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Translation - English 1) EVERYDAY HEALTH PROBLEMS
Often progressing to mass infection, influenza is a serious problem in homes for the elderly, which accommodate large numbers of elderly people with lowered resistance.
One of the most threatening illnesses, it is characterized by fever, chest pain, and rapid respiration. It is important to be aware that elderly people have a lower normal body temperature, so the fever may not rise above 37˚.
● Food poisoning
This is a general term for food- and drink-related poisoning. It may originate from food items, utensils, packaging, etc.
① Store food items in a cool place and ensure that persons engaged in food preparation disinfect their hands and fingers.
② Wash cooking utensils (especially kitchen knives and chopping boards) well and allow them to dry thoroughly.
③ Take care to prevent bacteria from contaminating or multiplying in food by consuming it quickly once prepared etc.
● Burns and scalds
Burns and scalds are injuries to the skin or mucous membranes resulting from contact with very hot objects (gases, fluids, and solids). The severity of burns depends on how deep and extensive they are.
・1st degree burn: Affects only the outer skin; the affected area is red and painful.
・2nd degree burn: Extends down to the inner skin; there is reddening, noticeable swelling, and blistering of the affected area.
・3rd degree burn: Extends into subcutaneous tissue, sometimes even causing damage to layers of muscle under the skin.
● Bone fracture
This commonly occurs when elderly people affected by osteoporosis (a condition in which bones atrophy, becoming more fragile and likely to break) have a fall. As a condition that leaves people bedridden, bone fracture is next in frequency after stroke. Osteoporotic fractures often occur in the upper thighbone (femoral neck fracture), spine (spinal compression fracture), and wrist (distal radial fracture). Creating a safe home environment for elderly people helps to prevent fractures.
HEALTH CHECK AND VITAL SIGNS
1. Normal and Abnormal Vital Signs
For safety reasons, it is important for the carer to know each client’s vital signs (body temperature, pulse rate, and blood pressure, etc.) If these are different from normal, it may be necessary for the client to forgo a walk or a bath, or even to have a medical examination.
2. Measuring Body Temperature
Merely checking for a body temperature over 37˚ is not sufficient. To decide whether the client’s body temperature is abnormal, it is important to know his/her normal body temperature first.
3. Measuring Pulse Rate
Pulse rate varies from individual to individual, and according to age, sex, activity, the presence of disease or fever, psychological state, and other factors.
4. Measuring Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is defined as a systolic pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and/or diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher (according to WHO and Japan Hypertension Society guidelines). Since blood pressure is easily affected by environment and physical condition, it is necessary to measure blood pressure several times a day. Measuring blood pressure is a medical procedure.
Whole Body Observation (Client’s Facial Complexion, Skin, etc.)
On visits to the client, in addition to checking the his/her complexion and eye movements, facial expression, appetite and swallowing behavior, (also urine and stools when changing diapers), it is important to observe his/her skin condition and check whether he/she feels any pain when moving. Elderly people can easily become dehydrated. To prevent dehydration, pay attention to the client’s fluid intake and urine volume, and check for mouth dryness.
Self-Report and Health Check
Sometimes clients are not able to report adequately a change in their own condition, so during the health check compare their present condition with their normal one. It is important not to overlook any major signs or symptoms.
GUIDANCE FOR COMMON AILMENTS IN ELDERLY PEOPLE
1) Respiratory Symptoms
・Two illnesses which frequently cause coughing (a reaction to protect the airway by expelling foreign objects or secretions from the extrathoracic respiratory tract) in elderly people are chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Physical weakness often makes it difficult for elderly people to expel phlegm by themselves, in which case they can easily choke.
・Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and other subjective symptoms are collectively termed dyspnea. Lung function decreases with age, so dyspnea may result from exertion and does not necessarily indicate respiratory illness.
2) Digestive Tract Symptoms
● Abdominal pain
・This may be caused by overeating, constipation, diarrhea, or other factors.
・If sudden abdominal pain, abdominal pain with fever, or repeated vomiting occurs, the client should see a doctor. Inform the doctor of the time of onset, site, and severity of the pain, as appropriate.
・Abdominal pain caused by a “chill” can be relieved by applying warmth, but if there is fever, warmth will exacerbate the symptoms and must be avoided.
● Dysphagia and misswallowing
・Misswallowing means aspirating food into the airway instead of swallowing it into the gullet.
・Misswallowed foreign bodies can be expelled by coughing, but elderly people with reduced coughing ability may be unable to expel them. They can enter the lungs and cause a form of pneumonia called aspiration pneumonia.
・To prevent misswallowing, be careful with the size of portions and the viscosity of food. When giving assistance with eating, it is necessary to stay at the right pace for the client.
● Oral care
・Oral dryness may cause bacteria in the mouth to multiply and thus lead to pneumonia, so maintenance of oral hygiene is a necessity.
・The pain of mouth ulcers, etc. can lead to loss of appetite, so inspect the mouth carefully while carrying out oral hygiene procedures.
3) Circulatory Symptoms
● Edema (swelling)
・Swelling of the legs is often noticeable in elderly women, and in some, though not all, cases this is a symptom of heart insufficiency.
・This swelling of the legs is caused by age-related decrease in heart function (weakening of the heart muscle’s ability to pump blood through the circulatory system). It is not always pathological.
