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English to Chinese: Introduction to the Animal Kingdom General field: Other Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - English From the moment XXX Animal Kingdom opened its doors on Earth Day 1998, it had incredible potential that only felt partially realized. Mired with a Beastly Kingdom that wasn’t to be and lacking in number of traditional XXX theme park attractions, Animal Kingdom’s attendance wasn’t up to par but worse guests had little reason to stay past dusk. Over the years, several attempts by the XXX Company to mollify the situation have helped. The one with greatest stature and biggest impact since park opening came in 2006 when Expedition Everest – Legend of the Forbidden Mountain brought the tale of the Yeti to Animal Kingdom’s lineup. The thrilling themed coaster attraction was an instant hit, serving up some of XXX best theming alongside a tight storyline and innovative ride experience. It boosted the attendance at XXX Animal Kingdom seemingly overnight and it showed that an expansion could provide the park the spark it needed. The way forward for Animal Kingdom was now illuminated but for numerous reasons it would still take another decade before the XXX Company would truly turn XXX Animal Kingdom into a theme park worthy of your precious Disney nighttime vacation hours. Today our journey begins where it shall all culminate in 2017, in a new XXX theme park realm that brings another larger than life world to ours and will elevate XXX Animal Kingdom in ways we have yet to imagine.
Translation - Chinese 从1998年地球日XXX动物王国正式开放的那一刻起，它就拥有着未被充分意识到的巨大潜力。作为一个新建的野兽王国，缺乏传统的XXX主题公园卖点，动物王国的游客人数不尽人意，更糟的是，一到黄昏时分，游客就觉得这里令人兴味索然。多年以来，华特XXX公司屡出新招以扭转局面，终于稍见起色。自开园以来，影响最大、知名度最高的莫过于2006年推出的珠峰探险 - 禁山传奇了，它给动物王国的活动列表新增了雪人传奇。惊险刺激的过山车立刻引起轰动，成为XXX主题最佳、情节紧凑而又独出心裁的乘骑体验。似乎一夜之间，XXX动物王国的游客人数暴涨。这表明扩建给公园带来了它所需要的灵感和魅力。现在，XXX动物王国的前路一片光明，但因为种种原因，还需要再花上10年时间华特XXX公司才可以真正把XXX动物王国打造成您所钟爱的夜间游乐主题公园。今天，我们已经启程，2017年一个新的XXX主题公园即将问世。这将带给我们又一个不同凡响的世界，也会让XXX动物王国以我们未曾想象过的方式臻于完美。
English to Chinese: Snoring General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - English Snoring is the often loud or harsh sound that can occur as you sleep. You snore when the flow of air as you breathe makes the tissues in the back of your throat vibrate. The sound most often occurs as you breathe in air, and can come through the nose, mouth or a combination of the two. It can occur during any stage of sleep.
About half of people snore at some point in their lives. Snoring is more common in men, though many women snore. It appears to run in families and becomes more common as you get older. About 40 percent of adult men and 24 percent of adult women are habitual snorers. Men become less likely to snore after the age of 70.
Sleeping on your back may make you more likely to snore. It may also occur as your throat muscles relax from use of alcohol or other depressants. Congestion from a cold or allergies can also cause you to snore.
Snoring can be a nuisance to your partner and anyone else nearby. You may even snore loudly enough to wake yourself up. Though, in many cases people do not realize that they snore. Snoring can also cause you to have a dry mouth or sore or irritated throat when you wake up.
Light snoring may not disrupt your overall sleep quality. Heavy snoring may be associated with obstructive sleep apnea, a serious sleep disorder and a risk factor for heart disease, stroke, diabetes and many other health problems.
Snoring vs. Sleep Apnea
Snoring can be a symptom of obstructive sleep apnea but not everyone who snores has the sleep disorder. Obstructive sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that causes you to temporarily stop breathing when you are asleep. If you are regularly tired during the day even though you have had sufficient sleep or if your snoring is paired with choking or gasping sound, you may have sleep apnea. A sleep medicine physician is trained to detect and diagnose sleep apnea using an in-lab sleep study or home sleep testing. Sleep apnea is manageable using several approaches including CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), oral appliance therapy and surgery.
