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English to Japanese: Natural Catastrophes in 2012 Dominated by U.S. Weather Extremes General field: Science Detailed field: Energy / Power Generation
Source text - English In 2012, there were 905 natural catastrophes worldwide, 93 percent of which were weather-related disasters. In terms of overall and insured losses (US$170 billion and $70 billion, respectively), 2012 did not follow the records set in 2011 and could be defined as a moderate year on a global scale. But the United States was seriously affected by weather extremes, accounting for 69 percent of overall losses and 92 percent of insured losses due to natural catastrophes worldwide.
Of the 905 documented loss events, 45 percent were meteorological events (storms), 36 percent were hydrological events (floods), and 12 percent were climatological events such as heat waves, cold waves, droughts, and wildfires. The remaining 7 percent were geophysical events—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This distribution deviates somewhat from long-term trends, as between 1980 and 2011 geophysical events accounted for 14 percent of all natural catastrophes. (Low, 2013) Retrieved from https://desdemonadespair.net/2013/05/natural-catastrophes-in-2012-dominated.html
Translation - Japanese 2012年に起こった自然災害は、世界中で905件に上った。このうち93％は天候関連の災害であった。総損失額及び保険損害（アメリカではそれぞれ1700億米ドルと700億米ドル）に関しては、2012年は2011年の記録を引き継ぐことなく、世界的には穏やかな年であったと言えるかもしれない。ところがアメリカは異常気象によって深刻な影響を受けた。世界の自然災害による総損失額の69％および保険損害の92％を占めたのである。
Translation - English Agricultural Damage Due to Natural Disaster in 2018 Reached 567.9billion yen, 2nd worst since the 2011’s
On 28th, the Japanese government released “FY 2018 Annual Report on Food, Agriculture, and Rural Areas (white paper on agriculture). ” The government’s estimate of the agricultural and fishery loss due to the natural disaster in 2018 reached 567.9 billion yen. The Heavy Rain Event of July 2018 and the Hokkaido earthquake in September brought tremendous destruction to agriculture. In the last ten years, it was the worst after the 2011, the year of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2705.5 billion yen). Such damage cost is in an increasing trend, as abnormal weather events have become more frequent.
According to the white paper on agriculture, which cabinet council approved on the same day, out of all disasters in 2018, the Heavy Rain Event in Western Japan caused the most significant loss of 330.7 billion yen. Uwajima City in Ehime Prefecture experienced a massive slope failure in their orchards, as well as Damage on the fruit transporting monorails. In Hiroshima Prefecture, multiple reservoirs burst the banks, bringing serious Damage to the downstream.
Damage caused by the Hokkaido Iburi Tobu Earthquake in September reached 114.5billion yen. Massive slope failures occurred in the forested land. Also, the power failure that occurred in the entire Hokkaido region made it impossible for the area’s dairy farms to milk their cows nor cool the milk, inflicting diseases, such as garget, and loss of raw milk.
The white paper explained that measures are in progress to improve reservoirs with a potential risk of busting and to plan countermeasures for dairy farms in case of power failures. It added that because there are many greenhouses without proper durability, the government prepared a policy to aid reinforcing such greenhouses and proposed farmers to be proactive in preparing themselves for disasters by purchasing insurances, such as fraternal insurance and income protection insurance.
The white paper also included new agricultural policies, for example, a smart agriculture practice with self-driving tractors and growing collaboration of agriculture and welfare, which will encourage the employment of physically-challenged people.
English to Japanese: SOUTH AFRICA: Climate change tool helps identify vulnerable farmers General field: Science Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - English SOUTH AFRICA: Climate change tool helps identify vulnerable farmers
The production of maize, South Africa's staple food, could drop by as much as 30 percent in another two decades as climate change brings more intense droughts, but little is known about how this will affect farmers.
Now, an analytical tool based on a study, Mapping South African Farming Sector Vulnerability to Climate Change and Variability, has been developed to help policy-planners identify the communities most vulnerable to climate change and help them prepare for radically different farming conditions.
South Africa has approximately 100 million hectares of agricultural land, of which 14 million receive sufficient rainfall to grow crops.
In the densely populated rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal Province on the east coast, the largest agricultural contributor to South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP), small-scale farmers dependent on rain-fed agriculture were found to be among the least resistant to global warming. HIV prevalence is also particularly high. Farmers in Limpopo Province, in the north, and Eastern Cape Province, on the southeast coast, were also vulnerable.
“The farmers in those provinces have less resilience because the areas they live in are undeveloped, with no means to access drought-tolerant crop varieties,” said Glwadys Gbetibouo, a researcher at the Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, at the University of Pretoria, and one of the study’s two authors; the other writer was Claudia Ringler, a senior researcher at the International Food Policy Research Institute, a US-based think-tank.
The tool is an index of 19 environmental and socio-economic indicators that are used to determine vulnerability, such as frequency of droughts, percentage of irrigated land, farm income, farm size, HIV prevalence and farm assets in the country’s nine provinces.
The Western Cape and Gauteng provinces, which have a high level of infrastructural development and literacy but make a much lower agricultural contribution to GDP, are relatively low on the vulnerability index.
''The farmers in those provinces have less resilience because the areas they live in are undeveloped, with no means to access drought-tolerant crop varieties'' What can be done
The study suggests reducing pressure on natural resources, improving environmental risk management, and providing social safety nets for the poor.
In the highly vulnerable provinces policy-makers should enact measures to promote market participation, especially among small-scale farmers; encourage the diversification of livelihoods to make people less dependent on agriculture; put in place social programmes and increase spending on health, education and welfare to help maintain and strengthen physical and intangible human capital.
Gbetibouo called for the development of infrastructure in rural areas, and the provision of agricultural insurance. In high exposure regions, especially coastal zones, priority should be given to developing more accurate systems for early warning of extreme climatic events such as drought or floods.
According to the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, food production in South Africa has increased over the last 40 years, mainly through improvements in productivity, but production per capita in the Southern African Development Community as a whole is declining.
"There have been large drops in production (notably 1981–1983 and 1989–1993) that coincided with major droughts followed by periods of recovery. But these recovery periods have not been sufficient for food production to keep up with population growth. This could become an area of concern, as it may have an impact on food security, not only in South Africa, but in the region also."
Translation - Japanese 南アフリカ：気候変動対策ツールが脆弱農家の判別に寄与。
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I am an expert subject matter document translater in Japanese-English and English-Japanese. I have been offering translating, proofreading, and editing services for over 15 years.
I was born in Japan and have lived in the US for almost 30 years. My main areas of expertise are environmental protection, energy conservation and recycling, disaster prevention, marketing, and GIS/mapping.
I have a bachelor's degree in Environmental Studies from the University of Colorado and a master's degree in translation from Babel University.
I have helped companies and organizations that are making their practices more environmentally friendly or comply with environmental standards. My works include:
-marketing presentation/websites for farms, companies, and municipalities
-community health and welfare
-recycling and energy conservation provisions and rules of corporations