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Translation - English The brown coal mine “Babina” was created in 1921 as one of larger mines within the Muskau Arch area. In 1937, the coal production reached 225.5 thousand tonnes. After the WW2 both the underground and open-pit workings were developed. In 1973, following to deteriorating mining conditions and the related increase in costs, the mine was closed down. Workings, that became flooded with water in a natural process, were only partly rehabilitated by means of levelling of the slopes. After the coal mining was stopped, fire clays were extracted in small pits until late 1990s. The total area of postmining land of the “Babina” mine is estimated at around 430 hectares.
Polish to English: Scientific text on heavy metals in soil General field: Science Detailed field: Chemistry; Chem Sci/Eng
Translation - English Zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic enter soils as a result of geochemical alterations of primary ore minerals to secondary sulphides, carbonates and oxides [22, 23]. During the following stages of oxidation of primary minerals significant quantities of heavy metals are released to soils as leachable compounds. In the soil environment ore minerals are oxidized, metal ions pass into solution from which they then precipitate as new mineral phases (sulphides, oxides, hydroxides and carbonates) .
Metals occur in the crystal lattice of sulphides, carbonates and sulphates [24, 25]. The major metals are Zn, Pb and Fe. Typochemical elements of ore minerals are Cd, Ag, Tl, As, Ba and Mn [2, 22]. Soils under investigation contain particularly high amounts of Fe in the form of sulphides and oxides (Fig. 1, Tab. 1). High susceptibility of iron sulphides to oxidation may imply that migration of geochemical elements related to iron minerals (such as Tl, As, Mn, Ni and Se) could be widespread. Due to limited floatability of Zn and Pb carbonates during ore processing, the proportion of these minerals in wastes and soils is high.
English to Polish: Scientific text on heavy minerals General field: Science Detailed field: Mining & Minerals / Gems
Translation - Polish The main component of the heavy mineral fraction is rutile with anatase (TiO2). These two minerals of titanium make up for 50.1 % of the concentration of all heavy minerals. Rutile and anatase grains are medium or poorly rounded. It is possible to observe columnar or acicular crystals which are frequently crushed. Rutile is characterised by red, brown and yellow internal reflexes, while the typical reflexes of anatase are white-yellowish. These both minerals are easy to polish. The most widespread rutile crystals are those with red - brown internal reflexes. Rutile grains contain inclusions of pyrrhotite and pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite aggregates. The inclusions may reach 25 µm in diameter.
I have been translating scientific and technical texts for over twenty years. Source languages include English, German and Polish while target languages include Polish and English. I am specialized in translating texts on geology and its various applications (e.g. environmental protection). My clients include scientific institutions, publishing houses, design offices, manufacturers in Poland and other countries. Using my best knowledge and experience I make every effort to provide translation that is reliable and fully equivalent to source texts. To achieve this, I use the best specialist dictionaries, glossaries and internet resources. This allows me to make translations for my clients in a fast and efficient way.
I look forward to providing my services to your full satisfaction.
Piotr W. PhD
translator of technical and scientific texts
PhD in Earth Sciences, MSc in Geology
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