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Japanese to English: Electronics Product Description ＷＣＳ床暖房（電子工学） General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - Japanese 1.WCSとは
3. Simulation house and heater
4. Temperature change and power consumption
5. Comparison of wcs thickness
6. Efficient use of aluminum foil for heater
7. Energy saving
Translation - English 1.About WCS
Wood Ceramics (WCS) are a variety of composite material consisting of hard, glassy carbon formed from phenol resin and soft carbon found in wood; the dynamic properties etc. of which can be changed in relation to the ratio of each component used.
They can also be used in the production of porous, anisotropic materials by utilizing the porous, anisotropic structure of wood and woody material.
Additionally, woody resources can be produced sustainably as the raw materials required to make them are water, carbon dioxide and solar energy.
For this experiment we created each WCS panel to be 15cm and 3cm in depth using a powder method, as per figure 1, with the intention of laying them out under the floor of a house.
When making the WCS panels, we used a carbon/phenol ratio of 3:1 that had been heated in an incubator at 140°C for approximately 4 hours.
3. Simulation house and heater
We created a simulation house (floor surface 910x910mm, height 1820mm), as per figure 3, so that we could take measurements in conditions similar to an installation found in a real house, before performing a comparison experiment.
We used polyurethane foam for the floor, and a glass wool heat insulating material for the walls.
Regarding the positional relationship between the heater and the WCS, as per figure 4, we examined the WCS when placed above and below the heater.
We also verified the effectiveness of aluminum foil when applied to the WCS.
4. Temperature change and power consumption
As per table 5, initially, the WCS (30mm thickness) that we inserted removed heat, and while the temperature of the side of the WCS that was touching the heater was low, after about 5 hours there was hardly any difference.
Also, the temperature didn't drop suddenly even when turning the power off.
As per table 6, if you insert WCS for a period of 10 hours then it will consume a large amount of electricity. This is because electricity is used for heat storage.
Figure 7 shows the on/off pattern (initial power up) for the thermostat. We found that electricity is used to increase the temperature of the WCS even when inserted at this stage.
5. Comparison of wcs thickness
Figure 8 shows how we compared the electricity consumed by two 30mm, 15mm WCS panels, and how we made adjustments to provide roughly the same temperature across the surface of the floor.
If we compare the electricity consumed, as per these two graphs, the 30mm panel appears to consume more at first, but after an average of 20 hours, we found that it slightly reduced electricity consumed (by an average of 0.98mA).
We found that the thin 15mm panel increased the temperature faster.
6. Efficient use of aluminum foil for heater
We verified the effectiveness of WCS's energy conservation by spreading aluminum foil over the lower part of the heater to reduce heat lost.
Figure 10 shows the change in temperature.
We compared and adjusted the temperature so that it would be roughly the same over the surface of the floor. Figure 11 shows the amount of electricity consumed. After approximately 10 hours of monitoring, we were able to confirm an average energy saving effect of 0.4mA.
7. Energy saving
The model, which used the WCS panel that showed the least variance in the test data when wrapped in aluminum, had approximately 4mA less electricity consumption, and after seeking an hourly consumption rate, we attained an energy saving effect of 0.4W per hour.
We attained a yearly energy saving effect of 53kw, or 1431 yen (based on 1kw equaling 27 yen), when used eight hours a day for three months in an average Japanese house (138.2m²).
We confirmed the following things after using WCS in floor heating. We are unable to confirm the energy saving effect in short term floor heating due to WCS's heat storing properties, although we did find a slight effect after long term use. Also, it takes time for the temperature to lower even if you turn the switch off.
An energy saving effect of 2–3% when using for 3 hours or more can be expected.
If there is insufficient insulation around the heater it is more energy efficient to forego use of WCS as it will increase the area of heat radiation.
WCS is less effective when compared to a kotatsu heater (as the heater has a low temperature).
Unless used continuously over a long period or for 24 hour floor heating etc., the energy saving effect will be limited.
Japanese to English: Car Manual 車のマニュアル General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Automotive / Cars & Trucks
Source text - Japanese ２． 運転の停止
Translation - English 2. Stopping the operation
The operation will stop in one of the following three ways:
1: standard completion (the operation stops after the completion of a set operating cycle).
2: temporary stop (the operation stops when the toggle switch is turned to [STOP] on the operating panel).