English to Chinese: COPD 和呼吸困难 General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - English Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term used for lung disorders such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and in some cases chronic asthma. People with COPD may have difficulty breathing, chronic cough, fatigue, and chest tightening. COPD can also result in reduced blood oxygen levels, causing fatigue and leading to adverse health conditions. Sleep problems and sleepiness are common in COPD patients, partly due to symptoms but also because of the medications used to treat COPD. In addition, changes in breathing patterns that occur during normal sleep that do not affect healthy people may lead to more severe consequences in people with COPD, which may worsen and complicate COPD since they reduce blood oxygen. Even COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may experience a drop in oxygen during sleep.
COPD develops slowly and is rare in people under the age of 40. It is progressive, meaning that it does not go away and may worsen over time, depending on when treatment is initiated. According to COPD International , 12 million Americans currently have COPD and an estimated 12 million more are undiagnosed. Smoking is the main cause of COPD but it is also linked with exposure to second hand smoke and/or other environmental pollutants. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, according to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
For people with COPD, symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and frequent nighttime urination may profoundly impact sleep. In addition, medications used to treat COPD may cause insomnia or daytime sleepiness. Simply having to wake up and take prescriptions on schedule may also disturb sleep.
Overlap syndrome is a term used for patients with both COPD and OSA. Overlap syndrome, which research suggests occurs in 10-15% of COPD patients, is associated with a reduction of blood oxygen levels during sleep, which may cause extreme fatigue and other health problems. If you have COPD and suspect that you may also suffer from OSA, talk to your physician about treatment options, including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Research suggests that treatment of overlap
syndrome with CPAP improves lung function. Another study suggests that it may improve erectile dysfunction in men with overlap syndrome.
COPD is linked with heart disease. Specifically, COPD is one of the most common causes of "cor pulmonale," an enlargement in the right ventricle which leads to failure of the right side of the heart, according to a recent study . When COPD is combined with OSA, the prevalence of cor pulmonale can be as high as 80%, according to one analysis , which also found that less than a third of COPD patients with cor pulmonale survive longer than five years.
COPD is a life-threatening disease that requires major medical intervention and may result in early death. Unfortunately, COPD is often diagnosed once it has progressed from mild to severe and there is little opportunity for stopping or reversing its course. If you feel you may suffer from COPD, see a physician about your symptoms as soon as possible. If you have already been diagnosed with COPD, follow your treatment plan as directed and be vigilant about eating healthy and sleeping well.
Morning cough is often the earliest sign of the disease, followed by noisy breathing, chest pain, and breathlessness. People with COPD sometimes develop a barrel-shaped chest due to an enlargement of the lungs. Other symptoms include:
Chronic cough that produces sputum
Wheezing, whistling, or hissing sound with breathing
Chest pain or tightening
Frequent nighttime urination
There is no cure for COPD, but there are treatments for its symptoms, including drug therapies, and behavioral remedies, and - rarely - surgery. In some cases, it is possible to alleviate symptoms by quitting smoking or avoiding environmental pollutants. Medications and rehabilitation therapies may also minimize or eliminate symptoms. In rare cases, surgery to reduce lung volume or lung transplantation is recommended, but these procedures carry severe risks. Supplemental oxygen is commonly prescribed for COPD patient and has been shown to increase the quality and quantity of patients' lives.
Getting adequate sleep is essential to maintaining health
in COPD patients. If you have symptoms of insomnia such as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up unrefreshed, talk to your doctor about treatment options. Keep in mind that certain store-purchased and prescription sleep aids may impair breathing in COPD patients. One exception is ramelteon, which was studied in mild and moderate COPD patients and found to not harm their breathing.
In addition to spending enough time sleeping, sleep quality is also important. Conditions such as overlap syndrome - having both COPD and OSA - can seriously undermine health. If you have COPD as well as symptoms of OSA, talk to your physician about treatment options, including the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).
In addition to quitting smoking and the other self-directed therapies mentioned under "treatment," getting adequate sleep is essential to feeling well and maintaining overall health. This can be challenging for COPD patients. Here are some tips for getting the sleep you need:
Maintain a regular sleep and wake schedule
Establish a regular relaxing bedtime routine
Use your bed only for sleep and sex, not for other stimulating activities
Create a sleep environment that is cool, dark, and comfortable
Avoid caffeine in the hours before bedtime
In addition to healthy sleep, try these tips for coping with COPD:
Conserve energy by limiting activities and getting adequate sleep
Develop an exercise plan in consultation with your physician
Keep your home free of smoke and airborne irritants
Join a respiration rehabilitation group
Take naps as needed, but not close to bedtime
Eat healthy high-protein foods
Seek support from family and friends
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