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English to Chinese: A METHOD FOR TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION Detailed field: Law: Patents, Trademarks, Copyright
Source text - English A METHOD FOR TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION
Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to the construction of tunnels, and more particularly, to a method of constructing or widening a half-tunnel in a ground typically in a hillside or mountainside. Background of the Invention
The building or widening of roads along mountains or hill sides presents major problems, inter alia, with respect to damage caused to the environment including forests, and may cause instability and landslides, as is well known and understood by men skilled in the art. With a view to overcome the problems, the construction of half tunnels was developed, however, so far has not provided an optimal solution, at least from the practical aspect of the necessity to support the roof of such a half tunnel. As illustrated in Fig. 1, when a regular tunnel 2 is constructed, two opposing compression forces indicated by arrows F, F1 are developed in the roof of the tunnel, which forces achieve equilibrium. Thus, depending on the type of ground in which the tunnel is excavated, reinforcing soil nails 6 may sometimes be required to be inserted into the ground. When such nails 6 are utilized, they are inserted into the ground as shown, radially with respect to the arched tunnel roof. Hence, since a half-tunnel does not have a center opposing force in its roof, the above-described method of tunnel construction is not applicable. The obvious solution used is to provide a support to the free edge of the roof in the form of struts or posts extending between the base of the tunnel, e.g., the road and the roof. The disadvantages of such supporting posts are readily apparent. Summary of the Invention
It is therefore a broad object of the present invention to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art half-tunnel construction and to provide a method for constructing a half-tunnel, which does not include supporting posts at the open side of the tunnel.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for constructing a half-tunnel, the roof of which is securely supported by lock elements inserted into the ground above the roof.
In accordance with the present invention there is therefore provided a method of constructing a section of a half-tunnel in a slope of a mountain or hill, comprising the steps of: a) forming a lock block along said section above the upper edge of the half-tunnel to be excavated; b)inserting lock elements traversing said lock block and extending into said mountain; c) excavating portions of the mountain beyond and below said lock block defining roof and bottom portions of said half-tunnel, and d) repeating step c) until the entire section of said half-tunnel is formed. Brief Description of the Drawings
The invention will now be described in connection with certain preferred embodiments with reference to the following illustrative figures so that it may be more fully understood.
With specific reference now to the figures in detail, it is stressed that the particulars shown are by way of example and for purposes of illustrative discussion of the preferred embodiments of the present invention only, and are presented in the cause of providing what is believed to be the most useful and readily understood description of the principles and conceptual aspects of the invention. In this regard, no attempt is made to show structural details of the invention in more detail than is necessary for a fundamental understanding of the invention, the description taken with the drawings making apparent to those skilled in the art how the several forms of the invention may be embodied in practice.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 (prior art) is a schematic representation of a regular tunnel construction;
Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a first stage of the method of a half-tunnel construction, according to the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a schematic, cross-sectional view of a second stage of the method of a half-tunnel construction, according to the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a schematic, cross-sectional view of a third stage of the method of a half-tunnel construction, according to the present invention, and
Fig. 5 is schematic, cross-sectional view of a fourth stage of the method of a half-tunnel construction, according to the present invention, having additional protection against falling rocks. Detailed Description
The method of constructing a section of a tunnel in a slope of a mountain or hill according to the present invention will now be described with reference to the construction stages.
It will be evident to those skilled in the art that the invention is not limited to the details of the foregoing illustrated embodiments and that the present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential attributes thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
Translation - English Field of the Invention
The present utility model relates to an apparatus for simulating flame of fire, and more particularly to an apparatus for simulating flame of fire in an electrical fireplace.
Description of the Related Art
One type of prior art apparatus for simulating flame of fire in an electrical fireplace uses a simulated burning medium, e.g. a simulated burnt piece of coal or wood, usually a plastic casing having a wood-like or coal-like coating, with a light source mounted therein, and a strip of cloth having a shape of fire flames billowed above the simulated burning medium by blowing wind. A vision of jiggling fire flame may be viewed through a partially translucent screen made of plastic. Such an apparatus may simulate the general shape and movement of fire flame, but may not simulate the brightness, transparency and flicker of the fire flame.
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During my first job as an in-house translator, I translated product manuals, corresponded with clients and supplier, interpreted in meetings or at working places, and handled exp/imp materials. Then in the next 2 years, I translated patents from English to Chinese of up to 1 million words, covering the fields of engineering, electronics, computer, network, software, communication, etc.
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