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Sample translations submitted: 7
English to Chinese: Marketing General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Marketing / Market Research
Source text - English Different regions have different cultures, languages, customs, common senses, rows, etc. Serious understanding of the place is mandatory to expand and succeed our world-wide business no matter what.
Translation - Chinese 地区不同，语言文化、风土人情、分歧纠纷等也会千差万别。为了扩大和延续我们的全球业务，必须千方百计地深入了解此地。
English to Chinese: Limited Edition Jubilee Clutch General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Advertising / Public Relations
Source text - English Limited Edition Jubilee Clutch
To honour 60 years of our Queen's reign and her Diamond Jubilee, Aspinal of London introduce the limited edition Jubilee Clutch of 50 uniquely crafted and individually numbered pieces which will arrive in an exclusive Jubilee clutch box.
Echoing Andy Warhol's fascination with striking colours and image repetition, this avant-garde piece features a finely crafted unique cartouche shaped gold frame hand bound in the finest smooth Black Italian calf leather with stud detailing and a striking pop-art effigy of our iconic queen's head silhouetted in vibrant snakeskin colours. Accented by an opulent regal clasp, the Jubilee Clutch is small enough to carry in the palm of the hand or drape over the nape of the arm with the fine quality gold gilt lightweight chain.
The commemorative Aspinal Jubilee Clutch marks 60 years of Queen Elizabeth II ascension to the throne and is guaranteed to become a fashionistas collectors piece.
Product Dimensions: 4" (H) x (5.5" (W) x 2" (D) / Chain Drop: 6.25"
Translation - Chinese 限量版庆典手袋
为了庆祝女王登基60周年及其钻石婚纪念， Aspinal of London 特推出限量版庆典手袋，由50个制作考究、有独立编号的零件组成，于专用庆典手袋包装盒内闪亮登场。
English to Chinese: Adolescence General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Education / Pedagogy
Source text - English Adolescence' is the French word derived, from 'adolescere', which means growing up. It is the age group of 10 to 19 years. Since every individual is different and develops in his/her unique way, it is difficult to fix a particular age group. The bridge between the childhood and the adulthood is adolescence. The beginning of adolescence is known as 'puberty.' It is marked by menarche (first menstruation) in girls, which generally occurs between the age of 11 and 13 years; and by first nocturnal emission (wet dream) in boys, which generally occurs between the age of 12 and 14 years. The period of growing up is of about 4 years. Girls become mature at an early age than boys. There are physical as well as psychological changes. The physical changes precede psychological changes.
In some, the puberty may be delayed upto 16 years and in some it may be as early as at 10 years. Physical Changes (Secondary Sexual Characteristics) The physical changes in girls at puberty other than menarche are development of breasts, pubic hair, hair in the armpits, pimples on the face, appearance of vaginal secretions, functioning of sex glands, increase in height, broadening and rounding of hips and getting an attractive look. The physical changes in boys other than wet dreams are development of hair on face, in armpit and on pubis, change of voice, development of Adam's apple in the neck, pimples on the face, painful swellings in the breasts, enlargement of penis and functioning of sex glands. The height increases, the body looks muscular and the shoulders broaden. Pattern of Sexual Maturation Age in Boys Girls Years 11 - Pubic hair appears Budding of breasts 12 Pubic hair appears Growth of sex organs. 13 Growth of testes, Hair in the armpits, penis and sex glands menarche (first men- struation). 14 Wet dreams, hair in - armpits, change of voice 15 - Pimples 16 pimples End of bony growth. 17 End of bony growth.
Psychological Changes Adolescence is a period of psychological and emotional upheaval. Adolescents feel concerned about how they look and might spend hours in front of the mirror, caring for outward appearance. There is a need to be attractive and to dress like others of their age group. They like to spend more and more time with the friends of their age and of their own sex. Their conversation on phone may go unending. As they grow they may want to make friendship with the person of opposite sex. They like to fall in love. They become moody, at times elated and at times depressed, and have a feeling that nobody cares for them. They want to have freedom. They may become rebellious and be argumentative with their parents.
At times there is confusion of thoughts. They would like to be left alone. Sometimes, they become very sociable. They feel that their parents are not treating them like adults and hence the parents do not take their opinion into consideration. They take more interest in novels, films or music and dance. They like to fantacise. They become irresponsible and stubborn. Parents get disgusted. They think only of today, lack in maturity and farsighted thinking. Though both boys and girls are attracted towards each other, the boys are interested in having sex, while the girls desire love and romance. The expectations of boys and girls differ during the phase of attraction. Boys try for sexual satisfaction and girls long for tenderness and attention. However, each assumes that the other feels as he or she does. Boys have much more sex drive than girls and they seek an outlet through masturbation (manual stimulation of sex organ).
Among girls, masturbation is not so common. During the teen years girls find satisfaction in romantic dreams and fantasies rather than in masturbation. Though parents get depressed and worried about the future of such misbehaved, disobedient adolescents, in reality the situation is not hopeless. These behaviours are transient. As the age advances, the same adolescents change into ideal citizens. The parents forget that they too had behaved the same way during their adolescence.
