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English to Chinese: FDA regulatory document General field: Medical Detailed field: Law (general)
Source text - English Ports Covered by FDA
Most ports of entry into the U.S. are covered by FDA personnel, acting in cooperation with CBP. At these ports, where electronic entry submissions are filed, filers receiving a message indicating FDA review is required will provide appropriate additional entry information to the FDA office in whose territory the port of entry is located. For those entries submitted by paper, all appropriate entry documents should be included with the package sent to the local FDA office. After the entry has been evaluated and a decision for additional documentation is made, FDA will take appropriate action. If FDA decides to collect a sample, it will provide the filer, importer, owner and/or consignee, where appropriate, with a Notice of Sampling and advise: (1) whether the entry is to be held intact for FDA examination or sampling; or, (2) specify only those items that need be held. Generally, when FDA wishes to sample, it will be acting upon its authority in the Customs regulations (19 CFR 151.4) to collect its own samples for examination.
Translation - Chinese FDA 覆盖的口岸
多数进口口岸都配有与海关边防局(CBP) 合作的 FDA 人员。这些口岸的进口申请采用电子提交，如收到表明需要 FDA 审核的消息，申请者需向进口口岸所在辖区的 FDA 办公室额外提供适当的进口信息。对于提交纸质材料的进口申请，则需将所有适当的进口文件与申请文件包一起送至当地 FDA 办公室。对于经评估决定，需要额外文件的进口申请，FDA 将采取适当措施。如 FDA 决定采样，它将向适当的对象，即申请者、进口商、所有者和/或收货人，提供一份采样通知并向其咨询：(1) 进口产品是否将应 FDA 检查或采样而保持原封不动，或，(2) 仅说明需要保持的项目。通常情况下，在需要进行采样时，FDA 会根据海关条例 (19 CFR 151.4) 规定采集检查所用的样本。
English to Chinese: Warfarin General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - English 1. How much warfarin to take each day
Your study doctor will explain to you the specifications and amounts of the warfarin pills to be taken each day. You must receive regular blood tests to evaluate your response to warfarin. This blood test is called an INR (International Normalized Ratio) test. The INR test evaluates how fast your blood clots. Your warfarin dosage will be adjusted accordingly.
When you first start taking warfarin, you need to have an INR test every XX-XX days until the INR value reaches or exceeds XX for XX consecutive days. Thereafter, you will need to have an INR test at least every XX weeks. Your study doctor may require you to have more INR tests, and your study doctor will tell you how to get an INR test. Your study doctor will examine the results of each INR test and adjust or maintain your warfarin dosage so that your INR is maintained within the target range of XX – XX.
Write down the dates of your INR tests and your new warfarin dosage in your diary.
Translation - Chinese 1. 华法林的日服用剂量
您的研究医生将向您说明每天需服用的华法林药丸的规格和数量。您必须定期接受血液测试以评估您对华法林的反应。该血液测试被称为 INR（国际标准化比值）测试。INR 测试评估您血液凝结的速度。您的华法林剂量将（根据测试结果）作出相应调整。
您第一次服用华法林时，您需要每 XX-XX 天进行一次 INR 测试，直到 INR 值连续 XX 天达到或超过 XX 为止。此后，您将需要至少每 XX 周进行一次 INR 测试。您的研究医生可能要求您进行更多的 INR 测试，并且他/她将告诉您如何获得 INR 测试。您的研究医生将检查每次 INR 测试的结果并调整或保持您的华法林剂量，以使您的 INR 保持在 XX- XX 的目标范围内。
请在您的日志内写下您接受 INR 测试的日期和华法林的新剂量。
Chinese to English: A selection from academic publication General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Chinese 讨论：氨基糖苷类药物的主要副作用为肾毒性、耳毒性和神经肌肉阻滞及过敏反应。丁胺卡那霉素在该类药物中毒性较低，使用时不需做皮试。目前在我国基层卫生机构，由于丁胺卡那霉素价廉、不需做皮试的特点以及细菌对卡那霉素仍多数敏感，疗效较好，被许多临床医生过多应用。丁胺卡那霉素静滴引起过敏性休克者已有报道。本例使用丁胺卡那霉素剂量不大，两次肌注丁胺卡那霉素均出现多形性红斑，且第二次皮损较第一次重，范围更广，治疗更困难。说明患儿皮疹系因丁胺卡那霉素所致。本例提醒我们，儿童应用丁胺卡那霉素应警惕皮疹等过敏反应的副作用。
