Japanese to English: Polymer LED patent abstract General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese (57)【要約】
Translation - English (57)【Summary】
【Subject】We provide a (1) method for producing high molecular weight highly polymerized compounds from the poly-arlyene group
through polymerizing dihalogenation arylene (monomers from the arylene group which have two “leaving groups”) in the presence of a zerovalent nickel complex, (2) the highly polymerized compounds from this method, as well as (3) a low-voltage, highly-efficient-drivable (possessing a drive function) polymer light emitting diode (LED) which utilizes those aforementioned highly polymerized compounds.
Japanese to English: Notice Of Rejection （Patent）- Patent Law General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Law: Patents, Trademarks, Copyright
Source text - Japanese 理由１）
Translation - English 1)The invention to which this patent application claim falls under Article 29 Section 1 - Item 3, which states that previously, both in Japan domestically and abroad as well, such patents as mentioned in the distributed publication below that can be used publically through use of a telecommunications line cannot be accepted or approved.
Japanese to English: Crystallographic Qualities General field: Science Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - Japanese 医薬品製剤中の原薬および添加剤の結晶学的性質（結晶形，結晶化度，晶癖(crystal habit)，粒度など）やその分散状態は製剤の機能に直接影響するものであり、これらの正確かつ詳細な把握は製剤の品質管理に必要不可欠なものである。
Translation - English The crystallographic qualities (crystal shape, degree of crystallinity, 晶癖(crystal habit), and crystal grain size) in additives, as well as the dispersed state of such, and API's in pharmaceutical drug formulation directly affect the functional capabilities of drug formulation, and the accuracy and specific understanding thereof is essential for controlling the quality of such drug formulations.
Current methods of analysis for such include粉末X線回折法(X-ray powder diffraction), 近赤外分光法(near-infrared spectroscopy), 赤外分光法(infrared spectroscopy), which are widely used in both the domestic and foreign pharmaceutical industries, however, the ラマン分光法(Raman spectroscopy) is considered to be superior to each of these methods in many respects. In other words, neither the presence of water nor the crystal grain size affect the spectrum in ラマン分光法(Raman spectroscopy), in addition, the spectrum consists of clear signals which allow for ease in determining the differences in crystal shape, and a quantitatively superior spectrum can be obtained as well. In addition, chemical imaging can be performed at the sub-micro level under a high resolution by applying this 顕微ラマン分光法(Raman microscopy) method, which is also one more advantage that this technique holds in comparison to those mentioned above.
Japanese to English: Physics of heterogeneous structures in biomembranes General field: Science Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - Japanese 細胞全体やそこに含まれる細胞小器官を包む生体膜は，細胞機能の重要な役割を担っており，生命活動を支える場になっている．例えば，代表的な細胞小器官であるミトコンドリアや葉緑体は，その内膜を隔てたイオンの濃度勾配を利用して，生命活動に必要なエネルギーを取り出している．このような生体膜の主な構成成分は，脂質と呼ばれる分子である．脂質分子は一分子内に親水性の頭部と疎水性の炭化水素鎖（通常二本）を併せ持つため，水中に分散すると自発的に親水頭部を外側に向けて二重膜構造を形成する．さらに生体膜には多様な種類の膜タンパク質が貫入しており，生体膜を隔てた物質のやり取りを仲介している．
生体膜は流動性をもつため，脂質や膜タンパク質は膜面内を側方拡散する．脂質二重膜から成る生体膜に動的な描像を与えた概念は流動モザイクモデルと呼ばれ，Singer とNicolson によって1972 年に提唱された．その後，流動モザイクモデルは生体膜の標準的なモデルとして広く受け入れられてきたが，1997 年にSimons とIkonen がラフトモデルを提唱してから，生体膜の構造と機能に関して多くの議論が巻き起こっている．流動モザイクモデルでは種々の脂質が膜面内で自由に移動し，均一に分布しているのに対して，ラフトモデルでは特定の脂質とコレステロールが凝縮したナノスケールのドメインの存在を主張している．生体膜上のドメインは膜タンパク質とともにシグナル伝達因子の中継点として働き，多くの生命現象の制御に関わっているとされる．タンパク質と脂質が一体になったヘテロな構造が海上の「いかだ」を連想させるので，「ラフト」と呼ばれている． 様々な実験結果の蓄積をふまえて，2006 年のある国際会議では以下のようなラフトの定義が示された．
Translation - English The cells in their entirety along with the biomembranes that cover the organelles found within these cells play a vital role in cellular function, and have become a venue for supporting vital activity . Mitochondria and chloroplast, which are both typical examples of cell organelles, use the concentration gradient of ions across the inner membranes to help bring out the energy that is necessary for vital activity. The main constituents of biomembranes are molecules referred to as "lipids". Because lipid molecules possess both a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains (normally 2 chains) within a single molecule, the lipid molecules will spontaneously form a bilayer membrane structure with the hydrophilic heads facing outward when they become dispersed in water. Additionally, there are many different kinds of membrane proteins embedded within the biomembranes, and they also mediate interactions between the substances separating the biomembranes.