There are several plus points in the adolescents. There is a lot of creativity amongst them. They are honest and sincere. They love their society and country. They are always hopeful. They may strive hard for bringing about social changes and may fight against injustice. They devote hemselves for a good cause. Their physical health remains at its best. They have the ability to get adjusted to the changing circumstances. They are jovial and like humour. They undertake activites that need daring. Many who sacrificed their life for freedom of our country, were young adolescents. They are our hopes of tomorrow. Adolescents too have their own doubts, myths, misconceptions and problems. Many of them require information, counselling, guidance and assurance. Boys and girls who attain maturity much earlier or much later than others in their class are singled out. They may be subjected to ridicule and may suffer deeply. They need to be assured that this is a natural variation. Some boys develop a feeling of guilt and shame about masturbation and wet dreams, though they cannot control these activities. They need to be reassured.
Menarche (first menstruation) comes as a shock to the girls who are not informed about it. Many have a feeling of becoming 'impure' during the menstruation. Girls get worried about the size of their breasts, if they are too small or too big. Though they feel that the breasts are one of the signs of beauty, nature has a purpose of production of milk for the nutrition of the future child. Any size of breast can produce sufficient amount of milk during the lactating period.
Whatever has been gifted by nature needs to be accepted with a sense of joy. Insecurity, fear, anger, frustration, peer pressure and drive for freedom may be the causes for the youngsters to get addicted to smoking, drugs and alcohol. This has become a global concern. We all collectively have to establish a good communication with them, supply them with the information they need, care for them, guide them and give them moral and emotional support; because they are our future.
Puberty is the beginning of the adolescence. The height increases and the long bones grow more rapidly giving "leggy" appearance. They are clumsy. Parents pay much attention to whether or not their child is pretty. Parents feel that the child is weak and therefore they feed costly tonics. But these don't work. A high protein and vitamin containing diet should be given at this age. The boys and girls become self conscious about their look, face, hair and the girls about the development of their breasts. In order to hide their breasts, the girls stoop. The parents should discourage stooping and encourage them to accept what they are. If the parents have always kept their child under their thumb and always made decisions for him, or demanded strict obedience, he will not develop the capacity to make his own decisions. Therefore, when he goes out into life, he will be completely at sea. He will be devoid of will and character, and when he has freedom he will not know how to use it. The parents should realize that the youth is growing up to greater independence. He wants to go his own way, make his own decisions, choose his own friends, dress the way he likes and read the books he chooses. If the parents interfere with his normal development by laying down laws, he will resent it.
It is better that the youth learns self discipline during the earlier childhood and adapts himself to the new stage of life and its responsibilities through independance. The a dolescents also love responsibility. They should be given opportunities to do the jobs independently. There is a desire to be venturesome. They seek new experiences in life. They deliberately seek adventures. However, they lack experience and hence cannot anticipate possible dangers in their ventures. It is for the parents to explain these and share their experiences with them. Adolescents have a reputation of being rebellious and disobedient. This is because they are setting out to form their own views and gain their own independence. They are not willing to submit to the authority even of their parents. They claim the right to their own judgement; make their own choices and resent the adult dictatorship. The adolescents are trying to grow up, the function of the parents is to help them to grow up and not to hold them back. Therefore, the adolscents should be left to themselves, to do things for themselves and should only be given help when needed. However, the parents must not be surprised if the youths refuse to take their advice. Instead of accepting the advice against their judgement, it is better that they learn to think for themselves.
However independent the adolescents are, they still like their parents to take interest in them and their doings. They like others to appreciate their achievements. They should not be criticised if they don't do well in the school. A little encouragement from parents goes a long way. It is not possible for every child to come first in the class. Many great men did not do well at school. Charles Darwin, Sir Walter Scott, Goldsmith did badly at school. Gurudeo Rabindranath Tagore, Swami Vivekanand, Lokmanya Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi did not stand first in the class, even then they became great. It is the encouragement from the parents make them keep trying. If discouraged or criticised constantly they stop trying. Children always need love and encouragement. The parents should not try their unfulfilled ambitions to be fulfilled through children. Children have their own likes and dislikes. It is for the parents to recognise their likes and grant opportunities to them. Let them decide what they want to be. Parents unnecessarily worry about their children. There is always room at the top. If they choose the subjects of their choice they have better chances of reaching the top. Adolescents do not like nagging by their parents. If they do, the adolescents turn a deaf ear or become indifferent. They feel that their parents are possessive, bossy and underestimate their capability. Younger generation often challenges the values of the older generation. The parents do not appreciate this. However, the younger generation has important contribution to make by introducing new values.
The role of adults is not to protect adolescents from all adversities and from every difficult experience. They must allow their teenagers to do their own experimenting. With- out experimenting one does not become responsible. The role of an adult is to guide and give assistance if the experiment entails risk. Some parents feel that teenagers should be tolerated; others respond with a feeling of hurt,-- "See how he treats me after all, I have done so much for him!" Still other parents put their foot down and become authoritative. These will only promote defiance and greater friction between the adolescents and parents. There are basic differences between the sexuality of boys and girls.
The boys are aggressive and girls are receptive. The boys should be told about the wet dreams and the girls should be informed about the menstruation before they experience it, i.e., by the age of 11 to 12 years. If the parents find it difficult because of their own inhibitions, they should give a book on sex education to them to read. Boys at this age are interested in the function of sex and girls are interested in how babies are born. Boys and girls at puberty or earlier may examine the genitals of one another and indulge in sex play.
As they see the cattles in the field or dogs on the street, they may practise "mounting" in their play. The parents need not be furious on this matter and beat the children. If you scold and beat your child, he may develop inhibitions, fears and complexes that may interfere with his adult sex life. He may not be able to consummate his marriage. The scientists like Kinsey and John Money have said that such sex plays do not make them homosexuals in adult life. This behaviour is normal and is a step in the sexual development. It helps in sexual orientation. John Money calls it "sexual rehearsal" of the sexual act with the opposite sex and finds it essential for adult normal sexual behaviour.
