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English to Italian: The Distance Between Mars and Venus: Measuring Global Sex Differences in Personality. General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Psychology
Source text - English The Distance Between Mars and Venus: Measuring Global Sex Differences in Personality.
Marco Del Giudice1, Tom Booth2, Paul Irwing2
1Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Torino, Italy, 2Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Background: Sex differences in personality are believed to be comparatively small. However, research in this area has suffered from significant methodological limitations. We advance a set of guidelines for overcoming those limitations: (a) measure personality with a higher resolution than that afforded by the Big Five; (b) estimate sex differences on latent factors; and (c) assess global sex differences with multivariate effect sizes. We then apply these guidelines to a large, representative adult sample, and obtain what is presently the best estimate of global sex differences in personality.
Methodology/Principal Findings: Personality measures were obtained from a large US sample (N = 10,261) with the 16PF Questionnaire. Multigroup latent variable modeling was used to estimate sex differences on individual personality dimensions, which were then aggregated to yield a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis D). We found a global effect size D = 2.71, corresponding to an overlap of only 10% between the male and female distributions. Even excluding the factor showing the largest univariate ES, the global effect size was D = 1.71 (24% overlap). These are extremely large differences by psychological standards.
Significance: The idea that there are only minor differences between the personality profiles of males and females should be rejected as based on inadequate methodology.
The psychology of human males and females is marked by a complex pattern of similarities and differences in cognition, motivation, and behavior. Describing and quantifying sex differences is a crucial task of psychological science, and a source of lively controversy among researchers. In this paper, we will consider the nature and magnitude of sex differences in personality. It is difficult to overstate the theoretical and practical importance of sex differences in personality; finding large overall differences would tell us that the sexes differ broadly in their emotional and behavioral patterns, rather than just in a few (and comparatively narrow) motivational domains such as aggression and sexuality.
Translation - Italian La Distanza Fra Marte e Venere: Misurazione delle Differenze Universali di Sesso nella Personalità.
Marco Del Giudice1, Tom Booth2, Paul Irwing2
1Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Torino, Torino, Italia, 2 Business School di Manchester, Università di Manchester, Manchester, Regno Unito
La psicologia maschile e femminile è caratterizzata da un complesso schema di similitudini e differenze riguardanti la cognizione, la motivazione, e il comportamento. Descrivere e quantificare le differenze sessuali è un compito cruciale della scienza psicologica, e una fonte della vivace controversia tra ricercatori. In questo articolo, si esaminerà la natura e la rilevanza delle differenze sessuali nella personalità. È difficile sovrastimare l’importanza teorica e pratica delle differenze sessuali nella personalità; le scoperte di grandi differenze generali ci direbbero che i sessi differiscono ampiamente nei loro modelli comportamentali ed emotivi, piuttosto che soltanto in alcuni ( e relativamente ristretti) campi motivazionali come l’aggressività e la sessualità.
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