Biomembranes have fluidity which causes lipids and lipid proteins to laterally disperse inside of the membrane surface. The concept which paints a dynamic picture inside biomembranes made up of lipid bilayers is referred to as the fluid mosaic model, which was proposed by Singer and Nicolson in 1972 . Although the fluid mosaic model became a widely accepted standard model for biomembranes thereafter, the raft model proposed by Simons and Ikonen in 1997 stirred up a large number of debates regarding the structure and function of biomembranes . Although we can see a variety of lipids which are uniformly distributed and move freely on the membrane surface when using the fluid mosaic model, the raft model on the other hand asserts the existence of a condensed nanoscale domain based on the presence of specific lipids and cholesterol. The biomembrane domains work together with the membrane proteins as relay points for the signaling transfer factor, and are thought to be related to the control of many life phenomena. The single heterogeneous structures made up of both proteins and lipids seem like "rafts" floating on top of sea water, which is why they are referred to as such. The definition provided below was given at an international conference held in 2006 based on the accumulation of various experiment results ．
Japanese to English: Use of high-tensile steel in automobiles General field: Science Detailed field: Materials (Plastics, Ceramics, etc.)
Source text - Japanese 銑鉄，Mn含有量既知の鋼スクラップ，フェロシリコン，フェロマンガン，加炭材を配合し，10ｔ低周波誘導炉で元湯を溶解した．Mn量は0.3mass%（以下massを省略）を開始時の組成として，0.6%，0.9%，1.5%となるように前条件の出湯完了後の元湯にFe-Mnを追加投入した．Mn量を変化させた元湯を取鍋でFe-Siによる接種及びFe-Si-Mg-RE系球状化剤にて球状化処理を行い1条件につき1500kgの溶湯とした．Table 1に目標とする最終化学組成を示す．取鍋にて球状化処理し，接種処理した後にノックオフ型（Kb形）と，厚肉ブロック型（自硬性砂型）に1623Kで注湯し，φ25×250mmの丸棒試験片と100×100×500mm，300×300×500mm， 500×500×500mmの厚肉ブロック試験片を鋳造した．このとき丸棒試験片と３種類の厚肉ブロック試験片の温度を測定し，1523Kから共晶温度に到達するまでの温度勾配をもって冷却速度とした．冷却速度はφ25×250mmの丸棒試験片では1.90K/s，100×100×500mm試験片では0.22K/s，300×300×500mm試験片では0.12K/s，500×500×500mm試験片では0.08K/sであった．
Translation - English Pig iron, well-known steel scrap containing Mn, ferrosilicon, ferromanganese, and recarburizer were combined, and the metals (in their original state) were liquefied in a 10t low-frequency induction furnace. The structure at the start of the experiment had a Mn content of 0.3mass% (hereinafter, "mass" shall be omitted). Then, additional Fe-Mn was poured onto the metals (in their original state) after the precondition for the metal tapping was met in order to make the total Mn content reach 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.5%. Spheroidizing treatment was conducted on the metals (in their original state) with an altered Mn content by using a ladle, a Fe-Si-Mg-RE-based spherodizing agent, and a Fe-Si-based inoculation, whereby each condition was established with a total melted metal quantity of 1500kg. Table 1 shows the target final chemical structure. Spheroidizing treatment was then carried out using a ladle, followed by an inoculation treatment. Next, the mixture was teemed at 1623K into a knock-off mold (Kb-form) and a thick-wall block mold (self-hardening sand mold). Then, a φ25×250mm round bar test piece as well as a 100×100×500mm, 300×300×500mm, and a 500×500×500mm thick-wall block test piece were cast. Next, the temperatures of the round bar test piece and each of the three thick-wall block test pieces were measured, wherein there was a temperature gradient that had a eutectic temperature reaching up to 1523K, which was used as the cooling velocity. The cooling velocity was 1.90K/s for the φ25×250mm round bar test piece, 0.22K/s for the 100×100×500mm test piece, 0.12K/s for the 300×300×500mm test piece, and 0.08K/s for the 500×500×500mm test piece.
Japanese to English: Blood Pressure Estimation General field: Science Detailed field: Medical (general)
Translation - English Blood pressure is an important index used for health management. Generally, cuffs are needed to apply pressure (compression) to the brachial arteries in order to estimate (measure) the blood pressure. However, due to problems such as machinery being too large, estimations requiring a considerable amount of time and effort, and the inability to perform constant and consecutive estimations, etc., cuffless blood pressure estimation methods have been drawing more and more attention. There has also been a great deal of research on cuffless blood pressure estimation methods which utilize pulse wave activation time (PAT). As the PAT is dependent on the state (condition) of the blood vessels, it is well-known that this time will shorten as the arteriosclerosis progresses.
PAT is estimated based on the amount of time it takes for the blood flow to reach the nerve peripherals from the heart through use of electrocardiograph sensors and photoplethysmograph sensors. The PAT obtained in this way can then be used as a basis for estimating blood pressure as well.