The child is curious about his body parts as well as those of the opposite sex. It is this curiosity rather than erotic feelings and the idea of imitating what he sees that provokes him to indulge in sex play. Every parent may not agree with the above views. No parent would encourage such behaviour in their children. They will be justified if they frown and discourage sex plays and turn the attention of their children to other forms of play, but they should never scold them and never get worried about the sex plays. The same holds good in the matter of masturbation. We come across cases where a responsible father warns his son not to indulge in masturbation because it would harm him. The child sincerely obeys his father only to land up in trouble after his marriage. Such individual cannot ejaculate semen and father a child because he has not put the reflexes of ejaculation into action since puberty. It has been proved that masturbation does not harm, but the misconceptions and fear of masturbation do harm. In fact, masturbation is a premarital preparation for postmarital sexual intercourse.
Parents need not be worried, if accidentally the child sees the parents naked or while doing the intercourse. They should behave as if nothing has happened. The psychologists suggest that seeing the parents nude does not harm the child. Sometimes, the parents are asked about their sexual activity. Without feeling embarrassed or ashamed the parents should tell the child that they were expressing their love to each other in a way that married people do.
The child should understand that sex is a way of expression of love and that it is appropriate for the married couple and is a private matter. Finding their daughter in love with her classmate should not make the parents throw tantrums. This will make them lose communication with their child. Instead, they should explain the difference between real love and infatuation, the limits to be observed during such relationship and possible pitfalls. It is best that they leave their child alone for natural development to take its course. The parents should wait and watch. It is not uncommon to find that their love ralationship changes frequently or terminates abruptly. This is natural. Even if the child continues the love relationship with the same individual, persuade her/him to postpone marriage. Perhaps she/he may change her/his mind during the postponement. Even if the child gets married and later ends the relationship, the parents are needed for love and support. The parents should assure the child that she/he will always be loved and cared for. The boys should be informed and warned that the sexual abuse is a crime. The girls should be taught how to say 'NO' when a known or unknown person intends to sexually abuse her.
Adolescents find a strong need to be like the peer group. This leads to their first experience with drugs, smoking or alcohol.
The drive for freedom, self esteem, insecurity, fear, anger tend to aggravate these addictions. A help from the psychiatrists should be sought at the earliest before the problem becomes irreversible. Drug dependence should be suspected when he comes home late at night and he loses his health, his need for pocket money increases, his text books, watch, ring, transister and some valuable articles disappear from home, he lags behind in his studies, a complaint is received about his absenteesm from the the college, he becomes arrogant and agitated, his dress is unclean, hair is not combed, beard is not shaved and he looks untidy. The parents should not be under false belief, "It cannot happen to my child!" The successful upbringing of children is the parent's job. It takes both father and mother to give life to a child and bring that life to maturity. Both should agree on different issues concerning upbringing, may it be freedom, discipline or punishment to the child. The basic needs of the child are:
1. Security: A feeling of being wanted.
2. Affection: The child craves to be loved.
3. Understanding: See the strong points and weaknesses objectively.
4. Acceptance: Beware of comparison.
5. Empathy: Share his feelings.
6. Communication: Listen to the child and talk to him and not just scold, order or reprimand.
7. Recognition: Encourage and praise.
The Lebanese poet Khalil Gibran has precisely defined the principles of parenthood through these lines: Your children are not your children, They are the sons and daughters of Life's longing for itself. They come through you, but not from you, And though they are with you, they belong not to you. You may give them your love but not your thoughts, For they have their own thoughts. You may house their bodies but not their souls, For their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow, Which you cannot visit, not even in your dreams. You may strive to be like them, but seek not to make them like you. For Life goes not backward, nor tarries with yesterday. Your are the bows from which your children, as living arrows, are sent forth; Let your bending in the archer's hand be for gladness. Common Questions Asked by Parents/Teachers Is it all right to teach sex education to school children? Sex education in reality is "Sexuality" education. It is a value and attitude oriented education and not the education of sexual relations between a man and a woman. Sexuality is not obscenity. How could the very basis of existence of life on earth be obscene? Our culture has never considered sex as obscene. "Kama" (eroticism) is one of the four "Purusharthas" (duties and responsibilities) of a person. "Lingam" is worshipped in our culture. Moreover, obscenity is in the mind of the person who sees it that way and not in the object itself. Does'nt sex education shock young people? No. These fears are groundless.
Sex does not mean the same thing to a child as it is to an adult. Adults are accustomed to think of sex as feelings, attitudes, behaviour that surround physical act of sexual intercourse. Because of ingrained attitude towards sexual relations of adults, they cannot think clearly about young person's need for sex education. Will sex education arouse child's curiosity and create overconcern about it? Sex education if given properly does not arouse curiosity, but does exactly the opposite. Young persons who know that their parents and teachers talk freely with them about the facts of life, are less concerned about this subject than other children. Will telling children about sex promote sexual experimentation? There is no evidence to support this view. Several researches including that done by World Health Organization, have proved it to be the other way. Sex education encourages young people to delay sexual activity and to practise safer sex. The sex experimentation is frequently the result of growing concern and curiosity due to ignorance. Candid answers to young persons' questions about sex lessens his need for finding out for himself and thus reduces urge to experiment.