3: irregular stop (the operation stops due to an irregularity while testing).
Caution: during the RUN operation, each motor will stop in accordance with a standard completion or an irregular stop, meaning the operation will remain ongoing for motors other than the one selected. An initialization operation is required to restart the selected motor.
During a temporary stop, all the motors will stop. To restart, turn the toggle switch on the operating panel to [RUN] and the operation will continue from where it left off.
3. Operation status monitor
To check the status of the operation, press the [monitor] switch on the menu screen to display the monitor screen (figure 19). Firstly, the M1 (motor 1) monitor screen will be displayed. To change the motor to be monitored, touch the  switches.
(figure 19) (When testing No5)
・ M1—M4, in the upper left, display the motor currently being monitored.
・ “***** cycles until completion”, in the upper middle, displays the remaining number of cycles. “***** cycles to complete” displays the number of operating cycles set to complete. When the “until completion” value reaches zero, the selected motor will stop via standard completion.
・ No1—5, in the upper right, display the current test mode number.
・ The part displayed as CW/CCW cycle time ***/***sec shows the elapsed cycle time as [elapsed time/set cycle time].
・ When testing complex repetition of CW and CCW rotations in accordance with a sequence determined by the motor, [1 cycle time ***/***sec] displays them together.
・ Brake torque (%) shows the output instruction value of the constant current controller for use with powder braking. To set the value, touch the [Change] switch. (Please reference “changing the brake torque during test operation” mentioned later.)
・ Touching the [MENU] switch in the lower left will return you to the menu screen.
・ The lamp in the bottom middle displays whether an abnormal current has been detected (with test No1 there is also a dust test).
・ You can change the motor to be monitored with the lower right  switches.
4. Changing the brake torque during test operation
Brake torque (%) shows the output instruction value of the constant current controller for use with powder braking. To set the value, press the [Change] switch.
CW and CCW are each set with the [▲][▼] switches. You can operate the switches on this screen at any time, but to prevent setting errors, you can only adjust each setting by 1% per touch.
To change the values by a large amount, temporarily halt the operation and use the numeric keypad on the settings screen.
When you have changed the settings, press [return] to return to the previous monitor screen.
Japanese to English: Financial Report 財務報告書 General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Automotive / Cars & Trucks
Source text - Japanese 自動車業種におけるRevenueは、2016年1.34M USDに達し、ゴールに対して-48％、YoYで38％伸びる見込みである。ゴールに対して大きくGAPが生じている要因は以下の3点。①Retail Automotive teamとの協働による自動車販売ビジネスのプロモーション予算の獲得が、販売ビジネスの不調により計画通り獲得できなかったこと ②2015年に獲得したBMW/mini、FiatのCustom solutionのリピートディールを獲得できなかったこと ③他DSP、特にGDNと比較してESSのパフォーマンスが自動車広告主のKPIとミートせず計画通りディールを獲得できなかったこと
一方、今期目標を大きく超過した案件は以下の3つ。①日産の年間ブランドストアキャンペーン（600K USD）②メルセデスのグローバルEクラスキャンペーン（470K USD）③ トヨタの新車カタログ配送キャンペーン（100K USD）。また、2016年2人のSalesをAutomotive担当としてアサインしたことにより、クライアント及び広告代理店とのリレーションシップが強化され、クライアントの課題やデジタルメディア投資予算とKPI、組織図 などのアカウント情報をより深く入手できるようになった。（Potentiality of each advertisersで後述）