● Chest pain
・When a client complains of chest pain, the reason is often a serious illness, and it is necessary for the client to see a doctor.
・A heart attack generally causes severe pain, but in elderly people it may cause only mild pain or a feeling of discomfort.
・In elderly people, strong coughing or sneezing may lead to a rib fracture prompting a complaint of chest pain.
4) Emergency Measures
・In an emergency, do not force the client to move; contact medical services immediately.
1) Infectious Diseases Common in Elderly People
・Elderly people may suffer opportunistic infections (due to microorganisms that do not usually cause disease, but which can do so in a host with a weakened immune system and reduced ability to defend itself).
2) Classification of Infection Routes
● Direct infection
・The infection is transmitted directly either by close contact with an infected person (contact infection) or by breathing in viruses/bacteria expelled when an infected person coughs or sneezes (droplet infection).
● Indirect infection
・The infection is transmitted indirectly either via the mouth (through contamination of food and water from the hands of the person preparing the food or by flies) or the skin (pathogens and parasites can invade the body through mosquito bites, etc.)
3) Medication and Resistance to Disease
●Primary causes of nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infection by pathogens (viruses, etc.)
・an increase in the number of people with lowered resistance to infection such as patients with serious underlying conditions and elderly people
・steroid hormones, immunosuppressant drugs, anticancer agents, etc. which lower resistance to infection
・increased risk of infection associated with the insertion of tubes into the body (as in long-term catheterization, tracheotomy, etc.)
・the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria due to widespread use of antibiotics and other antibacterial drugs
II. DEALING WITH INFECTIOUS DISEASES AS A HOME CARE WORKER
・A disease caused by bacterial or viral infection, or by misswallowed food or saliva which enters the alveoli of the lungs; it can be fatal in elderly people.
2) MRSA（Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)
・Staphylococcus aureus bacterium is resistant to many kinds of antibiotics.
・Like most other Staphylococcus species, MRSA is harmless to healthy people, but in post-surgery patients and those with severe burns or terminal cancer it can cause fatal blood poisoning, pneumonia, etc.
・Hand washing and gargling must be strictly enforced for care workers. Also, disposable gloves and hygienic clothing (aprons, masks, etc.) must be worn and non-reusable items incinerated.
3) Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis A, B, and C are the most common types, but hepatitis D, E, F, and G have also been discovered.
① Hepatitis A Virus（HAV）
・The primary transmission route is oral. A vaccine has been in use since 1995.
・The incubation period is two to seven weeks. Only rarely does it become chronic or cause cirrhosis of the liver.
② Hepatitis B Virus（HBV）
・Formerly known as serum hepatitis or post-transfusion hepatitis, but cases of infection through blood transfusion have considerably decreased. At present sexual contact and mother-to-child transmission (with pathogens passing through the placenta, the birth canal, or breast milk) are the primary routes of infection.
・Symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of two to six months. The disease usually progresses to acute hepatitis, with recovery after two to three months.
・In the case of prolonged infection with hepatitis B virus, the disease may become chronic, with progression to cirrhosis or cancer of the liver.
③ Hepatitis C Virus（HCV）
・The main transmission route of HCV as blood transfusion, but cases of infection through blood transfusion have considerably decreased, and now infection now tends to occur through accidents.
・HBV infection is often asymptomatic, but it can easily become chronic and progression to cirrhosis or cancer of the liver is common.
ADMINISTERING AND STORING MEDICATION
1) Medication Use and Monitoring
・Under the Pharmacy Law, medications must bear an explanatory label. Please read this and be very careful to ensure that the client is taking the quantity and number of doses of medication prescribed by the doctor.
・If a client is being prescribed medication by more than one doctor/clinic at the same time, inform each doctor and the visiting nurse about the medications the client is on.
・Check whether the client is taking too much medication or forgetting to take it, and that he/she is taking it according to the doctor’s instructions.
2) Side Effects of Medication
・Side effects of medication include skin rash, fever, gastrointestinal upsets, unsteadiness on one’s feet, dizziness, falling, thirst, and drowsiness.
3) Precautions to Observe with Commonly Used Medications
・Instructions for timing and quantity of each medication must be followed. Forgetting to take a dose at the specified time then taking multiple doses together at a later time is extremely dangerous.
4) Side Effects, Interaction, etc.
・Medications affect the body in a variety of ways. They have side effects and, when several medications are used together, interactions between them can increase their effects additively and synergistically. They can also act antagonistically to each other. Long-term use of medication can lead to accumulation and addiction.
・Old age can result in slowed absorption of medication. Reduced ability to excrete may cause medication to accumulate in the body and other problems.
・If a client has difficulty using medication, do not try to solve the problem by yourself; consult a health-care professional.
Elderly People and Medication
・Check whether the elderly person is able to take the specified dose of medicine at the specified time by him/herself.
・When an elderly person is unable to manage medication by him/herself because of diminished mental capacity or visual impairment, it will be necessary for the home care worker to provide appropriate assistance.
・In some cases it is safer for medication to be managed by a family member rather than the client him/herself.
・Be careful not to have the client take medication by mistake. If the client does take medication by mistake, immediately inform a doctor and follow his/her instructions.
