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English to Chinese: Canon EOS 50D Digital Field Guide General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Photography/Imaging (& Graphic Arts)
Source text - English If you think of flash pictures as images with unnaturally bright, sterile light and with washed-out color and heavy background shadows, then you have not seen how far the latest Canon built-in and accessory flash units have come. Gone are the startling white skin tones and heavy black background shadows of a few years ago. With the EOS 50D, flah photography becomes much more of a harmonious blend of ambient light with more subtle flash. Even with automatic settings, the 50D flash acts much more like fill flash to lighten shadows and add a touch of brightness than the primary light source. And in Tv, Av, and M shooting modes, you have significant control over the flash so that you can create visually pleasing exposures.
This chapter begins with an introduction to flash technology and terminology, and then it moves into using the 50D's onboard or accessory flash units. But it provides an overview of using the built-in and accessory flash, and I offer some techniques for both practical application and creative effect.
Translation - Chinese 使用闪光灯和摄影棚照明设备
English to Chinese: Canon EOS 5D Mark II Digital Field Guide General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Photography/Imaging (& Graphic Arts)
Source text - English Exploring E-TTL Technology （Canon EOS 5D Mark II Digital Field Guide）
The latest Canon EX-series Speedlites employ E-TTL II technology. E-TTL stands for Evaluative Through-the-Lens flash exposure control. In simple terms, E-TTL II tehnology receives information from the camera, including the focal length of the lens, the distance from the subject, the exposure settings(including aperture), and the camera's built-in metering system to balance subject exposure with the ambient light.
Although E-TTL II works with all lenses, not all Canon lenses communicate distance information that's used in the algorithm that calculates flash exposure. Generally, lenses with a ring-type USM return distance information. Lenses that don't offer full-time manual focus, such as the EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6 USM, don't return distance information nor do lenses with arc-form motors, such as the EF 50mm f/1.8, the 24mm f/2.8, the 85mm f/1.2L USM, and tilt/shift(full manual focus) lenses.
In more specific terms, with E-TTL II, the camera's meter reads through the lens but not off the focal plane. With the Speedlite mounted on the camera, after the Shutter button is fully pressed but before the reflex mirror goes up, the flash fires a pre-flash beam. Information from this pre-flash is sent to the camera and is combined with data from the metering system to analyze and compare ambient light exposure values with the amount of light needed to make a proper exposure. Then, the camera calculates and stores the flash output needed to illuminate the subject while maintaining a natural-looking balance with the ambient light in the background.
Translation - Chinese E-TTL技术简介
最新的佳能EX系列Speedlite闪光灯采用了E-TTL II技术。E-TTL是镜后评价（Evaluative Through-The-Lens）闪光曝光控制的简写。简单地说，E-TTL II技术从相机接收信息用来协调拍摄对象曝光和环境光，这些信息包括焦距、与拍摄对象的距离、曝光设置（包括光圈大小）和用来平衡环境光和拍摄对象上光线的相机内置测光系统。
English to Chinese: HDR Photography photo workshop General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Photography/Imaging (& Graphic Arts)
Source text - English Auto Exposure Bracketing（HDR Photography photo workshop）
In AEB mode, the camera automatically changes the aperture or shutter speed by a given exposure range (measured in EV) across at least three photos. This results in one photo taken at the exposure you have set, plus at least two photos which bracket the central exposure point on either side by the exposure range.
AEB is beneficial in any situation, but only really necessary when you need to shoot your brackets quickly (moving clouds are a prime example of this). AEB allows you to work at the speed at which your camera can take photos — normally a few seconds or less for three photos — as opposed to the amount of time it takes you to change settings manually, without moving the camera, and shoot another bracket.
If your camera has an AEB option and you want to use it, set it now. AEB can be found in the camera settings menu for most dSLRs and many compact digital cameras. Setting the exposure range to /- 2EV is a good place to start.
Not all cameras allow you to set a range of /- 2EV. You may be limited to a much smaller range of /- 1.0EV, /- 0.7EV, or even /- 0.3EV. If so, check to see how many brackets you camera can shoot. If, like the Nikon D700, you can shoot seven or nine photos separated by 1 EV each, you will be able to capture a wider dynamic range ( /- 7-9 EV total range) than a camera which can only shoot three photos, each separated by 2 EV ( /- 4 EV total range). If your camera is less capable, you may have to manually bracket in order to get a wide enough EV range.
Set your camera’s drive mode (also called release mode) to Continuous shooting if you want to take your three brackets very quickly. Just hold the Shutter Release button down and the shots quickly fire off. If you want to take the photos more casually, leave it on Single shooting.
Translation - Chinese 自动包围曝光
English to Chinese: Baby photography NOW General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Photography/Imaging (& Graphic Arts)
Source text - English Late pregnancy (Baby photography NOW)
Hopefully, in the last few woeeks before your baby arrives, you will have a bit of time to relax and will be able to spend some of it taking photographs. Once the baby arrives, things will be considerably more chaotic, but at this stage you can still take your time to think through the photographs that you would like to create.
For example, the image at near right taken when this woman was 38 weeks pregnant, and although it was taken in a hospital room, we had the time to think about how best to light the shot, how she should be posed and so on. What this photograph also shows, unlike the other three included here, is the relationship between the mother and her unborn child. Clearly, any mother is linked to her unborn child, but this woman's quiet smile and downward glance tell you all you need to know about her feelings.
