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Source text - English Breastfeed a Toddler - Why on Earth?
Because more and more women are now breastfeeding their babies, more and more are also finding that they enjoy breastfeeding enough to want to continue longer than the usual few months they initially thought they would. UNICEF has long encouraged breastfeeding for two years and longer, and the American Academy of Pediatrics is now on record as encouraging mothers to nurse at least one year and as long after as both mother and baby desire. Even the Canadian Paediatric Society, in its latest feeding statement acknowledges that women may want to breastfeed for two years or longer. Breastfeeding to 3 and 4 years of age has been common in much of the world until recently, and it is still common in many societies for toddlers to breastfeed.
Why should breastfeeding continue past six months?
Because mothers and babies often enjoy breastfeeding a lot. Why stop an enjoyable relationship?
But it is said that breastmilk has no value after six months.
Perhaps this is said, but it is wrong. That anyone can say such a thing only shows how ignorant so many people in our society are about breastfeeding. Breastmilk is, after all, milk. Even after six months, it still contains protein, fat, and other nutritionally important and appropriate elements which babies and children need. Breastmilk still contains immunologic factors that help protect the baby. In fact, some immune factors in breastmilk that protect the baby against infection are present in greater amounts in the second year of life than in the first. This is, of course as it should be, since children older than a year are generally exposed to more infection. Breastmilk still contains factors that help the immune system to mature, and which help the brain, gut, and other organs to develop and mature.
It has been well shown that children in daycare who are still breastfeeding have far fewer and less severe infections than the children who are not breastfeeding. The mother thus loses less work time if she continues nursing her baby once she is back at her paid work.
It is interesting that formula company marketing pushes the use of formula (a rather imperfect copy of the real thing) for a year, yet implies that breastmilk (from which the imperfect copy is copied) is only worthwhile for 6 months or even less ("the best nutrition for newborns"). Too many health professionals have taken up the refrain.
I have heard that the immunologic factors in breastmilk prevent the baby from developing his own immunity if I breastfeed past six months.
This is untrue; in fact, this is absurd. It is unbelievable how so many people in our society twist around the advantages of breastfeeding and turn them into disadvantages. We give babies immunizations so that they are able to defend themselves against the real infection. Breastmilk also allows the baby to be fight off infections. When the baby fights off these infections, he becomes immune. Naturally.
But I want my baby to become independent.
And breastfeeding makes the toddler dependent? Don’t believe it. The child who breastfeeds until he weans himself (usually from 2 to 4 years), is generally more independent, and, perhaps more importantly, more secure in his independence. He has received comfort and security from the breast, until he is ready to make the step himself to stop. And when he makes that step himself, he knows he has achieved something, he knows he has moved ahead. It is a milestone in his life.
Often we push children to become "independent" too quickly. To sleep alone too soon, to wean from the breast too soon, to do without their parents too soon, to do everything too soon. Don’t push and the child will become independent soon enough. What’s the rush? Soon they will be leaving home. You want them to leave home at 14?
Of course, breastfeeding can, in some situations, be used to foster an overdependent relationship. But so can food and toilet training. The problem is not the breastfeeding. This is another issue.
Possibly the most important aspect of nursing a toddler is not the nutritional or immunologic benefits, important as they are. I believe the most important aspect of nursing a toddler is the special relationship between child and mother. Breastfeeding is a life affirming act of love. This continues when the baby becomes a toddler. Anyone without prejudices, who has ever observed an older baby or toddler nursing can testify that there is something almost magical, something special, something far beyond food going on. A toddler will sometimes spontaneously, for no obvious reason, break into laughter while he is nursing. His delight in the breast goes far beyond a source of food. And if the mother allows herself, breastfeeding becomes a source of delight for her as well, far beyond the pleasure of providing food. Of course, it’s not always great, but what is? But when it is, it makes it all so worthwhile.