2014年6月よりRetal Automotive teamは、中古車販売を中古車ディーラーのネクステージ社と共にマーケットプレイス方式でスタートし、Amazon.co.jpは本格的に自動車販売に参入することとなった。2015年4月にはAMGと協働でBMWの電気自動車i3の新車販売を実現、7月にはBMWのi8を一台限定でPrime Day Saleに出品、12月にはオリックス自動車と共に自動車リース商品の販売をマーケットプレイス方式でスタートした。2016年7月には日産GTRをPrime Day Saleに出品している。廉価な一部の中古車を除き、Amazonで自動車を購入する場合、ユーザーは頭金（100USD~1000USD）のみをAmazon上で決済し、残りのローンやリースは直接販売社と契約するフローとなっている。2016年の販売実績は、新車と中古車を合わせた販売台数のOP2 250台に対して、24台（新車リース8台、新車6台、中古車10台）の販売台数で大幅に未達の状況。日本で販売されている全車種の80%は既にASINとして登録されており、セレクション数の拡大は順調に推移しているものの、販売数は伸び悩んでおり月数台しか売れていない。自動車販売で先行しているYahoo！Shoppingや楽天は月間で約50台を販売しているため、Amazonの十倍以上売っていることになり、自動車のOnline販売自体のマーケットは大きくなりつつある。Retail teamが考える競合ECサービスと大きな差がついている理由は、①GoogleなどAmazon外検索エンジンでの上位表示が2社と比較し圧倒的に劣っていること ②Amazon上ではローン決済ができないこと ③自動車販売のローンチがYahooや楽天と比較して遅れたこと ④自動車販売にAmazonの商品詳細ページのフォーマットが適していない（年式やリース/ローン、新車/中古、カーナビ有無、車検有無等の情報が一つの商品詳細ページの中で選択できない） となっている。Retail automotive teamとしては、今後も自動車販売で先行する楽天やYahoo! Shoppingに追いつくために、様々な改善施策を行っていく予定。2019年までには全メーカー、全車種の新車をAmazonで購入可能にし、カスタマーが車を購入する半数が購入前に訪れるサイトになっている事を目指し、販売台数とそれに伴う売り上げ拡大を目指している。また、現在は自動車リース会社や中古車販売会社などがAmazon上で自動車を販売しているが、自動車販売以外に、試乗予約をASINとして登録する計画もある。各自動車メーカーにとって試乗予約の数を増やすことはもっとも重要な課題であり、これが実現すると、各メーカーにとってのマーケティングチャネルの価値が向上する見込み。
総広告宣伝費のトップはトヨタで205M USDだが、デジタル宣伝費のトップは日産で28M USDでトヨタの2.7倍に達する。総広告宣伝費に占めるデジタル宣伝費の比率は日産以外は３~６%程度という中、Nissanは全体予算の22%をデジタルメディアへ投資しており、圧倒的にデジタルへの投資規模とスピードが早い。Suzuki、ダイハツ、Mitsubishiは全体の２～３％とデジタルへの投資意向もそこまで高くなく、デジタルリテラシーも低い。NissanやMercedesのようなデジタルリテラシーの高いメーカーはAmazonへの出稿金額も大きくなっており、アマゾンという場で様々な取組みにチャレンジしてみようという意向が強い。各社のデジタルメディアへの投資内容の内訳については、予約型広告(バナー広告、タイアップ)の割合が70-80%程度。特にYahooのトップページ広告がそのうち80%程度を占めており、認知拡大を目的としたブランド予算であると思われる。
加えて、最近では動画を活用したプロモーションが増えていており、Youtube, Facebook, Twitter, LINEのような動画広告を展開できるメディアに投資する傾向がある。例えばNissanはデジタル広告の約10%を動画広告とSNS広告にそれぞれ利用している。2017年においても、各社のデジタルへの投資予算は少なくとも10％以上は拡大することが見込まれている。
Translation - English Automotive industry revenue reached US$1.34 million in 2016, 48% of the target revenue, and is expected to increase by 38% year on year. The following three points illustrate the main causes for being so far off target. 1. The automobile marketing business, in cooperation with the Retail Automotive Team, could not obtain a promotional budget as planned, due to a slump in the marketing business. 2. The fact that a repeat of the deal made in 2015 for Fiat’s Custom Solution and BMW/mini could not be obtained. 3. Other DSPs, particularly with the performance of ESS when compared to GDN, could not obtain deals as planned without meeting the KPIs set by automotive advertisers.
On the other hand, below are 3 cases where targets were greatly surpassed this term. 1. Nissan’s annual brand store campaign (US$600,000.) 2. Mercedes global E-Class campaign (US$470,000.) 3. Toyota's delivery of new car catalogs campaign (US$100,000.) Also, in 2016, in accordance with assigning two persons from sales to take charge of automotives, the relationship between the client and the advertising agency has been strengthened, and the client is now able to gain more in-depth account information such as client businesses, digital media investment budgets and KPIs, as well as organisation charts etc. (The potentiality of each advertiser to be mentioned later.)
