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Source text - Italian CAP. 2 - INTRODUZIONE ALL’USO DI GATTO
CONSIDERAZIONI SULL’USO DEL PROGRAMMA
GATTO opera con tutte le versioni di Windows a 32 bit, a partire da Windows 95.
I requisiti di memoria centrale dipendono essenzialmente dal sistema operativo in uso. Nel caso di costruzione di corpus testuali di dimensioni rilevanti, i requisiti di memoria considerati minimi per le diverse versioni di Windows potrebbero rivelarsi non del tutto adeguati.
Il programma crea ed utilizza directory aventi nomi scelti dall'utente ed estensione gat. È consigliabile, se possibile, evitare la presenza nei dischi del PC e in quelli delle macchine ad esso collegate in rete locale di altre directory aventi un nome terminante con l'estensione gat.
GATTO si appoggia alle estensioni presenti nei nomi di file (ovvero ai caratteri finali, successivi al
punto, come .exe, .txt, .bat, .doc, ..) per indicare i testi cui i file si riferiscono; per questo motivo è spesso necessario per l'utente conoscere tali estensioni. Gestione risorse di Windows in partenza è configurato in modo da non mostrarle: si suggerisce di modificare senz'altro questa opzione di Gestione risorse tramite i suoi menu [VISUALIZZA + OPZIONI CARTELLA.. + VISUALIZZA + NASCONDI LE ESTENSIONI DEI FILE PER I TIPI DI FILE CONOSCIUTI]: questa ultima opzione va disattivata (a seconda delle diverse versioni di Windows percorsi e diciture per questa operazione potrebbero differire).
Uscire sempre dal programma usando gli appositi comandi. Le interruzioni realizzate diversamente
possono avere effetti dannosi sull'integrità della base di dati. È comunque fortemente consigliato di disporre di una copia di salvataggio aggiornata della base di dati stessa: a questo riguardo tenere presente che le operazioni effettuate negli ambienti Lemmatizzazione sul corpus, Lemmatizzazione per singolo testo e Gestione base dati possono modificare i dati preesistenti, mentre le ricerche si limitano a leggerli senza modificarli.
Per ogni corpus costruito, la base di dati della quale è opportuno avere una copia di salvataggio è
1. cartella (il cui nome ha estensione gat) in cui viene inserito il corpus, insieme alle sue sottocartelle,
2. cartella contenente l'archivio bibliografico,
3. cartella contenente i testi (directory dei testi).
Translation - English CHAPTER 2 - INTRODUCTION TO USING GATTO
Notes on using the program
GATTO is compatible with all 32-bit versions of Windows, from Windows 95 onwards.
Memory requirements essentially depend on which operating system is being used. If GATTO were to be used to create a particularly large corpus, the minimum memory requirements for most Windows versions would be insufficient.
The program creates and uses directories with names chosen by the user and followed by the suffix gat. It is advisable, if possible, to avoid using GATTO on computers or LANs where other directories ending in gat are used.
GATTO relies on the file extensions already present in file names (the letters which follow the full stop, such as exe, txt, bat and doc) to indicate the texts that the files refer to. Because of this, it is often necessary for these extensions to be visible to the user. Windows is usually automatically configured to hide these. We suggest that you change this before using GATTO by going to My Computer and clicking on Tools, then Folder Options and then Display. Then scroll down to Advanced Options, and deactivate the Hide extensions for known file types option. You should note that different versions of Windows may word or order their menus in slightly different ways.
Always exit the program in the correct way. Ending the session without exiting properly could damage the integrity of the database. It is also important to save the database regularly. Remember that while data can be edited in the Corpus lemmatisation, Single text lemmatisation and Database management environments, searches are limited to reading data and cannot change it.
We recommend that for every corpus, you keep a spare copy on a separate disk consisting of:
1. a folder with the file extension gat which contains the corpus and its subfolders
2. a folder containing the bibliographical archive
3. a folder containing the texts (the text directory).
GATTO is a registered program and is protected under existing Italian and international software law.
GATTO may be freely used and reproduced for the purposes of study and research, provided that no financial profit is made from it, and that it is acknowledged in all publications resulting from the research and in all applications in which it is used.
Written permission must be obtained from the Istituto Opera del Vocabolario Italiano for any other type of use.
(GATTO - Copyright 8-2-99 - Registration no. 001172.)
PROTECTION OF TEXTS
There may be occasions when a GATTO user wishes to create or provide others with a textual corpus managed by the program which allows them to use it solely for the extraction of lexicographical information, without permitting those accessing it to display the full text.
GATTO enables this kind of relationship between the creator and the users of a corpus by combining two mechanisms:
• Encryption of texts: All references within texts included in a GATTO corpus are encrypted, which means that it is not possible to access the full text via data in the different files or the corpus database.