・Have the client take medicine with cold water or boiled water which has cooled. It must not be taken with any other drink.
・With powders and other difficult-to-swallow medications, use swallowing aid jelly.
●The following are medical procedures, so they should be carried out by medical professionals. Regarding these procedures, it is important to consult health care professionals rather than make decisions by yourself.
Sickness and old age impair the swallowing reflex leading to obstruction of the airway by pieces of food or accumulation of phlegm or and other secretions in it. When a person is unable to expel these by him/herself, there is a risk of choking. To avoid this, mucus, foreign bodies, etc. can be suctioned with a machine.
II. Inhalation（by Nebulizer）
This is used for treatment of asthma attacks, bronchiectasis, etc., dilating the airway, softening mucus to make it easier to expel, and other purposes.
Enemas can be used in cases where constipation results because of decline in the peristaltic movements of the intestines or the excretory function, because a bedridden person cannot get enough exercise, or because of insufficient intake of dietary fiber or fluid. It is important to promote natural bowel movements by abdominal massage and hot compresses together with appropriate dietary fiber and fluid intake.
IV. Stool Extraction
This is a procedure used when hard stools cannot be expelled from the anus by natural bowel movement or enema.
V. Management of Bedsores
1) Causes of Bedsores
・Unrelieved pressure leads to reduced circulation in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, which in turn results in tissue death. Areas prone to bedsores are bony prominences such as the sacrum and greater trochanteric region.
・Causes of bedsores include unrelieved pressure, friction, shearing forces, dirt, irritation of the skin by urine and feces, poor nutrition, and sensory impairment.
・Bedsores begin with reddening of the skin, which then usually becomes inflamed and ulcerated.
2) Prevention of Bedsores
・To avoid continuous pressure on one part of the body it is important to use bedsore prevention aids such as an air mattress or low resistance mattress.
・Keep skin clean and use moisturizer to maintain skin moisture.
・When washing the genital area, rinse well with lukewarm water and avoid scraping the skin when wiping it dry.
・When using soap or other skin cleansers, a thick lather may conceal dirt. Rinse [skin] thoroughly and remove all cleanser.
・Some baby soap may cause excessive loss of skin moisture; low pH soap is recommended.
・Observe the client’s diet carefully and try to improve his/her nutrition.
Japanese to English: Home Care Worker Manual (2) General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Translation - English 1. Name of Disease: Cancer (Terminal Stage)
Symptoms & Remarks:
There is a growth, verified in either of the following two ways as malignant, which is incurable*, and which shows progression.
1. Malignancy is verified by biopsy or cytological examination.
2. Malignancy is not verified by biopsy or cytological examination, but there is clinical pathological change which, after an interval, shows progression on repeat examination (by imaging, etc.)
*“Incurable” here refers to a condition in which death of the patient is expected to occur within six months. Treatment with anticancer agents may still be given in such cases, but this is for the purpose of palliating symptoms and not for that of curing the disease.
2. Name of Disease: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Symptoms & Remarks:
This is inflammation in small joints such as the fingers and the large joints of the hips, knees, etc. which leads to pain and loss of function. Pain and stiffness are particularly severe before dawn and in the early morning. The condition also affects muscles and tendons leading to noticeable muscle weakness and slowness of movement.
3. Name of Disease: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Symptoms & Remarks:
This condition presents with muscle atrophy and weakness, bulbar palsy, and pyramidal signs. However, sensory impairment, eye movement disorder, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and bedsores do not usually occur before the terminal stage of the disease.
4. Name of Disease: Ligament Ossification
Symptoms & Remarks:
Ligament ossification occurs most commonly in the cervical spine and causes compression of the cervical spinal cord leading to numbness in the limbs, motor impairment, exaggerated tendon reflexes, and spastic quadriplegia with abnormal reflexes, etc. When ossification occurs at the thoracic level, compression of the thoracic spinal cord leads to spastic paraplegia in the lower limbs without abnormality in the upper limbs.
5. Name of Disease: Fractures Associated with Osteoporosis
Symptoms & Remarks:
Spinal compression fracture: degenerative change in the spinal column with low back pain as characteristic symptom. After minor injury, or even without obvious cause, patients begin to suffer acute low back pain and often become bedridden.
Femoral neck fracture and trochanteric fracture: after a fall, etc., the patient complains of pain at the hip and is unable to stand. Sometimes the patient complains of pain in the knee. When displacement of a femoral neck fracture is minimal, the patient may still be able to walk.
6. Name of Disease: Early Dementia (Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Cognitive Impairment, Lewy Body Dementia)
Symptoms & Remarks:
With Alzheimer’s disease the main early-stage symptom is memory loss. There may also be reduced volitional capacity, difficulty with tidiness, and impaired time orientation.
In moderate-stage Alzheimer's sufferers have difficulty remembering things, forget that they have taken medication, and buy the same item repeatedly. In the late stage Alzheimer’s, they forget their own name, or, not knowing where the toilet is, urinate in their own room. They also develop urinary incontinence. In some cases medication is effective in delaying progression of the disease.
With vascular cognitive impairment, forgetfulness is a common early-stage symptom. Exaggerated deep tendon reflex, aponeurotic reflex, pseudobulbar palsy, abnormal gait and other local neurological signs are also common. Generally, even if there is considerable memory loss, there is no impairment of judgment or breakdown of personality.