This method requires the use of both electrocardiograph sensors and photoplethysmograph sensors, and requires a great deal of care when trying to estimate blood pressure in work or home environments. Research on methods which can estimate blood pressure with the use of only a single photoplethysmograph sensor have emerged from this kind of background.
Teng paid attention to the relationship between pulse waves and blood pressure, and used feature quantities such as pulse width and time to estimate blood pressure. However, given that pulse wave signals are easily affected by factors such as body movement noise, it can often be difficult to identify the underlying characteristics.
One method that can be used to prevent such from occurring is wavelet signal processing, and while wavelet signal processing methods which use ICA are often recommended, in this research, given that our aim was the development of systems which can easily estimate blood pressure in home or work environments, we wanted to carry out correspondence without having to expand resources such as sensors and CPUs.
Methods for clarifying characteristics without being heavily affected by resource constraints include (1) velocity pulse waves which have undergone time differentiation and (2) accelerated pulse waves, and there have been accounts of research being conducted using these methods as the basis for estimating blood pressure. This method applies the Accelerated Plethysmograph Index (APG Index) as the feature quantity. The APG Index varies easily due to it being obtained through secondary differentials from pulse wave signals, and is affected by factors such as individual variability in age, the waveform may take on various shapes even if the blood pressure shows to be exactly the same. Additionally, although the APG Index is normalized based on the maximum value of the frontal wave, and as the frontal wave maximum value displays the arterial vasodilatation (blood flow and state of blood vessels), it shares a strong correlation with systolic arterial pressure, and the values here can be used as the feature quantity.
Japanese to English: LIQUID FOR IDENTIFYING LOCATION WHERE LACTIC ACID IS PRODUCED ON PERIPHERY OF TOOTH AND METHOD FOR USING THE SAME General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Translation - English [Claim 2]
A liquid for identifying a location where lactic acid is produced on the periphery of teeth according to Claim 1, characterized in that the electron transfer agent (C) is constituted of at least one selected from the group consisting of meldola blue, 1-Methoxyphenazine•methosulfate, phenazine methosulfate, rose indulin 2 G, thionin, and cresyl blue.
A liquid for identifying a location where lactic acid is produced on the periphery of teeth according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the tetrazolium salt that produces a color as a result of reduction (D) is constituted of at least one selected from the group consisting of 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium1 sodium salt, 3-3’-(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diyl)-bis(2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride), 3,3’-[3,3’-dimethoxy-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4,4’-diyl]-bis[2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride], 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride, 3,3’-[3,3’-dimethoxy-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4,4’-diyl]-bis(2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride, and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide.
Japanese to English: RELEASE SHEET AND MANUFACTURING METHOD FOR SAME General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Translation - English 
A laminated sheet was created through pressure welding (crimping) the surface of an adhesive agent layer of a store-bought cellophane adhesive tape onto the surface of a release agent layer of each release sheet obtained from Embodiment 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, as well as from Comparative Examples 1 and 2. Afterwards, the peeling force was measured at the point in time when delamination occurred on the interface between the aforementioned surface of the adhesive layer of the laminated sheet and the surface of an adhesive agent layer of a store-bought cellophane adhesive tape. [Table 1] shows the measurement results for the peeling force of the releasing surface for each release sheet together with the silicon content of the release agent layer of the release sheets described in Embodiment 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
An experiment was performed where each of the release sheets obtained in Embodiment 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, as well as Comparative Example 1 and 2 were hand-rubbed, wherein the adhesion strength of each release agent layer was confirmed each through observing each release sheet after performing a hand-rub to check for any lifting occurring in the release agent layer. The results have been included in [Table 1].
Japanese to English: AN ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODE, THE MANUFACTURING METHOD FOR SAME, AND AN ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODE INTEGRATED PLATE General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - Japanese ２、特許請求の範囲
Translation - English 2. Scope of Patent Claims
1. An ion-selective electrode in that first a layer of insoluble salt is added to the top of an electrically-conductive metal followed by an ion-selective layer made up of organic substances.
2. A production method for the electrically-conductive metal characterized in that a layer of insoluble salt is added to the top of an electrically-conductive metal, where after an ion-selective layer made up of organic substances has been mounted directly on top of the aforementioned layer of insoluble salt.
3. An ion-selective electrode in that the aforementioned layer of insoluble salt from an electrically-conductive metal is mounted on top of the aforementioned electrically-conductive metal followed by an ion-selective layer that is comprised of organic substances; the ion-selective electrode integrated plate to be used in the measurement of ion concentrations in that it is made from arranging at least one pair of the aforementioned ion-selective electrodes on top of a support plate that has a surface possessing electrical insulation properties, wherein each of the electrode terminal areas have been connected at intervals just large enough so that a short circuit will not occur.
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I am a Doshisha University (Kyoto, Japan) Global MBA Graduate (2009) and am currently working in the automobile parts manufacturing industry near Nagoya in the Aichi Prefecture. I have been engaged in translation projects both large and small on a frequent basis over the past few years. I enjoy translating and would be pleased to discuss any questions you have regarding such.