Factual information helps children and adults make wise decisions. Without the knowledge of facts it is easy to make mistakes and get into trouble. Attitudes about sexuality are helpful while making decisions about their own behaviour. Curiosity can lead to sexual experimenting. Teaching children about facts and helping them to develop healthy attitudes will not prevent all the troubles, but it does help. Will sex education distract the students from their studies? Physical, psychological and emotional changes in adolescents create anxiety, fear, guilt in them. Researches have shown that by giving correct information and knowledge about sexuality they overcome guilt, shame and fear and feel more comfortable than otherwise. Sexuality education creates awareness in them about STD/HIV infection, premarital pregnancy and substance abuse and guides them to take right decision. Not giving them sex education may distract their attention from studies than otherwise.
Some parents/teachers say, "what will children think of me if I tell them about sex." Such fears are needless. Such thinking of guilt and shame and embarrassment is in the parents' teachers' own mind and not in the children's. They need not feel so regarding the facts of life for which they are not responsible. Parents and teachers are no more responsible for nature's way with man than for the three seasons, the composition of the atom or eclipse of the moon. Sex instruction, if given calmly and truthfully, will not shock young people. How to stop children from knowing "dirty" words? The child does not know that the word has a sexual connotation. Parents should discuss the meaning and explain that it is a negative way to talk. Insist that the child should not use the word at home. Parents should not make children feel that they are unbelievably shocked. Children use such words for impressing friends, or to seek the attention, without knowing the meaning. How can we be sure our teenager does not have sexual intercourse before marriage? You can't. All we can do is to do our best. Help him/her develop healthy attitudes to build a value system which includes confining sexual intercourse to marriage. Allow him/her to become an individual with independent action.
Most teens make a great effort to live upto trust and expectations of parents. They want their parents to be proud of them. Do boys need to know about menstruation? Do girls need to know about wet dreams? The earlier the members of both sexes come to understand the more sympathetic and caring they can be. Boys who think menstruation is funny or nasty don't understand it.
Efforts need to be made to help children with their understanding and appreciation of both sexes. Animals do not need sex education, why then for human beings? Animal sexual behaviour is governed by instinctive pattern, while human sexual behaviour is profoundly influenced by social conditioning and individual learning. Human beings have the ability to modify the sexual behaviour depending upon the social or individual needs; the animals cannot. The animals do not face several problems as the human beings. Therefore, a proper guidance and information are necessary for the human beings. Sex education was not given before. What is the necessity to give it now? Sex education was given even before the times of Vatsyayana (ad 400). It was Swetaketu (500 bc) who introduced the institution of marriage in India. Several treatises have been written on sexuality before him and after him. It was after seventeenth century, when Britishers came to India that they brought "obscenity" with them and hence the sex education was discontinued. Now the entire world has realised the importance of it. A lot of reseach in sexuality has been done world over. An unpdated sexuality education is desired for better quality of life. Should it be mandatory? India is a free secular, socialistic, democratic republican country. There is also diversity in cultural, religious and social conditioning.
Sexuality being still considered as a subject of taboo, should better be optional than mandatory. If made mandatory, certain section of the community will oppose so strongly that there can be countrywide collapse of the entire sexuality education programme. Parent's permission and co-operation from teachers and heads of the institutions should be solicited. Therefore, they should be simultaneously motivated for sexuality education. Should it be included in the curriculum? To make it universal, the sexuality education programme should ideally be included in the school/college curriculum. However, since the teachers find the syllabus load already heavy, the sexuality education programme should be plugged into other subjects as found fit, or should be treated as an extracurricular activity. Could the programme be made universal? Other than the school/college students, the dropouts, the street children and the handicapped children would need sexuality education.
It is an herculean task to include all. However, school/college children make a big group and is administratively convenient. Therefore, it will be easier to start at school and college levels. No doubt, there are several NGOs, which have already been doing laudable work in sexuality education for other groups.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were previously known as "venereal diseases." This is a group of diseases that are passed from one person to another through sexual intercourse. Some of them are curable if the treatment is started soon; while some being of virus origin are not curable. Some limit locally, some mutilate the natural anatomy of the sex organs, while some spread throughout and destroy every organ in the body.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (or STDs) are at unprecedented and epidemic proportions. Thirty years of the sexual revolution is paying an ugly dividend. While a few STDs can be transmitted apart from sex acts, all are transmissible by the exchange of bodily fluids during intimate sexual contact. I want to discuss the severity of the problem as well as what must be done if we are to save a majority of the next generation from the shame, infertility, and sometimes death, that may result from STDs.
The information I am about to share is from data gathered by the Medical Institute for Sexual Health out of Austin, Texas.(1) All of these statistics are readily available from reputable medical and scientific journals.
Today, there are approximately 25 STDs. A few can be fatal. Many women are living in fear of what their future may hold as a result of STD infection. It is estimated that 1 in 5 Americans between the ages of 15 and 55 are currently infected with one or more STDs, and 12 million Americans are newly infected each year. That's nearly 5% of the entire population of the U.S. Of these new infections, 63% are in people less than 25 years old.
