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Translation - English Effects of HBx on the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma and related therapeutic strategies
1. The effects of HBx on the onset of HCC
Studies have shown that HBx is present in both the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus. HBx transactivates the host cell and viral gene promoters through protein-protein interactions and not by direct DNA binding. The activation of the viral gene promoter contributes to the persistence and spread of infection, while the effects of HBx on the host cell genes are much more extensive and profound.
1.1 Cellular oncogene activation.
HBx can activate numerous cellular oncogenes, such as c-myc , Src , Ras , and Rb . HBx activation of these oncogenes has serious implications for the growth and transformation of hepatocytes. Certain oncogenes when activated would also induce the expression of downstream target genes that are intricately linked to cell growth, thereby amplifying their biological effects. For example, Src tyrosine kinases when activated by HBx could further affect the following signaling and response elements: (1) activation of PI-3K , (2) activation of STATs , (3) activation of β-catenin , and (4) suppression of cadherin expression and function .
Chinese to English: Patent Application Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Chinese 本发明公开了一种长链型重组人骨形态发生蛋白-2及其制备方法和应用。本发明利用基因工程技术在大肠杆菌，枯草芽孢杆菌等表达系统中制备长链型重组人骨形态发生蛋白-2。本发明以人骨肉瘤细胞mRNA逆转录得到的cDNA为模板，扩增出编码羧基端自然结构成熟肽完整114个氨基酸的核苔酸序列，并在正向引物5'端第一个密码子之前增加一段核苔酸，使其对应的氨基酸序列在N端增加一段多肽，得到长链型rhBMP-2基因，分子量约为30KD,纯度达95%以上。该长链型rhBMP-2具有活性高，体内稳定性好，利于重组蛋白的表达，复性和分离纯化，利于活性蛋白在体内的稳定及活性的稳定发挥，适合于骨缺损填充，融合植骨等，尤其适合于槯体融合，骨折延迟愈合，骨不连，大段骨缺损的填充修复。
Translation - English The present invention discloses a long-chain recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and its preparation method and applications. The invention utilizes genetic engineering technology to produce long-chain rhBMP-2 in the Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression systems. The invention uses cDNA reverse-transcribed from the mRNA of human sarcoma cells as the template to amplify the nucleotide sequence of the complete 114 amino acids of the naturally occurring mature peptide at its carboxyl terminus, and adds a nucleotide fragment before the first codon at the 5'-end of the forward primer so that the corresponding amino acid sequence would have an added N-terminal polypeptide fragment to produce the long-chain rhBMP-2 gene. Its molecular weight is about 30 kDa, with a purity higher than 95%. The said long-chain rhBMP-2 has high activity, good in vivo stability, and facilitates the expression, renaturation, isolation and purification of the recombinant protein. This promotes in vivo stability of the active protein and stable expression of its activity. It is suitable for filling bone defects, fusing bone grafts, and especially for filling and repairing threaded fusions, delayed healing of fractures, nonunion, and large bone defects.
Malay to English: Information booklet for clinical trial participants Detailed field: Medical: Pharmaceuticals
Source text - Malay Docetaxel digunakan terutamanya dalam rawatan tumor payudara dan paru-paru. Docetaxel ialah satu dari ubat taksana yang pada awalnya dikeluarkan daripada jarum-jarum pokok yew dan tergolong dalam keluarga tumbuhan alkaloid bagi ubat-ubatan kemoterapi. Ia berfungsi dengan menghentikan sel-sel tumor daripada membahagi.
Docetaxel diberikan melalui titisan ke dalam vena (secara intravena). Pemberian titisan tersebut akan mengambil masa kira-kira sejam. Untuk memastikan anda tidak mengalami reaksi alergi terhadap ubat, anda mungkin diberikan tablet steroid selama 12 jam dan 6 jam sebelumnya atau secara intravena selama 30 minit sebelum diberikan ubat. Anda juga akan diberikan antihistamina dan ubat antasid sama ada melalui mulut atau secara intravena sebelum anda diberikan docetaxel.
Kesan sampingan yang dikaitkan dengan mana-mana ubat kemoterapi bergantung kepada individu yang menerima ubatan. Bukan kesemua pesakit akan mengalami kesan sampingan berikut, kebanyakan daripada mereka akan mengalami beberapa kesan sampingan tetapi bukan kesemuanya. Sebahagian besar dari kesan sampingannya adalah buat sementara waktu sahaja dan tubuh anda akan kembali normal selepas rawatan selesai.
Translation - English Docetaxel is used mainly in treating breast and lung cancer. Docetaxel is one of the taxanes initially produced from the needles of the yew tree and belongs to the alkaloid plant family of chemotherapy drugs. It acts by stopping cancer cells from dividing.
Docetaxel is drip-fed into the vein (intravenously). The drip administration takes approximately an hour. To make sure that you do not experience an allergic reaction to the drug, you may be given steroid tablets for 12 hours and 6 hours prior or intravenously for 30 minutes before being given the drug. You should also be given an antihistamine and an antacid drug either orally or intravenously before you are given Docetaxel.
Side effects associated with any chemotherapy drug depend on the individual receiving the drug. Not all patients will experience the following side effects, and most may experience a few but not all of these side effects. Most of the side effects are temporary and your body will return to normal at the end of the treatment.
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Sample Translation Projects Chinese to English TranslationPharmaceutical
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Malay to English TranslationScience (General)
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English to Malay TranslationScience (General)
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Interpreting Work Between Chinese and English
• On-site doctor's visits, business meetings, etc.
• Over-the-phone medical interpreting
Between Malay and English
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