7. Name of Disease: Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Corticobasal Degeneration, Parkinson's Disease (Parkinsonism)
Symptoms & Remarks:
1. With Parkinson’s disease, treatment of symptoms by medication can be highly effective.
2. Progressive supernuclear palsy presents with abnormal posture (head tilted backward, chin raised), difficulty moving the eyes in a vertical direction (it is hard for the sufferer to look down), and a wide variety of other symptoms.
3. Corticobasal degeneration presents with simultaneous Parkinsonism symptoms and cortical signs (inability to move the hands voluntarily, etc.)
8. Name of Disease: Spinocerebellar Degeneration
Symptoms & Remarks:
Common early stage symptom is unsteady gait (gait ataxia). The disease usually progresses very slowly. According to type of spinocerebellar degeneration, muscle atrophy, involuntary movements, autonomic symptoms, etc. may occur. In the late stage, the ability to sit upright by oneself is lost, and the sufferer is left bedridden.
Japanese to English: Japanese Materials Data Safety Sheet General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - Japanese [. . .]
Translation - English [. . .]
2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
Classification: Not applicable.
Physical/chemical hazards: Non-flammable, but may be explosive in powder form.
Health hazards: According to current data, this substance is not hazardous.
Ecological impact information: No data.
3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
Classification: Single product.
Chemical name: Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose.
CAS No.: 9004-64-2.
Chemical formula: Refer to end of document.
Structural formula: Stated at end of document.
Kashinhou [Law on the Control of Examination and Manufacture of Chemical Substances]: Kanpo [Official Gazette] reference number (8)-194.
Industrial Health and Safety Law: Not listed.
4. FIRST AID MEASURES
Ingestion: Rinse mouth with water. If symptoms develop
afterward, seek medical attention.
Inhalation: Remove the affected person to fresh air and keep at rest. If symptoms develop afterward, seek medical attention.
Skin contact: Dust off powder and rinse contact site thoroughly with water.
Eye contact: Holding the eyelids open, immediately flush the eye copiously with running water for at least 5 minutes. If symptoms develop afterward, seek medical
5. FIREFIGHTING MEASURES
Firefighting precautions: exercise caution when firefighting, as combustion or high
temperatures may produce carbon monoxide and other hazardous gases,
Extinguishing medium: water, carbon
Specific firefighting hazards: Carbon monoxide and other hazardous gases.
6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES:
Collect spillage as far as possible and place in an empty container.
Wash the area copiously with water.
Japanese to English: Recipe General field: Other Detailed field: Cooking / Culinary
Source text - Japanese カンタンあっさり・大根粥
大根には、ビタミンＣやジアスターゼ（でんぷん消化酵素）を多く含み，たんぱく質分解酵素，脂肪消化酵素も多く含んでいます。多く含まれているビタミンC は，コラーゲンの合成をうながし，スキンケアには最適です。老化防止や美肌作りには欠かせない食材です。玄米の豊富な栄養素との組み 合わせが、一層、大根の効果効能を高めます。
Translation - English LIGHT AND SIMPLE DAIKON PORRIDGE
A recipe for beautiful skin
Daikon (white radish) contains large amounts of vitamin C, diastase (a digestive enzyme for starch), and enzymes that break down proteins and fats. Daikon’s high vitamin C content helps the body to make collagen, so it’s ideal for skin care. It’s an essential food for preventing aging and maintaining beautiful skin. Daikon combined with nutrient-rich brown rice, it has an even stronger effect.
A serving for 2 people contains
0.2 g salt
40 g vegetables
Kcal: 192 kcal
Time: 15 minutes
2 bowlfuls cooked brown rice (white rice can also be used)
80 g Daikon
pinch of natural salt and pepper
600 cc water
How to make
1. Cut unpeeled daikon into thin (1.5 mm wide) slices and quarter them.
2. Boil 600 cc of water in a pot. Put in the daikon and cooked brown rice, bring them back to the boil and add salt and pepper to taste.
3. Once fully cooked, put the porridge in a bowl and top with green onion. In summer, daikon porridge may also be chilled and served cold.
Japanese to English: Japanese Folk Tale General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Folklore
Translation - English THE CRANE BRIDE (A JAPANESE FOLK TALE)
There once lived a poor young man whose parents had died early, leaving him alone in the world. He earned his living in the forest, gathering firewood to sell in the town.
One winter’s day, the young man found an injured crane lying unable to move by the roadside. He felt sorry for the creature and tended its injuries. When it was able to fly again, the bird let out a joyful cry and returned to the skies.
That evening there was a knock at the young man’s door. “Who could that be on such a cold night?” he wondered. Opening the door suspiciously, he saw a beautiful maiden standing before him. “I was going to see some kinfolk,” she said, “but I have lost my way, and now it is dark. Please may I stay the night here?” Taking pity on her, the young man said, “I have little to offer you, but do come in,” and gave her a place for the night.