And if the child does become ill or does get hurt (and they do as they meet other children and become more daring), what easier way to comfort the child than breastfeeding? I remember nights in the emergency department when mothers would walk their ill, non nursing babies or toddlers up and down the halls trying, often unsuccessfully, to console them, while the nursing mothers were sitting quietly with their comforted, if not necessarily happy, babies at the breast. The mother comforts the sick child with breastfeeding, and the child comforts the mother by breastfeeding.
Handout #21. Toddler nursing. Revised January 2000
Written by Jack Newman, MD, FRCPC
Translation - Chinese 養幼兒也餵母奶，到底好在哪裡？
現在有越來越多的母親選擇餵母奶，其中也有越來越多的人發現餵母奶這件事出乎原先料想的好，因而她們願意比一般餵母奶只餵幾個月還要餵得更久。聯合國兒童基金會（UNICEF）長久以來一直鼓勵母親要餵新生兒吃母奶兩年或更長的時間，美國小兒科醫學會（American Academy of Pediatrics）目前也在其正式的政策宣導文件中載明，小兒科醫生應鼓勵母親們哺乳至少一年，其後則視母子雙方的意願，盡可能能餵多久就餵多久。連加拿大小兒醫學社（Canadian Paediatric Society）最新的幼兒哺餵狀況報告中也指出，女性願意哺餵母乳兩年或更長的時間。餵母奶持續三年到四年，直到現在在全球的許多地區仍是一件平常的事；餵幼兒吃母奶對許多不同文化社會來說，也事屬平常。
English to Chinese: 【Staking Claims】Saying Yes to NO
Source text - English ¡¾Staking Claims¡¿
Saying Yes to NO
The patent office is issuing a wealth of patents related to one of the most celebrated molecules of the past decade By GARY STIX
JONATHAN STAMLER of Duke University has applied for more than 50 NO-associated patents.
When three Americans won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1998 for discoveries about nitric oxide, news coverage often focused on how this insight helped lead to the creation of Viagra. But the ubiquitous role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the body¡ªit does everything from fighting infections to combating cancer¡ªhas spurred a gold rush of patenting. One prominent researcher, Jonathan Stamler of Duke University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, has received more than 10 patents in the past 18 months alone for his work on NO; he estimates that he has applied for more than 50 in all.
A key recent patent relates to basic research performed by Stamler and his colleagues. The work showed that hemoglobin, besides shuttling oxygen to tissues and retrieving carbon dioxide, also delivers NO. Before, scientists had always believed that hemoglobin destroyed NO.
The new research demonstrated that the NO linked to hemoglobin allows blood vessels to expand or contract, depending on how much of the molecule is present. Patents received by Stamler and his colleague Joseph Bonaventura (U.S.: 6,153,186 and 6,203,789) provide a method for restoring NO in red blood cells that have been depleted through disease or while being stored in blood banks. The NO binds to cysteine, an amino acid in hemoglobin, to form a molecule called an S-nitrosothiol. When the red blood cells arrive at the capillaries, they release oxygen as well as the S-nitrosothiols. The NO in the nitrosothiols dilates blood vessels and thus allows oxygen to better reach tissues. NO-loaded blood cells could boost the effectiveness of blood transfusions done to treat sickle cell anemia and to replenish blood after
heart attacks, strokes and other conditions in which tissues suffer from oxygen deficiency.
Another major finding achieved by Stamler¡¯s group was that NO binds to transcription factors and enzymes that regulate proteins in invading pathogens and in cancer and other abnormal cells. Stamler and Owen W. Griffith of the Medical College of Wisconsin won patents (U.S.: 6,057,367 and 6,180,824) for fighting microbes and cells gone awry by manipulating NO-related biochemical pathways. When the body is under attack from microorganisms, for instance, mammalian immune cells called macrophages produce NO, which attacks critical metabolic enzymes and other proteins in the pathogens. In a routine counterattack by the microbes, a sulfur-containing molecule, a thiol, wipes up the NO, a first line of defense against the invasion.