This epidemic is a recent phenomenon. Some young people have parents who may have had multiple sexual partners with relative impunity. They may conclude that they too are safe from disease. However, most of these diseases were not around 20 to 30 years ago. Prior to 1960, there were only two significant sexually transmitted diseases: syphilis and gonorrhea. Both were easily treatable with antibiotics. In the sixties and seventies this relatively stable situation began to change. For example, in 1976, chlamydia first appeared in increasing numbers in the United States. Chlamydia, particularly dangerous to women, is now the most common STD in the country. Then in 1981, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus which causes AIDS, was identified. By early 1993, between 1 and 2 million Americans were infected with AIDS, over 12 million were infected worldwide, and over 160,000 had died in the U.S. alone. Over 10% of the total U.S. population, 30 million people, are infected with herpes.
In 1985, human papilloma virus (HPV), began to increase. This virus will result in venereal warts and will often lead to deadly cancers. In 1990, penicillin resistant-strains of gonorrhea were present in all fifty states.
By 1992 syphilis was at a 40-year high. As of 1993, pelvic inflammatory disease (PIV), which is almost always caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia, was affecting 1 million new women each year. This includes 16,000 to 20,000 teenagers. This complication causes pelvic pain and infertility and is the leading cause of hospitalization for women, apart from pregnancy, during the childbearing years.
Pelvic inflammatory disease can result in scarred fallopian tubes which block the passage of a fertilized egg. The fertilized egg, therefore, cannot pass on to the uterus and the growing embryo will cause the tube to rupture. By 1990, there was a 400% increase in tubal pregnancies, most of which were caused by STDs. Even worse is the fact that 80% of those infected with an STD don't know it and will unwittingly infect their next sexual partner.
The Medical Facts of STDs
Syphilis is a terrible infection. In its first stage, the infected individual may be lulled into thinking there is little wrong since the small sore will disappear in 2 to 8 weeks. The second and third stages are progressively worse and can eventually lead to brain, heart, and blood vessel damage if not diagnosed and treated. The saddest part is that syphilis is 100% curable with penicillin, yet there is now more syphilis than since the late 1940s, and it is spreading rapidly.
Chlamydia, a disease which only became common in the mid-1970s, infects 20 to 40% of some sexually active groups including teenagers. In men, chlamydia is usually less serious; with females, however, the infection can be devastating. An acute chlamydia infection in women will result in pain, fever, and damage to female organs. A silent infection can damage a woman's fallopian tubes without her ever knowing it. A single chlamydia infection can result in a 25% chance of infertility. With a second infection, the chance of infertility rises to 50%. This is double the risk of gonorrhea.
The human papilloma virus, or HPV, is an extremely common STD. One study reported that at the University of California, Berkeley, 46% of the sexually active coeds were infected with HPV. Another study reported that 38% of the sexually active females between the ages of 13 and 21 were infected. HPV is the major cause of venereal warts; it can be an extremely difficult problem to treat and may require expensive procedures such as laser surgery.
The human papilloma virus can result in precancer or cancer of the genitalia. By causing cancer of the cervix, this virus is killing more women in this country than AIDS, or over 4,600 women in 1991. HPV can also result in painful intercourse for years after infection even though other visible signs of disease have disappeared.
And of course there is the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The first few cases of AIDS were only discovered in 1981; now, in the U.S. alone, there are between 1 and 2 million infected with this disease. As far as we know, all of these people will die in the next ten years. As of early 1993, 160,000 had already died.
A 1991 study at the University of Texas at Austin showed that 1 in 100 students who had blood drawn for any reason at the university health center was HIV infected. While the progress of the disease is slow for many people, all who have the virus will be infected for the rest of their life. There is no cure, and many researchers are beginning to despair of ever coming up with a cure or even a vaccine (as was eventually done with polio). In 1992, 1 in 75 men was infected with HIV and 1 in 700 women. But the number of women with AIDS is growing. In the early years of the epidemic less than 2% of the AIDS cases were women. Now the percentage is 12%.
Teenagers Face a Greater Risk from STDs
Teenagers are particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases or STDs. This fact is alarming since more teens are sexually active today than ever before. An entire generation is at risk and the saddest part about it is that most of them are unaware of the dangers they face. Our teenagers must be given the correct information to help them realize that saving themselves sexually until marriage is the only way to stay healthy.
The medical reasons for teens' high susceptibility to STDs specifically relates to females. The cervix of a teenage girl has a lining which produces mucus that is a great growth medium for viruses and bacteria. As a girl reaches her 20s or has a baby, this lining is replaced with a tougher, more resistant lining. Also during the first two years of menstruation, 50% of the periods occur with-out ovulation. This will produce a more liquid mucus which also grows bacteria and viruses very well. A 15-year-old girl has a 1-in-8 chance of developing pelvic inflammatory disease simply by having sex, whereas a 24-year-old woman has only a 1- in-80 chance in that situation.
Teenagers do not always respond to antibiotic treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease, and occasionally such teenage girls require a hysterectomy. Teenage infertility is also an increasing problem. In 1965, only 3.6% of the married couples between ages 20 and 24 were infertile; by 1982, that figure had nearly tripled to 10.6%. The infertility rate is surely higher than that now with the alarming spread of chlamydia.
Teenagers are also more susceptible to human papilloma virus, HPV. Rates of HPV infection in teenagers can be as high as 40%, whereas in the adult population, the rate is less than 15%. Teenagers are also more likely than adults to develop precancerous growths as a result of HPV infection, and they are more likely to develop pelvic inflammatory disease.
Apart from the increased risk from STDs in teens, teenage pregnancy is also at unprecedented levels, over 1 million pregnancies, and 400,000 abortions in 1985. Abortion is not a healthy procedure for anyone to undergo, especially a teenager. It is far better to have not gotten pregnant. Oral contraceptives are not as effective with teenagers, mainly because teens are more apt to forget to take the pill. Over a one-year period, as many as 9 to 18% of teenage girls using oral contraceptives become pregnant.