The next morning he was woken by an agreeable smell. When he looked to see where it was coming from, he found the young woman cooking. "Good morning,” she said. “I have made you breakfast – excuse me for not asking permission – to thank you for letting me stay here.” As the young man was enjoying the meal, she explained that her parents had passed away, and she had been going to seek help from her kinfolk. “But I have never met these people,” she said, “and I have heard that life is not easy for them. Please will you take me to be your wife and let me live here with you?” Surprised, the young man replied, “As you can see, I am too poor to take a wife.” Yet the young woman implored him, and at length he agreed to marry her.
The two of them lived happily together; but they were so poor that they could barely afford enough to eat.
One day, the young woman prepared to do some weaving, surrounded by folding screens. “So that we can have enough to live on, I am going to weave cloth," she told him, “and you are on no account to look in here when I am at work.” Then she went behind the screens, and the clack and thud of weaving began.
A long time later, the young woman emerged, looking exhausted, and handed the young man a length of cloth. Such beautifully glittering fabric had never been seen before, and it brought a very high price in the town.
Life became more comfortable for the two of them. However, the young man took to drinking in the town and thus fell into bad company. These ne’er-do-wells wanted him to have more money for carousing; so they pressed him to bid the young woman weave more cloth.
When he asked her to weave cloth again, a look of sadness came over the young woman’s face. Nonetheless, after making him promise that he would not peer inside the screens, she withdrew, and the clack and thud of weaving began.
Instead of going out to do his own work, the young man lay down and listened to the sound of the loom. The desire to see the place where the cloth was being woven gradually overwhelmed him. “Telling me not to look only makes me want to look all the more. If I take just a quick peek, she will never know,” he thought, and stealthily peered through the gap between two screens.
The sight that met his eyes made him gasp in astonishment. Inside the screens there stood a crane. It had pulled out its beautiful feathers to weave them into cloth. Now the creature was almost bald, and its bleeding body was pitiful to behold.
As the young man stood dumbfounded, the young woman came out from behind the screens holding a length of cloth in her hands. “I am the crane that you saved. I came back to repay you for your kindness, but now that you have seen my true form, I can stay here no longer,” she said, and in the blink of an eye she had changed back into a crane. The bird let out a sorrowful cry and returned to the skies.
Japanese to English: Legal Settlement General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Law (general)
1 Identification of parties
C – claimant (London, United Kingdom)
S – solicitor representing the claimant (A City, P Prefecture
Yugengaisha D (D Limited) – defendant, a company in A City, P Prefecture
L – liquidator representing the defendant
2 Identification of claim
The object and grounds of the claim are as stated in the complaint. (However, the day following the day on which the complaint was served was DD/MM/YYYY.)
3 Provisions of settlement
(1) The defendant admits liability to pay the claimant 20,000 yen as settlement money.
(2) The defendant has paid the claimant the settlement money referred to in the first sentence and the claimant has received this money at this settlement meeting.
(3) The claimant waives all further claims.
(4) The claimant and the defendant confirm to each other that, except as provided under this settlement, they have no liabilities or obligations in respect of the present claim towards each other.
(5) Each party shall pay its own legal costs.
Japanese to English: Articles of Incorporation General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Business/Commerce (general)
Source text - Japanese 第１章 総則
Translation - English Chapter I: General Provisions
The name of this corporation shall be Kabushikigaisha XO Agency, and its English name shall be XO Agency Incorporated.
The purpose of this corporation shall be to carry on the following businesses:
1) publication planning
2) publishing and marketing of books and magazines
3) copyright management
4) any other business related to each of the foregoing items
The corporation shall have its principal office at AAA. It may establish branch offices as the need to do so arises.
The public notices of the corporation shall be published in the Japanese Official Gazette.
Chapter II: Shares
The total number of shares to be issued by the corporation is 12,000 (twelve thousand) shares.
The shares issued by the corporation shall be par value registered shares, and share certificates shall be issued in four denominations representing one (1), ten (10), fifty (50), or one hundred (100) shares per certificate.
The value of each par value share issued by the corporation shall be 500 (five hundred) yen.
The corporation shall suspend registration of transfer of share ownership from the day following the end of each accounting period until the last day of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders.
The consent of the board of directors shall be required for transfer of ownership of the corporation’s shares.
Transactions in the corporation’s stock other than transfer of ownership shall proceed as specifically stipulated by the board of directors.
Chapter III: General Meeting of Shareholders
The ordinary general meeting of the corporation’s shareholders shall be convened within three (3) months of the day following the end of the fiscal year. Extraordinary general meetings of shareholders shall be held whenever necessary.
Except as provided otherwise by law or ordinance, decisions of the general meeting of shareholders shall pass by a majority of the voting rights of the shareholders present at the meeting.
A record of the proceedings of the general meeting of the shareholders of the corporation shall be made, and this shall contain the substance of the course of the proceedings and the results thereof. The chair of the meeting and any directors present must sign and seal the record.
Chapter IV: Officers of the Corporation
The corporation shall have the following officers:
a maximum of ten (10) directors
a maximum of three (3) auditors
Even when two (2) or more persons are nominated at the same time for election as directors at a general meeting of shareholders, the cumulative voting method shall not be used to elect directors.
The term of office of directors and auditors shall expire at the close of the ordinary general meeting of shareholders relating to the second business year ending within two (2) years after their assumption of office.
