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English to Chinese: Dengue General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English What is dengue?
Dengue is a disease caused by a virus that is spread by mosquito bites. People who catch dengue virus can get dengue fever, meaning that they will have high fever (up to 40°C for 3 to 7 days), often with severe headache, muscle and joint pains, pain behind the eyes, and skin rash. Dengue disease is sometimes more severe and can cause bleeding of the internal organs and a sudden decrease of the blood pressure (shock). Dengue can cause death in some cases, mainly in children.
Dengue disease is always present in Singapore. From 1986, the rate of dengue cases started to increase, and the last major outbreak occurred in 2005 with approximately 14,000 cases of dengue (393 severe cases).
What vaccines or other treatments are used to prevent or treat dengue?
There is currently no vaccine against dengue and no specific drug treatment against the disease, only the main symptoms such as fever can be treated.
Dengue disease can be controlled or wiped out by the destruction of mosquitoes and their breeding places and by protection against mosquito bites (using repellent and bed nets).
English to Chinese: Using enzymes to improve foods General field: Science Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - English Using enzymes to improve foods
Enzymes have been used in food production for centuries, but applying modern biotechnology opens up new possibilities: besides improving the quality of food products, enzymes lead to better process economy and reduced environmental impact.
For hundreds of years, enzymes from microorganisms, animals and plants have been used to improve the keeping qualities of perishable food products. The earliest methods known include yoghurt production, where milk is soured by microbes, and barley malting, where the barley grains themselves release enzymes that produce the fermentable sugars that are processed further to brew beer; or using rennet to curdle milk, so that the protein and milk fats coagulate. In recent decades, developments in gene technology have made it possible to produce new, ’tailored’ enzyme preparations, which in turn can lead to the production of new types of foods as well as improvements in established food manufacturing processes.
One example of a process where enzymes have helped to improve the product is making red wine, and especially quality wines. Enzymes help to increase the yield from the best quality grapes, but they are equally important in ensuring a high and more consistent quality in the finished product. Normally, selected pectinases or β-glycosidase are used in pressing, clarifying, fermenting and/or maturing the wine, where the results can be seen as better sedimentation and better filtration before bottling. Apart from improving conditions during the wine-making process, careful selection of the right enzyme activity also has a noticeable effect on the sensory qualities of the wine. In this example, treatment with enzymes has improved the overall sensory impression, because the pectinase-preparation has resulted in a wine that is less bitter and astringent, with a softer feel and a more intense aroma.
Also a molecular biologist by training, I am a translator, interpreter and editor based in Macao SAR, China.
A Chinese national, I hold a Bachelor's degree in biology (1996) from the University of Oregon (US) and a Master's degree in interpreting and translating (2005) from the University of Bath (UK). Before entering the realm of translation, I worked for the United States Department of Energy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. In 2002, my keen interest in languages prompted me to make the transition from lab to laptop. I have now been working in the translation industry for fifteen years, specializing in the biomedical field.
A native speaker of Shanghainese and Mandarin (Putonghua), I am also fluent in Cantonese, and my command of English has been praised by various clients. From time to time, I travel to locations across the Pearl River Delta on simultaneous, consecutive and liaison interpreting assignments.
A veteran Web enthusiast (since 1994), I am online most of the time when I am awake. Please feel free to email me for an instant quote or visit my company website for further information. CV is available upon request.
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