One aspect of the patents covers chemicals, such as a sulfoximine (which is related to a cancer chemotherapeutic agent), that inhibit enzymes and transcription factors that synthesize thiols in microorganisms but leave proteins in human cells relatively untouched. In addition, NO can be attached to an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent that homes in on a rapidly dividing cell, thereby enhancing its effects.
Stamler and Griffith¡¯s patent coverage is very extensive. Besides new drugs, one of the patents also covers molecules targeted by pharmaceuticals: any protein that microorganisms and other pathologically proliferating cells, such as those in cancer or in reblockage of an artery (restenosis), use to protect themselves against an NO onslaught. ¡°This is a broad-based system, disruption of which may have major implications in biology and disease,¡± Stamler notes.
Please let us know about interesting and unusual patents. Send suggestions to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Translation - English H: Before we start, let me first introduce to you about our company, and the topic and purpose of this symposium. We are a professional market research company that executes all kinds of market researches. For example, you might have such experiences of being asked to fill out some questionnaires, or to taste some foods or drinks while you are walking on the street. Will you accept these kinds of survey requests?
PM4: No, because I am always in a hurry.
Ps: Yes, I did have such experience. I was just about to ride my motorcycle when stopped by a inquirer and being asked to fill out a simple questionnaire.
H: Yes, this is a form of survey we called street survey. There is another way of proceeding a survey which I believe you all are familiar with. When you are watching TV at home, you might get called for the purpose of Audience Measurement Service. Did you ever get such phone calls?
Ps: No. Because I am always not at home. / Because I am usually not willing to answer those phone calls asking me to participate in a survey, I hang them up.
H: Well, today we are proceeding a survey in a more specific form, the symposium. Usually we set up specific themes for such group discussion. You already knew that we get your names from Nanshan. Hence you know that the topic today would be related to Nanshan and financial management, instead of experiences in using consumer products such as shampoos and shower gels. Do you know why there is eight of you here today?
Ps: Because you need samples from different occupations?
H: That is correct. We hope that we can collect different opinions from different occupations. We want to know more about some issues. Later I will show you some product outline and ask you quite a few questions. The symposium is going to take 2 hours but it depends on how you respond to my questions. If you do not offer opinions, I will not let you go when time is up. I ask, you answer, then the show will run smoothly. Maybe you can set up a time record of doing this kind of symposium. Later on if you can not get what I said or you have any questions, please ask, do not just keep it with you. But rule number 1 is, everybody speaks. Do not be silent. Rule number 2, you do not have to speak in same order each turn. Every one has his own opinion, there is no right and wrong. So please just say what you have in mind. Now let us all introduce ourselves briefly. Please feel free to drink or eat during the session, or even stand up for a stretch. But be sure to set your mobile phone to vibrating mode cos we do not want to be disturbed. Rest room is just out there. Be sure to return after you are done. That is why a deliberate moderator always keeps the recompense till the end of the discussion. We do not give it to you beforehand, but we surely will give it to you. Let me introduce myself first. I am Hsieh at my late twenties, single. I have been working for this market survey company for quite a few years since my graduation from college. My job is very interesting which needs to contact with a lot of people. It is not a heavy duty job, on holidays I can sleep whatever long I like. Now please tell me about yourselves. Your job, your leisure activity, your marital status, etc.
HF1: I am Fan (or Chen), working in a Telecom company. Married and one little child. Off duty time I serve as a mother solely.
PF2: I was in interior design business but now I am waiting for a job because it is too consuming an occupation and I need some rest. As for the leisure, if only a day or two break, I prefer staying at home. If it is a longer period of time, I will go travel. I tend to travel abroad. Single too.
PM2: I am Ge, single, working in testing and certificating area, mainly for import and export products inspection. Need to travel a lot due to my job function. This is the first time I participate in such a survey activity.