Translation - English Discussion: The major side effects of aminoglycoside drugs are renal toxicity, ototoxicity, neuromuscular blockagede and allergy. Amikacin has low toxicity among such drugs, where skin tests are not required for use. Currently, Amikacin was overly used by many clinicians in fundamental health institutes in China due to its features like low price, skin test-free, sensitivity of many bacteria to Kanamycin, and good efficacy. Cases with anaphylactic shock caused by intravenous infusion of amikacin has been reported. In this case, the Amikacin dose is relatively low, where erythema multiforme occurred in two intramuscular injections of amikacin, with the second severe than the first one on skin damage, which is much wider in range, and more difficult to treat. It is indicated that the skin rashes in the patient are caused by Amikacin. This case reminds us that children shall pay more attention on side effects of alleric reaction like skin rashes when administered with Amikacin.
English to Chinese: Camera Review General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Electronics / Elect Eng
Source text - English Announced just eight months after the Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF2, the GF3 is as much about omission as addition. With the removal of the EVF port and hotshoe, the GF3 stands as the only G-series camera on which neither an electronic nor optical viewfinder can be used. Other prominent changes include the loss of the signature Panasonic rear click-dial and the camera body's sleeker, more rounded edges. These alterations give the GF3 an appearance more in line with that of a high-end compact camera than of its predecessor, the GF2.
Indeed, with the GF3, Panasonic offers a seamless upgrade path for compact camera users seeking higher image quality and more advanced shooting options. And perhaps for these users, the lack of a flash hotshoe and the downgrade from a stereo to mono microphone for video recording are sacrifices easily made in exchange for a smaller, lower-priced camera. In terms of features and performance, there is precious little in the GF3 that was not seen in either the GF2 or the more recently released Panasonic Lumix DMC-G3.
Translation - Chinese 在 Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF2 发布仅仅 8 个月即问世，GF3 做了不少加减法。由于去除了电子取景器端口和热靴，GF3 成为了 G 系列相机中唯一没有可用电子或光学取景器的机型。其他突出的变化包括取消了标志性的松下后置点-拨和机身磨光，并增加了圆边设计。这些变化让 GF3 的外形相比它的前作 GF2 更加贴近高端卡片机。
Japanese to English: Novovirus General field: Medical Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - Japanese さらに，ダスト中のノロウイルスRNA 量は1.7×104～1.6×105 copies_g であったことから，汚染ダストは感染源の一つとして特に注意が必要であると考えられた．患者糞便8 検体について，real-time RT-PCR 法を用いノロウイルス遺伝子の検出を試みたところ，7 検体がGII 陽性であった．ノロウイ（Norovirus）はカリシウイルス科に属する直径30～40nm の球形ウイルスで，約7,700 塩基のプラス1 本鎖RNA のゲノムを保有する．
Translation - English Furthermore, the Norovirus RNA level in the dust was 1.7×104~
1.6×105 copies_g, therefore, we think it is necessary to pay special attention on contaminated dust as one of the infection source. 8 of patient's stool samples were tested under real-time RT-PCR for the detection of Novovirus gene, where 7 samples were GII positive. Nobovirus belongs to Calicivirus, which is a kind of spherical virus with a diameter of 30~40 nm that has about 7,700 bases plus 1-stranded RNA genome.
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