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English to Chinese: 'Twisted light' carries 2.5 terabits of data per second General field: Science Detailed field: Physics
Source text - English 'Twisted light' carries 2.5 terabits of data per second
The "twist" of the waves within a light beam is a means to carry potentially vast amounts of data
Researchers have clocked light beams made of "twisted" waves carrying 2.5 terabits of data - the capacity of more than 66 DVDs - per second.
The technique relies on manipulating what is known as the orbital angular momentum of the waves.
Recent work suggests that the trick could vastly boost the data-carrying capacity in wi-fi and optical fibres.
The striking demonstration of the approach, reported in Nature Photonics, is likely to lead to even higher rates.
Angular momentum is a slippery concept when applied to light, but an analogy closer to home is the Earth itself.
Our planet has "spin angular momentum" because it spins on its axis, and "orbital angular momentum" because it is also revolving around the Sun.
Light can have both these types, but the spin version is the far more familiar - as what is commonly called polarisation, or the direction along which light waves wiggle. Polarising sunglasses and many 3D glasses work by passing one polarisation and not another.
In many data-carrying applications involving light, more data is packed on to light waves by encoding one polarisation with one data stream, and another with a different stream.
That means twice as much information can fit within the same "bandwidth" - the range of colours that the transmitting equipment is able to process.
Orbital angular momentum, or OAM, on the other hand, has only recently come to the fore as a promising means to accomplish the same trick.
The idea is not to create light waves wiggling in different directions but rather with different amounts of twist, like screws with different numbers of threads.
Most recently, Bo Thide of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics and a team of colleagues in Italy demonstrated the principle by sending beams made up of two different OAM states across a canal in Venice, an experiment they described in the New Journal of Physics.
Eight beams, each with its own "twist", were prepared for the data-rate test
Most data traffic in optical fibres around the world is made up of different data streams on slightly different colours of light, which are split into their constituent colours at the receiving end in a technique called multiplexing.
To fully realise OAM's potential, similar multiplexing of different "twists" must be developed.
Alan Willner and his team at the University of Southern California, along with colleagues at Nasa's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Tel Aviv University, have now demonstrated one way to do that.
The team prepared two sets of four light beams, each with a set level of OAM twist, and each of the eight containing its own data stream.
The two sets were then filtered to have different polarisations, and arranged into a single beam with four streams at the centre and four in a doughnut-shape around the edge.
At the receiving end, the process is undone and the single beam was unpacked to yield its eight constituent beams, together carrying about 2.5 terabits per second.
Initial experiments were only carried out over a distance of about a metre, and Prof Willner said that challenges remained for adapting the approach to fibres or for longer-distance transfer.
"One of the challenges in this respect is turbulence in the atmosphere," he explained.
"For situations that require high capacity... over relatively short distances of less than 1km, this approach could be appealing. Of course, there are also opportunities for long-distance satellite-to-satellite communications in space, where turbulence is not an issue."
Commenting on the work in an accompanying article in Nature Photonics, Juan Torres of the Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona wrote that it "contributes a new chapter to the long history of telecommunications by demonstrating the potential of OAM... for increasing the transmission capacity".
However, he said that for wider application, a number of robust tools would be needed to manipulate OAM states and to create and deliver beams made up of several of them.
"The true impact of this development in the telecommunications industry will depend on how several important issues... are addressed and solved," he wrote.
English to Chinese: Turning algae into fuel General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-)
Source text - English Blue-green in colour, slimy and present in seas and fresh water worldwide - the presence of microalgae is not generally met with great excitement. But this may be about to change. A team of European scientists is on a mission to prove that microalgae can be used to produce bioethanol as a biofuel for less than EUR 0.40 a litre.
The EU-funded project DEMA ('Direct Ethanol from MicroAlgae') is focusing on cyanobacteria - a microalgae found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat, including in oceans, lakes and damp soil, and on rocks. They obtain their energy via photosynthesis.
The research team is seeking to improve biofuel production at two levels. First, the team will introduce the capacity to produce ethanol through metabolic engineering - by altering the chemical reactions that occur within its cells so that they can produce bioethanol effectively.
The bioethanol will then be secreted by the algae and filtered from the medium through a membrane.
The DEMA team will develop and demonstrate the technology, and is confident that the process, once fine-tuned, will be superior to any other put forward so far in scientific literature.
Biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce transport's output of carbon and reduce its impact on climate change. Using microalgae to produce biofuels has many advantages over other forms of biomass: it occurs naturally and grows quickly, and as it does not grow on land, it does not compete with food crops.
The project brings together nine partners from both academia and industry from six EU countries. It is coordinated by the University of Limerick in Ireland and has received almost EUR 5 million from the EU under the energy strand of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The project started work in December 2012 and completes its work in May 2017.