PM3: I am Zhou in my late thirties. Married. I am a safety professional deal with locks, Video surveillances, security services, etc. In the past people used to call the one who set up locks a locksmith. As time changes, now we called this a safety profession. Now I am cooperating with my friends in so-called ¡°policy-and-the-public-connect¡±. It is a service opened up for general public only these latest years. I have 3 children and the oldest one is 8 now.
PF3: I am Hsu. My profession is in accounting. I spend my leisure time mostly on reading, listening to music, and shopping. Single.
PF4: I am Huang. Iam a teacher in junior high school. I have to work six days a week so on Sunday the only off day my leisure activity is sleep at home. I teach music and have to conduct the school orchestra training on Saturdays. That is why I only have Sunday off. So I can only use summer vacations for abroad traveling. I spend about 3 weeks for traveling every year.
PM4: I am Lee. I work in electronics business mainly about selling IT products. I do not have to travel a lot for work but basically I deal with foreign customers. It is not too busy a job. I am married, without child.
H: The assistant has just brought us the envelopes with your recompense in them. Now you can believe that I was not fooling you about it. You all were talked about your leisure activities like sleep, reading, traveling, etc. But is there anything that you always want to do but still not accomplished yet? Do you have any dreams? And what is really important in your life?
PF4: I hope to tidy up my place. Because I seldom have time to clean it up. The mess make me feel bad.
PM1: Travel around the world.
PF1: Go travel-and-study.
PM2: I need to travel around Taiwan a lot. I hope to see how fast I can drive.
H: So you want to race wildly?
PM3: I do not think anything is important to my life. Just take all the pressure away from me and that would be fine.
PM4: I hope to retire as early as possible so I can have time to do whatever I want.
H: We just took a brief look at everybody¡®s background and your hobbies. Now let us focus on the main theme today and begin our discussion. I will show you 2 products in the next minutes. It is not in a substantial form but in a descriptive way. What I hope to discuss is, as a consumer, what you would think about such product descriptions, and what your responses would be to them. All you here are Nanshan Policyholders. The products are designed exclusively for the policyholders, it is an exclusive club service or member service concept. What benefits would you get by joining the club or member service programs? First, you will be provided a free platinum card. Besides, there is some other member-only benefits. But you have to pay to join the clubs. So we have to discuss how much you would be willing to pay to join. Say, if you see a product of this kind on the market, what price you think is reasonable for it. Of course I am not urge you to pay for it now. I just want to know your responses when you find such products. Actually Nanshan has developed quite a few products exclusively for the policyholders but we only have limited time to discuss 2 of them today. Let us go through one at a time. Remember, to join the clubs or membership program, the first benefit would be a free platinum card. The usage of the platinum card will be covered later. Secondly, this club program requires you to pay. But how much? We will be discussing this. What are other benefits? Now we are going to take a look.
(Read out the club concept description)
The club name is ¡°Health Expert Club¡±. Every member of the club enjoys benefits of health products and services total of NT$ 20,000 value. There are some basic benefits when you joining the club. First of all, it has a free ¡°Health Life¡± choose-one-out-of-three-options program. The first option is a free annual health check plus 6 free Yoga or Tai-chi or Chi Gung classes. The second is one free 18 holes golf swing at YangShen Golf Field or a practice coupon of Golf Practicing Field, plus a Braun electric tooth brush. The third is 3 months free membership of Alexander Health Club. Now we offer 3 options for the Health Life program. But when the product is ready to promote on the market, we will give you another options to choose from. And there are still benefits of a free 3-time SPA experiential coupon, 3 free issues of health magazine, quarterly free ticket for health related lecture, and 30% discount for group accidental insurance. If you join the ¡°Health Expert Club¡±, these basic benefits described above are yours all for free.
