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English to Chinese: English to Chinese translation NZ1 General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc.
Source text - English AIDS Hitting African Farm Sector Hard
Once a largely urban problem, AIDS has moved to rural areas in developing countries, devastating thousands of farming communities and leaving impoverished survivors scarcely able to feed themselves. The disease is no longer a health problem alone, but is having a measurable impact on food production, household food security and rural people’s ability to make a living.
The latest statistical evidence on sub-Saharan Africa—the worst-hit region—confirms the scale of the epidemic’s impact on the countryside.
It is estimated that over half of the 28 million people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural areas. In order to estimate such figures, epidemiologists start with data taken from tests done on blood samples from pregnant women attending prenatal clinics. They then extrapolate the figures to estimate infection rates in larger areas. Recent findings point to two of the hardest-hit countries—Zimbabwe and Swaziland.
“This is a real wake-up call for governments,” says an expert on AIDS. “Policymakers are guided by evidence. Solid evidence is now coming in and will make governments understand how rural areas are actually more vulnerable to AIDS than urban areas.”
Recent reports from other African countries show a similar pattern of rampant rural infection.
Poverty underlies the suffering and devastation behind these figures. The HIV/AIDS epidemic cannot be addressed without doing something about rural livelihoods: how people make their living, how they get enough food, what strategies they follow in order to survive.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is currently formulating pilot projects that will test labor-saving techniques and how-input agriculture in African and Asian communities hard hit by the epidemic. Other priorities for the FAO HIV/AIDS program include building up institutions that help rural communities, improving nutrition, addressing gender inequalities in access to productive resources (especially land) and helping devastated communities find a way to pass on farming knowledge to the young.
English to Chinese: English to Chinese translation NZ2 General field: Science
Source text - English Aging: Cognitive Areas
Researchers have established that when people are mentally engaged, biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitive areas such as attention and memory. This is true regardless of age.
People will be alert and receptive if they are faced with information that gets them to think about things they are interested in. And someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more cognitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind.
Many experts are so convinced of the benefits of challenging the brain that they are putting the theory to work in their own lives. “The idea is not necessarily to learn to memorize enormous amounts of information,” says James Fozard, associate director of the National Institute on Aging. “Most of us don’t need that kind of skill. Such specific training is of less interest than being able to maintain mental alertness.” Fozard and others say they challenge their brain with different mental skills, both because they enjoy them and because they are sure that their range of activities will help their brains work.
Gene Cohen, acting director of the same institute, suggests that people in their old age should engage in mental and physical activities individually as well as in groups. Cohen says that we are frequently advised to keep physically active as we age, but older people need to keep mentally active as well. Those who do are more likely to maintain their intellectual abilities and to be generally happier and better adjusted. “The point is, you need to do both,” Cohen says. “Intellectual activity actually influences brain-cell health and size.”
Translation - Chinese 认知领域的衰老研究
Other - Shijiazhuang University
Years of translation experience: 5. Registered at ProZ.com: Oct 2019. Became a member: Oct 2019.