Our teenagers are at great risk. In a society that has abandoned God's design for healthy meaningful sexual expression within marriage, our children need to be told the truth about the dangers of STDs.
Is "Safe Sex" Really the Answer?
I must now take a hard look at the message of "safe sex" which is being taught to teens at school and through the media across the country.
Some people believe that if teens can be taught how to use contraception and condoms effectively, that rates of pregnancy and STD infection will be reduced dramatically. But the statistics and common sense tell us otherwise. At Rutgers University, the rates of infection of students with STD varied little with the form of contraception used. For example, 35 to 44% of the sexually active students were infected with one or more STDs whether they used no contraceptive, oral contraceptive, the diaphragm, or condoms. It is significant to note that condoms, the hero of the "safe sex" message, provided virtually no protection from STDs.
Will condoms prevent HIV infection, the virus that causes AIDS? While it is better than nothing, the bottom line is that condoms cannot be trusted. A study from Florida looked at couples where one individual was HIV positive and the other was negative. They used condoms as protection during intercourse. Obviously these couples would be highly motivated to use the condoms properly, yet after 18 months, 17% of the previously uninfected partners were now HIV positive. That is a one-in-six chance, the same as in Russian roulette. Not good odds!
Condoms do not even provide 100% protection for the purpose for which they were designed: prevention of pregnancy. One study from the School of Medicine Family Planning Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania reported that 25% of patients using condoms as birth control conceived over a one-year period. Other studies indicate that the rate of accidental pregnancy from condom-protected intercourse is around 15% with married couples and 36% for unmarried couples.
Condoms are inherently untrustworthy. The FDA allows one in 250 to be defective. Condoms are often stored and shipped at unsafe temperatures which weakens the integrity of the latex rubber causing breaks and ruptures. Condoms will break 8% of the time and slip off 7% of the time. There are just so many pitfalls in condom use that you just can't expect immature teenagers to use them properly. And even if they do, they are still at risk.
Studies are beginning to show that school-based sex education that includes condom use as the central message does not work. A study in a major pediatric journal concluded that "the available evidence indicates that there is little or no effect from school-based sex-education on sexual activity, contraception, or teenage pregnancy."(2) This study evaluated programs that emphasized condoms. Over $3 billion dollars has been spent on sex- education programs emphasizing condoms with little or no effect! In addition, programs that emphasize condoms tend to give a false sense of security to sexually active students and make those students who are not having sex feel abnormal. Hardly the desired result!
The list of damages from unmarried adolescent sexual activity is long indeed. Apart from the threat to physical health and fertility, there is damage to family relationships, self-confidence and emotional health, spiritual health, and future economic opportunities due to unplanned pregnancy. Condom-based sex-education does not work.
Saving Sex for Marriage is the Common Sense Solution.
I have been discussing the epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases that is running rampant in this country and around the world. Diseases such as chlamydia, human papilloma virus, herpes, hepatitis B, trichomonas, pelvic inflammatory disease, and AIDS have joined syphilis and gonorrhea in just the last 30 years. There is no question that the fruits of the sexual revolution, or sexual convulsion as one author put it, have been devastating. I have also shown how our teenagers are at a greater risk for sexually transmitted diseases than are adults and that sex-education based on condom use is ineffective and misleading. There is only one message that offers health, hope, and joy to today's teenagers. We need to teach single people to save intercourse for marriage.
Sex is a wonderful gift, but if uncontrolled, it has a great capacity for evil as well as good. Our bodies were not made to have multiple sex partners. Almost all risk of STD and out of wedlock pregnancy can be avoided by saving intercourse for marriage. And it can be done.
Statistics show clearly that in schools that teach a sex education program that emphasizes saving intercourse for marriage, the teen pregnancy rate drops dramatically in as little as one year. In San Marcos, California, a high school used a federally funded program ("Teen Aid") which emphasizes saving intercourse until marriage. Before using the program there were 147 pregnancies out of 600 girls. Within two years, the number of pregnancies plummeted to 20 out of 600 girls.(3) In Jessup, Georgia, upon instituting the "Sex Respect" program, the number of pregnancies out of 340 female students dropped from 17 to 13 to 11 to 3 in successive years.
Delaying intercourse until teens are older is not a naive proposal. Over 50% of the females and 40% of the males ages 15 to 19 have not had intercourse. While not a majority, they are living proof that teens can control their sexual desires. Current condom-based sex-education programs basically teach teenagers that they cannot control their sexual desires, and that they must use condoms to protect themselves. It is not a big leap from teenagers being unable to control their sexual desires to being unable to control their hate, greed, anger, and prejudice. This is not the right message for our teenagers! Teenagers are willing to discipline themselves for things they want and desire and are convinced are beneficial. Girls get up early for drill team practice. Boys train in the off-season with weights to get stronger for athletic competition. Our teens can also be disciplined in their sexual lives if they have the right information to make logical choices. Saving sex for marriage is the common sense solution. In fact, it is the only solution. We don't hesitate to tell our kids not to use drugs, and most don't. We tell our kids it's unhealthy to smoke, and most do not. We tell our kids not to use marijuana, and most do not.