Since June 2014, the Retail Automotive Team, along with NEXTAGE used car dealerships, began the marketing of used automobiles via a marketplace system, and so Amazon.co.jp became a full-scale automotive marketer. In April of 2015, marketing of the new BMW i3 electric automobile was actualized in cooperation with AMG, and in July they exhibited limited sales of the BMW i8 at a Prime Day Sale. In December, together with Orix Auto they began marketing of automotive commodity leases via a marketplace system. In July, 2016, they will exhibit the Nissan GTR at a Prime Day Sale. With the exception of some cheap used cars, when you buy a car on Amazon, users will settle a deposit of only (US$100~US$1,000), and the remaining loan and lease will be contracted with the retailer. Regarding the sales performance for 2016, contrary to the 250 cars estimated by the OP2 sales figures for both new and used cars combined, the fact that 24 cars (8 newly leased, 6 new cars and 10 used) have sold shows that sales have been vastly off target. 80% of all the types of cars marketed in Japan are already registered with an ASIN, and while the expansion of the selection is transitioning smoothly, sales are failing to make progress with only several cars a month being sold. The online automotive market itself is growing larger as leading sellers Yahoo! Shopping and Rakuten are selling around 50 cars a month, reaching over 10 times the amount that Amazon are selling. The Retail Team consider the reasons why there is such a large difference between competing e-commerce services to be as follows. 1. The ranked display order seen on Google and other search engines external to Amazon is of very little use for comparing two companies. 2. The fact that you cannot settle loans on Amazon. 3. The fact that Amazon launched automotive marketing later than Yahoo and Rakuten. 4. The format of Amazon's product details page for sale of automobiles is not suitable (you cannot select things such as car age, lease / loans, new / used, whether there is a car navigation system, whether the vehicle has been inspected etc. all on one product details page.) We, the Retail Automotive Team, in order to catch up with leading car retailers Rakuten and Yahoo! Shopping, plan to carry a variety of improvement measures going forward. Before 2019, cars of all types and from all manufacturers will be available for purchase at Amazon, and our aim is to become a site where half of all customers looking to purchase a car will be visiting Amazon first before they buy. In this way we hope to increase the number of cars sold and our proceeds accordingly. Also, while currently automotive leasing companies, used car retailers and others are selling cars on Amazon, other than car sales, we also have plans to enable registration for test drive appointments as ASINs. As far as car manufacturers are concerned, increasing the number of test drives is the most important issue, and if we can implement this, we foresee an improvement in marketing channel value for each manufacturer.
At US$205 million, Toyota has the highest total advertising expenses, but Nissan have the highest digital advertising expenses at US$28 million, reaching 2.7 times the amount spent by Toyota. The proportion of total advertising expenses held by digital advertising is, excluding Nissan, approximately 3~6%. The speed and scale of investment into digital is phenomenally fast, with Nissan investing 22% of their total budget on digital media. Suzuki, Daihatsu and Mitsubishi's intention to invest in digital is not as high, totaling between 2~3%; their digital literacy is also low. Manufacturers with a high digital literacy such as Nissan and Mercedes will increase Amazon's advertising profits, with Amazon itself also having a strong intention to trial a variety of initiatives. Breaking down the digital media investments for each company, the proportion of "reserved advertising" (banner adverts, "tie-up" advertising) is at 70-80%. Particularly with Yahoo's home page, where it occupies 80% of advertising, with the branding budget considered to have the purpose of increasing awareness.
With regard to display advertising (DSP/AD Network), there have been many cases where (Nissan/TOYOTA/HONDA/Mazda), the 4 Japanese companies with the largest digital advertising budgets, have set KPIs as "catalog demand" and "test drive reservations" etc. On the other hand, Mitsubishi and Suzuki often just set their KPIs as CPC.
Moving forward, digital advertising is predicted to shift towards programmatic advertising.
Furthermore, recently, video promotions have been on the rise, and the trend is to invest in media such as Youtube, Facebook, Twitter and LINE etc. that enable development of video advertising. For example, around 10% of Nissan's digital advertising uses both video and SNS advertising respectively. In 2017 too, it is estimated that at least 10% or more of each company's investment budget will move to digital.
Japanese to English: Light Novel ライトノベル General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Poetry & Literature
Source text - Japanese もし高校野球の女子マネージャーがドラッカーの『マネジメント』を読んだら.