The term of office of directors who assume office in order to fill a vacancy or as a result of an increase in the number of directors shall expire at the time of expiration of the term of office of currently serving directors. The term of office of an auditor elected to fill the vacancy occurring because an auditor resigned from his/her office before the expiration of his/her term shall expire at the time of expiration of the term of office of the auditor who resigned.
The directors shall constitute the board of directors, and the resolutions of the board of directors shall be adopted by a majority vote of the directors present.
The board of directors shall appoint by resolution one (1) representative director to represent the corporation.
The board of directors may appoint by resolution a number of consultants or advisors. Their term of office shall be the same as the term of office of the directors who have nominated them.
The notice of convening a meeting of the board of directors must be given to each director three (3) days prior to the day of the meeting.
[. . .]
English to Japanese: Mr King's Amazing Journey General field: Art/Literary Detailed field: Poetry & Literature
Source text - English Mister King lived on a rocky island near the South Pole.
It was wet, windy and icy cold.
But this was home and he didn’t want to live anywhere else.
One day, a boat sailed close to the shore and dropped its anchor in the bay.
[Original text used here by kind permission of the author, Mr David Du Plessis.]
Three fishermen rowed out to the island.
They had never seen anyone quite as interesting looking as Mister King.
So they put him in a bag and took him back to their boat.
Translation - Japanese [Original text used here by kind permission of the author, Mr David Du Plessis.]
English to Japanese: La Tomatina Festival General field: Other Detailed field: Tourism & Travel
Source text - English Who cast that first fateful tomato that started the La Tomatina revolution? The reality is no one knows. Maybe it was an anti-Franco rebellion, or a carnival that got out of hand. According to the most popular version of the story, during the 1945 festival of Los Gigantes (a giant paper mâché puppet parade), locals were looking to stage a brawl to get some attention. They happened upon a vegetable cart nearby and started hurling ripe tomatoes. Innocent onlookers got involved until the scene escalated into a massive melee of flying fruit. The instigators had to repay the tomato vendors, but that didn't stop the recurrence of more tomato fights—and the birth of a new tradition.
Fearful of an unruly escalation, authorities enacted, relaxed, and then reinstated a series of bans in the 1950s. In 1951, locals who defied the law were imprisoned until public outcry called for their release. The most famous effrontery to the tomato bans happened in 1957 when proponents held a mock tomato funeral complete with a coffin and procession. After 1957, the local government decided to roll with the punches, set a few rules in place, and embraced the wacky tradition.
Though the tomatoes take center stage, a week of festivities lead up to the final showdown. It's a celebration of Buñol's patron saints, the Virgin Mary and St. Louis Bertrand, with street parades, music, and fireworks in joyous Spanish fashion. To build up your strength for the impending brawl, an epic paella is served on the eve of the battle, showcasing an iconic Valencian dish of rice, seafood, saffron, and olive oil.
Today, this unfettered festival has some measure of order. Organizers have gone so far as to cultivate a special variety of unpalatable tomatoes just for the annual event. Festivities kick off around 10 a.m. when participants race to grab a ham fixed atop a greasy pole. Onlookers hose the scramblers with water while singing and dancing in the streets. When the church bell strikes noon, trucks packed with tomatoes roll into town, while chants of "To-ma-te, to-ma-te!" reach a crescendo.
Then, with the firing of a water cannon, the main event begins. That's the green light for crushing and launching tomatoes in all-out attacks against fellow participants. Long distance tomato lobbers, point-blank assassins, and medium range hook shots. Whatever your technique, by the time it's over, you will look (and feel) quite different. Nearly an hour later, tomato-soaked bombers are left to play in a sea of squishy street salsa with little left resembling a tomato to be found. A second cannon shot signals the end of the battle.
Translation - Japanese 革命的イベント「ラ・トマティーナ」（トマト祭り）の始まりとなる運命のトマトを投げたのは誰か。確かなことはわからない。反フランコ活動分子だったのかもしれないし、カーニバルで羽目をはずした人だったのかもしれない。最も一般的な説は、1945年の「ロス・ヒガンテス」（巨大な張り子人形がパレードする祭り）の際、人々の注目を集めようとしてわざと派手なけんかをした地元の人だというもの。偶然、その近くに野菜の荷車があり、熟したトマトのぶつけ合いとなった。周りで見ていた無関係の人たちも次第にこれに引き込まれ、ついにはトマトが飛び交う大合戦へと発展。けんかの張本人たちはトマト売りに損害を弁償しなければならなかったが、もっとトマト合戦をやりたいという気持ちがそれで鎮まることはなかった。ここに新しい祭りが誕生したのだ。
German to English: Suspected Manganese Poisoning General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical: Health Care
Source text - German . . . Der Kranke bot damit ein typisches Bild chronischer Manganvergiftung, das viel Ähnlichkeit mit dem Metenzephalitis hat. Ungwöhnlich war das gänzliche Verschwinden des anfänglich vorhanden gewenenen Zitterns. Bei anderen Fällen wurden ausser den geschilderten Symptomen noch beobachtet: Schluckstöringen, plötzlicher Tonusverlust wie bei der Narkolepsie und Pyramidensymptome. Psychische Veränderingen waren bei den übrigen Fällen nicht beobachtet worden (im Gegensatz zu den Berichten amerikanischer Autoren) . . .