English to Chinese: RSA returns to BofA Merrill in broker rejig General field: Bus/Financial Detailed field: Investment / Securities
Source text - English FTSE 100 insurance group RSA has dropped Deutsche Bank as its corporate broker and has returned to the arms of Bank of America Merrill Lynch, reversing a decision it took in 2010.
RSA, formerly known as Royal and Sun Alliance, appointed Deutsche Bank as corporate broker in June 2010. Deutsche Bank replaced Merrill Lynch, which had held the mandate since 2004.
However, RSA revealed in a statement today that it had reappointed Bank of America Merrill Lynch to work alongside long-term incumbent JP Morgan Cazenove. A spokesman from the insurer said: “We believe it's good governance to review brokers periodically, and with a new chief financial officer and investor relations director, we think fresh thinking will help.”
Changes in corporate broker often follow changes in company management. RSA, which has a market cap of £4.6bn, appointed Richard Houghton as chief financial officer and Matt Hotson as head of investor relations early last year. The beauty parade for a new corporate broker came late last year.
While working as RSA’s joint corporate broker, Deutsche Bank advised RSA on its rejected £5bn bid for Aviva’s general insurance businesses in the UK, Ireland and Canada.
Deutsche Bank also advised RSA on its successful $411m acquisition of GCAN Insurance in October 2010. On the other side of the table was Bank of America Merrill Lynch, advising GCAN.
Deutsche Bank cut back its corporate finance team last year. Bankers who have left the bank include James Cass, a mergers and acquisition execution specialist; Andrew Thompson and Rupert Green, both members of the corporate broking team; and Omar Faruqui, a well-regarded dealmaker.
Anthony Parsons, vice-chairman of UK mergers and acquisitions at Deutsche Bank, also left the firm in May last year to join advisory boutique Greenhill.
Including the RSA win, Bank of America Merrill Lynch currently has 26 FTSE 100 corporate broking clients, according to the latest data published at the end of 2012 by Morningstar. The Wall Street bank also acts as broker for car insurer Admiral, and investment and insurance services firm Legal & General.
Michael Findlay, co-head of corporate broking who re-joined Bank of America Merrill Lynch last April, and Tony White, director in corporate finance, will be managing the RSA mandate for the US bank.
Bank of America Merrill Lynch and Deutsche Bank did not respond for comment in time for press.
Translation - Chinese 英国富时100指数保险集团RSA（皇家太阳联合保险集团）已放弃了作为其公司经纪人的德意志银行，并回到了美银美林证券公司的怀抱，从而撤销了其2010年作出的决定。
English to Chinese: New Methods For Quantifying Antisense Drug Delivery To Target Cells And Tissues General field: Medical Detailed field: Genetics
Source text - English Powerful antisense drugs that target disease-associated genes to block their expression can be used to treat a broad range of diseases. Though antisense therapy has been proven effective, challenges remain in ensuring that the drugs reach their intended targets. Two new methods for detecting and measuring the levels of antisense drugs in cells that could accelerate the development of improved antisense drugs are described in an article in BioResearch Open Access, a bimonthly peer-reviewed open access journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available on the BioResearch Open Access website.
In the article "Development of Novel Bioanalytical Methods to Determine the Effective Concentrations of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers in Tissues and Cells," Frederick Schnell, Stacy Crumley, Dan Mourich, and P.L. Iversen, from Sarepta Therapeutics and Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR), describe two fast and sensitive methods for detecting a promising type of antisense therapeutic called a phosphorodiamidate morpholine oligomer, or PMO. Using these novel methods they were able to detect PMO delivery to individual cells and quantify how much PMO resides in a particular tissue in the body, such as the lung. For example, the authors describe the measurement of intranasally delivered PMO in lung tissue and, more specifically, in different cell types in the lung. They were able to measure the clearance kinetics of the PMO and determine whether it stayed in the lung tissue.
"The development of novel, rapid PMO detection techniques such as these will advance the field of PMO research in a significant way, providing valid alternatives to the current time-consuming and labor-intensive methods," says Editor-in-Chief Jane Taylor, PhD, MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Translation - Chinese 瞄准与疾病相关的基因以阻止其基因显现的有效反义药物可以被用来治疗大量的疾病。虽然已经证明反义疗法很有效，但在确保药物到达预定目标方面仍然面临挑战。在一份由玛丽•安•利伯特出版有限公司出版的双月刊专家审查开放获取期刊《生物研究开放获取期刊》的一篇文章中，描述了检测与测量可以加速提高反义药物开发的细胞内反义药物水平的两种新方法。这篇文章可以在《生物研究开放获取期刊》网站上找到。