The alternative shot from the same shoot, opposite, has a much more graphic feel. Here the emphasis is on the bump itself, accentuated by the diagonal stripes of here dress. This approach is mirrored below in a shot which also concentrates on the bump; and even in the absence of the mother's face, the hands tell a story about the relationship between her and her baby.
The final photograph here, and the one taken most recently, shows our five-year-old and my wife. If you already have children, you will know that they can be fascinated by pregnancy, at least when they are old enough to understand what's going on, and this shot is typical of our older daughter's reaction as she "says hello" to her new sister.
My favorites from these four photographs are the first and the last, as both of these capture two things: the physical aspects of being pregnant and, more importantly, the emotions involved. The first is about the loving relationship and the mother has with here unborn child, and the last is about on sister saying a gentle hello to another.
Translation - Chinese 孕晚期
English to Chinese: Digital SLR Handbook General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Photography/Imaging (& Graphic Arts)
Source text - English Media and Format (Digital SLR Handbook)
There are only two universally recognized image file formats, TIFF and JPEG. The only reason for using any other is when you have prior agreement with your client or whomever you are sharing the files with. TIFF files can also be compressed without loss using LZW, and this will typically reduce the file size to about 60% of full size(the final size depends on the color variation in the image, so line art is reduced more than photographs). JPEG is both a format and a file compression system, and particularly good for online delivery or when you have large numbers of images. Maximum quality(that is, levels 10-12 in the Options dialog when saving) is virtually indistinguishable from a TIFF. Nevertheless, the usual precautions apply when opening and saving a JPEG, because it is a lossy system--never re-save as a JPEG, otherwise you will be applying compression on top of compression (like copying a copy on VHS). Not all clients and recipients are familiar with this, and it may be worth making the point in any attached notes.
Another use for JPEGs, and an important addition to the delivery of high-resolution images, is the preparation of small FPO (For Position Only) images. The function of these is that they open easily and take up little sapce, and so are ideal for use in page layout, programs by publishers and designers.
Translation - Chinese 在摄影领域内，只有两种普遍认可的照片格式——TIFF格式和JPEG格式。具体选用哪种格式是由您预先和客户达成的协议或看您打算和谁分享照片决定的。TIFF格式的文件也可以使用LZW算法进行无损压缩（参见原书P44），通常能够压缩至未压缩前大小的约60%（最终文件的大小取决于照片颜色的变化情况，因此由艺术线条构成的图片的压缩率普遍高于照片的压缩率）。JPEG既是一种文件格式，也是一种压缩体系，它特别适用于网上交付（请参见原书P230-231）或照片数量很大的情况。用JPEG格式保存照片，其High档（最佳）的图像质量（即在保存时选择Option对话框中第10-12级）几乎与TIFF格式的照片一般无二。不过，存取JPEG文件时也要时刻小心，因为这毕竟是一种有损压缩体系——千万不要反复保存成JPEG格式，否则照片就会在上一次压缩的基础上再次压缩（其质量就好像是从VHS录像带上拷贝的照片一样惨不忍睹）。不是所有客户或接收方都对此心知肚明，因此有必要在附加的说明中强调这一点。
除了用于交付高分辨率照片以外，另一个使用JPEG的领域便是准备小型FPO（For Position Only，特殊情况专用）照片。这些照片占用空间小、打开容易，因此被出版商和平面设计人员视为页面设计的首选照片格式。
English to Chinese: iPhone Developers Cookbook Second Edition General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Computers: Software
Source text - English View Hierachies (iPhone Developers Cookbook Second Edition)
A tree-based hierarchy orders what you see on your iPhone screen.Starting with the main window,views are laid out in a specifically hierarchical way.All views may have children,called subviews.Each view,including the window,owns an ordered list of these subviews.Views might own many subviews;they might own none.Your application determines how views are laid out and who owns whom.
Subviews display onscreen in order,always from back to front.This works something like a stack of animation cells—those transparent sheets used to create cartoons.Only the parts of the sheets that have been painted show through.The clear parts allow any visual
elements behind that sheet to be seen.Views too can have clear and painted parts,and can be layered to build a complex presentation.
Figure 6-1shows a little of the layering used in a typical window.Here the window owns a UINavigationController-based hierarchy.The elements layer together.The window (represented by the empty,rightmost element) owns a navigation bar,which in turn owns two subview buttons (one left and one right).The window also owns a table with its own subviews.These items stack together to build the GUI.
Listing 6-1shows the actual view hierarchy of the window in Figure 6-1.The tree starts at the top UIWindow and shows the classes for each of the child views.If you trace your way down the tree,you can see the navigation bar (at level 2) with its two buttons
(each at level 3) and the table view (level 4) with its two cells (each at level 5).Some of the items in this listing are private classes,automatically added by the SDK when laying out views.For example,the UILayoutContainerView is never used directly by developers.It’s part of the SDK’s UIWindow implementation.
The only parts missing from this listing are the dozen or so line separators for the table, omitted for space considerations.Each separator is actually a UITableViewSeparatorView instance.They belong to the UITableView and would normally display at a depth of 5.
Translation - Chinese 树形结构的层级关系决定了iPhone屏幕上所显示的一切。视图，从主窗体开始便以一种特殊的层级关系方式展现出来。所有视图都可以有多个下级视图，称为子视图。包括窗体在内的每一个视图都拥有一张自己的子视图的顺序列表。视图可能有很多子视图，也可能没有。而决定视图布局和父子关系的则是应用程序。