Translation - English . . . Thus the patient showed typical symptoms of chronic manganese poisoning, which closely resemble those of brain stem encephalitis. An unusual feature of this case was that the initial tremor completely disappeared. In other cases the following symptoms were observed in addition to those previously described: swallowing difficulties, sudden loss of tone (as in narcolepsy) and pyramidal symptoms. Psychological changes were not observed in these remaining cases (in contrast to the reports from American authors) . . .
German to English: Austrian Rail Law General field: Law/Patents Detailed field: Law (general)
Source text - German Bundesgesetz vom 13. Feber 1957 über das Eisenbahnwesen
§ 23. Haupt- und Nebenbahnen haben für die Beförderung von Personen, Reisegepäck und Gütern, die sich auf Eisenbahnen mehrerer Eisenbahnunternehmen erstreckt, direkte Abfertigung und einen durchgehenden Tarif einzuführen, wenn dies das Bundesministerium für Verkehr und Elektrizitätswirtschaft im öffentlichen Verkehrsinteresse anordnet. Kommt hierüber binnen einer vom Bundesministerium für Verkehr und Elektrizitätswirtschaft festzusetzenden angemessenen Frist keine Einigung zwischen den Eisenbahnunternehmen zustande oder entspricht die Einigung dem öffentlichen Verkehrsinteresse nicht, so hat das Bundesministerium für Verkehr und Elektrizitätswirtschaft, den Erfordernissen des öffentlichen Verkehrs entsprechend, den Tarif, wie er für die beteiligten Unternehmen unter billiger Berücksichtigung aller Verhältnisse wirtschaftlich tragbar ist, festzusetzen.
Translation - English Federal Railroad Law of February 13, 1957
Main and local rail lines shall convey persons, baggage and goods traveling on rail lines operated by more than one railroad company directly and at a thru-fare when the Federal Ministry of Transport and Electricity orders them to do so in the interests of public transportation. If, within an appropriate period fixed by the Federal Ministry of Transport and Electricity, the railroad companies fail to reach agreement among themselves on the above matters, or if such agreement is not in the interests of public transportation, then the Federal Ministry of Transport and Electricity shall, in accordance with public transportation needs, set a tariff which is, with due consideration for all relevant circumstances, economically sustainable for the companies concerned.
German to English: German MSDS General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Source text - German 4 Erste-Hilfe-Maßnahmen
• nach Einatmen: Für Frischluft sorgen
• nach Hautkontakt: Mit warmem Wasser abspülen.
• nach Augenkontakt: Augen bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mehrere Minuten mit fließendem Wasser spülen.
• nach Verschlucken: Ärztlicher Behandlung zuführen.
6 Maßnahmen bei unbeabsichtigter Freisetzung:
• Personenbezogene Vorsichtsmaßnahmen:
Schutzausrüstung tragen. Ungeschützte Personen fernhalten.
• Umweltschutzmaßnahmen: Nicht in die Kanalisation oder in Gewässer gelangen lassen.
• Verfahren zur Reinigung/Aufnahme:
Mit flüssigkeitsbindendem Material (Sand, Kieselgur, Säurebinder, Universalbinder, Sägemehl)
Nicht mit Wasser oder wäßrigen Reinigungsmitteln wegspülen.
10 Stabilität und Reaktivität
• Thermische Zersetzung / zu vermeidende Bedingungen:
Keine Zersetzung bei bestimmungsgemäßer Verwendung.
• Gefährliche Reaktionen Keine gefährlichen Reaktionen bekannt.
• Gefährliche Zersetzungsprodukte: keine gefährlichen Zersetzungsprodukte bekannt.
12 Angaben zur Ökologie
• Ökotoxische Wirkungen:
• Bemerkung: Schädlich für Fische.
• Allgemeine Hinweise: schädlich für Wasserorganismen
13 Hinweise zur Entsorgung
Darf nicht zusammen mit Hausmüll entsorgt werden. Nicht als Konzentrat in die Kanalisation
• Ungereinigte Verpackungen:
• Empfehlung: Entsorgung gemäß den behördlichen Vorschriften.
15 Österreichische und EU-Vorschriften
• Kennzeichnung nach EWG-Richtlinien:
• Kennbuchstabe und Gefahrenbezeichnung des Produktes:
• Gefahrbestimmende Komponenten zur Etikettierung:
43 Sensibilisierung durch Hautkontakt möglich.
52/53 Schädlich für Wasserorganismen, kann in Gewässern längerfristig schädliche Wirkungen haben.
2 Darf nicht in die Hände von Kindern gelangen.
13 Von Nahrungsmitteln, Getränken und Futtermitteln fernhalten.
24 Berührung mit der Haut vermeiden.
29/56 Nicht in die Kanalisation gelangen lassen; dieses Produkt und seinen Behälter der
37 Geeignete Schutzhandschuhe tragen.
43 Zum Löschen Sand, Kohlendioxid oder Pulverlöschmittel, kein Wasser verwenden
46 Bei Verschlucken sofort ärztlichen Rat einholen und Verpackung oder Etikett vorzeigen.
51 Nur in gut gelüfteten Bereichen verwenden.
61 Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt
zu Rate ziehen.
