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grazing pressure

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22:54 Nov 12, 2008
English to Chinese translations [PRO]
Livestock / Animal Husbandry
Additional field(s): Environment & Ecology
English term or phrase: grazing pressure
Definition from IFAD:
The relationship between the number of animal units or forage intake units and the weight of forage dry matter per unit area at any point in time; an animal-to forage relationship. May be expressed as animal units or forage intake units to forage mass (animal units/forage mass at a specific time).

Example sentence(s):
  • An optimum grazing pressure is one in which available forage matches animal needs; this is analogous to the quantity of forage offered daily to animals in confinement when rations are balanced. The Pennsylvania State University
  • The different grazing pressures were obtained through different stocking rates, adjusted every 21 d according to forage mass, predicted forage production rate, and an estimated forage allowance of 10, 15 and 20 kg dry matter (DM) heifer-1 d-1 for high, medium, and low pressures, respectively. American Society of Agronomy
  • Stocking rate and annual average grazing pressure (with or without account for feral animals) did not appear to be, in themselves, good indicators of sustainability. Rather, the sustainability of different areas/systems and the impacts on sustainability of changes in management, e.g. stocking rates, may be assessed better through calculating year-to-year variability of the feed base, and periods of critical grazing pressure. cababstractsplus.org
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This question was created by:
Enrique
Enrique
Argentina


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Summary of translations provided
5摄食压力, 摄食率, 取食压力, 放牧强度, 放牧压力
Dr JM Chen, PhD
4 +1放牧压力
Li Cao


  

Translations offered


23 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
放牧压力


Definition from own experience or research:
牲畜数量或者草料的摄取量与任何时间每单位面积的干草料重量的关系

Example sentence(s):
  • 国家提倡在农区、半农半牧区和有条件的牧区实行牲畜圈养。草原承包经营者应当按照饲养牲畜的种类和数量,调剂、储备饲草饲料,采用青贮和饲草饲料加工新技术,减轻天然草地的放牧压力。 - 关于《中华人民共和国草原法  
  • 特定地点的植物群落都将通过确定的物种替化顺序向单一稳定的平衡状态--顶级群落发展,超载过牧会导致逆行演替,使草地植被远离顶级状态; 减轻放牧压力或者禁牧可使草地恢复并进展演替,最终达到唯一的顶级群落。 - 北京天下溪教育研究所  
Li Cao
United States
Local time: 12:24
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese

Votes in favor of/against selecting this as the best translation of the term asked
Yes  y_lewarne
13 mins
  -> thank you
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348 days   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
摄食压力, 摄食率, 取食压力, 放牧强度, 放牧压力


Definition from own experience or research:
摄食压力, 摄食率, 取食压力, 放牧强度, 放牧压力 [单位可食牧草面积上放牧家畜的头数]

Example sentence(s):
  • 摘 要:2004 年 9 月到 10 月间在南海北部海区对微型浮游动物的种类组成进行了调查,同期运用现场稀释法,以叶绿素 a 为监测对象,估计了该海区内微型浮游动物摄食率和摄食压力的水平。结果表明,南海北部海区纤毛虫群体中以多膜纲寡毛目为主,有 16 种,其中寡毛亚目纤毛虫 4 种,砂壳亚目纤毛虫 11 种。各站纤毛虫丰度比较低,在 9 ~ 102 ind/m3 之间。浮游植物瞬时增长率(k)在 0.03/d ~ 2.13/d 之间;微型浮游动物的摄食率(g)在 0.01/d ~ 1.06/d 之间。微型浮游动物对浮游植物现存量的摄食压力(Pi)在 0.089% ~ 65.23%之间,对初级生产力的摄食压力(Pp)在 33.63 % ~ 86.04%之间。微型浮游动物的摄食水平主要受其丰度的影响,同时微型浮游动物对浮游植物现存量和初级生产力的摄食压力显示,在南海北部海区微型浮游动物在初级生产力传递方面具有重要的科学意义和研究价值。 Abstract: Microzooplankton community composition in the north of South China Sea was investigated during autumn (between September and October), 2004. Dilution technique using chlorophyll a (Chl a) was employed to estimate grazing rates and grazing pressure. The results showed that Polymenophorea Oligotrichida was the dominant group with 16 species, and there were 4 species in Oligotrichina and 11 species in Tintinnina. The ciliates abundance ranged from 9 to 102 ind/m3. Instantaneous growth rates of phytoplankton (k) varied from 0.03 / d to 2.13 / d. Grazing rates of microzooplankton(g) ranged between 0.01 / d and 1.06 / d. The grazing pressure on initial phytoplankton stock (Pi) and primary production (Pp) was 0.089 % - 65.23 % and 33.63 % - 86.04 %, respectively. The grazing of microzooplankton was mainly limited by ciliates abundance. Results of grazing pressure on primary production indicated that microzooplankton played an improtant role in transmitting primary production in the north of South China Sea. - Vol.9 No.2 Marine Science Bulletin Oct.  
  • 本文主要简述了 4 种经常被用来解释热带森林高植物多样性的机制:生态位分化、取食压力、生活史负相关和随机竞争,每一种机制都有大量的证据支持。 This review discusses four mechanisms that are frequently invoked to explain the coexistence of the great number of plant species in tropical forests, these being Niche differentiation, Predatory pressure, Lift history tradeoffs, and Lottery competition. - Biodiversity Science 2004, 12(2): 290-30  
  • 放牧扰动对山地荒漠草地植物群落结构的影响 Impacts of Grazing Pressure on Structure of Vegetation Communities in Montane Desert - grassland - iLib2  

Explanation:
Definition: Grazing pressure is the stress on plant populations due to the grazing of animals. Plants may be lost either directly as a result of animals grazing upon them, or indirectly as a result of damage to the vegetation or ecosystem by animals moving through the area. Usually the term refers to introduced pastoral animals such as cows and sheep, but in some contexts it may mean introduced feral animals or even native animals.

Therefore, I think only '放牧压力' is not very comprehensive, as it can be 'with or without account for feral animals'(quote from source example sentence 3), 微型浮游动物对浮游植物的(see target examples), 等等...

In the case of feral animals (野生动物),译成 ‘放牧’ 当然没有译成 ‘摄食’ 恰当。
Dr JM Chen, PhD
United Kingdom
Local time: 20:24
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
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