• Restrictions on extracting texts from the corpus: If a text is inserted into a corpus, it is usually possible to generate a full copy of that text (see Lesson 48). However, technically speaking, this operation is only possible if the text file is already present in the text directory of the corpus. In other words, only those who already have a copy of the text can access it. N.B.: this condition does not mean that it is not worth extracting a text from a corpus, since the extracted copy, unlike the original text, may well have been enriched by subsequent lemmatisations.
RESTRICTIONS ON SIMULTANEOUS USE OF THE SAME CORPUS
You can run several copies of GATTO at one time, opening different corpuses without any problems.
If, however, these copies are accessing the same corpus, or if the corpus is located on a server which many users are accessing at the same time, there are certain access limitations to bear in mind. These depend on which environment the corpus is opened in.
• Accessing the Search environment: multiple users may access the same corpus at the same time without any difficulty.
• Accessing the Single text lemmatisation environment: multiple users may access the same corpus at the same time, but only one user at a time may lemmatise the same text.
• Accessing the Corpus lemmatisation or Database management environments: corpuses may only be opened in these environments if no-one else is using them. Once a corpus has been opened, no other user may access it until either the corpus is closed, or the user who has opened it moves to a new environment.
USE AND PRESERVATION OF TEXT FILES
By text file, we mean files such as those mentioned in the previous section which contain texts to be inserted in a corpus. As stated in the Texts section of the previous chapter, text files are gathered together in a special folder known as a text directory.
Despite their obvious importance, text files are only used by GATTO in two circumstances:
1. when inserting a text, lemmatised or otherwise, into a corpus;
2. when extracting a text from a corpus (it is only worthwhile extracting texts which have been lemmatised since their insertion).
In all other situations, such as, for example, during the process of lemmatisation or searching an archive, the text files are not used and do not even need to be present in the text directory.
Situations where no changes to lemmatisation have been made
If a text has not been lemmatised or is lemmatised before being inserted into the corpus, and there is no need to change the lemmatisation, then the following steps apply:
I. the text is inserted into the corpus. During this phase, textual information is extracted from the text file, and it must be present in the text directory;
II. the corpus is searched without using the text file, which does not need to be present in the text directory.
To edit the text, simply remove it from the corpus, then edit and reinsert the text file.
Situations where changes to lemmatisation have been made
The situation is different and a little more complex when a text needs to be lemmatised or an existing lemmatisation modified (by addition, correction or removal of lemmatisations or hyperlemmatisations) after the text has been introduced into the corpus.
In this situation, the procedure for modifying the text after it has been inserted into the corpus is as follows:
I. the text is extracted from the corpus. During this phase, the original text file must be present in the text directory, and its contents strictly unaltered from what they were when the text was inserted into the corpus. Indeed the text file used in such circumstances becomes the “key” by which GATTO recognises the text and authorises its extraction from the corpus.
II. The original text file is substituted for the text file extracted from the corpus, complete with lemmatisations.
III. At this point, any changes necessary can be made to the text file.
IV. The new version of the text is inserted into the corpus in place of the previous one (by substitution rather than by deletion followed by insertion).During this phase, the new text file must be present in the text directory, and becomes the new recognition “key” for the text.
The description of this procedure is repeated elsewhere in the manual because it is so important.
What must be made absolutely clear is that whenever a text file is altered from its original version, the text inserted in the corpus at that time can no longer be extracted from it, and it is therefore impossible either to carry out corrections to the original text or to insert the text, complete with the lemmatisations carried out on it since its insertion into the current corpus, into another corpus.
Therefore, we suggest that you keep safety copies of text files (filgat.xxx.txt and codlemmi.xxx files, cited in other parts of the manual, where xxx stands for the code of the text), saved somewhere other than on the hard drive being used (e.g. floppy disk, CD-ROM etc).
There is an online guide for the program which can be called up at any time. You can open it in either of the following ways:
1. by clicking on the [HELP] menu in the GATTO welcome screen (‘GATTO - CHOOSE ENVIRONMENT’ window).
2. by pressing the key. The page of the Help which refers to the window open at the time and the action to be carried out will be shown.
The online Help contains a Summary which acts as a tutorial of the main issues. Although the Summary cannot replace a paper manual, it is nonetheless a useful point of reference when a description of functions available is required.
The Help also contains a small dictionary of terms used within it. Some of these are particularly technical and, the first time that each word appears on a page of Help, it is accompanied by a link allowing the user to display a definition without needing to leave the open window.
Most of the pages of the online Help refer to a corresponding GATTO window. In such cases, the How to get here and What to do sections provide an understanding of the structure of the program and can guide the user through the functions available.
STRUCTURE OF THIS MANUAL
As well as allowing the user to manage and use a textual database, GATTO also enables the carrying out of a variety of sometimes interconnected functions, which are controlled by a series of options. The program therefore has a tightly organised structure, only partly simplified by the use of logically separate environments. As has already been stated, the spectrum of functions that may be carried out with GATTO is a result of its nature as a working instrument designed to be used during the many different phases of activity of the OVI. A single user is unlikely to have the same requirements and will probably only use a small number of the functions available. In any case, the program is not simple to use, and requires a training period, albeit brief and limited to areas of particular interest.