• Nationale Vorschriften:
• Klassifizierung nach VbF: entfällt
Translation - English 4 First aid measures
• Inhalation: Ensure a supply of fresh air.
• Skin contact: Rinse skin with warm water.
• Eye contact: With eyelids held open, rinse eyes for several minutes under running water.
• Ingestion: Seek medical treatment.
6 Accidental release measures:
• Personal precautions:
Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
• Environmental precautions: Do not allow to enter drains or watercourses.
• Cleanup and absorption:
Absorb with liquid-binding material (sand, diatomite, acid binders, universal binders, or sawdust)
Do not rinse away with water or water-based cleaning agent.
10 Stability and reactivity
• Thermal decomposition – conditions to avoid:
No decomposition when used as specified.
• Hazardous reaction: No hazardous reactions known.
• Hazardous decomposition products: No hazardous decomposition products known.
12 Ecological information
• Note: Harmful to fish.
• General Information: Harmful to acquatic organisms.
13 Disposal considerations
Must not be disposed of with household waste. Do not allow concentrate to enter drains.
• Uncleaned packaging:
• Recommendation: Dispose of in accordance with official regulations.
15 Austrian and EU regulations
• Labelling according to EU Directives:
• Codes and description of hazards for this product:
• Hazardous ingredients for labelling:
D-limonene (orange terpenes)
43 May cause sensitisation by skin contact.
52/53 Harmful to aquatic organisms; may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
2 Keep out of reach of children.
13 Keep away from food, drink and animal feedingstuffs.
24 Avoid contact with skin.
29/56 Do not empty into drains; dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point.
37 Wear suitable gloves.
43 In case of fire, use sand, carbon dioxide, or powder extinguisher. Never use water.
46 If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
51 Use only in well-ventilated areas.
61 Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheets.
• National regulations:
• VbF [Flammable Liquids Regulation] class: NA.
French to English: Tucson: l’Amérique, une fois de plus, s’interroge General field: Other Detailed field: Journalism
Source text - French Tucson: l’Amérique, une fois de plus, s’interroge
(Le Monde, 12 January 2011)
Une fois de plus, l’Amérique doit faire face à l’un de ses vieux démons : elle reste une terre de violence politique. La tragédie a frappé l’Arizona, samedi 8 janvier, en l’un des lieux symboles du paysage suburbain d’aujourd’hui : le parking d’un supermarché Safeway, dans l’agglomération de Tucson.
(Le Monde, January 12, 2011. Article on line at
C’est là, au beau milieu d’un rassemblement politique aimable et familial, qu’un homme de 22 ans, Jared Lee Loughner, parfait rejeton d’une famille blanche de la classe moyenne, a ouvert le feu, presque à bout portant, sur une élue démocrate de l’Etat, Gabrielle Giffords.
Grièvement blessée à la tête, elle est aujourd’hui entre la vie et la mort. Mais l’homme a utilisé son arme en mode automatique et la rafale de 31 balles tirée en quelques secondes a fait six morts - dont une petite fille de 9 ans - et beaucoup d’autres blessés.
Assassinats de John et de Robert Kennedy et de Martin Luther King, dans les années 1960, attentat contre Ronald Reagan en 1981, attentat d’Oklahoma City en 1995 : l’Amérique contemporaine est familière de ce type de violence.
Elle est souvent le fait d’illuminés, mais elle peut aussi être rattachée au contexte politique de l’heure. Et c’est ce contexte qu’invoquent nombre d’observateurs - journalistes et dirigeants politiques - au lendemain du drame de Tucson. Ils incriminent le climat créé par la nouvelle droite républicaine, celle qui va peupler les rangs du nouveau Congrès.
Ils pointent du doigt certains commentateurs vedettes de la chaîne Fox News, les théories du complot et la diabolisation du gouvernement fédéral véhiculées par le mouvement Tea Party.
(Available at https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2011/01/11/tucson-l-amerique-une-fois-de-plus-s-interroge_1463922_3232.html)
Translation - English The Tucson shooting: Yet again, America asks why
Yet again America finds itself face to face with one of its old demons: the political violence that the country continues to be prey to. Tragedy struck in Arizona on Saturday, 8 January in one of those spaces that have come to symbolise today’s urban landscape: the car park of a Safeway supermarket.
This was where, in the midst of a light-hearted, family-friendly political rally, 22-year-old Jared Lee Loughner, the quintessential offspring of a white middle-class family, opened fire on Democratic Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords at almost point-blank range. With a serious head wound, Giffords is now struggling for her life. But the hail of 31 bullets loosed off by Loughner in a few seconds – he had set his weapon to automatic – claimed the lives of six people including a nine-year-old girl, and wounded many more.
After the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King in the 1960s, the attempt on Ronald Reagan’s life in 1981, and the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, contemporary America is no stranger to this kind of violence.
While its perpetrators are often fanatics, it can also be seen as a by-product of the political culture of the day. In the wake of the Tucson shooting, this culture has been cited as an explanation by a number of observers including journalists and political leaders. They blame the climate created by the new Republican Right, whose adherents are set to fill the ranks of the new Congress.
These observers point the finger at some of the Fox News channel’s star commentators, as well as at the Tea Party movement for espousing conspiracy theories and demonising the Federal government.
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