Translation - English When Minami Kawashima, High School Girl and Baseball Club Manager, met Peter Drucker, Management Consultant.
It was mid-July, just before the summer break of her second year at high school, that Minami Kawashima became a manager of the school baseball club.
It had happened very suddenly. A few days ago, Minami never would have thought that she would become a manager. Up until then she had just been your average high school girl, not belonging to any extra-curricular clubs, and certainly not the baseball club.
She had, in fact, become manager due to unforeseen circumstances, having joined despite the fact there was barely any time before the second years broke up for summer.
In her role as manager, Minami had but one goal, which had served as her prime motivation for joining in the first place: to take the team to the national high school baseball championships, held at the famed Koshien stadium.
It wasn’t just a dream or anything similarly vague, nor was it even a mere desire. It was a clear objective;
a mission. Rather than thinking, ‘I want to take the baseball team to Koshien,’ Minami had decided, ‘I will take them to Koshien.’
However, while she might have made such a decision, it didn’t mean that she necessarily had any concrete ideas about how to make it in to a reality. She had been living quite happily without anything to do with the baseball team whatsoever, up until now, so she didn’t know the first thing about them, let alone how to manage them.
This didn’t bother Minami at all, however, who thought that she would simply just… handle it somehow or another. That was the thing about Minami; act first and think later.
So too had it been with her becoming manager. Before considering ‘How will I take the team to Koshien?’ first, she would simply… take the team to Koshien. Then, with that settled in her mind, rather than wasting anymore time, she got started right away.
When Minami met Management.
Minami’s school was your average public high school called Tokyo Metropolitan Hodokubo High.
The school, known as Hodo High for short, was to be found in West Tokyo, upon a hilly range where the Kantō plains ended and the Tama heights began.
The school building itself was built upon one of these hills, atop a high elevation with a great view. From the classroom window you could see much of the Okutama mountains, and on a good day you could even see as far as Mount Fuji.
The whole region had been carved out of a mountain forest and transformed in to a commuter town, sometime in the ‘50s. Despite being in Tokyo, it was a place steeped in natural beauty, surrounded by lush forested groves.
Hodo High was a high-ranking school focused on securing places for students at top universities. Average grades were over 60%, and almost every student passed the notoriously difficult national university entrance examinations. The school even managed to produce several students every year who would get in to the prestigious Tokyo University.
In contrast to this, the school had a near non-existent sporting scene, and while the club activities themselves were popular, not even one school team had ever made it to the national tournaments. The same went for the baseball club. While they were by no means a weak team, they weren’t exactly great either, and certainly not at a level where they could aim for Koshien. Their best performance to date was the time they had once reached the 5th round of the national high school tournament, placing in the best 16, but that was over 20 years ago. Usually, at best, they would retire as early as the 3rd round.
Minami was aware of this so she didn’t have high expectations to begin with, but now she had actually joined the club, she couldn’t believe her eyes. They were in a complete shambles. She wondered how they would even get through the first round in this state, let alone make it to Koshien.
Clearly this was, in part, due to the fact that, just before Minami’s appointment as manager, the third years had retired after failing to even pass through the preliminary rounds at the summer try-outs. It didn’t excuse the fact, however, that barely anyone was turning up for practice at all...
You couldn’t really say it was due to the summer holidays either, as practice was ongoing just as ever. Regardless, many of the players were simply skipping sessions for pretty much no reason at all, and without giving any prior notice.
Such was the atmosphere at the club lately, people felt free to come and go as they pleased.
Master's degree - University of Portsmouth
Years of translation experience: 2. Registered at ProZ.com: Jul 2017.
University of Portsmouth – Translation Studies MA (Distinction)
University of Leeds – Japanese BA (Hons)
法政大学 Hosei University, Tokyo (1 year)
- Native English speaker with JLPT 1 level fluency in Japanese.
- Portfolio of translations highly appraised by both clients and academics.
- Punctual and thorough, with 2 years experience of working to tight deadlines as a Japanese to English translator full-time.
- Experience translating technical manuals (automotive, electronic and pharmaceutical), business letters, marketing communications and tourism websites.
- Avid gamer with a vast knowledge of Japanese and English video game terminology from all genres.
Keywords: Japanese, video games, game localization