It is normal and healthy not to have sex until marriage. Sexually transmitted diseases are so common that it is not an exaggeration to say that most people who regularly have sex outside of marriage will contract a sexually transmitted disease. Not only is saving sex for marriage the only real hope for sexual health, it is God's design. God has said that our sexuality is to blossom within the confines of a mutually faithful monogamous relationship. What we are seeing today is the natural consequence of disobedience. We need to reeducate our kids not just in what is best, but in what is right.
Translation - Chinese 青少年源自法语中的“adolescere”，意即成长。指10到19岁的年龄段。由于每个个体各不相同，都以他/她的独特方式成长，很难确定一个特定年龄段。青少年是儿童与成人间的桥梁。青少年的早期阶段被称作“青春期”。女孩进入青春期的标志为初潮（首次月经），通常在11岁到13岁之间；男孩进入青春期的标志为初次遗精（梦遗），通常发生在12岁到14岁之间。成长阶段约为4年。女孩比男孩成熟要早。包括生理变化和心理变化。生理变化早于心理变化。
Chinese to English: Installation General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Engineering: Industrial
Source text - Chinese 安装埋设
Translation - English Installation and Embedding
（1） The installation of the benchmark must comply with the national regulations about the order leveling. And the ambient environment and conditions should be taken into consideration while the corresponding mark stone of the benchmark was constructed. The reference marks located on the concrete dam face can be embedded onto the dam face or onto special concrete abutment directly. However, concrete mark stone must be spun for the reference mark on the earth and rock-fill dam. And the benchmark should be embedded in the center of the mark stone.
（2）While installing the reference mark, the screw thread steel embedded part should be adjusted to be vertical to the upper face, which had been leveled by the leveling rod, of the mark stone. The locknuts of the benchmark should be embedded into the mark stone and only the hemisphere of the stainless steel would be exposed to the outside of the mark stone face. Use the leveling rod to level the base plane and regulate the surveying rod and the center line of the probe and determine the zero point at the same time.
（3）To prevent the damages to the embedded benchmark by accidental collisions, the protection cover that is fit for the ambient environment should be applied.
English to Chinese: Resume General field: Marketing
Source text - English Wayne Chumley was named President of Chrysler Korea Sales Limited in September 1996, and is responsible for all operations of Chrysler Group in the Korean market. In April 1999, following the merger of Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corporation, Chrysler Korea Sales Limited became DaimlerChrysler Korea, and Wayne was appointed as the President and CEO of the new organization.
Translation - Chinese 1996年9月，常韦恩被任命为克莱斯勒韩国销售有限公司总裁，负责克莱斯勒集团在韩国市场的全面工作。1999年4月，戴姆勒—奔驰与克莱斯勒公司合并，克莱斯勒韩国销售有限公司更名为戴姆勒-克莱斯勒韩国有限公司，常韦恩先生任新公司的总裁兼首席执行官。
English to Chinese: The 23th Hansuyin Contest General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc.
Source text - English Are We There Yet?
America’s recovery will be much slower than that from most recessions; but the government can help a bit.
“WHITHER goest thou, America?” That question, posed by Jack Kerouac on behalf of the Beat generation half a century ago, is the biggest uncertainty hanging over the world economy. And it reflects the foremost worry for American voters, who go to the polls for the congressional mid-term elections on November 2nd with the country’s unemployment rate stubbornly stuck at nearly one in ten. They should prepare themselves for a long, hard ride.
The most wrenching recession since the 1930s ended a year ago. But the recovery—none too powerful to begin with—slowed sharply earlier this year. GDP grew by a feeble 1.6% at an annual pace in the second quarter, and seems to have been stuck somewhere similar since. The housing market slumped after temporary tax incentives to buy a home expired. So few private jobs were being created that unemployment looked more likely to rise than fall. Fears grew over the summer that if this deceleration continued, America’s economy would slip back into recession.
Fortunately, those worries now seem exaggerated. Part of the weakness of second-quarter GDP was probably because of a temporary surge in imports from China. The latest statistics, from reasonably good retail sales in August to falling claims for unemployment benefits, point to an economy that, though still weak, is not slumping further. And history suggests that although nascent recoveries often wobble for a quarter or two, they rarely relapse into recession. For now, it is most likely that America’s economy will crawl along with growth at perhaps 2.5%: above stall speed, but far too slow to make much difference to the jobless rate.
Why, given that America usually rebounds from recession, are the prospects so bleak? That’s because most past recessions have been caused by tight monetary policy. When policy is loosened, demand rebounds. This recession was the result of a financial crisis. Recoveries after financial crises are normally weak and slow as banking systems are repaired and balance-sheets rebuilt. Typically, this period of debt reduction lasts around seven years, which means America would emerge from it in 2014. By some measures, households are reducing their debt burdens unusually fast, but even optimistic seers do not think the process is much more than half over.
Battling on the bus
America’s biggest problem is that its politicians have yet to acknowledge that the economy is in for such a long, slow haul, let alone prepare for the consequences. A few brave officials are beginning to sound warnings that the jobless rate is likely to “stay high”. But the political debate is more about assigning blame for the recession than about suggesting imaginative ways to give more oomph to the recovery.
Republicans argue that Barack Obama’s shift towards “big government” explains the economy’s weakness, and that high unemployment is proof that fiscal stimulus was a bad idea. In fact, most of the growth in government to date has been temporary and unavoidable; the longer-run growth in government is more modest, and reflects the policies of both Mr Obama and his predecessor. And the notion that high joblessness “proves” that stimulus failed is simply wrong. The mechanics of a financial bust suggest that without a fiscal boost the recession would have been much worse.
