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English to Thai: ฺBangkok Green Growth Study General field: Other Detailed field: Economics
Source text - English EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report analyses the economic and environmental performance of Thailand’s Bangkok Metropolitan Region (hereafter BMR), identifying its best practices for green growth in policy and governance, and providing recommendations to enhance its green growth potential. Due to limited data availability, some analyses cover only the City of Bangkok, the area administered by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), while others encompass the wider BMR.
Green growth aims to safeguard the natural assets, resources and environmental services on which our well-being relies. Urban green growth encourages economic development though urban activities that reduce negative environmental externalities, impact on natural resources and pressure on the ecosystem. Such policies and programmes are intended to reduce either i) negative environmental externalities (for example, air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions that arise from urban activities) or ii) the consumption of natural resources and environmental assets, including water, energy and undeveloped land.
In 2010, the BMR, consisting of City of Bangkok and the Provinces of Nakhon Pathom, Pathum Thani, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakan and Samut Sakhon, was home to an estimated 14.5 million people, including unregistered migrant workers and commuters from surrounding provinces. This represented just over 20% of the national population. It generated 44.2% of the national gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012, more than double its population share. Services constitute an important share of the economy, but manufacturing still plays an important role. BMR’s green growth challenges include increasing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, the depletion of natural assets, traffic congestion, management of wastewater and solid waste, and high exposure and vulnerability to seasonal floods.
As a dynamic and emerging market economy, Thailand has recorded strong growth over recent decades and is expected to continue to do so, but this growth has come at a high environmental cost. The challenge is therefore to improve the environmental outcome while supporting continued growth in output and living standards. Thailand's government and BMA have taken steps to encourage green growth in the BMR, but much untapped potential remains, particularly in the following areas: land use and transport, renewable energy and energy efficiency in buildings, and water resources and solid waste management. Resilience to floods is also an urgent cross-cutting issue that requires further attention.
English to Thai: Fabrication and Characterization of a Phosphate Glass/Hydroxyapatite Scaffold for Palate Repair General field: Science Detailed field: Materials (Plastics, Ceramics, etc.)
Source text - English ABSTRACT
Bone grafting is the standard method of treatment for cleft palate patients. However, a downside to this method is that it requires multiple surgeries to fill the gap in the mouth. Bone tissue engineering, fabricating artificial bone based on synthetic biomaterials, can be employed as a solution to this problem. The objectives of this research focus on preparing phosphate glass and hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as developing appropriate forming conditions for scaffold based on the polymeric replication method. In order to evaluate proper conditions for scaffold fabrication, a central composite design (CCD) was applied. Two factors were considered: amount of calcium oxide (CaO (%mol)) and sintering temperature (°C). Each factor was presented as two levels, high level: using 40 %mol of CaO and sintering at 750 °C, and low level: using 30 %mol of CaO and sintering at 600 °C. Porosity, compressive strength, and biodegradation were experiment responses. Result showed optimal conditions for scaffold fabrication using 40 %mol of CaO and sintering at 750 °C. Satisfactory scaffold was obtained under these conditions. The following were reported as scaffold properties: 82.83% porosity, compressive strength of 5.81 MPa, and 0.25% biodegradation after seven days. In addition, scaffolds containing 40 %mol of CaO and sintered at 750 °C were examined in order to determine pore size using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and biocompatibility was tested using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The results showed that scaffold pore size was in the 240 - 360 µm range and this scaffold was not toxic to living cells. In conclusion, scaffold containing 40 %mol of CaO sintered at 750 °C had appropriate properties as a suitable scaffold candidate. It may be applied as a bone tissue engineering technique for cleft palate patient treatment.