Next I would like to introduce the free platinum card, and it¡®s relationship to the club. You use the card actively every year, you get some add-on preferential health services every year. If your transaction amount (not including insurance premiums) of first year exceeding NT$ 200,000, or first year total domestic cash advance exceeding NT$ 200,000, or accumulated total of AIG installment payment exceeding NT$ 200,000, you will get a value-added version of the basic benefits just mentioned. That is, if you pass the threshold, the free annual health check plus 6 free Yoga classes will be added a luxury 2-day SPA activities. The option of one free 18 holes golf swing at YangShen Golf Field or a practice coupon of Golf Practicing Field, plus a Braun electric tooth brush, will be added a Health Master 2-trough foot massage device. The third option of 3 months free membership of Alexander Health Club will be extended to a full year membership after you pass the threshold.
Ok. Now each of you please take one piece of this handout to review all the benefits. And each one take a blank sheet of paper too. Sorry I forgot to tell you that I need to record the whole discussion session because I have to make a report out of this. I will definitely keep all your personal data confidential. Please study the proposal again. And what do you need to write on the paper? Please take a pen first. There is a space on the form for you to write down the ¡°expected price¡±. We already knew that you have to pay to join the club. So tell me how much you are willing to pay for it after you have learned about all the benefits provided by this product. Please write down the acceptable price, the reasonable annual fee that is acceptable to you, in the space of ¡°expected price¡±.
English to Chinese: Ericsson warns gloom will continue
Source text - English Ericsson warns gloom will continue
Ericsson, the world¡¯s largest mobile telephone equipment company, warned yesterday of a risk that there would be no improvement in market conditions next year.
The comments by Kurt Hellstrom, chief executive of the Swedish group, extended the gloom that has engulfed the telecoms industry in the past 18 months. The company¡¯s shares hit their lowest level since September 1996 ahead of a meeting to ask shareholders for SKr30bn ($3.1n) ¨C equivalent to about 18 per cent of its current market value ¨C to see through the downturn.
Mr Hellstrom will tell shareholders tomorrow that the mobile telecoms sector¡¯s outlook has shown no improvement as the drought in orders from cash-strapped operators continues. ¡°we don¡¯t think the market has become worse but the downturn has been prolonged. We have to face the possibility that next year doesn¡¯t turn upwards,¡± he told the Financial times.
He said this was a ¡°conservative¡± scenario and the group was still counting on returning to profit ¡°some time next year¡± after two years of losses. But he added that short-term market turmoil should not obscure the long-term growth prospects for the sector.
Operators urgently needed to invest because ¡°the quality of networks is degenerating almost everywhere, and particularly in western Europe¡±. He was also optimistic about the potential for 3G services, predicting that in 2005 there would be ¡°massive use of 3G¡±.
Mr Hellstrom said Ericsson would use the rights issue proceeds to strengthen its balance sheet and ensure adequate working capital for when market conditions improved. ¡°This is not about converting black holes. We will cover any losses from savings and cost-cutting¡±.
The company said in April it would cut a further 20,000 jobs, taking the total number of cuts announced since the start of last year to 42,000.
Mr Hellstrom also denied that the company was planning any big acquisitions. Ericsson is likely to win support for the issue, after its recent move to defuse a potential rebellion over voting rights. It has promised to examine the case for reducing the wide voting differential between A shares and B shares from the current 1,000-1 to 10-1.
The move would reduce the influence of its two biggest shareholders, Investor, controlled by the Wallenberg family, and Industrivarden, an investment group linked to Svenska Handelsbanken. The issue, scheduled for the third quarter, has still to be priced.
Ericsson shares fell 4 per cent to SKr20.8 yesterday after a profits warning from Singapore¡¯s Flextronics, an outsourcing specialist involved in the production of many of Ericsson¡¯s handsets. The shares are more than 90 per cent below SKr peak in March 2000.
Translation - Chinese 易立信表示市場黯淡的狀況將持續
這項評論是由該瑞典集團的首席執行長 Kurt Hellstrom 提出，認為過去十八個月襲捲電信產業的低迷市況還會繼續下去。就在召開股東會議、要求持股人再投入300億瑞典克郎（31億美元）以應付經濟衰退之前，該公司股價跌到 1996 年九月以來的最低水準。300億瑞士克郎相當於該公司目前市值的18%。