Democrats have their own class-warfare version of the blame game, in which Wall Street’s excesses caused the problem and higher taxes on high-earners are part of the solution. That is why Mr. Obama’s legislative priority before the mid-terms is to ensure that the Bush tax cuts expire at the end of this year for households earning more than $250,000 but are extended for everyone else.
This takes an unnecessary risk with the short-term recovery. America’s experience in 1937 and Japan’s in 1997 are powerful evidence that ill-timed tax rises can tip weak economies back into recession. Higher taxes at the top, along with the waning of fiscal stimulus and belt-tightening by the states, will make a weak growth rate weaker still. Less noticed is that Mr. Obama’s fiscal plan will also worsen the medium-term budget mess, by making tax cuts for the middle class permanent.
Ways to overhaul the engine
In an ideal world America would commit itself now to the medium-term tax reforms and spending cuts needed to get a grip on the budget, while leaving room to keep fiscal policy loose for the moment. But in febrile, partisan Washington that is a pipe-dream. Today’s goals can only be more modest: to nurture the weak economy, minimize uncertainty and prepare the ground for tomorrow’s fiscal debate. To that end, Congress ought to extend all the Bush tax cuts until 2013. Then they should all expire—prompting a serious fiscal overhaul, at a time when the economy is stronger.
A broader set of policies could help to work off the hangover faster. One priority is to encourage more write-downs of mortgage debt. Almost a quarter of all Americans with mortgages owe more than their houses are worth. Until that changes the vicious cycle of rising foreclosures and falling prices will continue. There are plenty of ideas on offer, from changing the bankruptcy law so that judges can restructure mortgage debt to empowering special trustees to write down loans. They all have drawbacks, but a fetid pool of underwater mortgages will, much like Japan’s loans to zombie firms, corrode the financial system and harm the recovery.
Cleaning up the housing market would help cut America’s unemployment rate, by making it easier for people to move to where jobs are. But more must be done to stop high joblessness becoming entrenched. Payroll-tax cuts and credits to reduce the cost of hiring would help. (The health-care reform, alas, does the opposite, at least for small businesses.) Politicians will also have to think harder about training schemes, because some workers lack the skills that new jobs require.
Americans are used to great distances. The sooner they, and their politicians, accept that the road to recovery will be a long one, the faster they will get there.
English to Chinese: Game for iPad General field: Marketing Detailed field: Games / Video Games / Gaming / Casino
Source text - English * * * A CREATIVE GAME FOR KIDS AGE 3 AND ABOVE! * * *
- Nine types of cakes and cookies to choose from!
- New colors for the tableware every time!
- Fun sounds when your guests eat!
- Clean up after cheeky guests that spill!
- Finish by putting everything in the dishes!
- Beautiful hand-drawn graphics!
- Kid-friendly interface!
- NO ADVERTISING
- NO IN-APP PURCHASES
HOW TO PLAY
- Choose a table cloth, plates and cups by dragging with your finger
- Pick out your three favorite cakes and cookies
- Get some toys or dolls and set them up around the iPad
- Eat and drink with your finger until there’s only crumbs left
- Put everything in the dishes and play all over again
Choose between many beautiful table cloths, plates, cups and glasses as you set your table. Is your teddy bear or plastic dinosaur in the mood for some cookies? Go to your room and grab them! Then simply put them around the iPad, and let them choose between nine tasty cakes and the choice of tea or juice.
Please refer to my renewal day, I'll be here at least until Oct 21, 2024.
Welcome to Yulian Win Win Translation Office!
Yulian Wang is always here, as your professional English to Chinese Translation Servicetranslation partner!
Renewal date: Oct 21, 2024
A proved reliable service brand and platform has run smoothly and efficiently for seven years here. Translation is not mere meaning translating, it is more about function and logic conversion. I do my best to popularize and practice scientific translation flow here to further ensure the quality service. Reliable and quick turnaround here enables timely delivery. Proofreading and/or self-QA included. Trusted Project Management and English<>Chinese translation service provider. You get more than translation here.
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Qualification and Certificates:
1. Chinese Mandarin Proficiency Certificate, Level II, Grade A, P.R.China (Certified by the Chinese Ministry of Education)
2. College English Test-6 (Jan. 2004)(Certified by the Chinese Ministry of Education)
3. iBT (reading:27/30)(Nov. 2009); GRE (Oct. 2009)
4. National Computer Rank Examination Certificate Grade 2 in Language C.(Sep. 2002)
5. Qualification Certificate For Senior High School Teachers (Jun. 2005) (Certified by the Chinese Ministry of Education)
6. Bachelor of Science in Chemistry Education, Hebei Normal University
7. Master of Science in Chemistry, Dalian University
Ideas & Philosophy:
Every client wants a professional translator in order to receive accurate and standard translations. But, the fact is that even the scientists can not guarantee they understand the specialties of their fellows quite well until they spent time and energy on collecting and learning relevant information. On the other hand, linguists with only language skills usually are unable to maintain the accurate of specialized vocabulary, let alone understand the principles of equipment or instruments. Logically, only Scientific and Intelligent Work Flow and Efficient and Flexible Project Management can guarantee the translation quality!
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1. Yulian Wang etc, Photonic Crystal in Hydrogel. Progress in Chemistry, 2007, 19（10）: 1475-1480
2. Kehai Chen, Yulian Wang, etc. Study on the Interaction between Vincristine and Bovine Serum Albumin. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 2008,28(6):1375-1378
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