mais suscetível a mineralização nos macroagregados, principalmente a classe de 8-2 mm, quando comparada com os microagregados.
Translation - English The objective of this work was to measure the levels of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and the natural abundance of 13C and 15N in the soil aggregates in a no-tillage system (NTS) and a conventional tillage system (CTS) and compare them with areas of forest and pasture in southern Brazil. We quantified the C, N, and natural abundance of 13C and 15N of the macro and microaggregates of the soil in the 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm layers. Greater variations in C and N levels were found for the 8-2 mm aggregate class, with the sequence pasture > forest = NTS > CTS, in comparison with the 0.25-0.105 mm class. The most negative 13C values were found in the microaggregates, while the least negative values were found in the macroaggregates.
Plowing and harrowing in the CTS cause the fracturing of soil aggregates, thus accelerating the mineralization reactions of soil organic matter (SOM) and discouraging the occlusion of SOM in the aggregates, which results in higher 15N values in comparison with the other systems evaluated. The larger variations in C content for the 8-2 mm class and smaller variations in the 0.25-0.15 mm class indicate that there is higher and lower sensitivity to the management system adopted in these areas, and lesser and greater protection, respectively, of the C by these aggregate classes. In the NTS's forest and pasture areas, the N is more susceptible to mineralization in the macroaggregates, especially the 8-2 mm class, when compared with the microaggregates.
Years of translation experience: 11. Registered at ProZ.com: Apr 2015.
During the more than 13 years I have lived in Brazil, I have sought to maximize the acquisition of my source language (Portuguese) through the active pursual of various study opportunities in a wide range of areas (e.g., Portuguese grammar preparatory courses for public service exams, aviation courses, tourist guide training, cinematographic language and production assistant courses, as well as short courses in permaculture, agroecology and bioarchitecture, among many other experiences). More importantly, the knowledge and command of my target language (English) has been honed over these last 13 years, principally from 8 years as an ESL teacher. Being an English teacher — exclusively at a high/advanced level towards the end, preparing students for TOEFL and other tests at a similar level — was an excellent opportunity for improving my overall knowledge of the English language, and as a result I was able to transition into fulltime translation as well as copy-editing of manuscripts written in English by Portuguese native speakers — usually for publication in scientific journals. Besides my translation work, I am a BELS-certified Editor in the Life Sciences (ELS), and I am currently fulfilling the requirements for the Council of Science Editors (CSE) Publication Certificate Program.
In short, I believe that the last 13 years has been an excellent training experience so that I am, at this point in time, capable of delivering to clients the difference required to stand out from the crowd. After several years of translating material on a wide range of subjects, I have narrowed down the field to now focus on the areas in which I both enjoy translating and for which I consider myself to be well prepared: Education, Marketing, Economics, Cinema, IT, Geosciences, Construction/Civil Engineering, Materials Science, Agriculture, Horticulture, Agroecology, Renewable Energy, and Sustainable Development.
Although most of my current client base is composed of companies and individuals not associated with ProZ, I believe that there are many great opportunities available worldwide that are never realized because the opportunity to “meet” never eventuates. So, if my profile is in agreement with what you are searching for in a translator, I look forward to hearing from you.
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