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English to Chinese: The Bridge at the End of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - English It is difficult to appreciate the abundance of wild nature in the world we have lost. In America we can think of the pre-Columbian world of 1491, of Lewis and Clark, and of John James Audubon. It is a world where nature is large and we are not. It is a world of majestic old-growth forests stretching from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, of oceans brimming with fish, of clear skies literally darkened by passing flocks of birds. As William MacLeish notes in The Day before America, in 1602 an Englishman wrote in his journal that the fish schooled so thickly he thought their backs were the sea bottom. Bison once roamed east to Florida. There were jaguars in the Southeast, grizzly bear in the Midwest, and wolves, elk and mountain lions in New England.
Audubon described the breathtaking multitudes of the passenger pigeon migration, as well as the rapacity of their wild and human predators: “Few pigeons were to be seen before sunset; but a great number of persons, with horses and wagons, guns and ammunition, had already established encampments. . . . Suddenly, there burst forth a general cry of ‘Here they come!’ The noise which they made, though yet distant, reminded me of a hard gale at sea. . . . As the birds arrived, and passed over me, I felt a current of air that surprised me. Thousands were soon knocked down by polemen. The current of birds, however, still kept increasing. . . . The pigeons, coming in by thousands, alighted everywhere, one above another, until solid masses . . . were formed on every tree, in all directions. . . . The uproar continues . . . the whole night. . . . Toward the approach of day, the noise rather subsided. . . . The howlings of the wolves now reached our ears; and the foxes, lynxes, cougars, bears, raccoons, opossums, and pole-cats were seen sneaking off from the spot. Whilst eagles and hawks, of different species, accompanied by a crowd of vultures, came to supplant them, and enjoy their share of the spoil. It was then that the authors of all this devastation began their entry amongst the dead, the dying, and the mangled. The pigeons were picked up and piled in heaps, until each had as many as he could possibly dispose of, when the hogs were let loose to feed on the remainder.”
Translation - Chinese 我们很难感知失去世界中丰富的野生动植物资源，在美国可以追溯至1491年的前哥伦布时代，想起刘易斯（Lewis）与克拉克（Clark）的远征和约翰•詹姆斯•奥杜邦（John James Audubon）的作品。在那个世界里，自然面积广阔，人口稀少。壮观的原始森林从亚特兰大延伸至密西西比流域。海洋中生活着大量的鱼类，成群的鸟儿飞过蔚蓝的天空，数量之多皆可蔽日。根据麦克利什（William MacLeish）在《美国前传》（The Day before America）中的记录，1602年一个英国人在日记里写自己在海上看到黑压压的一大群鱼，还以为是海底呢！野牛曾向东迁徙至佛罗里达，东南地区有美洲虎，中西部有灰熊，新英格兰地区生活着狼、麋鹿和美洲狮。
English to Chinese (Institute of Linguists Educational Trust (Chartered Institute of Linguists), verified)
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