Bearing all this in mind, the GATTO manual is designed to be used as a tutorial for the program. After this introduction, the manual is divided into six parts and appendices designed to explain the logistics of using GATTO. Each part is divided into chapters which in turn contain Lessons. The first part of each chapter, which, by necessity, is somewhat theoretical, contains explanations of the principles of the GATTO functions, and introduces the concepts which will be taken up again in the lessons. These, more technical in nature, build on the information already given by providing a fuller picture of the commands and operations previously mentioned. Most of the lessons contain one or more practical exercises to demonstrate the concepts as well as one or more examples that the user can either simply read or try to carry out. Most of the exercises refer to the textual corpus Engdemo provided with the program. The user can therefore check the results that they obtain against those given in the manual.
The lessons on managing the database tend to use the Test corpus instead, which the user will be guided through creating and loading with the three texts ex1, ex2 and ex3. These texts can be downloaded from the Internet or installed from the CD provided with this manual.
The contents of the different parts of the manual are shown below.
French to English: Product Data Sheet
Source text - French Le XXX est un nouveau fluide caloporteur ou frigoporteur dont l’impact sur l’environnement est extrêmement faible. Essentiellement composé d’eau et de bétaïne (composant naturel dérivé de la fabrication du sucre), c’est une solution naturelle pour le transfert de chaleur dans les systèmes de chauffage, de ventilation, de conditionnement d'air (HVAC) et de réfrigération.
Le XXX est un produit non toxique et écologique comportant un champ d’application très vaste, particulièrement dans les secteurs où les problèmes de santé et le respect de l’environnement sont prépondérants.
Le fluide XXX répond parfaitement aux exigences des systèmes HVAC des immeubles, ainsi qu’à celles des technologies alimentaires et de réfrigération.
Comparé aux fluides traditionnels, le XXX présente également d’excellentes propriétés anticorrosion et de fluidité à froid. Il est conçu pour des circuits fermés dont la température de fonctionnement est comprise entre -20°C et +100°C.
Dans les domaines d’application appropriés, les performances thermiques du XXX sont équivalentes ou supérieures à celles des fluides caloporteurs traditionnels.
Ce produit est toujours livré sous la forme d’une solution prête à l’emploi.
1. PROPRIETES PHYSICO-CHIMIQUES DU XXX
1.1. Caractéristiques principales
Le XXX est soluble dans l’eau.
Aspect : liquide marron, légère odeur
Densité relative à 25°C : 1 050 à 1 100 kg/m3
Température d’ébullition (NF R 15-602-4) : 105-110°C +/- 2 °C
pH : compris entre 7 et 9
Point d’éclair : /
Solubilité : soluble dans 160g/100g H2O
(Les valeurs ci-dessus sont extraites de la spécification en vigueur à la date d’édition de cette notice technique).
La température maximale d’utilisation continue de tous les produits XXX est de +100 °C. Au delà, la bétaïne se dégrade lentement et au-dessus de 150 °C, le processus s’accélère. Les produits de la dégradation de la bétaïne ne sont pas corrosifs, et sont inoffensifs pour l’homme et l’environnement.
Translation - English XXX is a new and extremely environmentally friendly heat transfer/ secondary refrigerant fluid. Made from natural ingredients (essentially nothing but water and betaine, a natural compound produced when manufacturing sugar), it is the natural solution for heat transfer in heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration systems.
XXX is non-toxic and ecological. It can be used in a truly vast range of applications, and is especially suited to those sectors where health and environmental issues are of particular importance.
XXX fluid is perfectly designed to meet the demands of its various applications, whether this be an HVAC system in a block of flats, or a food technology or refrigeration environment.
The excellent anti-corrosion properties of XXX, and its ability to remain in liquid form at low temperatures put it on a par with traditional fluids. It is designed for use in closed circuits where the working temperature is between -20°C and +100°C.
When used in an appropriate domain of application, XXX performs thermally as well as or better than traditional heat transfer fluids.
This product is always supplied in a ready-to-use format.
1. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF XXX
1.1. Principal characteristics
XXX is soluble in water.
Appearance : brown liquid, slight odour
Relative density at 25°C : 1,050 at 1,100 kg/m3
Boiling point (NF R 15-602-4) : 105-110°C +/- 2 °C
pH : between 7 and 9
Flash point : /
Solubility : soluble in 160g/100g H2O
(The values shown above have been taken from the specification valid on the date of publication of this product data sheet.)
The maximum continuous operating temperature for all XXX products is +100 °C. Above this temperature, betaine will slowly degrade, and above 150 °C, this process will accelerate. The degradation products of betaine are neither corrosive, nor harmful to man or the environment.
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